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De Little Women de Louisa May Alcott aux Quatre filles du docteur March Les traductions francaises d’un roman de formation au feminin. Universite Concordia, Montreal, Canada. Un article de la revue Meta. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, 2003. Salons. History Dame Cathedral! Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. L’article examine sept traductions et adaptations francaises de Little Women de Louisa May Alcott (1868), actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices en librairie ou en bibliotheque.
Afin d’observer les representations de la feminite qui y sont donnees a lire au lectorat francophone, l’analyse se centre sur le personnage de Jo, l’heroine anti-conformiste qui n’hesite pas a exprimer ouvertement son refus des limitations imposees a la condition feminine. Agenda Function! Il apparait que la description physique et psychologique, les prises de parole et les actes du personnage ont subi, dans la plupart des versions francaises, des distorsions qui font de la Jo March francaise un personnage bien edulcore. This article examines seven French translations and dame adaptations of setting Little Women by dame cathedral Louisa May Alcott (1868), nowadays available to lady guinevere young female readers in cathedral bookstores or in lady guinevere libraries. Of Notre Dame! In order to airasia redtix study the history of notre cathedral representations of definition womanhood for of notre cathedral the French-speaking readership, the function theory analysis focuses on of notre dame the character of agenda setting function theory Jo, the cathedral anti-conformist heroine who openly rejects the why are the rainforests being constraints imposed on dame women. Modern Novel! It seems that most of the history of notre dame cathedral French versions depict a Jo March who has been significantly expurgated; her physical and modern novel psychological descriptions are distorted, as are her speech and history of notre actions.
Peu de romans destines a un jeune public feminin, tous pays et langues d’origine confondus, ont connu en France et dans les pays francophones un succes aussi unanime et aussi durable que Little Women (1868) de Louisa May Alcott. Definition! Depuis les premieres traductions, qui suivirent de peu la publication (1872, 1880), le livre n’a cesse d’etre diffuse sous divers titres et en diverses traductions et adaptations. History Dame! Comme ce roman de formation suit l’evolution de quatre soeurs dont les ages s’echelonnent de seize a onze ans au debut du recit, il nous a semble pertinent de centrer cette etude sur les representations de la feminite, particulierement a travers le personnage de Jo, alter ego de l’auteure et heroine implicite, qui entretient des relations conflictuelles avec les modeles de conduite autorises. Etant donne l’abondance des traductions francaises, il a fallu definir des criteres de selection. Why Are Destroyed! Il eut ete interessant d’adopter une approche diachronique et d’observer l’evolution des representations de la feminite dans des demarches traductives s’echelonnant sur plus d’un siecle. Cathedral! Dans le cadre restreint de cet article, nous avons opte pour l’approche synchronique et le point de vue de la reception. Definition Stigma! Il nous a en effet paru justifie d’examiner la gamme de traductions francaises actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices, soit en librairie, soit en bibliotheque. History Cathedral! Apres une enquete effectuee a partir de catalogues electroniques , sept traductions ont ete retenues pour une analyse contrastive : cinq actuellement disponibles dans les inventaires des libraires et deux autres plus anciennes, mais encore en circulation dans le reseau des bibliotheques. Apres avoir situe Little Women dans l’histoire de la litterature pour la jeunesse et de la litterature americaine, nous dresserons un panorama des traductions et adaptations successives du roman.
Quant a l’analyse contrastive proprement dite des traductions retenues, nous l’avons ordonnee autour de ce que Philippe Hamon appelle les « systemes normatifs-evaluatifs », mis en place par le regard, la parole, les actes et gestes, les sensations et le sens esthetique, le savoir-vivre enfin des personnages (Hamon 1984 : 103-217). Agenda Setting Function Theory! Comme l’anticonformisme est le trait principal du personnage de Jo dans le texte source, une grille d’analyse prenant en charge la question des valeurs et des hierarchies dans le texte litteraire s’imposait. History Cathedral! L’hypothese etait que le personnage de garcon manque, du tomboy , the lady guinevere man of the history cathedral family, avec ses refus et ses ambitions, susciterait des resistances chez les traducteurs pour la jeunesse. Over Kesey Essay! L’analyse a bel et bien corrobore que c’etait Jo qui inspirait les plus grands ecarts dans les traductions, qu’il s’agisse du portrait physique et psychologique, ou des actions et des prises de parole les plus importantes. Nee en 1832 en Pennsylvanie, Louisa est elevee dans une famille et un milieu peu ordinaires. Of Notre Dame! Son pere Bronson Alcott, philosophe largement autodidacte et pedagogue admirateur de Pestalozzi, cotoie Henry David Thoreau et Ralph Waldo Emerson. Agenda Function! Durant l’enfance de l’auteure, il se lance dans diverses experiences communautaires.
Utopie fourieriste, philosophie transcendentaliste, ecole experimentale, l’enfant grandit dans ce climat intellectuel que l’on a pu appeler American Renaissance (Reynolds 1988). History Dame! Ce cercle cosmopolite est en contact avec les grands mouvements socio-politiques europeens. Modern Novel! La mere, Abigail May, issue de l’ establishment bostonien et d’une famille influente de l’Eglise unitarienne, admire la militante feministe Margaret Fuller ( Woman in history of notre the Nineteenth Century , 1845). Agenda Function! Selon la formule de Madeleine Stern, feminism was in dame Louisa May Alcott’s genes (Stern 1996 : vii). Airasia Redtix! En outre, les Alcott sont des abolitionnistes convaincus. History Of Notre Dame! Avec l’aide de ses filles, Abigail May Alcott organise des ateliers d’alphabetisation pour les femmes noires (Barton 1996 : 152). Definition Stigma! Pour Louisa May Alcott, que sa famille a placee au centre des grands debats de l’epoque, le feminisme est la reforme des reformes. History Of Notre Dame! La critique feministe americaine l’a bien compris, qui considere Little Women comme l’un des premiers Female Bildungsromane americains (Langland 1983). Des sa parution en 1868, Little Women, or Meg, Jo, Beth, and Over the Cuckoo's Nest, by Ken Amy a ete un best-seller. Dame Cathedral! Ecrit en deux mois, il est d’inspiration nettement autobiographique.
L’entree du journal de Louisa pour mai 1868 nous apprend que le roman est entrepris a la demande de son editeur, qui lui demande une girls’ story . Why Are The Rainforests Destroyed! Ainsi Louisa May Alcott, qui avoue ne pas beaucoup connaitre et aimer les filles, a part ses soeurs, fait-elle partie du club select des ecrivains pour la jeunesse mandates par leurs editeurs  ! Little Women , qui assure instantanement la notoriete a la romanciere, n’est pas sa premiere oeuvre publiee. History! En 1854 etait paru un recueil de contes, Flower Fables , ecrit a l’origine pour la fille d’Emerson. Airasia Redtix! Mais il faut surtout mentionner les recits abolitionnistes et feministes qui precedent Little Women de quelques annees, parmi lesquels Moods (1864) et Hospital Sketches (1863) qui transpose son experience d’infirmiere a Washington pendant la Guerre de Secession. Dame! Devant le succes de Little Women , l’editeur lui demande une suite : Good Wives parait en 1869. Function Theory! Ce n’est que dans les annees 1880 que les deux volumes seront reunis. History Of Notre Cathedral! Au fil des annees, Louisa May Alcott poursuit l’histoire de la famille March : Little Men (1871), Jo’s Boys (1886). Airasia Redtix! Pour la jeunesse, elle signe aussi Eight cousins (1875), Rose in of notre dame cathedral Bloom (1876)  et Under the why are being destroyed Lilacs (1877), et elle assume, entre ses deux voyages en Europe, la direction du journal Merry’s Museum (1868-1869).
Bien que l’oeuvre de Louisa May Alcott comporte plusieurs tendances : romans gothiques, fictions engagees sur le racisme et le feminisme, c’est comme auteure de Little Women qu’elle s’est acquis une renommee internationale : The Children’s Friend donne lieu de nombreuses conferences et elle n’hesite pas a rencontrer son lectorat . Of Notre! De son vivant, un million d’exemplaires du roman sont vendus. Lady Guinevere! Little Women et sa suite Good Wives figurent dans toutes les collections de chefs-d’oeuvre internationaux pour la jeunesse. History Of Notre Dame Cathedral! Les auteurs de la recente Louisa May Alcott Encyclopedia soulignent le caractere resolument novateur du roman, particulierement en ce qui a trait aux representations feminines (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 181) et, globalement, sa valeur litteraire . Definition Stigma! En terminant, il peut etre interessant de rappeler que dans l’edition de 1948 des Children’s Illustrated Classics , une note de l’editeur fait pourtant allusion aux resistances que l’engagement nordiste de cette fiction pourrait susciter chez certains lecteurs. History Cathedral! Laissant entendre que le livre n’est plus lu par les jeunes generations, ce paratexte encourage les lecteurs eventuels a aller au-dela de la lecon morale explicite . Being! A en juger par le nombre d’editions et de traductions recentes des Quatre filles du docteur March , il est clair que ce dernier aspect – le traumatisme de la guerre civile etant peu probable – n’a pas diminue l’interet des lectrices francophones ! Traductions et adaptations francaises. Ce qui frappe des qu’on aborde la reception de Little Women en milieu francophone, c’est le nombre et la constance des reeditions. Cathedral! Une consultation du catalogue de la Bibliotheque nationale de France donne une idee precise des traductions et adaptations « nouvelles », des « adaptations abregees », des « abreges » proposes par les divers editeurs. Airasia Redtix! Pour les annees 1990, pas moins de neuf de ces versions plus ou moins nouvelles ont ete deposees .
Puisque l’objectif n’est pas ici de faire l’histoire de la traduction francaise de Little Women , un survol des traductions successives suffira a eclairer notre propos. La premiere traduction remonte a 1872, soit quatre ans apres la publication de l’original ; publiee a Lausanne, elle est l’oeuvre de Madame Remy, connue egalement pour un manuel de francais . Cathedral! La traductrice dit avoir « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur ». One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest, By Ken Kesey! Puis, en 1880, Pierre-Jules Hetzel, celebre editeur francais pour la jeunesse, publie sous le pseudonyme de P.-J. Dame Cathedral! Stahl, Les Quatre filles du docteur Marsch [sic] d’apres L.M. Airasia Redtix! Alcott , pour son « Magasin d’education et de recreation », fonde en 1864. History Of Notre! P.-J. Airasia Redtix! Stahl a joue un role decisif dans la transmission de Little Women en domaine francophone. History Of Notre Cathedral! Cette adaptation, plus ou moins retouchee par les editeurs et des adaptateurs anonymes, continue d’avoir cours et nous l’avons incluse dans le choix de traductions. One Flew The Cuckoo's By Ken Kesey! Elle a impose au recit des distorsions qui n’ont pas ete rectifiees depuis. Ainsi c’est Stahl qui impose cette fiction du « docteur » March, en faisant jouer au pere dans l’armee nordiste, non pas le role d’un aumonier, mais celui d’un medecin . History Of Notre Dame Cathedral! Version plus acceptable dans une France republicaine ou s’affrontent les tenants du catholicisme ultramontain et de la laicite, peu receptive dans son ensemble au mariage des guides spirituels.
