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oa framework resume Display regular commands. Display regular commands as DML. Display . commands in DML format (top bar of links is given) Display . commands that start with a* (wildcard) as DML. Lists all loaded debugger extensions. Lists all loaded debugger extensions as DML (where extensions are linked to a .extmatch) .extmatch /e ExtDLL FunctionFilter. .extmatch /D /e ExtDLL FunctionFilter. Show all exported functions of an extension DLL. Not All People Essay. FunctionFilter = wildcard string.
Same in film sleepers DML format (functions link to Homeless Essay, !ExtName.help FuncName commands) Open WinDbg's help. Text = text to look up in the help file index. Dump version info of debugger and film sleepers, loaded extension DLLs. Dump command line that was used to start the debugger. Version of target computer. Toggle verbose mode ON/OFF.
In verbose mode some commands (such as register dumping) have more detailed output. Set number base. Show number formats = evaluates a numerical expression or symbol and displays it in multiple numerical formats (hex, decimal, octal, binary, time, ..) Example 1: .formats 5. Example 2: .formats poi(nLocal1) == .formats @@($!nLocal1) Displays the most recent exception or event that occurred (why the debugger is waiting?) .effmach x86 | amd64 | ia64 | ebc. Dump effective machine (x86, amd64, ..): Use target computer's native processor mode. Use processor mode of the Not All People Are Crazy Essay code that is executing for the most recent event. Use x86, amd64, ia64, or ebc processor mode. - which processor's unwinder is used for stack tracing.
- which processor's register set is active. display time (system-up, process-up, kernel time, user time) attach to a process. ends the debugging session, but leaves any user-mode target application running. Quit = ends the debugging session and terminates the target application. Remote debugging: q= no effect; qq= terminates the movie debug server. Restart target application. Command separator (cm1; cm2; ..)
Evaluate expression (use default evaluator) Evaluate c++ expression. Choose default expression evaluator. Show current evaluator. Show available evaluators. Set c++ as the default expression evaluator. Set masm as the default expression evaluator. Comment Line Specifier.
Terminated by: end of line. Terminated by: end of line OR semicolon. Echo Comment - comment text + echo it. Terminated by: end of line OR semicolon. With the Not All Are Crazy $$ token or the * token the debugger will ignore the of an Counselor Essay inputted text without echoing it. DML allows output to include directives and extra non-display information in the form of tags. Debugger user interfaces parse out the extra information to provide new behaviors.
Kick of to other DML commands. .prefer_dml [1 | 0] Global setting: should DML-enhanced commands default to DML? Note that many commands like k, lm, .. output DML content thereafter. .help has a new DML mode where a top bar of links is Not All Homeless People Are Crazy given. .chain has a new DML mode where extensions are linked to a .extmatch. .extmatch has a new DML format where exported functions link to !ExtName.help FuncName commands. lm has a new DML mode where module names link to lmv commands. k has a new DML mode where frame numbers link to a .frame/dv. Allows for interactive exploration of code flow for cyber bully, a function. Builds a code flow graph for the function starting at Not All the given start address (similar to uf) Shows the basic block given the target address plus links to referring blocks and blocks referred to by the current block Example: .dml_flow CreateRemoteThread CreateRemoteThread+30.
User-Mode Extensions (non-OS specific) User-Mode Extensions (OS specific) Debugging managed code. Wow64 debugger extensions. Kernel-Mode driver framework extensions. Graphics driver extensions. Display detailed help about an examples, exported function.
NAME = placeholder for extension DLL. FUNCTION = placeholder for exported function. Load symbols for Not All, Module. Load symbols for all modules. Get state of are humans good or evil, symbol loading. Set noisy symbol loading (debugger displays info about its search for Homeless Are Crazy, symbols) Set quiet symbol loading (=default) x [Options] Module!Symbol.
Examine symbols : displays symbols that match the specified pattern. verbose (symbol type and film sleepers, size) sort by address. sort by size (size of People Are Crazy Essay, a function symbol is the robert size of the function in memory) List nearest symbols = display the Not All Homeless People symbols at or evil or near the given Addr. Useful to: determine what a pointer is Homeless pointing to when looking at bully movie a corrupted stack to determine which procedure made a call. Display or set symbol search path. Append directories to previous symbol path.
displays current symbol options. Set symbol store path to automatically point to http://msdl.microsoft.com/download/symbols. + = append it to Homeless People Essay, the existing path. DownstreamStore = directory to be used as a downstream store. Default is WinDbgInstallationDirSym.
.reload [/f | /v] Module. Reload symbol information for Job Requirements of an, all modules** f = force immediate symbol load (overrides lazy loading); v = verbose mode. Module = for Module only. Also check the !lmi command. Display or set source search path. Append directory to the searched source path. Controls noisy source loading. Toggle source line support: enable; disable; toggle. l (small letter L) show line numbers. suppress all but [s] source and line number.
source mode vs. assembly mode. Go exception handled. What happened? Shows most recent event or exception. Display information about the Not All Homeless People Essay current exception or bug check; verbose. User mode: Analyzes the film sleepers thread stack to determine whether any threads are blocking other threads. See an People Essay, exception analysis even when the debugger does not detect an exception. Show all event filters with break status and handling. notify; don't break.
reset filter settings to default values. display most recent exception record. display exception record at frost Addr. displays exception context record (registers) associated with the current exception. Display content and type of C++ exception. lm[ v | l | k | u | f ] [m Pattern] List modules; verbose | with loaded symbols | k-kernel or u-user only Not All, symbol info | image path; pattern that the module name must match. DML mode of lm; lmv command links included in output. !dlls -c ModuleAddr. all loaded modules with load count.
by initialization order. by load order (default) by memory order. with version info. only module at ModuleAddr. information about relocated images. detailed info about a module (including exact symbol info) !dh -f ImgBaseAddr. !dh -s ImgBaseAddr. Dump headers for ImgBaseAddr. f = file headers only. s = section headers only.
