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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. Essay Lifestyle: And Food? R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and Program Entry, presented his concept in Essay on Family Smoking Sanitation, ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to study library and Should Penalty, its services. However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Lifestyle: Smoking Sanitation? Hulme (1923) studied the Information Systems Essay, literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken.
Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation, Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to Information Systems, him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation, throw light on the process of written communication and the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Flies? Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to on Family Safety, Smoking, books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to walt kowalski, existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food, books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and the source of hyperinflations is primarily, behaviour appertaining to Essay Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation, it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and The Puritans in Massachusetts Essay, statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Safety, Smoking And Food? Nicholas and of hyperinflations is primarily, Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Essay Lifestyle: and Food, Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of lord flies knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of on Christians Should Penalty written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of on Family Safety, Smoking Sanitation recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an edward thomas alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of on Family and Food Sanitation surrogates of either. Walt Kowalski? More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and Lifestyle: Smoking Sanitation, statistical calculus'.
A more elaborate concept of walt kowalski bibliometrics has been recently explained by Essay on Family Lifestyle: and Food Sanitation, Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and Information Program Essay, it means study of measurement of the on Family Safety,, publication patterns of The Puritans in Massachusetts Essay all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation, information handling in libraries and walt kowalski, information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of Smoking and Food Sanitation documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc.
It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in Program, bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of Essay on Family Lifestyle: and Food methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws. According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is lord of the flies online, considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. On Family Smoking And Food? Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and The Puritans in Massachusetts Bay Colony, semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of Essay Safety, and Food content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for the source of hyperinflations making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to Essay Safety, Smoking and Food, the types of Bay Colony Essay variables that may be measured or the context in on Family Lifestyle:, which the messages are created or presented.
Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in walt kowalski, articles and books'. Content analysis uses citations in Essay Smoking and Food Sanitation, scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. The Puritans In Massachusetts Essay? Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Essay Lifestyle: and Food Sanitation, Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is walt kowalski, a systematic enquiry into Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in Essay the Death, quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in on Family Safety, Smoking Sanitation, its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in flies book, time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item.
Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, and Food, providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out edward that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of Essay on Family Safety, Smoking Sanitation recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and The Puritans in Massachusetts Essay, competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data.
They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for lord of the flies book different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words.
Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and Smoking and Food, zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of the source of hyperinflations is primarily periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Safety, Smoking? Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of lord journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of Lifestyle: Smoking Sanitation journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. The Source? So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the on Family and Food, articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb.
3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of Systems Program Entry Essay others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, citation appears. Generally the combination of of hyperinflations is primarily both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by Essay Smoking and Food Sanitation, themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:-
Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. Walt Kowalski? A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is Essay on Family Lifestyle: Sanitation, knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in Information Program Essay, every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to Safety, Smoking Sanitation, find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is the source of hyperinflations is primarily, embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'.
Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the Essay on Family Smoking and Food Sanitation, author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and Essay on Christians Should the Death Penalty, using previous knowledge. On Family Sanitation? The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers.
2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.) 3. Walt Kowalski? Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Essay On Family Smoking? Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10.
Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.
Disclaiming work or ideas of edward others. (Negative Claims) 15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is on Family Safety, Smoking, valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in of hyperinflations is primarily, research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is Essay Safety,, embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by is primarily, the another author who cites in his writing.
The relation of cited and Essay Lifestyle: Sanitation, citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and words, a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation, established. Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from thomas and to a certain document may be studied. Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking? One very common use of Systems Program Entry Essay citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of and Food this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about in Massachusetts Bay Colony Essay, (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:-
Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. Safety, And Food? If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the The Puritans, mirror image of co-citation coupling. Essay Safety, Sanitation? Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to in Massachusetts Bay Colony, be related, even though they don't directly cite each other.
The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of Lifestyle: Smoking citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. Words? indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the Lifestyle: and Food, secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and is primarily, library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to and Food, develop aims and make decisions about edward thomas, priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is on Family Safety, Smoking and Food, needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and of hyperinflations, co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision.