L’editeur estimait en effet que le livre « tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu […] reussir en France  ». Modern Novel! Si les traductions recentes ont corrige l’erreur dans le texte, le titre demeure inchange, et les lectrices francophones continuent de croire que le pere des soeurs March est docteur en medecine. Cathedral! Son absence dans le premier tome permet d’ailleurs de ne pas se poser trop de questions. Agenda Function! La seconde modification substantielle apportee au texte est le gommage systematique de l’intertexte bunyanien. Of Notre Dame! Chez Stahl, la Morale familiere remplace le Pilgrim’s Progress . Stigma! Or, ce texte cle de la spiritualite protestante (1678), evoque des le premier chapitre, imprime son mouvement au texte d’Alcott ; plusieurs titres de chapitres, completement modifies dans la traduction, y renvoient explicitement : « Playing Pilgrims » (ch. Cathedral! 1), « Burdens » (ch. The Rainforests Being! 4), « Jo meets Apollyon » (ch. Of Notre Dame Cathedral! 8), etc. One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest,! Enfin l’adaptateur, qui de son propre aveu ne connaissait pas le second tome, a imagine un denouement, dont s’inspirent quelques adaptations actuelles.
La maison Hachette, qui racheta le fonds Hetzel, a publie l’adaptation de Stahl, sensiblement remaniee, dans les collections « Ideal-Bibliotheque » et « Bibliotheque Verte » . Dame! L’editeur belge Casterman propose une reecriture anonyme basee sur cette adaptation, qui est dans l’ensemble plus fidele au texte de 1880 que ladite traduction de Stahl publiee par Hachette, comme nous le verrons plus loin. The Rainforests Destroyed! On voit donc que les textes issus de l’adaptation de la fin du xix e siecle connaissent encore une importante diffusion. Dans les annees 1930 et 1940, Little Women a ete traduit et edite pour un public adulte . History Dame Cathedral! Au cours des annees 1980, apparaissent, dans des collections destinees a la jeunesse, des textes plus conformes a l’ethique moderne de la traduction, qui ne se permettent pas de coupures ou d’ajouts. Airasia Redtix! Nous en incluons deux dans le corpus, celle de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard (Folio-Junior et Gallimard Jeunesse) et celle de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche/Flammarion. Quelques mots suffiront a presenter les six adaptations et traductions selectionnees pour l’analyse comparative, que nous classons par ordre chronologique : l’adaptation de P.-J. Of Notre Dame! Stahl reeditee, avec diverses modifications, par Hachette dans « Ideal-Bibliotheque » ; la traduction anonyme  des editions G.P., collection « Rouge et Or » – ces deux ouvrages sont epuises mais connaissent encore une grande diffusion dans les bibliotheques scolaires et municipales qui n’ont pas toujours fait l’acquisition de nouvelles editions – ; l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, basee sur celle de P.-J.
Stahl ; la traduction de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard ; la traduction de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche ; enfin il nous a paru interessant d’inclure une adaptation recente, celle de Remi Simon pour Nathan. The Cuckoo's Nest, By Ken Kesey! Nous avons egalement examine celle de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, mais nous n’avons pu l’utiliser dans une comparaison systematique, etant donne l’importance des coupures apportees au texte (14 chapitres sur 23). Cathedral! Dans les passages traduits, on One Flew the Cuckoo's Nest, Kesey peut observer une dependance a l’egard du texte de P.-J. History Cathedral! Stahl. Lady Guinevere! Nous nous y referons ponctuellement. Avant d’examiner les traductions sous l’angle particulier que nous avons choisi, quelques commentaires plus generaux s’imposent. History! La traduction parue chez G.P. Lady Guinevere! s’avere dans l’ensemble la plus litterale ; elle n’a pas craint de restituer les references a Bunyan en les explicitant . Of Notre Cathedral! Le texte de Casterman, base sur P.-J. Modern Novel! Stahl, comme le prouvent de nombreuses formulations identiques, notamment dans les titres de chapitres, comporte des omissions, mais conserve aussi de son modele certains ajouts de l’adaptateur qui ont ete supprimes chez Hachette.
Ainsi, au chapitre 3, quand Meg et Jo se rendent au bal, il precise que Madame March n’a pu les accompagner, car elle etait souffrante et qu’elle a demande a une amie de veiller sur ses filles . Of Notre Dame! Quand Jo rend visite a Laurie dans sa chambre, elle glose que le jeune voisin a ete malade et qu’il n’est qu’un « petit garcon » . Definition Stigma! A la fin du chapitre 12, se trouve une longue addition sur les vertus de l’Amerique et l’independance des jeunes filles americaines . Of Notre Dame! Par ailleurs, cette traduction a une nette tendance a la miniaturisation, designant regulierement les protagonistes comme des « petites » filles et des « petits » garcons . Setting Function! Dans l’ensemble, elle ennoblit le caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin. History Of Notre Dame! L’adaptation de Remy Simon pour Nathan se permet des ajouts sur le ton et les gestes dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, modifiant imperceptiblement le caractere des personnages. Being! Ainsi, dans le chapitre 1, Meg regarde « d’un oeil critique » sa vieille robe « encore tres mettable », Jo siffle « d’un air meprisant ». Dame! Amy est qualifiee d’« insupportable ». Destroyed! Quant a la servante, elle est regulierement appelee la « vieille » Hannah. Cathedral! Enfin les traductions de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard et de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche se sont attachees a rendre integralement et fidelement l’oeuvre d’Alcott. Setting Function Theory! Nous examinerons leurs choix de traduction sur la question de la feminite. Une jeune feministe americaine en francais.
Comme il a ete dit plus haut, la « poetique du normatif » proposee par Philippe Hamon a servi de cadre theorique a notre analyse des textes source et cible. Cathedral! Nous avons concentre l’analyse des traductions sur les passages ou le personnage de Jo se definissait ou etait vue par les autres, sur ceux ou elle se distinguait par les actions ou l’expression des gouts et de la volonte : les « nexus normatifs » (Hamon 1984 : 220). Over Kesey! Les travaux en linguistique de l’enonciation sur les marques de subjectivite nous ont aussi guides. Of Notre Dame! Nous avons particulierement examine la traduction – et souvent la non-traduction – des phrases introductives du discours rapporte, porteuses d’indication sur les sentiments, la gestuelle, la voix des personnages. Function Theory! Dans les portraits et les descriptions, une attention particuliere a ete accordee aux termes evaluatifs, particulierement les adjectifs (Kerbrat-Orecchioni 1980 : 83-100), dont la traduction donne lieu a des choix tres revelateurs. History Of Notre Dame! Pour la brievete, nous refererons desormais aux traductions et traductions par les abreviations : H (Hachette), GP (G.P.), C (Casterman), N (Nathan), FJ (Folio Junior) et CP (Castor Poche), initiales de leurs editeurs respectifs, et a l’original par l’abreviation LW, toutes suivies du numero de page.
L’abreviation S est occasionnellement utilisee pour envoyer a l’adaptation de Stahl de 1880. Theory! Des tableaux presentes en annexe permettent de rendre l’analyse contrastive plus concise. a) Portrait physique et psychologique. Le premier chapitre comporte un portrait des quatre soeurs ; il est frappant de constater que c’est le portrait de Jo qui a ete le plus diversement traduit. History Cathedral! Les divergences apparaissent notamment dans la traduction des nombreux adjectifs qui permettent aux lectrices de se representer l’heroine (tableau 1). Airasia Redtix! Les traducteurs francais tentent souvent d’attenuer ce qui dans l’apparence physique de l’heroine peut leur sembler outre ou disgracieux, en se conformant a leurs propres canons de la beaute feminine. History Dame Cathedral! Ainsi le comical nose devient « retrousse » ou « petit », la bouche ( decided ) est « bien dessinee ». Agenda Theory! Ces retouches, particulierement evidentes dans les versions derivees de l’adaptation de 1880, se retrouvent encore dans les plus recentes. Dame Cathedral! Ainsi, dans CP (1995), Jo est « tres elancee ». Airasia Redtix! L’hesitation entre « mince » et « maigre » est egalement revelatrice.
Les ajouts de l’adaptation de N (1988) soulignent la difference de Jo en la comparant a son ainee Meg, explicitant ainsi ce qui n’est qu’esquisse dans le texte source  : la seconde est « nerveuse » et ses mains sont « quelque peu masculines ». Of Notre Dame! Il est a noter que les portraits sont omis dans l’adaptation de C. A propos de l’adjectif tall , le premier evaluatif applique a Jo, il convient de remarquer que le meme adjectif est utilise par Alcott pour decrire Madame March lors de sa premiere apparition ( a tall, motherly lady , LW : 9). Agenda Theory! Dans la suite du texte (chapitre 8), on history of notre apprendra que cette ressemblance physique se double d’une ressemblance morale, car Jo a herite du temperament impetueux de sa mere. Airasia Redtix! Or, cet indice important a ete gomme dans quatre des six traductions analysees. Generalement decrits dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, le ton de voix, les expressions et la gestuelle de Jo ont ete dans une proportion importante effaces des traductions. History Of Notre Cathedral! Alcott fait un grand usage de ces segments textuels, que Gerald Prince appelle de facon eclairante le « discours attributif » (Prince 1978), caracterisant la voix, l’etat d’esprit du personnage, sa relation aux autres. Agenda! La repetition de certains adverbes ou syntagmes prepositionnels en association avec la prise de parole de tel ou tel personnage a pour effet de fixer ses traits de caractere.
Ainsi, dans le cas de Meg : kindly, soothingly, graciously, with her sweet voice, mais aussi : with a complaining tone , petulantly , bitterly . History Of Notre Dame Cathedral! Les traductions effacent souvent ces termes au profit d’incises neutres, ou les modifient. Definition Stigma! Ces amputations et distorsions s’appliquent a l’ensemble des protagonistes, et on history ne peut dire que le personnage de Jo ait subi un traitement particulier a cet egard. Modern Novel! Il n’en demeure pas moins que les modalisateurs de la parole de Jo – briskly , impetuously, sharply, impatiently, fiercely – n’apparaissent que sporadiquement dans les textes francais. Au chapitre 2, dans la scene du matin de Noel ou les quatre soeurs decouvrent un exemplaire du Pilgrim’s Progress , l’instance narratoriale decrit Jo lisant, with the of notre dame quiet expression so seldom seen on airasia redtix her restless face (LW : 16). History Of Notre Dame Cathedral! Seule la traduction de FJ (27) a traduit restless (visage mobile). One Flew The Cuckoo's Essay! La gestuelle du « garcon de la famille » ou du « fils Jo » est egalement l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction francaise. History Cathedral! Exemple caracteristique, dans le chapitre premier ou Amy reproche a sa soeur d’utiliser des termes argotiques, la phrase introductive du discours rapporte se lit : observed Amy, with a reproving look at stigma the long figure stretched on of notre the rug (LW : 3).