(DML) displays current processes and allows drilling into movie processes for more information. Print status of all processes being debugged. lists all processes running on the system. display formatted view of the Not All Homeless People Are Crazy process's environment block (PEB) thread that caused the robert frost current event or exception. thread whose ordinal is Number. thread whose thread ID is TID (the brackets are required) switch to thread N (new current thread) Number e CommandString. Execute thread-specific commands (CommandString = one or more commands to Homeless Essay, be executed) for: thread which caused the current event. thread with ordinal. Freeze thread (see. for Thread syntax)
Unfreeze thread (see. for Thread syntax) Suspend thread = increment thread's suspend count. Resume thread = decrement thread's suspend count. display formatted view of the are humans good thread's environment block (TEB) !tls [-1 | SlotIdx] TebAddr. -1 = dump all slots for current thread. SlotIdx = dump only Homeless, specified slot. TebAddr = specify thread; if omitted, the current thread is which following action took influence on cuba? used. display thread times (user + kernel mode) display information about Not All Homeless Are Crazy time consumed by each thread (0-user time, 1-kernel time, 2-time elapsed since thread creation). quick way to find out which threads are spinning out of control or consuming too much CPU time. Dump last error for Addiction Essay, current thread.
Dump last error for all threads. SetLastError( dwErrCode ) checks the value of People, kernel32!g_dwLastErrorToBreakOn and Job Requirements Essay, possibly executes a DbgBreakPoint. Other calls to Homeless People Are Crazy Essay, SetLastError are redirected to a function located in NTDLL.DLL, RtlSetLastWin32Error. !error ErrValue 1. Decode and display information about an error value.
Treat ErrValue value as an NTSTATUS code. Clear all breakpoints. Disable all bps. bp [Addr] [CmdString] Thrd] bp[#] [Options] [Addr] [Passes] [CmdString] Set breakpoint at address. CmdString = Cmd1; Cmd2; .. Executed every time the BP is hit. Thrd == thread that the naturally good bp applies too. Passes = Activate breakpoint after #Passes (it is ignored before)
Set unresolved breakpoint. bp is set when the module gets loaded. bm SymPattern [CmdString] Thrd] bm [Options] SymPattern [#Passes] [CmdString] Set symbol breakpoint. SymPattern can contain wildcards. CmdString = Cmd1; Cmd2; .. Executed every time the BP is Homeless People hit.
Thrd == thread that the bp applies too. Passes = Activate breakpoint after #Passes (it is ignored before) ba [r|w|e] [Size] Addr. Thrd] ba[#] [r|w|e] [Size] [Options] [Addr] [Passes] [CmdString] Break on cyber movie Access: [r=read/write, w=write, e=execute], Size=[1|2|4 bytes] Thrd] == thread that the bp applies too. Passes = Activate breakpoint after #Passes (it is Not All People Are Crazy ignored before) br OldID NewID [OldID2 NewID2 . ] renumbers one or more breakpoints.
With bp, the are humans naturally breakpoint location is always converted to an address. In contrast, a bu or a bm breakpoint is always associated with the symbolic value. Breakpoitns with options. Breakpoints with commands: The command will be executed when the breakpoint is Not All Homeless People Are Crazy hit. r eip = poi(@esp) - Set EIP (instruction pointer) to the value found at film sleepers offset 0x0. DriverEntry has 2x4 byte parameters = 8 bytes + 4 bytes for the return address = 0xC. r esp = @esp + 0xC - Add 0xC to Are Crazy, Esp (the stack pointer), effectively unwinding the of the following action castro took influence on cuba? stack pointer. Use the l+t and l-t commands or the buttons on the WinDbg toolbar to People Essay, switch between these modes. Go up = execute until the current function is complete. - $csp = same as esp on x86.
- $ra = The return address currently on the stack. p =StartAddress [Count] [Command] Thread] p [=StartAddress] [Count] [Command] Single step - executes a single instruction or source line. Subroutines are treated as a single step. Count = count of instructions or source lines to step through before stopping. Command = debugger command to be executed after the film sleepers step is performed. StartAddress = Causes execution to begin at Not All Homeless People Are Crazy Essay the specified address. Default is the robert wall current EIP. Thread = The specified thread is Homeless People thawed and all others frozen.
Single trace - executes a single instruction or source line. Which Is An. For subroutines each step is Not All People Are Crazy traced as well. Step to next return - similar to the GU (go up), but staying in which of the is an foreign influence on cuba? context of the Not All Homeless current function. If EIP is already on examples a return instruction, the Not All Essay entire return is executed. Naturally Good Or Evil. After this return is returned, execution will continue until another return is Not All Homeless People reached. Trace to naturally, next return - similar to the GU (go up), but staying in context of the current function.
If EIP is already on a return instruction, the debugger traces into the return and Essay, continues executing until another return is reached. Step to next call - executes the program until a call instruction is reached. If EIP is already on naturally a call instruction, the entire call will be executed. After this call is Homeless Are Crazy Essay returned execution will continue until another call is reached. Trace to next call - executes the of centration program until a call instruction is reached. If EIP is already on a call instruction, the debugger will trace into the call and continue executing until another call is reached.
pa StopAddr Command pa =StartAddress StopAddr [Command] Step to address ; StopAddr = address at Not All People which execution will stop. Called functions are treated as a single unit. Command = debugger command to Counselor, be executed after the step is performed. StartAddress = Causes execution to Homeless Are Crazy Essay, begin at naturally good the specified address.
Default is the Are Crazy Essay current EIP. Trace to address ; StopAddr = address at which execution will stop. Called functions are traced as well. wt -m Module [-m Module2] .. wt -i Module [-i Module2] .. Trace and watch data . Film Sleepers. Go to Homeless People, the beginning of a function and do a wt . It will run through the are humans entire function and display statistics. l = maximum depth of Not All People Are Crazy, traced calls. m = restrict tracing to Module. i = ignore code from Module. oa = dump actual address of which is an action to decrease foreign on cuba?, call sites. or = dump return register values (EAX value) of sub-functions. oR = dump return register values (EAX value) in People Essay the appropriate type.
nc = no info for good, individual calls. ns = no summary info. ns = no warnings. Dump current filter list = functions that are skipped when tracing (t, ta, tc) FilterList = Filter 1; Filter 2; . Essay. symbols associated with functions to be stepped over examples of centration, (skipped) clear the People filter list. dump stack; n = with frame #; f = distance between adjacent frames; L = omit source lines; number of stack frames to display.
all params: param type + name + value. all params formatted (new line) FPO info, calling convention. display raw stack data + possible symbol info == dds esp. DML variant with links to .frame #;dv. Set stack length. Wall. The default is 20 (0x14). show current frame.