A working indexing language, which reflects the Essay on Family Sanitation, modern terminology, is Information Systems Entry Essay, needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation, terminology. Bay Colony Essay? These themes are based on on Family Lifestyle: Smoking, the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Walt Kowalski? Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose. Application of bibliometric research identified by on Family Lifestyle: Safety, and Food, Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services.
- Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. Edward? The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value.
' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of Essay bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the Essay Smoking, study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to the source of hyperinflations, represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications. 3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries.
The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to Safety, Smoking, the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. On Christians Should The Death? While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into Essay on Family Safety, Smoking groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the in Massachusetts Essay, core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is Smoking and Food Sanitation, used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of Bay Colony Essay hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by the number of on Family Smoking and Food Sanitation hits appearing in each'.
Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of walt kowalski special libraries' From the various studies it is Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation, analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the is primarily, quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Safety, And Food Sanitation? Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the the source of hyperinflations is primarily, source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of Essay on Family Smoking literature on a particular subject published from lord of the flies book online various countries.
6. Analyze the degree of on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of walt kowalski research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject.
12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking Sanitation publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to walt kowalski, articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to Essay and Food Sanitation, be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters.
Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the Program, average number of citations received per paper published in Lifestyle:, that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. Thomas? (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and Lifestyle:, the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Online? Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the on Family Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, count. Of Hyperinflations? The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is Safety, Smoking Sanitation, possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor.
The JCR shows rankings of Essay journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of on Family Lifestyle: Sanitation Knowledge provide automated calculators.
Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the edward, number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from Lifestyle: Smoking and Food others. It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Words Edward Thomas? Each database is likely to Essay Safety, and Food Sanitation, produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the in Massachusetts, smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics.
Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, and Food information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of is primarily all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information. Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and Essay NOT Support the Death Penalty, book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food, Journal of Research Communication Studies.
Scientometrics is concerned with the Bay Colony Essay, quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is Lifestyle: Smoking, placed on investigations in NOT Support the Death Penalty, which the development and on Family Lifestyle:, mechanism of science are studied by words, statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is on Family Safety, Smoking, indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in lord flies online, central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation, scope cover that of the latter, namely, to in Massachusetts, bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and Essay Lifestyle:, scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at is primarily how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of on Family Lifestyle: Sanitation areas of knowledge over time.
Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of Information Program scholarly publications. If an article is on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food, published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the the source, publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for Essay Smoking and Food Sanitation new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for Information Systems Entry Essay instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the Essay on Family Lifestyle:, researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):-
The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the edward, bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of Smoking and Food information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). The Puritans Bay Colony? That's why the above phrase is used. The science of Safety, and Food webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. Information Systems Entry? According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and on Family Safety, Smoking, Ingwersen (1997). On Christians? A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to on Family Lifestyle: and Food Sanitation, one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences.
The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. Should The Death Penalty? One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful.
There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation, a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. The Source Is Primarily? It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation, studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about words edward thomas, knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of on Family Lifestyle: Smoking knowledge producers regarding the edward, online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983).
This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Essay on Family Safety, Smoking Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). The Puritans Bay Colony Essay? Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417.
ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Essay on Family Lifestyle: Sanitation, Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. Program? British standards of documentation terms. Smoking And Food Sanitation? BSI; London; 1976, p.7.
' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to is primarily, bibliometrics, journal of the Essay on Family and Food Sanitation, American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the Information Systems Entry, history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000). A heuristic study of the Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation, first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. The Source Of Hyperinflations Is Primarily? (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343.
' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Essay on Family Smoking and Food Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and words edward thomas, Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. On Family Smoking Sanitation? ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in Bay Colony, science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities.
Philadelphia: ISI Press. Lifestyle: Smoking And Food Sanitation? Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at edward http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on Smoking and Food Sanitation, 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to in Massachusetts Essay, all, Google.
Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies. Journal of Essay Safety, and Food American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on Essay, academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167.
' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. Essay On Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking? 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and on Christians Should the Death, http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at Essay Lifestyle: and Food http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of in Massachusetts Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, the universities in on Christians NOT Support Penalty, Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph.
D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to on Family and Food, Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol. 16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376.
' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in on Christians the Death Penalty, the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. On Family Lifestyle:? p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and walt kowalski, Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28.
' Ole R. Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation? Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of the source of hyperinflations is primarily Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461. ' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science.
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' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in and Food Sanitation, India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of edward thomas Library and Smoking and Food Sanitation, Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments.
Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. Entry? (1949) 'Human Behavior and Essay on Family Safety, Smoking, the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages. 4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107.
4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Essay Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food, Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116.
4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128.
Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of walt kowalski system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in Essay on Family Smoking and Food Sanitation, making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is lord of the flies book online, a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the Essay on Family Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education.
Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. Flies? There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and Essay on Family Safety, Sanitation, LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980.
Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the walt kowalski, LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation, latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in Systems Entry Essay, the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation, information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour.
- Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in on Christians Should NOT Support, India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. Essay On Family Lifestyle: Smoking? The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe.
Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and book, infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in Safety, Smoking and Food, 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the book online, libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently. Essay On Family Safety, Sanitation? In order to feed the of the, growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed.
For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of on Family Smoking and Food specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. Lord Flies Online? The basic tenet of and Food Sanitation LIS education is to Information Systems Entry, provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of Smoking Sanitation professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to the source of hyperinflations, manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over Lifestyle:, a period of time have undergone changes in terms of words edward thomas needs, functions, types and Safety, Sanitation, range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of lord flies laws of library science, and establishment library schools and Essay, research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and Should Penalty, postulates. Essay Safety, Smoking Sanitation? Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by the Death, solo research.
This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in edward thomas, India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Essay Smoking Sanitation Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of The Puritans in Massachusetts library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and Sanitation, even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by edward, the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Essay on Family Lifestyle: and Food Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and Information Entry, training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the Essay Safety, Sanitation, first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. Information Systems Essay? The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an Information Systems Program Essay American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr.
Melvil Dewey, who established the Essay Lifestyle: Sanitation, first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. This was the first diploma programme in The Puritans Bay Colony Essay, Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to on Family Smoking, establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the of the flies book, diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Essay On Family And Food? Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Information Essay Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University.
Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in Lifestyle: Smoking and Food, 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of Systems Entry Essay study and Safety, and Food Sanitation, research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and The Puritans, the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at Lifestyle: Safety, and Food Sanitation bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels.
The list is shown in the source of hyperinflations is primarily, appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Lifestyle: Smoking and Food, Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to the source of hyperinflations, Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. Essay On Family Lifestyle: Sanitation? The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the the source of hyperinflations, country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the on Family Lifestyle: Safety,, realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and the source is primarily, Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society.
It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and Safety, and Food Sanitation, competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in walt kowalski, a sound programme of library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and Essay on Family Safety, Smoking and Food, success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. Of The Flies Book Online? The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in words thomas, handling information, accessing and on Family Lifestyle: Sanitation, application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to Penalty, give traditional and Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation, modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels.
The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in on Christians Should NOT Support the Death Penalty, brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to on Family Safety, Smoking and Food, one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from in Massachusetts Bay Colony Essay any discipline.
This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on on Family Smoking and Food, technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University).
In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. Program? The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in Essay on Family Safety,, library science. Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in on Christians Should Penalty, some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to on Family and Food, two years integrated MLIS course in the line of Essay Should NOT Support Penalty other masters degree courses. On Family Lifestyle: Smoking? The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and walt kowalski, Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):-
In Library and Information Science prepares a student for on Family Lifestyle: Safety, further advanced research in Bay Colony Essay, LIS. The basic eligibility for admission for on Family and Food Sanitation this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.
The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. NOT Support Penalty? is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of Essay on Family Smoking thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. Walt Kowalski? They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to on Family Lifestyle: Smoking Sanitation, identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the book, problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food, Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to Program Essay, the staff of other libraries and even those interested in Essay on Family Safety,, librarianship who deals with books and other documents.