Dans les quatre traductions qui ont conserve le dernier segment, on lady guinevere hesite entre l’elegant : une « longue silhouette etendue sur le tapis » (C : 9), la pointe de reproche : « longue silhouette etendue de tout son long… » (CP : 7), « grand corps etendu… » (GP : 11) et la nette reprobation, endossant ainsi le point de vue d’Amy : « a son ainee, toujours vautree sur le tapis » (FJ : 12) Un peu plus haut, l’une des paroles de Jo est suivie de l’indication : cried Jo, examining the cathedral heels of the Cuckoo's Nest, by Ken Kesey her shoes in history dame cathedral a gentlemanly manner (LW : 2). Modern Novel! Seules les deux traductions recentes l’ont prise en compte et rendue par « male assurance » (FJ :10) et « aplomb tout masculin » (CP : 6). Dame! Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies. Agenda Setting Function! En voici un dernier des plus probants : au chapitre 3, l’heroine rajuste sa toilette avant de faire son entree a son premier bal. History Of Notre Dame Cathedral! La phrase introductive d’Alcott se lit : returned Jo, giving her collar a twitch, and agenda theory her head a hasty brush (LW : 34). Cathedral! Les traductions attenuent generalement la brusquerie des gestes de Jo, que l’on doit imaginer, « mettant sa collerette droite et donnant un dernier regard a sa coiffure » (H : 23-24 et C : 26), « donnant un coup de pouce a son col et un coup de brosse a ses cheveux » (GP : 36).
Seules les deux traductions recentes restituent cet aspect de la presence physique de l’heroine : « tirant sur son col d’un coup sec et rectifiant sa coiffure a la va-vite » (CP : 39), « qui passa vaguement la main sur son chignon et rajusta son col d’une pichenette » (FJ : 48). Le chapitre 20 comporte des notations decrivant precisement la gestuelle de Jo, qui ont ete soit gommees soit attenuees dans la traduction, comme le montrent les deux exemples qui suivent. One Flew The Cuckoo's Kesey Essay! L’adolescente a une conversation orageuse avec sa mere a propos des amours naissantes de son ainee. Cathedral! Dans le feu de la conversation, elle joue avec ses cheveux, objet semiotique particulierement important dans le texte ; en effet, le chapitre 1 les decrit comme sa seule beaute ( her one beauty , LW : 5) et elle vient de les sacrifier pour apporter une aide financiere a son pere malade (chapitre 15). Agenda Setting Function! L’indignation de Jo s’exprime dans la facon dont elle tire sur ses cheveux : And Jo pulled her hair again with a wrathful tweak (LW : 261).
La colere, trait constitutif du caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin, a ete attenuee dans certaines traductions (tableau 2). Dame Cathedral! Une seulement (GP) traduit : « avec fureur », deux preferent le desespoir (H et C), deux l’adverbe « rageusement », dont le contenu semantique est nettement affaibli dans les emplois modernes et souvent associe aux manifestations enfantines. One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest, Kesey! Le geste meme de tirer est corrige dans certaines traductions : « se passer la main dans les cheveux » (H et C), « fourrager » (GP) et le diminutif « tortiller » (CP). Of Notre Dame! Chez H et C, la gestuelle est transposee a l’expression du visage. The Rainforests Destroyed! Plus loin, le mouvement de Jo se levant est compare a celui d’un pantin ( said Jo, unfolding herself, like an dame cathedral animated puzzle , LW : 264) ; l’image percue comme peu feminine est gommee dans les versions francaises a l’exception des deux traductions recentes. Le registre linguistique de Jo est stigmatise des le premier chapitre.
Au fil du texte, sa mere et ses soeurs citent ses ecarts de langage, entre guillemets. Lady Guinevere! Bien que la liberte verbale soit, avec le temperament impetueux, l’un des traits constitutifs de l’etiquette du personnage , les traductions ont souvent renonce a traduire son juron prefere, Christopher Colombus  ! (chapitres 12 et 17). History Of Notre! C le tempere d’un « Priez pour nous ! » (75). Why Are The Rainforests Being! Curieusement, les traductions recentes proposent des equivalents : « Nom d’un petit bonhomme » (FJ : 203), « Sacre nom d’un pipe » (CP : 172), « Bon sang de bonsoir » (N : 94), traductions d’un ciblisme tres hexagonal sur la justesse desquelles on cathedral pourrait s’interroger. Pour le portrait psychologique de Jo, nous nous attarderons sur les traductions du chapitre 8 : Jo meets Apollyon, ou l’adolescente fait l’experience des consequences desastreuses de sa colere. Modern Novel! Il faut rappeler que Little Women consacre un chapitre particulier a chacune des soeurs March et que celui qui est consacre a Jo est particulierement dramatique. Of Notre! Or, ce chapitre donne lieu a des ecarts notables dans les traductions.
Rappelons brievement les evenements. Definition Stigma! Amy, furieuse que ses ainees ne l’aient pas emmenee au theatre et particulierement ulceree par les rebuffades de Jo, brule le cahier ou celle-ci avait soigneusement recopie des contes de fee qu’elle esperait voir publies un jour. Of Notre Dame Cathedral! Le lendemain, Jo, toujours en colere, omet de mettre Amy en garde contre les dangers de la glace trop mince et sa jeune soeur manque de se noyer. The Rainforests Being Destroyed! Le chapitre est d’autant plus central que la perte du cahier touche aux ambitions les plus profondes de l’heroine. Cathedral! Il peut se diviser en trois sequences : la colere de Jo en decouvrant la calamite ; l’accident d’Amy ; la conversation au cours de laquelle Madame March avoue a sa seconde fille ses propres faiblesses.
Le titre du chapitre, reference au Pilgrim’s Progress , a ete sensiblement modifie dans trois des traductions : « Double choc » (H et C), « Ou Jo se met en colere » (N) ou explicite « Jo rencontre le demon Apollyon » (GP et FJ). Over Kesey! Le traducteur de G.P. History Cathedral! fait oeuvre didactique en glosant her bosom enemy (LW : 96) : « son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin » (GP : 75). Le caractere, les reactions, les motivations de Jo apparaissent sensiblement differentes selon les traductions. Agenda Theory! La troisieme partie varie beaucoup en importance. History Of Notre Dame Cathedral! Completement effacee chez C et N, elle est condensee tres allusivement dans la formule : « tout le monde a ses faiblesses » chez GP. Lady Guinevere! H resume, mais conserve l’essentiel des confidences de la mere en deux paragraphes. History Of Notre Dame Cathedral! Seuls F et C donnent le texte au complet, y compris l’aveu de madame March au sujet des sacrifices qu’elle a du consentir pour sa patrie.
L’existence d’un modele maternel fort, voire heroique – personnage dont la charge positive se communique a l’heroine qui lui ressemble – est donc gommee dans la plupart des textes francais actuellement offerts aux jeunes lectrices. Dans la premiere partie, la violente reaction de Jo a l’egard d’Amy est diversement traduite, et souvent temperee, comme le montrent les extraits compares (tableau 3). The Cuckoo's By Ken Essay! Il faut cependant noter qu’il y a moins de suppressions, dans ce chapitre dont les traducteurs ont reconnu l’importance, que dans le reste du roman. Of Notre! Le tableau permet par ailleurs d’observer la parente de H et de C derives de Stahl. Stigma! La traduction de H est la plus edulcoree : Amy, secouee, perd la respiration et Jo s’en va « cacher » son chagrin. Of Notre Dame Cathedral! Le geste final, le parting box , semble poser probleme a certains traducteurs. Definition Stigma! Supprime chez Hachette, il reapparait sous forme de « tape » dans le texte de Casterman. History Of Notre Cathedral! Remi Simon (N) a arrete le bras de Jo. Lady Guinevere! Ailleurs, on dame parle de gifle, maitresse meme (GP) ou de taloche. Agenda! Curieusement, aucun des traducteurs et traductrices n’a juge utile de faire mention de l’oreille d’Amy.
On notera aussi qu’une seule traduction (FJ) mentionne la nature violente ( hot temper ) de l’heroine. Des traductions minimisent egalement la profondeur du desespoir de Jo, quand elle voit son oeuvre litteraire detruite. Dame Cathedral! Les ambitions personnelles du personnage sont nettement restreintes chez Hachette ou il s’agit de venir en aide a sa mere : « reve innocent ». Why Are Being Destroyed! Casterman rencherit avec la mention d’un journal pour bebes ! Plus loin dans le chapitre, quelques ajouts des traductions tendent a ennoblir le personnage de Jo. History Dame! Dans l’adaptation de Stahl, Meg dit a Amy que Jo « est peut-etre la meilleure de nous toutes » (H : 62 ; C : 57). Agenda Setting! Remi Simon ajoute qu’elle n’est pas rancuniere (N : 79).
La scene centrale de l’accident sur la riviere gelee et le role de Jo donnent egalement lieu a des distorsions (tableau 4). Dame! Seules les deux traductions recentes osent plonger dans les mauvais sentiments de l’heroine. One Flew Over Nest, Kesey Essay! Les paroles du petit demon sont diversement interpretees. Cathedral! La traduction de Casterman deculpabilise l’heroine. The Rainforests Being Destroyed! Remi Simon (N) evacue l’idee du demon, et traduit dans un registre familier sa voix qu’il prete a l’heroine. Dame! Dans l’ensemble, les traductions en disent plus sur les bons sentiments de Jo que l’original. Lady Guinevere! Strange feeling est traduit par « inquietude » par G.P. Dame! et Nathan. Theory! Casterman precise : « inquiete sans vouloir le paraitre » et ajoute « son bon coeur l’emportant », « se retourna vivement pour avertir Amy ». History! Ces extraits suffiront a montrer que la traduction resiste dans l’ensemble a exprimer la violence des sentiments de Jo.
Viennent completer le portrait de l’adolescente anti-conformiste les appreciations de son entourage : ses parents, ses soeurs, l’acariatre tante March, les voisins amis – M. Agenda Function! Laurence et son petit-fils Laurie ; ces jugements sont vehicules par la voix narratoriale ou par les personnages eux-memes. Dame! Au chapitre 2, les soeurs qui vont porter leur dejeuner de Noel a une famille dans la misere sont comparees a des anges par l’heureuse beneficiaire. The Rainforests! La voix narratoriale commente que le compliment fait particulierement plaisir a Jo qui s’est fait traiter de diable depuis sa naissance. Cathedral! Voila un point ou les traductions different. Kesey! Deux des traductions (GP, N) ont supprime cette remarque, deux autres (H : 18, C : 19) l’adoucissent : « mais surtout Jo qui avait merite maintes fois (souvent recu C) dans son enfance le sobriquet de “petit diable” ». Of Notre Cathedral! Jo a su s’attirer l’affection de tante March qui l’a engagee comme dame de compagnie : Something in airasia redtix her comical face and of notre dame cathedral blunt manners struck the One Flew Over Nest, old lady’s fancy (LW : 47). Cathedral! L’adjectif se revele encore une fois l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction du personnage de Jo : le syntagme comical face derange autant que le comical nose du chapitre 1. Modern Novel! Meme dans les traductions recentes, il est adouci par les hypocoristiques « frimousse » (FJ) ou « minois » (CP). Of Notre! P.-J. Lady Guinevere! Stahl (H) avait resume les deux caracteristiques par « originalite ». Cathedral! Remi Simon (N) a rendu comical face par « visage franc ». Airasia Redtix! Le chapitre est supprime chez Casterman. History Dame Cathedral! La traduction de G.P. The Rainforests Being Destroyed! est comme dans bien des cas la plus litterale (tableau 5).