show register values. When executing a near call, the processor pushes the value of the EIP register (which contains the offset of the instruction following the Not All Homeless Essay CALL instruction) onto bully movie, the stack (for use later as a return-instruction pointer). This is the People Essay first step in building a frame. Each time a function call is made, another frame is created so that the called function can access arguments, create local variables, and provide a mechanism to Job Requirements of an, return to Not All, calling function. The composition of the frame is dependant on cyber movie the function calling convention. !uniqstack [b|v|p] [n] show stacks for all threads. [b = first 3 params, v = FPO + calling convention, p = all params: param type + name + value], [n = with frame #] !findstack Symbol [0|1|2] locate all stacks that contain Symbol or module. [0 = show only TID, 1 = TID + frames, 2 = entire thread stack] To get more than 3 Function Arguments from the stack. dd ChildEBP+8 (Parameters start at ChildEBP+8) dd ChildEBP+8 (frame X) == dd ESP (frame X-1)
Thread r [Reg:[Num]Type] Dump all registers. Dump only specified registers (i.e.: r eax, edx ) Value to assign to the register (i.e.: r eax=5, edx=6 ) ib = Signed byte. ub = Unsigned byte. iw = Signed word (2b) uw = Unsigned word (2b) id = Signed dword (4b) ud = Unsigned dword (4b) iq = Signed qword (8b) uq = Unsigned qword (8b) f = 32-bit floating-point. d = 64-bit floating-point. Default is full register length, thus r eax:uw would display two values as EAX is a 32-bit register.
rM Mask Reg1, Reg2. rM Mask Reg=Value. Dump register types specified by Mask. Dump only specified registers from current mask. Value to assign to the register. 0x1 = basic integer registers. 0x4 = floating-point registers == rF. 0x8 = segment registers.
0x10 = MMX registers. 0x20 = Debug registers. 0x40 = SSE XMM registers == rX. Dump all floating-point registers == rM 0x4. Dump only specified floating-point registers. Value to assign to the register. Dump all SSE XMM registers == rM 0x40. Dump only specified SSE XMM registers.
Value to Are Crazy, assign to are humans good or evil, the register. Dump default register mask. Not All People Essay. This mask controls how registers are displayed by the r. Dump a list of possible Mask bits. Specify the mask to use when displaying the registers. dt [mod!]Name Field [Field] dt [mod!]Name [Field] Addr. dt [-n|y] [mod!]Name [-n|y] [Field] [Addr] -abcehioprsv. Dump variable info. Dump only 'field-name(s)' (struct or unions)
Addr of struct to be dumped. list symbols (wildcard) -y Name = partially match instead of default exact match. -b = Dump only contiguous block of which is an to decrease foreign influence on cuba?, struct. -c = Compact output (all fields in one line) -i = Does not indent the subtypes. -l ListField = Field which is pointer to Not All People Essay, the next element in robert wall list. -o = Omit the offset value (fields of Not All People Are Crazy, struct) -p = Dump from physical address. -r[l] = Recursively dump subtypes/fields (up to l levels) -s [size] = For enumeration only, enumerate types only of given size. display local variables and parameters. vars matching Pattern. i = type (local, global, parameter), t = data type, V = memory address or register location. a = sort by Addr, n = sort by name, z = sort by size.
You can get our process's PEB address with r @$peb or with !peb. Note: dv will also display the value of a THIS pointer for cyber, methods called with the Not All Homeless this calling-convention. BUG: You must first execute a few commands before dv displays the film sleepers correct value. Right at Not All Homeless People Essay a function's entry point the THIS pointer is robert frost wall present in ECX, so you can easily get it from there. d[a| u| b| w| W| d| c| q| f| D] [/c #] [Addr] Display memory [#columns to display] u = Unicode chars. W = word (2b) + ascii. c = dword (4b) + ascii. D = floating point (double precision - 8b) d = binary + dword.
e[ b | w | d | q | f | D ] Addr Value. e[ a | u | za | zu ] Addr String D = floating point (double precision - 8b) za = ascii string (NULL-terminated) u = Unicode string. zu = Unicode string (NULL-terminated) Dump string struct (struct! not null-delimited char sequence) s = STRING or ANSI_STRING. Display words and Homeless People Essay, symbols (memory at Addr is assumed to following is an castro took influence, be a series of addresses in the symbol table)
Display referenced memory = display pointer at specified Addr, dereference it, and Not All People Are Crazy, then display the memory at cyber bully movie the resulting location in a variety of formats. dd* - 32-bit pointer used. dq* - 64-bit pointer used. dp* - standard size: 32-bit or 64-bit, depending on the CPU architecture. d*a - dereferenced mem as asci chars. d*u - dereferenced mem as Unicode chars. d*p - dereferenced mem as dword or qword, depending on the CPU architecture. Not All People Are Crazy Essay. If this value matches any known symbol, this symbol is film sleepers displayed as well. dl[b] Addr MaxCount Size.
Display linked list (LIST_ENTRY or SINGLE_LIST_ENTRY) b = dump in reverse order (follow BLinks instead of FLinks) Addr = start address of the list. MaxCount = max # elements to dump. Size = Size of each element. Display info about the Not All Homeless Essay memory used by the target process. Dump info for robert frost, region with Addr. Dump summary info for Homeless Are Crazy Essay, process. Dump specified regions (RegionUsageStack, RegionUsagePageHeap, ..) Dump virtual memory protection info. Dump name of the file containing given Addr. Note: For stack overflows SubRegionSize (size of committed memory) will be large, i.e.:
Determine stack usage for of centration, a thread From MSDN CreateThread dwStackSize Thread Stack Size: Each new thread receives its own stack space, consisting of both committed and reserved memory. Essay. By default, each thread uses 1 Mb of reserved memory, and cyber movie, one page of committed memory. Not All Homeless Are Crazy. The system will commit one page block from the reserved stack memory as needed. c Range DestAddr. m Range DestAddr. f Range Pattern. Fill memory. Pattern = a series of bytes (numeric or ASCII chars) s Range Pattern. s -[Flags]w Range 'Pattern' s -[Flags]d Range 'Pattern' s -[Flags]q Range 'Pattern' s -[Flags]a Range Pattern s -[Flags]u Range Pattern s -[Flags,l length]sa Range.
s -[Flags,l length]su Range. s -[Flags]v Range Object. Pattern = a series of are humans naturally good, bytes (numeric or ASCII chars) Pattern = enclosed in single quotation marks (for example, 'Tag7') u = Unicode string (must not be null-terminated) Pattern = enclosed in Not All People Are Crazy Essay double quotation marks (for example, This string) Search for any memory containing printable Unicode strings. Length = minimum length of such strings; the cyber bully default is People 3 chars. Object = Addr of a pointer to wall, the Object or of the Not All Homeless People Object itself. w = search only writable memory.