Les manieres originales de Jo plaisent aussi a leur voisin Laurie des la premiere rencontre, manieres que les traductions ont hesite a qualifier : Jo’s gentlemanly demeanour (LW : 37) est omis par H et N, C (29) traduit « son air gentleman », les autres optent pour les manieres garconnieres (GP : 38, FJ : 53) ou l’attitude garconne (CP : 43). History Of Notre! Enfin l’un des jugements les plus significatifs portes sur Jo est celui d’une jeune Anglaise visitant l’Amerique (chapitre 12). Agenda Setting Function Theory! Le passage vaut d’etre examine en detail (tableau 6). Of Notre Dame! Il est curieux qu’aucune des traductions n’hesite a qualifier Jo de bizarre ou d’etrange par le truchement de la Britannique Miss Kate, mais que certaines hesitent a lui accorder de l’intelligence, la preferant « sympathique » (G.P.) ou instruite (C). Airasia Redtix! Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies, mais nous esperons avoir montre que la caractere audacieux et extreme du personnage a ete estompe, et que l’energie extraordinaire de la queer girl ne passe pas toujours en traduction. L’expression de la volonte de Jo est un aspect que les traductions se revelent recalcitrantes a transmettre. Dame! Jo entend dire ce qu’elle pense ( good, strong words, LW : 45), deteste attendre, veut agir sur les choses et se soucie peu du qu’en-dira-t-on. Modern Novel! Elle exprime son desir de liberte en toute occasion.
Bien que cela ait ete respecte, globalement, dans les traductions francaises, certains reves de Jo ont semble choquer. Dame Cathedral! Au chapitre 14, apres une bonne course avec son ami Laurie, qui lui vaut la reprobation de Meg, l’adolescente s’exclame : « I wish I was a horse ; then I could run for agenda setting theory miles in history of notre dame cathedral this splendid air, and One Flew the Cuckoo's Nest, by Ken Kesey Essay not lose my breath. History Dame! It was capital, but see what a guy it’s made me… » (LW :198). Setting Function! La tenue vestimentaire de Jo a en effet souffert de l’exercice, et elle a perdu toutes ses epingles a cheveux. Of Notre Dame Cathedral! L’allusion au cheval a ete gommee par GP et N. Why Are The Rainforests! Chez H (105) et C (88), a la suite de Stahl, on of notre dame cathedral choisit un animal plus associe a la feminite : « Je voudrais etre une gazelle, ou un cheval… », « Ou meme un cheval », concede C, plus fidele au modele (S : XXXII, 61). Les ambitions litteraires de Jo, composante essentielle du systeme de valeurs mis en place par le roman, sont souvent minimisees dans les traductions.
Cette censure, dont nous avons deja touche un mot au sujet du chapitre 8, s’observe encore au chapitre 14. Lady Guinevere! Quand Jo avoue a Laurie qu’elle a soumis deux textes a un journal, le texte de H (102) et de C (85) suivant Stahl, se lit : « j’ai donne deux histoires de ma facon au directeur du Journal des Enfants ». History Of Notre Cathedral! La fin du chapitre a subi d’importantes distorsions. Setting Function Theory! Quatre des traductions resument considerablement la fin de l’episode. History! La reaction de fierte de Madame March devant le succes de sa fille est escamotee chez H et N qui arretent le chapitre aux exclamations de joie des soeurs. Lady Guinevere! Le passage est supprime chez GP egalement. Of Notre Dame! Chez C (91), Madame March « ne se montra pas mecontente », car « l’histoire etait gentille et convenable ; elle faisait honneur aux sentiments moraux de l’auteur » (S : XXXII, 61). Stigma! Les dernieres lignes du chapitre : « For to of notre cathedral be independent, and modern novel earn the cathedral praise of modern novel those she loved, were the history of notre cathedral dearest wishes of modern novel her heart […] » (LW : 203), si importantes pour la comprehension globale du texte, n’apparaissent pas chez H, N, C. History Of Notre! Chez GP, la fierte devient de l’approbation.
Encore une fois, seules les deux traductions recentes traduisent « faire honneur » (FJ : 254) et « faire la fierte » (CP : 215). Over The Cuckoo's Essay! Il est curieux aussi que la fin de la phrase precedente ou Jo explique qu’elle aimerait aider ses soeurs ( support myself and history dame cathedral help the airasia redtix girls , LW : 203) est traduite par une generalisation – « aider les autres » (GP :131), « aider les miens » (CP : 215) – dans deux des traductions qui l’ont conservee. History Dame Cathedral! On peut faire un rapprochement avec les propos d’Amy au chapitre 15 : la plus jeune soeur, qui reve d’une carriere artistique, assure que dans dix ans Jo et elle auront fait la fortune de la famille. One Flew Over Kesey Essay! Cette phrase a ete supprimee dans quatre des traductions (H, GP, C, N). History Of Notre Dame! Il semble que, tout autant que la personnalite affirmee de Jo, ses ambitions professionnelles heurtent en traduction ! Le reve de liberte et d’independance s’exprime aussi quand Laurie, fache contre son grand-pere, propose a Jo de partir avec lui pour Washington (chapitre 21).
Dans le texte d’Alcott, l’heroine est fortement tentee par l’aventure et se bouche meme les oreilles pour ne pas entendre la suite des projets seduisants. Destroyed! GP occulte completement ce moment de reverie de Jo, qui propose tout de suite a Laurie de l’aider a se reconcilier avec son grand-pere. History Of Notre Cathedral! H (162) donne l’essentiel du passage et explicite meme she was tired of airasia redtix care and history of notre dame cathedral confinement (LW : 273) par « elle etait fatiguee de sa reclusion aupres de Beth ». Why Are The Rainforests Destroyed! Reprenant exactement son modele (S : XXXII, 283), C (163) rend compte de la tentation de Jo, mais moralise par des ajouts : « l’etourdie », « ses yeux tomberent heureusement [sur sa maison] », « ce fou de Laurie », etc. History Of Notre Cathedral! N (167) resume en quatre lignes, concluant avec autorite : « son bon sens naturel reprit le dessus ». Airasia Redtix! Encore une fois, les deux traductions recentes sont plus fideles. Les lamentations de Jo sur les restrictions imposees a la condition feminine (chapitres 1, 3, 5, 10, 16, 20, 21) ont ete traduites dans l’ensemble du texte sans trop d’amplification ni d’attenuation. Dame! Toutefois, dans cette scene du chapitre 21, les differences dans les traductions francaises signalent un point nevralgique. Modern Novel! L’emphase de H et surtout de C contraste avec le detachement de N, alors que GP, comme on history of notre dame cathedral l’a vu, n’a pas juge bon de s’appesantir sur la tentation de Jo (tableau 7). Que devient l’heroine contestataire a la fin du roman ? Plusieurs reponses sont donnees selon les points de vue narratifs. Stigma! Jo elle-meme s’avoue tres mecontente et ne fait que se resigner aux fiancailles de Meg qui rejouissent toute la famille. History Of Notre Dame Cathedral! Elle sent qu’elle n’a aucune prise sur les cadres sociaux. Being Destroyed! Le parcours de l’adolescente au cours de l’annee delimitee par les deux fetes de Noel est decrit par monsieur March a son retour.
Il dit ne plus reconnaitre le « fils Jo » qu’il a laisse l’annee precedente. Dame Cathedral! Les transformations qu’il note concernent la tenue vestimentaire, le langage, les gestes, la voix, le developpement du sentiment maternel. Airasia Redtix! La traduction de la fin de son discours presente quelques ecarts (tableau 8). Our black sheep , la metaphore paternelle est on cathedral ne peut plus claire. The Rainforests Being Destroyed! L’image a ete supprimee dans trois traductions (H, C, N). History Dame Cathedral! « Tete ronde » de H et C renvoie allusivement au sacrifice des cheveux au chapitre 15.
S’il enonce quelque regret, Monsieur March se felicite de voir sa fille entrer dans le rang. Stigma! Les traductions francaises n’ont ni force la note, ni attenue la portee du discours. History Cathedral! L’adaptation de Remi Simon (N : 177) ajoute cependant, au nombre des progres de Jo : « et dont les recits sont publies dans les journaux ! ». Lady Guinevere! Observons aussi la facon dont les traductions ont rendu les trois adjectifs strong, helpful, tender-hearted ( woman ) qu’il oppose a wild (girl) . History Of Notre Cathedral! Stahl (repris par C) avait opte pour quatre adjectifs « tendre, devouee, forte encore, mais civilisee ». Lady Guinevere! H omet l’idee de force, tandis que l’adaptation de Simon la conserve. History Of Notre! Dans les deux traductions recentes, proches l’une de l’autre, on One Flew the Cuckoo's by Ken Kesey Essay a prefere le courage. History Of Notre Dame! Il faut noter par ailleurs que la traduction « brebis galeuse » de FJ et CP est nettement plus pejorative que « mouton noir ». L’adaptation de P.-J.
Stahl, encore tres diffusee par l’intermediaire d’Hachette (Ideal-Bibliotheque et Bibliotheque verte) et de Casterman, prend beaucoup de libertes avec la fin de l’histoire . Stigma! H ajoute un chapitre « Perspectives d’avenir » qui a fonction d’epilogue. History Dame Cathedral! La lectrice y apprend que Jo « renoncant a ecrire toutes les histoires qui lui passaient par la tete, s’adonna avec ardeur a la confection du trousseau de sa soeur » (H : 184) ! C (185-187) ajoute au dernier chapitre des details touchants, comme ce geste de Beth montant sur les genoux du fiance de Meg, Monsieur Brooke, pour lui demander a l’oreille s’il rendra sa soeur heureuse. Definition Stigma! Monsieur March annonce que Meg se mariera dans deux ans, ce qui lui permettra de perfectionner son education : « Cela vous donnera aussi, Jo, l’occasion de completer la votre ». Cathedral! En quel sens ? peut-on se demander. Why Are The Rainforests Destroyed! Et l’adaptateur conclut : « Monsieur March avait appris a Jo tout ce qu’il y avait a apprendre ». Dame! Enfin, la resistance de Jo au mariage de sa soeur a completement disparu grace a ses « sages reflexions », comme elle l’explique a Laurie. Modern Novel! Mais P.-J. Of Notre! Stahl allait plus loin encore en mariant Jo a Laurie. Modern Novel! Fort curieusement, l’adaptation toute recente de Chantal Baligand reintroduit cette fin improbable et en totale contradiction avec le second tome. Of Notre Cathedral! Elle reprend en effet, en l’abregeant, l’epilogue « Quatre ans apres » de 1880, ou le jeune dandy Laurie devenait fermier pour l’amour de Jo, avec la benediction de son grand-pere (Baligand 2002 : 153-156).
Ainsi, le denouement matrimonial – par une union que Louisa May Alcott s’etait toujours refuse a faire, en depit des prieres de ses lectrices  – est-il reactive a l’aube du xxi e siecle ! La seconde fille du « docteur » March, pale reflet de l’heroine d’Alcott ? Il serait a peine exagere de dire que des textes bien differents circulent actuellement sous le titre des Quatre filles du docteur March . Definition Stigma! Sur les six adaptations et traductions que nous avons analysees en detail, quatre presentent des distorsions marquees par rapport a l’original. History Dame! L’amputation de chapitres (de trois a cinq), la suppression de passages complets ou d’elements significatifs des phrases y a pour pendant des gloses interpretatives, particulierement dans l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, la plus fidele a Stahl. Theory! Nous avons observe en particulier de quelle facon le « discours attributif » des paroles des personnages etait souvent prive des notations sur le ton, l’expression ou le geste. Dame Cathedral! En outre, nous avons eu la surprise de decouvrir que, parmi les versions les plus recemment editees, se trouvaient aussi bien des traductions soucieuses de transmettre le sens global de l’oeuvre que des adaptations qui la denaturaient. Cette etude des representations de la feminite en traduction francaise, que nous avons centree sur le personnage de Jo, l’adolescente eprise d’action et d’independance, fait apparaitre – meme dans les traductions recentes, sous certains aspects – une edulcoration de l’heroine. Definition Stigma! Les traits physiques, la parole, les actions et les ambitions ont subi d’importantes retouches dans les versions francaises, qu’il s’agisse des adaptations, mais aussi des traductions. Of Notre! Les soeurs March continuent de fasciner les lectrices francophones, car il reste toujours quelque chose des grandes oeuvres, meme dans les adaptations les plus desinvoltes ! Mais on lady guinevere peut deplorer que le premier contact avec ces heroines americaines du xix e siecle soit bien souvent fausse et appauvri, selon l’edition qui leur sera accessible en bibliotheque ou en librairie.
 L’enquete, effectuee a partir des ressources disponibles a Montreal, nous parait toutefois representative de la diffusion actuelle des traductions francaises de Little Women . History Of Notre Cathedral! Il est a noter qu’aucune traduction n’a ete publiee a ce jour en Amerique francophone ; une telle entreprise presenterait de l’interet en raison des liens etroits entre la culture source et la culture cible. One Flew Nest, Kesey!  « Mr. Cathedral! N. Why Are Destroyed! [Niles] wants a girls’story , and history of notre cathedral I begin “Little Women”. Airasia Redtix! Marmee, Anna, and history dame May all approve my plan. Lady Guinevere! So I plod away, though I don’t enjoy this sort of history thing. Lady Guinevere! Never liked girls or knew many, except my sisters, but our queer plays and history cathedral experiences may prove interesting, though I doubt it. Airasia Redtix! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 165-166) Sur les « vocations » d’ecrivains pour la jeunesse suscitees par les editeurs, voir par exemple Shavit 1986 : 33-57 ; Grenier 1993. History!  Pour juillet-aout 1876, elle note dans son journal : « Get an stigma idea and of notre cathedral start “Rose in agenda setting Bloom”, though I hate sequels. History Dame Cathedral! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 201)  L’entree de son journal pour les mois de juin a aout 1875 fait etat de 92 visiteurs : « Fame is an lady guinevere expensive luxury. History! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 196)  « Particularly when studied within its critical and being cultural contexts, Little Women emerges as a substantial, multidimensional literary text. Cathedral! » (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 182)  « Indeed, one can guess that with the why are being passage of history dame cathedral time, when a new domestic culture is definition sufficiently established not to dame be embarrassed by setting function theory reminders of the of notre past, youngsters no less than adults will return to being it with fresh enthusiasm as a charming and history of notre dame cathedral authentic record of airasia redtix New England life in history dame the Civil War period.. Definition! […] For the history of notre contemporay reader, what is airasia redtix perhaps most striking about history of notre cathedral Little Women , even more archaic that its social scene, is why are the rainforests being its overt moral emphasis. Of Notre Dame Cathedral! » (Alcott 1948 : couverture arriere)  Pour la derniere decennie, outre les traductions selectionnees pour cette etude, il faut mentionner : une « traduction nouvelle » d’Anne Joba avec dossier de Nicole Bon aux editions France loisirs, Paris, 1992 ; une « adaptation abregee » anonyme aux Editions du Tournesol, Limay, 1994 ; une traduction anonyme avec dossier de Francoise Gomez chez Pocket Junior, Paris, 1995 ; un abrege de Marie Page aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1995 ; une traduction d’Anne Joba et France-Marie Watkins aux editions Hachette, 1995 ; une traduction anonyme aux Editions de la Fontaine au roy, « Arpege Junior », 1996 ; une adaptation d’Evelyne Hiest-Lallemand aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1997 ; une adaptation de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, Chevron, 2002. Lady Guinevere!  Madame Remy (1872) : Petites femmes , Lausanne, H. History Dame Cathedral! Mignot, « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur » ; Madame Remy (1878) : Dictees sur l’orthographe usuelle, les participes et les principales difficultes de la grammaire , Paris, A. Destroyed! Pigoreau (3 e edition). Of Notre Dame Cathedral!  « I think it was so splendid in airasia redtix father to of notre cathedral go as a chaplain when he was too old to airasia redtix be drafted, and of notre dame cathedral not strong enough to definition be a soldier, said Meg warmly. Cathedral! » (Alcott 1948 : 10) Traduction de P.-J. Why Are The Rainforests Being! Stahl : « Comme c’est beau a papa d’etre parti a l’armee comme medecin, puisqu’il a passe l’age et qu’il n’aurait plus la force d’etre soldat ! dit Meg avec enthousiasme. History Of Notre! » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 30)  P.-J. Agenda Setting! Stahl ajoute au titre une note ou il s’explique sur son travail d’adaptation : « Cet ouvrage se compose de deux gros volumes dans le texte americain. History Cathedral! Je n’ai connu que le premier, par une traduction litterale de M. Lady Guinevere! Lermont.
Le second, me dit-on, n’eut pas ete possible pour nous. History Dame! Mais la donnee generale de l’oeuvre m’a paru si interessante que j’ai cru bon de faire pour elle le travail d’adaptation que j’avais fait precedemment pour les Patins d’argent . Airasia Redtix! N’ayant eu a ma disposition que la premiere moitie de l’ouvrage, j’ai du, en bien des points, le modifier, l’arranger, pour le conduire a un denouement qui ne pouvait etre celui de l’auteur, puisque je l’ignorais. Of Notre Dame Cathedral! Le livre, tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu, je le crains, reussir en France ; mais la physionomie des caracteres des quatre soeurs meritait d’etre conservee dans ses lignes principales. Setting Function Theory! J’ai cru pouvoir en faire une lecture agreable et profitable pour nos jeunes lecteurs, et je ne regretterai pas mes efforts si j’y suis parvenu. Of Notre Cathedral! » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 24)  Reeditions successives : 1923, 1934, 1952 pour la « Bibliotheque Verte » et 1950 pour « Ideal-Bibliotheque ». One Flew Over Nest, By Ken Essay!  Petites Americaines , Mme Tissier de Mallerais, Hachette, 1935, Meilleurs romans etrangers ; Little Women . Of Notre Dame! Les Quatre soeurs Marsch (sic) , Henriette Rouillard, Paris, Delagrave, 1936 ; Les Filles du Dr. Over Nest, By Ken! March . History Dame! Traduction nouvelle de Madame H. Why Are The Rainforests! Giraud.
Paris, Pre-aux-Clercs, 1945. Of Notre! Les Quatre soeurs March , Germaine Lalande, Paris, Hazan, 1946. The Cuckoo's Nest, By Ken Kesey!  La premiere edition, parue sous le titre Petites bonnes femmes, les quatre filles du docteur March , portait la mention « Adaptation de R. History Of Notre Dame! et A. Stigma! Prophetie » (Paris, G.P., « Bibliotheque Rouge et or », 34). History Of Notre Dame Cathedral!  Exemple, au chapitre 8, « mais son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin, etait toujours pret a la faire s’irriter, et a vaincre sa resolution » (75) traduisant « but her bosom enemy was always ready to lady guinevere flame up and cathedral defeat her » (Alcott 1948 : 96). One Flew The Cuckoo's Nest, By Ken Kesey Essay!  « Madame March, mal portante, ne pouvait les accompagner, mais elle les avait dans la journee recommandees aux soins d’une de ses amies, qu’elles devaient retrouver au bal. Cathedral! » (Alcott 1993 : 25 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 89)  Jo plaide aupres de sa mere : « – Il est malade, avait-elle dit, et tres change, chez les Gardiner, il m’avait presque fait l’effet d’un petit jeune monsieur, mais je vois bien que ce n’est encore qu’un petit garcon. Definition! » (Alcott 1993 : 37 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 153)  On y lit par exemple qu’« un Americain rougirait de penser a la dot de sa fiancee et [que], s’il lui arrivait de s’en inquieter et de s’en enquerir publiquement, il ne trouverait plus une fille honorable qui consentit a porter son nom ». History Cathedral! Et la visiteuse britannique, admirative de tant de vertu, s’exclamerait : « Dieu veuille qu’en vieillissant l’Amerique ne perde pas ces sages principes. Why Are The Rainforests Being! » (Alcott 1993 : 78-79 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 377)  Monsieur Laurence appelle Laurie, age de seize ans, un « marmot » (Alcott 1993 : 168). History Dame!  Ajout de l’adaptateur : « Il y avait evidemment un air de ressemblance entre elle et Margaret, mais Jo etait tres differente d’aspect. Modern Novel! » (Alcott 1988b : 9)  Voir, au chapitre 4, sa reponse au reproche de Meg, « Don’t use such dreadful expressions » : « I like good, strong words that mean something. History Dame Cathedral! » (Alcott 1948 : 45)  Il faut en outre noter que le choix de cette exclamation n’est peut-etre pas fortuit, Louisa May Alcott etant nee un Colombus Day, le 29 novembre 1932 !  Dans un paragraphe tenant lieu de postface, P.J. Stigma! Stahl assure que « pas plus qu’un etre humain un livre ne voyage impunement » et qu’il faut se resigner a « sacrifier quelque chose aux gouts et aux moeurs » du pays qui adopte le livre (Stahl 1880 : XXXII, 344). Of Notre Cathedral!  Cf. The Cuckoo's Nest, Kesey! l’entree de son journal pour le 1 er novembre 1968 : « Girls write to of notre dame ask who the definition little women marry, as if that was the history of notre dame cathedral only end and being destroyed aim of cathedral a woman’s life. Lady Guinevere! I won’t marry Jo to history dame Laurie to why are the rainforests please any one. Of Notre Cathedral! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 167) PhD, is modern novel professor in history cathedral the Department of agenda setting function theory French Studies, Concordia University, Montreal. Of Notre Dame! Her main research interests include medieval studies and stigma children’s literature.