1 = output only addresses of search matches (useful if you are using the which of the following is an action took foreign on cuba? .foreach) Flags must be surrounded by a single set of brackets without spaces. Example: s -[swl 10]Type Range Pattern. .holdmem -a Range. .holdmem -c Range. Hold and compare memory. The comparison is made byte-for-byte. Memory range to safe. Display all saved memory ranges. Compares Range to Homeless Are Crazy Essay, all saved memory ranges.
Delete all saved memory ranges. Delete specified memory ranges (any saved range containing Addr or overlapping with Range) !heap -h [HeapAddr | Idx | 0] !heap -v [HeapAddr | Idx | 0] !heap -i [HeapAddr] !heap -x [-v] Address. List heaps with index and range (= startAddr(=HeapAddr), endAddr) Detailed heap info [Idx = heap Idx, 0 = all heaps] Validate heap [Idx = heap Idx, 0 = all heaps]
Summary info, i.e. Film Sleepers. reserved and People Are Crazy Essay, committed memory [Idx = heap Idx, 0 = all heaps] Detailed info for a block at given address. Search heap block containing the address (v = search the whole process virtual space) Search for are humans or evil, potentially leaked heap blocks. !heap Heap -b [alloc | realloc | free] [Tag] !heap Heap -B [alloc | realloc | free] Set conditional breakpoint in People the heap manager [Heap = HeapAddr | Idx | 0] Remove a conditional breakpoint.
!heap -flt s Size. !heap -flt r SizeMin SizeMax. Dump info for are humans or evil, allocations matching the specified size. Filter by range. !heap -stat -h [HeapHandle | 0] Dump heap handle list. Dump usage statistic for Homeless People Essay, every AllocSize [HeapHandle = given heap | 0 = all heaps]. The statistic includes AllocSize, #blocks, TotalMem for film sleepers, each AllocSize.
!heap -p -h HeapHandle. Extended page heap help. Summary for NtGlobalFlag, HeapHandle + NormalHeap list ** Detailed info about a page heap with Handle. Details of Not All Homeless People Are Crazy, heap allocation containing UserAddr.
Prints backtraces when available . Details of all allocations in all heaps in Job Requirements Addiction Counselor the process. The output includes UserAddr and AllocSize for every HeapAlloc call . It seems that the Homeless People Are Crazy Essay following applies for windows XP SP2: For normal heap: HeapHandle == HeapStartAddr. For normal heap this range is further within Heap[startAddr-endAddr] For every HeapCreate a _HEAP struct is created. You can use !heap -p -all to get these addresses. You can use !heap -p -all to get these addresses. For every HeapCreate a _DPH_HEAP_ROOT is of centration created.
You can use !heap -p -all to get these addresses. You can use !heap -p -all to Not All Are Crazy Essay, get these addresses. Enable page heap. Then you can use !heap -p -all to get addresses of are humans naturally or evil, actual _DPH_HEAP_ROOT structs in Not All People your process. Enable page heap. Cyber. Then you can use !heap -p -all to Homeless People Essay, get addresses of examples of centration, actual _DPH_HEAP_BLOCK structs in your process. Note that dds will dump the stack with source information included . b) Alternatively you can use !heap -p -all to Not All Homeless Are Crazy, get addresses of all _DPH_HEAP_ROOT's of your process directly. Frost. Do a dt ntdll!_DPH_HEAP_ROOT CreateStackTrace [MyHeapRootAddr] , where is the Not All Homeless People Are Crazy Essay address of a _DPH_HEAP_ROOT retrieved in step 2 Do a dds , where [CreateStackTrace] is the value retrieved in step 3. If RegionUsageHeap or RegionUsagePageHeap are growing, then you might have a memory leak on the heap.
Proceed with the cyber movie following steps. People Are Crazy. Enable Create user mode stack trace database for your image in Job Requirements Addiction Essay GFlags (gflags.exe /i MyApp.exe +ust) From WinDbg's command line do a !heap -stat , to get all active heap blocks and People Essay, their handles. Do a !heap -stat -h 0 . This will list down handle specific allocation statistics for every AllocSize. For every AllocSize the bully movie following is listed: AllocSize, #blocks, and TotalMem. Take the Homeless People Are Crazy Essay AllocSize with maximum TotalMem . Examples Of Centration. Do a !heap -flt s [Size] . [Size]=AllocSize that we determined in the previous step. This command will list down all blocks with that particular size. People Are Crazy Essay. Do a !heap -p -a [UserAddr] to get the stack trace from naturally good, where you have allocated that much bytes. Use the [UserAddr] that you got in step 4. Note that dds will dump the Homeless People stack with source information included . Application Verifier profiles and tracks Microsoft Win32 APIs (heap, handles, locks, threads, DLL load/unload, and more), Exceptions, Kernel objects, Registry, File system.
With the !avrf extension we get access to are humans naturally good, this tracking information! Displays Application Verifier options. If an Application Verifier Stop has occurred, reveal the nature of the stop and what caused it. Searches ADDR in the vspace log. Searches ADDR in the heap log. CCriticalSection calls this implicitly. Searches ADDR in the critical section delete log. global counters (WaitForSingleObject, HeapAllocation calls, . ) thread information + start parameters for child threads. TerminateThread API log.
dump stack trace with INDEX. dump or set/reset break triggers. - Create user mode stack trace database - Stack Backtrace: (Megs) - 10. - It seems that you sometimes also need to Not All People Are Crazy, check and specify the Debugger field in film sleepers GFlags. displays all Logexts.dll extension commands. Enable logging + possibly initialize it if not yet done. Output directory optional. Initialize (=inject Logger into the target application) but don't enable logging. List output settings. Enable/disable [d - Debugger, t - Text file, v - Verbose log] output. Use logviewer.exe to Not All Essay, examine Verbose logs.
List all categories. List APIs in category # Enable/disable all categories. Print buffer contents to debugger. Flush buffer to robert frost wall, log files. Display module inclusion/exclusion list. Specify module inclusion/exclusion list.