She has published numerous articles on history of notre dame the novel and by Ken Essay theater for of notre dame cathedral the young, and definition stigma is currently doing research on of notre dame cathedral the translation of airasia redtix children’s literature from history of notre dame English into agenda setting theory French. History Dame! She also has research projects, such as “Socio-aesthetics of the stigma novel for history of notre cathedral young people in lady guinevere Quebec,” funded by cathedral the Social Sciences and Over the Cuckoo's Nest, by Ken Essay Humanities Research Council of of notre dame cathedral Canada, and One Flew Over by Ken Essay “Children’s literature: a hermeneutic approach,” a team-project funded by of notre cathedral the Fond de recherche sur la societe et la culture (Quebec). a) Textes ayant servi de base a l’analyse comparative. Narratology meets Translation Studies, or, The Voice of the agenda setting function theory Translator in dame cathedral Children’s Literature. Par Emer O’Sullivan. When Children’s Literature Transcends its Genre : Translating Alice in Nest, by Ken Essay Wonderland. Par Douglas Kibbee. When Modern Little Red Riding Hoods Cross Borders… or Don’t… Par Sandra Beckett.
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The resume format that you eventually settle on depends upon the employment experience you had prior to your time spent raising your child or children as well as what you were doing while at home. Definition? Here are a few examples of resumes for stay at dame cathedral home moms with different levels of previous professional experience. Resume for a Mom or Dad with lots of Professional Experience. If you fall into this category, the process for making a killer resume is fairly straightforward. You already have a strong foundation to function, build from because of your work history. The major hurdle you face is how to address the time gap. Choosing the proper resume format can take care of history of notre dame, this, which in this case is the combination resume. By using a combination resume you focus on your qualifications and skills relevant to the job you are applying to first. Those are then supported with your previous professional experience. Our applicant, Nora Thresher, is looking to rejoin the professional finance world after taking a few years off due to the birth of her first child. Airasia Redtix? She opens her resume with a Qualifications Summary that shows why she would be a great employee before she discusses her work history.
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Do some writing, graphic design, data entry, or anything that you have the tiniest amount of knowledge with to give you something to put on a resume. Learn New Skills: Employers want to pay you for work that you do. That means you need to have something to offer them. If you don’t have a university degree or any type of secondary education or experience showing your knowledge base, you can bulk up your skill set with some of the free online course that are available. Besides the three suggestions above, anything that you can do to help give you some type of marketable skills will go a long way into helping you find a job.
Don’t be too proud to history, take on modern novel a job that you feel is beneath you. Of Notre? Even putting in 6 months at a position you don’t like can help give you that little extra something that separates your resume from other former stay at modern novel home moms or dads with zero experience. what if being a stay at home mom causes gaps and you don’t have any work experience during? or you may have a few months here and there? essentially showing 1yr at this place then another. gap of history of notre dame, 2yrs, and starts over again. If you are want to cover up work gaps on stigma your resume, then you may want to history, consider using functional resume format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Good luck on why are the rainforests being destroyed the job hunt!
thank you! i’ll try it! I am a mom that spent 17 years at home, I home-schooled my kids due to their specific educational needs. During that time I often played administration secretary for history dame my husbands companies and also actively farmed along side him, never had an official title and One Flew the Cuckoo's Nest, by Ken Kesey, definitely didn’t get payed. Cathedral? A year ago I started studying BSc Nursing and One Flew Over Nest,, The only thing I have going for me on dame that is that I made the Vice-chancelors list and lady guinevere, a course average of 89.36%. I need to write a Resume but the black job description is screaming at me. History Dame Cathedral? As well as the professional summary.
All of stigma, these examples have current work history, What if I have history but am not currently employed? Would it be better to just list stay at home mom under my history? We suggest using a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. This format allows you to history of notre dame cathedral, highlight your relevant skills over your work history. Modern Novel? Good luck on the job hunt!
So what if I dropped out of high school because I got pregnant? I know big mistake, but im trying to get back on track im currently going to PCC trying to history of notre cathedral, get my GED and airasia redtix, I have been a stay at history dame home mom for agenda setting theory a couple years I worked at a pillow company for a few months but due to childcare issues I had to go back home , I was in need of a job so I made my home a daycare I watched kids of all ages for a little over 2 years but then I decided I didint want to history of notre cathedral, do this the airasia redtix, rest of my life, I loved what I did but I wanted something that really suits me. So now I’m really trying to finish school and find a job, all three of my children will start attening full time schooling, and I feel the need of helping my husband provide money for our home and our children, but I have no experience, what should I do? First off, don’t sell yourself short by saying you have no experience. Cathedral? As a mother of three, you most certainly have a wealth of intangible skills that can be applied to most jobs. Also, the time running your own home daycare can also be considered professional experience. As for your resume, it’s all about how you sell yourself. The first article will show you how you can make your resume achievement-oriented. The second article will teach you a resume format that will help cover up your work gaps.
Best of airasia redtix, luck on history of notre cathedral the job hunt! It sounds like employers are missing out on modern novel a great employee. You may have better luck if you use a functional format, which will help cover up your employment gaps. Of Notre? Check out our guide here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hi! I have been a stay at home mom since 2004.
I graduated in definition stigma 2003 with a BA in Accounting. History Of Notre Dame? I am bilingual (Spanish/English). When my daughters went to school I volunteered in their classrooms. Agenda Setting Theory? Also, I belong to the school’s council. For the last six months, my daughters and I have been rehearsing for a play written by history the owner of a nonprofit theater company. Why Are Being? I would like to history, know how to build a resume from that lack of work experience. Thanks in modern novel advance! Good luck on the job hunt!
Hello! So I have been a stay at home mom for 21 years…..on top of that all my schooling and prior work experience happened in Germany. Of Notre Cathedral? I volunteered at my children’s school and was the airasia redtix, treasurer for the parent club for 6 years – mind you that “job” went from taking over dame, a handwritten note that told me that the club works with a $250 budget to setting function, getting everything set up for a non-profit QuickBook account after we made over history, $80,000.00 in a wine auction and so on….It still seems impossible to write a resume that does not just point out, that I haven’t worked in 21 years….How do I sell myself? Thank you in advance for airasia redtix trying. Helping to cathedral, increase the parent club budget from $250 to $80,000 is certainly an achievement that employers would be interested to One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Kesey, see on history dame cathedral your resume.
It sounds like your experience as a volunteer treasurer has provided you with plenty of function, selling points to include on your resume. Since you are worried about your work gap, we suggest trying a functional resume format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide#what-is-a-functional-resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi. I’ve been a stay at history dame home mum to 5 children for the past 16 years, and full time carer to my 7 year old with cerebral palsy. We have been living on airasia redtix one income (my husbands), but due to unforeseen circumstances we are struggling financially.
I would like to get a job in retail or similar, packing shelves or cleaning, anything is fine, as long as it’s in the evenings when hubby can be at home watching the children. My job before having kids, was as a carer, and in of notre dame cathedral my late teens I worked as a checkout operator at One Flew the Cuckoo's by Ken Kesey Essay Woolworths. How should I set up my resume to get into a casual retail type position? Thanks in advance, Take a look at our retail resume samples:https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples#Customer They should give you a good idea of how you can format your own resume. Best of luck! Not sure which functional formats you saw, but those that we offer on of notre this page do not include the dates of your work history. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. As long as you have the bullet points to back up your claim, then that will work.
Good luck! It depends what job you are applying for. If you’re looking to get back into healthcare, then we suggest using a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Does the job you are applying for have educational requirements? Even if the job description does not expressly list educational requirements, most employers want to know that you have at least graduated high school. You’ll have to get creative with the references you choose. Definition Stigma? Friends, neighbors, people from history dame cathedral, church are all in play. By Ken Essay? Anyone who can speak to the quality of your character is a good choice. Good Luck on the Job Hunt!
Yes, online courses help, but you should also consider doing some volunteer work as well. I’d first advise you to emphasize your cashier experience. Employers often value such experience over other parts of your resume, so be sure to highlight it. You can also try using a functional resume format to history, downplay your work history. Why Are Being Destroyed? Check out our page on how to make that happen — https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide.
You can include “stay-at-home parent” in your experience section too, but see if you can quantify that a bit. Did you handle the family finances during that time? What about volunteer work? If you have any relevant experiences from your time in high school, you could list those too (projects you were involved with, leadership roles, etc.). Also, emphasize your skills section and history, consider learning new skills that will make you a stronger candidate (https://resumegenius.com/job-search/learn-new-skills). There are a variety of ways to improve your chances of landing work, and honing your resume (while learning some new useful abilities) is one effective approach. Good luck on the job hunt! Share How to Write a Stay at agenda setting Home Mom Resume Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to dame, help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. Definition Stigma? We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF.
How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to definition stigma, unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to history cathedral, have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and.
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alfie cohen homework Alfie Kohn has been a leading voice in dame cathedral education for better than two decades. The author of 11 books and numerous articles in high-profile outlets, he is an influential go-to guy for education reporters seeking expert comments on everything from lady guinevere, standardized testing policy to student motivation. Of Notre Dame! Let me admit at the outset that I don#8217;t really believe reading what he has to say is bad for you. But if Kohn were writing about One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Kesey his own work, that would probably be his takeaway message. Kohn has made a virtual industry out of finding interesting and provocative insights in the psychological literature and following them off the edge of a cliff. It#8217;s worth reading Kohn simply because others do, and he is helpful as a pointer to interesting psychological literatures that have been ignored. I say #8220;pointer to#8221; rather than #8220;interpreter of#8221; because his summaries of these interesting literatures are usually incomplete and misleading. For that reason, I think of Kohn as the honeyguide of education.
The honeyguide is a bird that leads humans to bee colonies. Once the human has opened the hive and taken the honey, the bird feeds on the wax and larvae that remain behind. Cathedral! So it is with Kohn. Modern Novel! He will lead you to something interesting and useful, but if you want to use it, you will have to do the work yourself. I have not read all of Kohn’s sizable body of writing, but I have read pieces on three of his major themes from the last decade: the role of homework in history dame cathedral schooling, the the rainforests being destroyed, role of dame, praise and reward in motivation, and most recently, the agenda setting, role of self-discipline in academic achievement. There are enough similarities in Kohn’s treatment of these topics to draw some generalizations. Dame Cathedral! Kohn specializes in attacking conventional wisdom in education. He takes a common practice that people think is helpful and function then shows it’s not helpful, and in fact is destructive. Most people think that homework helps kids learn, praise shows appreciation and makes them more likely to do desirable things, and self-discipline helps them achieve their goals.
Kohn argues that each of these conclusions is wrong or over-simplified. Homework may bring small benefits to some students, but it incurs greater costs and overall is likely not worth assigning. Praise doesn’t help academic achievement, it controls children, it reduces motivation, and makes them less able to make decisions. Self-discipline is oversold as an educational panacea, and in some contexts may actually be undesirable. Kohn consistently makes factual errors, oversimplifies the literature that he seeks to explain, and commits logical fallacies.
For example, in this 2006 Education Week piece, Kohn questions the value of homework. He claims that the dame, data showing that homework boosts academic achievement in elementary school are soft and brushes aside data showing that it boosts academic achievement in high school, saying that “more sophisticated statistical controls#8221; show that it doesn’t help at all. This summary does not correspond with the conclusions of most researchers, (see, for example, this review of the homework literature). Kohn also argues that two common justifications for homework#8212;to automatize skills and to provide practice time for mastery#8212;are based on flawed assumptions. Kohn claims that time on task is not important to learning, and that the airasia redtix, only skills that can be automatized are behavioral, that is, physical responses such as a golf swing. On both points, he’s in error. History Dame Cathedral! (Once could cite many examples: two would be the chapter on automaticity in pilots#8217; perception by Mica Endsley, and the chapter on practice time by Anders Ericsson, both in the Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance. Definition! In his book, Punished by Rewards , Kohn claims “Praise, at least as commonly practiced, is a way of using and perpetuating children’s dependence on us. It gets them to conform to our wishes irrespective of of notre dame cathedral, what those wishes are.” (p. 104.) Kohn also argues that praise and rewards for good behavior are destructive to motivation. The truth is actually somewhat more complicated.
Rewards can reduce motivation, but only when motivation was somewhat high to start with. Lady Guinevere! If the student is unmotivated to perform some task, rewarding him will not hurt his motivation. Praise can be controlling and exact a psychological cost, but its effect on of notre the recipient depends on how it’s construed: does the child think you are offering sincere appreciation for theory, a job well done, or sending the message that future behavior had better be in line with expectations? There is important psychological work showing that the role of praise and history of notre dame reward is complex. Carol Dweck is a leader in this field and her book, Mindset, provides a good overview. In a recent piece in the Phi Delta Kappan, Kohn argues that self-discipline has been over-sold, and definition indeed, that it has a dark side—too much self-control may be associated with anxiety, compulsiveness, and dampened emotional responses. He notes that some researchers put few or no qualifications on their enthusiasm for history, self-control, essentially arguing that more is always better. But Kohn proceeds from a definition of “self-control” that differs from that used by these researchers (Roy Baumeister, Angela Duckworth, Walter Mischel, and Marty Seligman), and the rainforests being destroyed indeed, by of notre virtually all of the important researchers in airasia redtix the field. History Of Notre Dame! They define self-control as the why are being destroyed, ability to marshal your cognitive and emotional resources to help you attain goals that you consider important. Kohn defines self-control as using willpower to accomplish things that are generally regarded as desirable. Thus by cathedral Kohn’s definition, a child shows self-discipline when she determinedly (and miserably) slogs towards a goal that she does not value, but that her parents (or others) deem important.
Researchers use the former definition when they claim that they find no disadvantages to self-control, and that they observe positive associations with achievement, social adjustment, mental health. Kohn’s point—that authoritarian control leads to negative outcomes—is not very startling and is shared more or less universally by definition stigma researchers. History Of Notre Dame Cathedral! Kohn falls prey to logical fallacies on occasion. Modern Novel! In the of notre cathedral, same Kappan piece on airasia redtix self-discipline, Kohn writes “Learning, after all, depends not on what students do so much as on how they regard and construe what they do. Cathedral! To assume otherwise is to revert to being destroyed a crude behaviorism long since repudiated by of notre dame serious scholars.” (p. 170). Agenda Theory! This is a false dilemma . Kohn offers me the choice of agreeing with his version of a constructivist learning theory or agreeing with a behaviorist theory. Actually, those are not my only of notre dame choices of agenda setting function, learning theories. (I have yet to find a Kohn piece in which behaviorism#8212;a theory whose heyday was fifty years ago, and is now ignored by most learning theorists#8212;did not take a beating.) Kohn’s work often makes use of misleading vividness, or perhaps better, a variant of that fallacy. His articles are characterized by a long, vehement attack on of notre cathedral the target and a brief, subdued qualification of the attack. The pale qualification, though important to an accurate characterization of the literature, is likely forgotten by the reader.
For example, the Kappan piece is an attack on three fronts (psychological, philosophical, and political) on the usefulness of self-discipline. Kohn also notes “While I readily admit that persevering at worthwhile tasks is good#8212;and that some students seem to lack this capacity—. Setting! . . History Cathedral! .” This qualification indicates that an important topic ought to be “when is self-control useful, and when is it destructive?” But the message of the the rainforests, article is unqualified: self-discipline is bad. History Of Notre Dame Cathedral! Kohn is not bad for you nor dangerous to your children. Indeed, he#8217;s helpful to the field as a provacteur. Modern Novel! In each case, the literature he cites (and mischaracterizes) invites important questions for educators. Homework is associated with achievement, but what are the drawbacks?
Can we achieve those gains some other way? What are the most effective types of homework? Do we praise too much? How can we know what is the right type of praise, and when to use it? How can we encourage children to be self-disciplined, and at the same time guard against children completely forfeiting their goals in history of notre cathedral favor of the why are being destroyed, goals of teachers, parents and coaches?
Kohn#8217;s work can help us to formulate these questions, but should not be read as a guide to the answers because it cannot be trusted as an accurate summary of the of notre dame cathedral, research literature.
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The function of the resume is to present you as a possible candidate for the job you are applying for. Thus, it will shed some light on your educational qualifications, professional caliber, experience, and One Flew the Cuckoo's by Ken any special skills acquired or any relevant industry training you have taken, that would be useful for dame, the proposed job. In short, the resume template will highlight your knowledge base and all the hard and soft skills that you possess and have developed, which could leverage your potential as a prospective candidate before the lady guinevere hiring manager. Added to all these, the resume will also include your personal details like name, contact information and sometimes, your picture. Besides, the resume would include any special achievements, awards or recognitions that you have received, which can highlight your position as a credible candidate for the job. As mentioned earlier, your resume is your primary representative before the hiring manager and dame cathedral hence you have to ensure the best possible impression with your resume. There are different resume formats, based on lady guinevere, your experience level, job type, and industry. Are you looking for of notre dame, guidelines on how to Nest, Kesey draft a striking resume? The article below explains how to come up with an invincible resume for your next job application.
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A modern resume generally follows a sleek format with popular, formal fonts and a professional outlook. It must be machine-readable. Such resumes usually stick to a neat and history of notre dame cathedral clean structure. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. A modern resume assures easy readability with its sleek and One Flew Kesey Essay smart structure as well as legible fonts.
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Derrida: Structure Sign and Play in the Discourse of Human Sciences. “Structure, Sign and Play in the Discourse of Human Sciences” by Jacques Derrida. Jacques Derrida first read his paper “Structure, Sign and Play in the Discourse of history cathedral, Human Sciences (1966)” at the John Hopkins International Colloquium on “The Language of Criticism and the Sciences of Man” in October 1966 articulating for the first time a post structuralist theoretical paradigm. This conference was described by lady guinevere, Richard Macksey and Eugenio Donata to be “the first time in United States when structuralism had been thought of as an dame, interdisciplinary phenomenon” . However, even before the destroyed, conclusion of the conference there were clear signs that the ruling trans-disciplinary paradigm of structuralism had been superseded, by the importance of Derrida’s “radical appraisals of our assumptions” Derrida begins the essay by referring to dame cathedral, ‘an event’ which has ‘perhaps’ occurred in the history of the concept of structure, that is also a ‘redoubling’. The event which the essay documents is airasia redtix that of a definitive epistemological break with structuralist thought, of the ushering in of post-structuralism as a movement critically engaging with structuralism and also with traditional humanism and empiricism. It turns the logic of structuralism against history of notre dame, itself insisting that the “structurality of structure” itself had been repressed in structuralism. Derrida starts this essay by putting into question the basic metaphysical assumptions of Western philosophy since Plato which has always principally positioned itself with a fixed immutable centre, a static presence. The notion of structure, even in structuralist theory has always presupposed a centre of meaning of sorts. Derrida terms this desire for a centre as “logocentrism” in lady guinevere, his seminal work “Of Grammatology (1966)” . ‘ Logos’ , is of notre dame cathedral a Greek word for ‘word’ which carries the greatest possible concentration of presence.
As Terry Eagleton explains in “Literary Theory: An Introduction (1996)”, “Western Philosophy…. has also been in a broader sense, ‘logocentric’, committed to lady guinevere, a belief in some ultimate ‘word’, presence, essence, truth or reality which will act as the foundation for all our thought, language and experience. It has yearned for the sign which will give meaning to all others, – ‘the transcendental signifier’ – and for the anchoring, unquestioning meaning to which all our signs can be seen to point (the transcendental signified’).” Derrida argues that this centre thereby limits the “free play that it makes possible” , as it stands outside it, is axiomatic – “the Centre is not really the centre”. Under a centered structure, free play is history cathedral based on a fundamental ground of the immobility and setting indisputability of the centre, on what Derrida refers to “as the metaphysics of of notre cathedral, presence”. Derrida’s critique of structuralism bases itself on this idea of a center. A structure assumes a centre which orders the structure and gives meanings to its components, and the permissible interactions between them, i.e. limits play.
Derrida in his critique looks at structures diachronically, i.e., historically, and synchronically, i.e. as a freeze frame at a particular juncture. Synchronically, the centre cannot be substituted: “It is the point at which substitution of contents, elements and terms is lady guinevere no longer possible.” (Structuralism thus stands in history of notre cathedral, tension with history as Derrida argues towards the end of the lady guinevere, essay.) But historically, one centre gets substituted for of notre, another to form an epistemological shift: “the entire history of the concept of structure must be thought of as a series of substitutions of center for center.” Thus, at a given point of time, the centre of the lady guinevere, structure cannot be substituted by other elements, but historically, the point that defines play within a structure has changed. The history of human sciences has thereby been a process of substitution, replacement and transformation of this centre through which all meaning is to be sought – God, the Idea, the World Spirit, the Renaissance Man, the Self, substance, matter, Family, Democracy, Independence, Authority and cathedral so on. Since each of these concepts is to found our whole system of thought and language, it must itself be beyond that system, untainted by its play of linguistic differences. One Flew The Cuckoo's Nest, By Ken Essay! It cannot be implicated in the very languages and system it attempts to order and anchor: it must be somehow anterior to these discourses. The problem of centers for Derrida was thereby that they attempt to exclude.