1) TODOs - break after driver load before its entry point is called. 2) In the Not All Homeless Essay Event Filters select the Load module event. click Arguments and enter the name of the of an driver in Homeless People Are Crazy question ( 77fba431 in our case) Last event: Load module 77fba431.sys at are humans naturally ba644000. debugger time: Wed Mar 31 21:12:56.937 2010 (GMT+2) start end module name. ba644000 ba645e00 77fba431 (deferred) Image path: 77fba431.sys. Image name: 77fba431.sys. Timestamp: Tue Mar 30 20:10:51 2010 (4BB23EAB) Translations: 0000.04b0 0000.04e4 0409.0 4b0 0409.04e4.
Evaluate expression: -1167828646 = ba64595a. *** ERROR: Module load completed but symbols could not be loaded for 77fba431.sys. 0 e ba64595a 0001 (0001) 77fba431+0x195a. Breakpoint 0 hit. ba64595a 8bff mov edi,edi. I peeked into nt!IopLoadDriver on Windows XP SP3.
It might bee slightly different on Windows Vista or Windows 7 installations. Nevertheless I think you got the idea and will be able to change the breakpoint if necessary. You could set a similar conditional breakpoint on Not All Are Crazy Essay nt!MmLoadSystemImage . Robert Frost. Note that its first parameter is the path of the Homeless Are Crazy driver: ChildEBP RetAddr Args to Child. ba507c74 8058107b ba507cf8 00000000 00000000 nt!MmLoadSystemImage. ba507d54 80581487 80000748 00000001 00000000 nt!IopLoadDriver+0x371. ba507d7c 80538789 80000748 00000000 8a8e8640 nt!IopLoadUnloadDriver+0x45. ba507dac 805cff72 ae22acb0 00000000 00000000 nt!ExpWorkerThread+0xef. ba507ddc 8054611e 8053869a 00000001 00000000 nt!PspSystemThreadStartup+0x34. 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 nt!KiThreadStartup+0x16. I hope this helps,
Also, the wall problem is that I would like to set a breakpoint before the People driver is are humans or evil loaded. So I would need something like bu driver+rva_ep. This article is very nice, I#039;m a beginner to windbg and this is People Are Crazy Essay helping me a lot. Also, I have a question: Could you tell me please, how do I set a bp on a driver entrypoint if driver name is hex convertible? driver name is Addiction Counselor Essay 77fba431.sys.
so, normally I would do something like bp 77fba431+rva_entrypoint (just like lets say bp ntfs+rva) but of course 77fba431 is Homeless read as an address, so windbg will actually set a bp to address 77fba431+rva_entrypoint. So, how can I tell windbg that 77fba431 is actually a module name not an address ?
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Nov 17, 2017 Not All Homeless People Are Crazy Essay,
The History and Popularity of the C Programming Language. A short essay about the origins of the C programming language and Homeless People, why it became so popular so quickly. The C programming language and its direct descendants are by far the most popular programming languages used in the world today. Most competent programmers know how to Job Requirements of an Addiction Essay use C, and Homeless Are Crazy, usually C is a programmer's language of film sleepers, choice. This structurally tiny language originated at Bell Labs in Not All Essay order to write the first Unix operating system for a DEC PDP-7 computer with only 8K bytes of film sleepers, memory.
In spite of its small beginnings, C has scaled up to Not All Homeless Essay run on powerful super-computers with gigabytes of memory. The language is extremely portable; it is possible to write a program in C for just about every platform in existence. Yet, if one takes a more in depth look at C, one realizes that it is rather weak and has an film sleepers, extremely small vocabulary. How did C become so popular despite its deficiencies? This paper will explore the history of the C programming language and Not All Homeless Essay, discuss the frost wall, different aspects of the Homeless People Are Crazy, language in an attempt to determine why this language has thrived in spite of there being more powerful and film sleepers, better structured object oriented languages in Not All People Are Crazy Essay existence. Portions of this paper get a little technical, but it is beyond the scope of film sleepers, this essay to teach the reader all the Homeless Are Crazy Essay, intricacies of C; however, the reader unfamiliar with C will still be able to follow the arguments, and thus come away with an understanding of how C was born and why it is so popular. Before we can examine the history of C, we must first take a look at Unix's History. The history of C and that of the bully, Unix operating system itself are intertwined to such a degree that you might almost say that C was invented for the purpose of writing the Unix system.[McGilton, 11] The seeds of Unix began in 1965 with the completion of a project at MIT called Project MAC, making it one of the first time-sharing computer systems. It allowed simultaneous use of the same computer, for at most thirty people, by Not All Homeless Essay, using one of 160 typewriter terminals placed around campus and in the homes of faculty. It became so overloaded that MIT decided to embark on a more ambitious time-sharing system as a joint venture with General Electric and of centration, Bell Labs. This project is known as MULTICS which stands for Multiplexed Information and Computing Service [Campbell-Kelly, 214].
Bell Labs became the software contractor because the company had many talented programmers. As a government regulated monopoly, however, they were not allowed to function as an independent company. At the start of the Not All Homeless People, project, MIT wanted to cyber use IBM's System/360 computers, however, IBM had not yet built time-sharing into their computers. This opened the door for GE to use its computers. The trio worked on this project for a few years but in 1969, Bell Labs decided to discontinue the Not All People Essay, project because MULTICS was too expensive and would take to long to complete. At this point, an informal group of Bell Labs employees, led my Ken Thompson, started to investigate alternatives.
When Bell Labs pulled out of the Multics project in is an castro took foreign influence on cuba? 1969, [Ken] Thompson and [Dennis] Ritchie were left frustrated because working on Multics had provided them with a rather attractive programming environment.[Campbell-Kelly, 219] According to historians Jean Yates and Rebecca Thomas, Thompson and his group started designing an operating system that would support coordinated teams of programmers in the development of products, and would simplify the dialog between human and machine.[Yates, 18] He began writing this skeleton system and he named it Unix, which is a rather bad pun on Multics. At the time, developers enjoyed being able to write programs in high level languages such as PL/I or BCPL. A high level language is one which abstracts the hardware away from the programming environment so that instead of worrying about Homeless Are Crazy, bits in memory and esoteric assembly language codes, as is necessary when using assembly language, a programmer can concentrate on other parts of a program leaving the language to handle the examples, bits and the bytes. Thompson decided that Unix needed a high-level system language. However, he couldn't just pick one that already existed. He was restricted by Homeless Are Crazy, the computer he was working on, the PDP-7, which had only 8K bytes of memory [Ritchie, 673]. Of An Addiction Counselor Essay? This was such a problem that at the start of the project he could not even program on the PDP-7.
Instead, he had to compile his program on Not All Essay the more powerful GE-635 machine and transfer the program to the slower computer using paper tape [Ritchie, 672]. Thompson had had some previous experience with the BCPL system language, which was invented by Martin Richards in the mid-1960s, however it was too slow and lacked the run-time support that Thompson thought was necessary [Pratt, 472]. So, Thompson took his experience of BCLP and created his own language which he called B. Cyber? The language is not really a new language. More correctly it is, BCPL squeezed into 8K bytes and filtered through Thompson's brain. The name most probably represents a contraction of BCPL, though an Not All People, alternate theory holds that it derives from Bon, an unrelated language created by wall, Thompson during the Multics days.[Ritchie, 673] Bon in turn is probably named after his wife, Bonnie, but others claim that it is named after a religion whose rituals involve chanting magic formulas. B had some problems though, and the small Unix community felt limited by the restrictions in the language [Pratt, 472]. Its character handling mechanism is awkward, floating-point arithmetic is not implemented well, and People Essay, there is too much overhead dealing with pointers [Ritchie, 677]. For these reasons, it seemed that B needed some enhancements to satisfy the developers. The main enhancement that it needed was data types to properly handle characters and floating point numbers. A data type is defined by two properties: a set of values. and a set of robert wall, operations.[Roberts, 33] This means that a language with strong typing would not allow the programmer to, for example, take the square root of a string of characters.
A typeless language such as B or BCPL would do the operation even though it makes no sense and is probably not what the programmer wanted to do. A typed language would inform the programmer that he is doing something that is not permitted. One of Thompson's coworkers, Dennis Ritchie, decided to improve the B language. In 1971, he began extending it by Not All Homeless, first adding data types. He called this extended language NB for new B [Ritchie, 677], and he continued to expand and rewrite parts of the language until it became clear that the language had changed enough to naturally good or evil warrant a new name. The name Ritchie graced it with is C, being the letter directly after B in the alphabet. In 1973, Ritchie completed the essentials of C and then rewrote the entire Unix kernel using the Not All Homeless Are Crazy Essay, language. This time he wrote it for the PDP-11, with its huge 24K memory [Pratt, 472]. In 1978, Brian Kernighan and Ritchie published The C Programming Language, which has since then become somewhat of a bible to cyber bully movie C programmers, and is often called the white book or KR. Now that C was the main system language for the Unix environment, its use quickly spread throughout the programming community. Not All Homeless? As the film sleepers, popularity of Unix grew, so did that of C. Unix was provided to universities at Homeless People a huge discount, and many other programmers came to enjoy using the powerful Unix operating system.
During the 1980s the use of the C language spread widely, and compilers became available on nearly every machine architecture and operating system.[Ritchie, 681] As the language spread, it began to change slightly for each platform that it was written for, and at this point the film sleepers, first edition of KR no longer fully described the language and it became clear that a standard version of C was needed [Ritchie, 681]. Homeless Are Crazy? Therefore, in bully movie the summer of 1983 the Not All People Essay, American National Standards Institute established the film sleepers, X3J11 committee to define the Not All People Essay, C language. They finally defined ANSI C in 1989. It took 6 years because the naturally good or evil, committee had taken a cautious, conservative view of the Not All Homeless Essay, language [Schildt, 4]. They knew that ANSI C was going to be very popular, and they wanted to get it right. C is now such a popular programming language that there have been several descendants from of centration, it that are in wide use. Not All Homeless People Essay? One such descendant, Objective C, was adopted by the NeXT computer company for their OpenStep operating system. Robert? Apple Computer recently bought out NeXT, and Homeless People Are Crazy Essay, Obj-C is now the cyber bully movie, main development language at Apple for its next generation operating system, codenamed Rhapsody. Another descendant from C is Concurrent C, which came out of Bell Labs by Dr. Narain Gehani and Essay, Dr. Naturally Or Evil? William D. Roome.
This language is Not All People Are Crazy Essay particularly well tailored for parallel programming and is the robert frost wall, result of an effort to enhance C so that it can be used to write concurrent programs that can run efficiently on single computers, on loosely-coupled distributed computer networks, or on tightly-coupled distributed multiprocessors.[ATT, 1] And of course there is the extremely popular C++, which is an object oriented extension of C which has become almost as popular as its parent in recent years. Essay? C++ addresses some of the movie, issues that plague C, such as weak support for modularization and Homeless People Essay, weak type checking. We will now examine some of these problems. C is not a 'very high level' language, nor a 'big' one, and is not specialized to frost wall any particular area of application. But its absence of Not All Homeless People Are Crazy Essay, restrictions and examples of centration, its generality make it more convenient and Not All Are Crazy Essay, effective for Job Requirements of an, many tasks than supposedly more powerful languages.[Kernighan, xi] C is a middle-level language; This does not mean that C is less powerful, harder to use, or less developed. [Schildt, 4] Instead, C combines the advantages of Not All Homeless Are Crazy Essay, a high-level language with the functionalism of assembly language. Like a higher-level language, C provides block structures, stand-alone functions, and some small amount of data typing.
It allows the manipulation of bits, bytes, words, and pointers, like assembly, but it abstracts the hardware away from the code so that something written in C is very portable, meaning that a program can be easily adapted to run on several different computers [Jamsa, vii]. This is a great thing for systems programmers; they can get the film sleepers, efficiency of assembly language programming without all the fuss, and then have a highly portable program. C is also a very lenient language; it allows the programmer to do many things that probably would be caught as errors in Homeless People a high-level language. This is both an advantage and a disadvantage. For the programmer who knows what she is doing, it's very convenient to be able to examples do whatever she knows will work. However, for the inexperienced programmer, it may be confusing when the Not All Homeless People Essay, behavior of a program is examples not correct. A high-level language catches many more possible errors at compile time. Still, C lacks the highly typed environment that characterizes high-level languages. When Ritchie set out to improve B by adding data typing, he did manage to outfit C with six built in Not All Homeless Are Crazy Essay data types (characters, short integers, long integers, floating point numbers, double-precision floating point numbers, and a void type), however the language permits almost all type conversions, which makes it not nearly as strongly typed as high-level languages such as Pascal and Ada. Another important feature of C is robert frost that it only has 32 keywords to learn.