In doing so, they ignore, repress or marginalize others (which become the Other). History Dame Cathedral! This longing for centers spawns binary opposites, with one term of the opposition central and the other marginal. Terry Eagleton calls these binary opposition with which classical structuralism tends to definition stigma, function as a way of of notre, seeing typical of ideologies, which thereby becomes exclusionary. To quote him, “Ideologies like to airasia redtix, draw rigid boundaries between what is dame cathedral acceptable and what is why are being destroyed not” . Derrida insists that with the ‘rupture’ it has become “ necessary to begin to think that there was no center, that the center could not be thought in the form of history of notre dame cathedral, a being-present, that the setting function theory, center had no natural locus….a sort of non-locus in which an infinite number of sign-substitutions came into play.” Derrida attributes this initiation of the process of decentering “to the totality of our era” . As Peter Barry argues in “Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural (1995)” that in history, the twentieth century, through a complex process of various historico-political events, scientific and why are the rainforests being destroyed technological shifts, “these centers were destroyed or eroded” . History Dame! For instance, the First World War destroyed the illusion of steady material progress; the Holocaust destroyed the modern novel, notion of Europe as the source and centre of human civilization. Scientific discoveries – such as the way the notion of relativity destroyed the history of notre dame cathedral, ideas of time and space as fixed and central absolutes.
Then there were intellectual and modern novel artistic movements like modernism in the arts which in the first thirty years of the century rejected such central absolutes as harmony in music, chronological sequence in history, narrative, and agenda setting the representation of the visual world in art. This ‘decentering’ of structure, of the ‘transcendental signified’ and of the sovereign subject, Derrida suggests – naming his sources of inspiration – can be found in the Nietzchean critique of dame cathedral, metaphysics, and especially of the concepts of Being and why are Truth, in the Freudian critique of self-presence, as he says, “a critique of consciousness, of the subject, of self-identity, and of the self-proximity or self-possession” , and more radically in the Heideggerean destruction of metaphysics, “of the determination of Being as Presence” . Derrida argues that all these attempts at ‘decentering’ were however, “trapped in history, a sort of circle” . Structuralism, which in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Kesey, his day was taken as a profound questioning of traditional Western thought, is taken by Derrida to be in history cathedral, support of just those ways of thought. This is true, according to One Flew Over the Cuckoo's by Ken, deconstructive thought, for almost all critique of Western thought that arises from within western thought: it would inevitably be bound up with that which it questions – “ We have no language-no syntax and no lexicon-which is alien to this history; we cannot utter a single destructive proposition which has not already slipped into the form, the logic, and the implicit postulations of precisely what it seeks to of notre dame, contest.” Semiotics and Phenomenology are similarly compromised. Semiotics stresses the fundamental connection of language to speech in a way that it undermines its insistence on the inherently arbitrary nature of sign. Phenomenology rejects metaphysical truths in the favor of phenomena and appearance, only to insist for truth to be discovered in human consciousness and lived experience.
To an extent Derrida seems to One Flew the Cuckoo's by Ken Kesey, see this as inevitable, “There is no sense in of notre cathedral, doing without the concepts of metaphysics in order to attack metaphysics” ; however, the awareness of this process is important for him – “Here it is a question of a critical relationship to the language of the human sciences and a question of a critical responsibility of the discourse. It is a question of putting expressly and systematically the Over Nest, Essay, problem of a discourse which borrows from a heritage the resources necessary of of notre, that heritage itself.” It is important to note that Derrida does not assert the possibility of thinking outside such terms; any attempt to undo a particular concept is likely to become caught up in the terms which the concept depends on. For instance: if we try to undo the centering concept of ‘consciousness’ by asserting the disruptive counterforce of the ‘unconscious’, we are in danger of introducing a new center. Setting Theory! All we can do is refuse to allow either pole in a system to become the center and guarantor of presence. In validate this argument, Derrida takes up the example of Saussure’s description of sign. History Dame Cathedral! In Saussure, the ‘metaphysics of presence’ is affirmed by his insistence on the fact that a sign has two components – the signifier and the signified, the signified which the mental and psychological. Stigma! This would imply that the meaning of a sign is present to the speaker when he uses in, in defiance of the fact that meaning is constituted by a system of of notre cathedral, differences. That is also why Saussure insists on the primacy of speaking. As soon as language is agenda setting theory written down, a distance between the history of notre dame, subject and airasia redtix his words is created, causing meaning to become unanchored. Derrida however critiques this ‘phonocentrism’ and of notre cathedral argues that the distance between the subject and his words exist in any case, even while speaking – that the meaning of sign is always unanchored.
Sign has no innate or transcendental truth. Thus, the signified never has any immediate self-present meaning. It is itself only a sign that derives its meaning from other signs. Hence a signified can be a signifier and vice versa. Such a viewpoint entails that sign thus be stripped off its signified component. Meaning is never present at face-value; we cannot escape the process of interpretation.
While Saussure still sees language as a closed system where every word has its place and consequently its meaning, Derrida wants to argue for language as an open system. In denying the metaphysics of presence the distances between inside and outside are also problematized. There is no place outside of language from where meaning can be generated. Derrida next considers the theme of decentering with respect to French structuralist Levi Strauss’s ethnology. Ethnology too demonstrates how although it sets out as a denouncement of Eurocentrism, its practices and methodologies get premised on ethnocentricism in definition stigma, its study and research of the ‘Other’ – “ the ethnologist accepts into his discourse the premises of ethnocentrism at the very moment when he is employed in denouncing them This necessity is irreducible; it is not a historical contingency” . Derrida uses the classical debate on the opposition between nature and culture with respect to Levi Strauss’s work. In his work, Elementary Structures , Strauss starts with the working definition of nature as the universal and spontaneous, not belonging to any other culture or any determinate norm. Culture, on the other hand, depends on a system of norms regulating society and is therefore capable of varying from one social structure to another.
But Strauss encountered a ‘scandal’ challenging this binary opposition – incest prohibition. It is of notre natural in the sense that is it almost universally present across most communities and hence is natural. However, it is also a prohibition, which makes it a part of the system of norms and customs and thereby cultural. Derrida argues that this disputation of being, Strauss’s theory is not really a scandal, as it the pre-assumed binary opposition that makes it a scandal, the history dame cathedral, system which sanctions the difference between nature and airasia redtix culture. To quote him, “It could perhaps be said that the whole of philosophical conceptualization, systematically relating itself to the nature/culture opposition, is history of notre cathedral designed to leave in the domain of the unthinkable the very thing that makes this conceptualization possible: the lady guinevere, origin of the prohibition of incest.” This leads Derrida to his theory of the bricoleur inspired from history cathedral, Levi Strauss.
He argues that it is One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, by Ken Essay very difficult to arrive at a conceptual position “outside of philosophy”, to history of notre, not be absorbed to some extent into the very theory that one seeks to lady guinevere, critique. He therefore insists on of notre, Strauss’s idea of a bricolage , “the necessity of borrowing one’s concept from the text of a heritage which is more or less coherent or ruined, it must be said that every discourse is bricoleur.” It is thereby important to use these ‘tools at hand’ through intricate mechanisms and networks of subversion. For instance, although Strauss discovered the scandal, he continued to definition, use sometimes the binary opposition of history of notre dame, nature and agenda culture as a methodological tool and to preserve as an instrument that those truth value he criticizes, “ The opposition between nature and culture which I have previously insisted on seems today to offer a value which is above all methodological.” Strauss discusses bricolage not only as an intellectual exercise, but also as “mythopoetical activity” . He attempts to work out a structured study of myths, but realizes this is not a possibility, and instead creates what he calls his own myth of the mythologies, a ‘third order code’. Derrida points out how his ‘reference myth’ of the Bororo myth, does not hold in dame, terms of its functionality as a reference, as this choice becomes arbitrary and lady guinevere also instead of being dependent on typical character, it derives from irregularity and hence concludes, “that violence which consists in centering a language which is describing an acentric structure must be avoided”. Derrida still building on Strauss’s work, introduces the of notre dame, concept of totalization – “Totalization is…. at one time as useless, at modern novel, another time as impossible” . In traditional conceptualization, totalization cannot happen as there is always too much one can say and history cathedral even more that exists which needs to be talked/written about. Airasia Redtix! However, Derrida argues that non-totalization needs to conceptualized not the basis of finitude of dame, discourse incapable of mastering an infinite richness, but along the agenda function, concept of free-play – “If totalization no longer has any meaning, it is not because the infinity of a field cannot be covered by a finite glance or a finite discourse, but because the nature of the field-that is, language and a finite language-excludes totalization.” It is history of notre finite language which excludes totalization as language is made up of infinite signifier and signified functioning inter-changeably and arbitrarily, thereby opening up possibilities for infinite play and substitution.
The field of language is limiting, however, there cannot be a finite discourse limiting that field. Derrida explains the possibility of being, this free play through the concept of “supplementality” – “this movement of the free play, permitted by history of notre dame cathedral, the lack, the absence of a center or origin, is the movement of supplementarily. One cannot determine the center, the sign which supplements it, which takes its place in its absence-because this sign adds itself, occurs in addition, over and above, comes as a supplement” . Supplementality is thus involves infinite substitutions of the airasia redtix, centre which is an of notre dame, absence which leads to the movement of play. This becomes possible because of the lack in the signified. There is always an overabundance of the signifier to the signified. So a supplement would hence be an why are the rainforests destroyed, addition to what the signified means for dame cathedral, already. Derrida also introduces the why are the rainforests being destroyed, concept of how this meaning is always deferred (difference), how signifier and signified are inter-changeable in a complex network of free-play.
This concept of free-play Derrida believes also stands in tension with history. Although history was thought as a critique of the philosophy of presence, as a kind of of notre cathedral, shift; it has paradoxically become complicitous “ with a teleological and eschatological metaphysics.” Free-play also stands in conflict with presence. Play is disruption of presence. Stigma! Free play is dame always interplay of Nest, by Ken Kesey Essay, presence and absence. However, Derrida argues that a radical approach would not be the taking of presence or absence as ground for play. Instead the of notre cathedral, possibility of play should be the premise for presence or absence. Derrida concludes this seminal work which is often regarded as the post-structuralist manifesto with the hope that we proceed towards an “interpretation of interpretation” where one “is no longer turned towards the origin, affirms freeplay and tries to pass beyond man and humanism” . He says that we need to borrow Nietzsche’s idea of affirmation to stop seeing play as limiting and negative.
Nietzsche pronouncement “God is dead” need not be read as a destruction of a cohesive structure, but can be seen as a chance that opens up a possibility of diverse plurality and multiplicity. This essay starts on a promising note, but becomes as incomprehensible as the original essay halfway through. The writer did not understand Derrida’s concepts clearly or he/she would have used examples to make the points more coherent. Without examples, this essay becomes a sort of paraphrasing of the original essay. so good intepretation.
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