BASIC, for comparison has 159 keywords, making it harder to Not All People Are Crazy learn than C [Schildt, 5]. Brian Kernighan, co-author with Dennis Ritchie of The C Programming Language says, Although the absence of some of these features may seem like a grave deficiency. Film Sleepers? keeping the Not All People Essay, language down to modest size has real benefits. Since C is relatively small, it can be described in a small space and learned quickly. Naturally? A programmer can reasonably expect to know and understand and indeed regularly use the People, entire language.[Kernighan, 2] The end result is that C gives the programmer what the programmer wants: few restrictions, few complaints, block structures, stand-alone functions, and a compact set of keywords. By using C, you can nearly achieve the efficiency of cyber bully movie, assembly code combined with the Homeless Essay, structure of ALGOL or Modula-2. It is no wonder that C is easily the most popular language among topflight professional programmers.[Schildt, 6] Unfortunately, C is film sleepers not perfect. It lacks strong typing; it also has very weak support for modularization, its treatment of arrays and pointers is confusing to beginners, and its indirection operator (*) is even described by C's creator as an accident of syntax [Ritchie, 684]. Why does it continue to be one of the most popular languages? One reason for C's success is that The Unix system is supplied to educational nonprofit organizations at a very low cost.
Approximately 90% of university computer science departments license the Unix system, and many advanced programmers and Not All People Essay, computer science majors learn to use the Unix system and to program in of centration the C language.[Yates, 19] When these Unix experienced graduates go out into Not All Homeless Are Crazy, the work force and start programming, many of bully, them choose to Homeless People program in C on the Unix platform because it is familiar to frost wall them. In fact, this frequently happened in the 1980s and Not All Homeless People Are Crazy, as commercial versions of Unix began to wall appear, the exposure to C caused its popularity to grow [Pratt, 472]. Business such as Sun, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Silicon Graphics Inc., NeXt, and now Apple which sell variants of the Unix operating system spread the use of Homeless People Are Crazy Essay, C. It may not be the most functional language, but because it is the system language for wall, Unix, it gets around. But it is not only Unix that has caused C to be so popular. C exists on many non-Unix systems as well; . the languages invasion of other environments suggests more fundamental merits.[Ritchie, 685] C thrives in the consumer sector were Unix does not come near the market share held by Microsoft's Windows and Apple's MacOS. The creators of Windows and the MacOS probably loved C, and thus they used it to program these non-Unix operating systems. Now, newcomers to programming learn C even though they probably are not at all familiar with the Unix environment.
Another reason for People Essay, C's success, is the fact that programmers are willing to forgive C of its bad points because its good points are so outstanding. In fact, a majority of the problems with C diminish with experience. For example, the examples, accident of syntax for the indirection operator becomes a natural oddity to the seasoned programmer, and the array and pointer confusion for beginners vanishes quickly with experience. The strong typing problem may even be seen as an Homeless People Are Crazy, advantage to experienced programmer. Sure, typing makes programming easier for beginners, but it could be seen as a hindrance for experienced programmers who know what they are doing. The problem with modularization is Addiction Counselor overcome by developing personal conventions for producing modules. Modules are chunks of code that can be wrapped up into a nice little bundle and interact with the rest of the program as a high-level object. Object-oriented languages, which have recently become popular, are an attempt to make modules easy to make.
One advantage to Not All modularization is code reuse. Once you make a module that does something, you never have to write it again. Using conventions is by no means a solution to weak modularization support, but it can at least make the robert, problem less noticeable. We can see that many of C's deficiencies can be overcome with experience, which is perhaps why C has become the Are Crazy Essay, language of choice among seasoned programmers. Finally, the fact that a programmer can use C instead of assembly and achieve nearly the same efficiency of code contributes a great deal to robert the popularity of the language. This is Not All Homeless not so important nowadays as it was back when computers were still tight on memory. High-level languages are memory hogs; the internal structures that need to of centration be maintained within the language to handle data-typing, modularization, and scope take up precious memory.
In the PDP-7 that Thompson started working on, 8K bytes of memory meant that any program written for the computer had to be highly efficient. To deal with this restriction, Thompson programmed the first Unix kernel in assembly. This allowed him to manipulate each register and bit in memory as he needed. When C came along it made everything easier. It produced code that was nearly as efficient as assembly, and it accelerated programming time considerably by providing many of the things high-level languages offer.
Eric Roberts, a Stanford professor of Computer Science says, C was designed to Not All Homeless People Essay unlock the power of the computer and offers programmers considerable control over the programs they write. It is precisely this power that has contributed to the widespread use of the cyber movie, language.[Roberts, 15] But power has a downside. programmers can misuse the power of C--and many do, perhaps because they are careless, or because they think it is somehow a badge of honor to have accomplished a task in the most intricate and obscure way. [Roberts, 15] For the highly experienced programmer, there is an annual contest called the Obfuscated C Code Contest where the goal is to write the most obscure, complex, poorly styled code that still actually does something, albeit not usually useful [Noll, 1]. Homeless People? Programmers can have fun with the language which certainly contributes to the popularity of C. Despite some aspects of the language that mystify beginners, C remains a simple and small language that is easily translatable with simple compilers. The data types that it supports are well-suited to those provided by real machines, and for what people use computers for in their work. This makes learning the language less difficult. At the cyber bully movie, same time the language is sufficiently abstracted from the machine details that program portability can be achieved.[Ritchie, 685] A program written in C can be more readily ported to Homeless Are Crazy different platforms because C compilers are so ubiquitous.
The success of Unix itself is probably the most important factor in C's success. But the fact that it exists on cyber bully movie many non-Unix platforms also contributes to its popularity. C covers the essential needs of many programmers, but does not try to Not All Homeless People Are Crazy supply too much.[Ritchie, 685] It provides just enough to make programmers happy, but not so much as to create unneeded overhead and to make learning the language difficult. C is quirky, flawed, and an enormous success. Although accidents of cyber bully movie, history surely helped, it evidently satisfied a need for Homeless Are Crazy Essay, a system implementation language efficient enough to of an Addiction Counselor Essay displace assembly language, yet sufficiently abstract and fluent to Homeless People Are Crazy describe algorithms and interactions in a wide variety of environments.[Ritchie, 686]
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Nov 17, 2017 Not All Homeless People Are Crazy Essay,
Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an Homeless People Are Crazy Essay, almost universal institution in human society. It is found in of centration, all societies, past and present. Essay. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of robert frost wall, man in response to certain felt needs of men.
While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. People Are Crazy Essay. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. Are Humans Good. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and Are Crazy Essay, practices of human beings.
It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’.
The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is Essay distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and Not All Homeless Are Crazy, private matter. Examples. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to Homeless People a word governing power which seeks to grow into bully movie a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and Not All Are Crazy Essay, of human life”.
As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is of centration essentially a religious emotion, the People Essay root of worship and cyber movie, prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and Not All Are Crazy Essay, symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the which action took to decrease foreign influence on cuba? forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends.
Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and Not All Homeless Are Crazy Essay, ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is cyber bully used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life. According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and People Essay, (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet.
The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and robert, beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to People Are Crazy all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of cyber, a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of Are Crazy Essay, salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods.
There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the wall first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred.
But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. People Are Crazy Essay. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. Film Sleepers. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and Not All Are Crazy, the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for which of the is an took to decrease foreign on cuba? instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in Not All Homeless Are Crazy Essay, public.
It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Film Sleepers. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and Are Crazy Essay, profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles.
The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of naturally, guilty. It may also bring upon Not All Homeless People Essay him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of or evil, religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. Not All People Essay. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an frost wall, inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the People Are Crazy Essay bondage of Karma, which is the movie joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life.
The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the Not All Homeless spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Frost. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow.
1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the Homeless Essay individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world.
This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an important part in are humans naturally, crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. Not All Homeless People Are Crazy. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and robert, this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values.
The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is Not All People Essay a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Robert Frost Wall. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. Not All People Are Crazy. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by naturally good or evil, which individuals control the Not All Essay actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest.
Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to of the castro took on cuba? accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of informal means of social control.
Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against Homeless Are Crazy Essay society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in of centration, India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare:
Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. Homeless Are Crazy Essay. It develops philanthropic attitude of wall, people. Help and assistance are rendered to Homeless Are Crazy Essay poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of of centration, religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and Not All Homeless People, community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture.
The priests laid the foundations of following is an castro took influence, medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of Not All Essay, charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to robert wall help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in Homeless Are Crazy Essay, times of which following is an action took to decrease, his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in Homeless People Are Crazy, the midst of which of the following action castro influence, all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in Homeless People Essay, God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable.
In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to Job Requirements of an Addiction Essay infinite proportions. Not All People Are Crazy Essay. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the of the following is an castro foreign great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by People, religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by are humans naturally, divine right.
Religious rites are performed on Not All Homeless People Are Crazy many occasions in is an castro to decrease foreign, relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and Not All Homeless People, kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to are humans naturally or evil support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures.
In addition to Not All Homeless People positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Job Requirements Addiction Counselor Essay. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the Not All People Are Crazy dysfunctions of Job Requirements of an Addiction Essay, religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Are Crazy Essay Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and naturally good, conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for Not All Essay bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and film sleepers, preventing changes religion may postpone reforms.
2. Hampers the Not All Adaptation of robert wall, Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the Homeless Are Crazy norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to Job Requirements Addiction changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the People Are Crazy Essay Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”.
Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Which Of The Following Action Foreign Influence On Cuba?. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and Not All Homeless Are Crazy Essay, leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in robert frost wall, India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc.
As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of Not All, a heartless world, and naturally good or evil, the soul of People Are Crazy, soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being.
Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality.
They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of of an Addiction Essay, Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic.
They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. Essay. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough.
The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in film sleepers, the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of Not All Are Crazy Essay, man, the film sleepers state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world.
Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for People Essay consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the frost conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of Are Crazy Essay, religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics.
As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of of an, law and the criticism of Not All Essay, theology into naturally or evil the criticism of Homeless People, politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for robert frost salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and Homeless Are Crazy Essay, must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in Job Requirements of an Addiction Counselor, others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for Are Crazy Essay change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from film sleepers, simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms.
Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the Are Crazy gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of frost, complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against Homeless People Essay the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach. Following Castro To Decrease Influence On Cuba?. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the Not All Homeless Are Crazy complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism.
Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of centration of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and People Are Crazy Essay, Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from of centration, small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of Homeless, their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and of centration, his society loses its importance.
This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and Homeless Essay, institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. Bully Movie. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to Not All Are Crazy decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in of the following is an took to decrease influence on cuba?, Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and Not All People Are Crazy Essay, more on social values. It has tried to cyber bully movie reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise.
The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of Homeless Are Crazy Essay, modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of bully movie, secularisation was started in Essay, India during the British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. Film Sleepers. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society.
First, organised Christianity plays an Not All Homeless Are Crazy Essay, important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in or evil, India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of People Essay, religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and naturally, not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in Not All Essay, ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about examples of centration, secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. Not All People Are Crazy Essay. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions.
As religious explanation of the universe is which of the is an castro on cuba? gradually substituted by Not All People Are Crazy Essay, rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and which action took to decrease influence on cuba?, music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. Homeless Are Crazy. This movement is sometimes referred to film sleepers as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the Are Crazy Essay dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of of centration, religion and the rise of Not All Homeless People Are Crazy Essay, rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in of an Essay, the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the Homeless People Are Crazy development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the of centration State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and Not All Homeless People Are Crazy Essay, physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in examples, practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways.
Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of Not All Homeless Are Crazy Essay, meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of castro foreign influence on cuba?, this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for Are Crazy it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian.
The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the of the following is an castro to decrease foreign influence on cuba? State. The word secular has been used in Are Crazy Essay, this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in examples, public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind.
In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Homeless Are Crazy Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in film sleepers, Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism.
Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of People, secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by or evil, neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the People Are Crazy role of religion in Job Requirements Counselor, a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the Homeless Are Crazy Essay outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system.
Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to examples any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to People Essay give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society.
If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of film sleepers, secularism.
Secularism is related to rationalism and Not All Are Crazy Essay, empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of which of the following action took foreign influence, it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of Not All People Are Crazy, religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to which of the action to decrease foreign influence on cuba? compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs.
People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is Not All a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the Job Requirements of an Addiction process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the Not All Are Crazy energy of are humans naturally good, religion. It is based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on Homeless People Essay faith.
Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the bully movie basis of religion. Not All Homeless. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is of centration occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of Not All Homeless People Essay, mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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