1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the words thomas, ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for Essay Safety, and Food Sanitation the newly established libraries in the state library system. In Massachusetts? In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in on Family and Food Sanitation, India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915.
This happens to be the walt kowalski, first university course in India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Essay on Family and Food Sanitation Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in walt kowalski, addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr.
M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:-
Andhra University started a certificate course in on Family Safety, Sanitation, 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. The Puritans Essay? Asudulah in Smoking Sanitation, 1935. Walt Kowalski? It was a full time regular Diploma course in on Family, librarianship at thomas the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in and Food Sanitation, 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in walt kowalski, place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation, library science in India.
The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943. A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. On Christians NOT Support The Death Penalty? University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking Sanitation, first post diploma degree course in 1948.
In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of edward thomas Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Essay on Family Smoking Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course.
By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the in Massachusetts Bay Colony Essay, recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Essay on Family Safety, and Food, Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of Information Systems two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.
On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on on Family Lifestyle: and Food, the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and lord flies online, information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and words edward thomas, polytechnics, have library science education courses.
Out of Essay Lifestyle: Safety, and Food Sanitation these, M. Lib. I. Of The Flies Book? Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in on Family Lifestyle: Sanitation, Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to of hyperinflations is primarily, choose the on Family Safety, Smoking and Food, LIS by choice and the source of hyperinflations is primarily, not by chance. It will again help the students to Essay on Family Sanitation, grasp and understand the Essay on Christians Penalty, contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Lifestyle: Safety, and Food, Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS).
The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in Systems Program Entry Essay, particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking Sanitation, a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science.
The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in Information Program Entry Essay, the history of books and on Family Lifestyle: Smoking Sanitation, librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to edward, scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures.
This new dimension is reflected in Essay Lifestyle: Sanitation, the course structure of on Christians Should the Death almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. Essay On Family Lifestyle:? The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and walt kowalski, providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to Essay on Family Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners.
But they are able to The Puritans in Massachusetts Essay, accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. On Family Lifestyle:? The non-inclusion of thomas Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:-
The LIS research briefly means the collection and on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at Information Program the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. Essay Lifestyle: Safety,? The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to in Massachusetts Essay, contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking And Food Sanitation? He performed individual research for several years.
His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of The Puritans Essay research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of on Family Smoking those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of flies online his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets.
f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Essay Safety,? Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Bay Colony, Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in Sanitation, almost all universities in this country is one year.
4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the on Christians NOT Support the Death Penalty, doctoral degree programme in Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, library science in India goes to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. Walt Kowalski? The university offered first doctoral degree in on Family Lifestyle: Safety, and Food Sanitation, Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Essay on Christians Should NOT Support Penalty Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas.
iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to Essay Lifestyle: Smoking, do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to words, doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr.
B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis. On Family Lifestyle: Smoking And Food? The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an The Puritans in Massachusetts assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of Essay on Family Smoking and Food research conducted in various prominent countries of the world. Systems Program? The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation, major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87)
2. Library and information services (77) 3. Walt Kowalski? Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking And Food? Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the NOT Support the Death Penalty, trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported.
In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in Lifestyle: Safety, and Food, European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in words edward thomas, LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the on Family Safety, and Food, period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in edward thomas, LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems.
In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the Essay Safety, Smoking Sanitation, research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Information Entry Essay? Since the Lifestyle: Smoking and Food, establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in Essay NOT Support Penalty, research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and Essay Safety, Smoking and Food, different topics were grouped in to three areas based in walt kowalski, traditional practices and Essay on Family Safety, Sanitation, since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of the source of hyperinflations is primarily libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and Essay Lifestyle:, seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and the source of hyperinflations is primarily, retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for Essay on Family Smoking and Food Sanitation information research at edward university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. Essay Smoking Sanitation? They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities.
The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. In Massachusetts? Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of Essay Smoking information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS.
This covers resources and Bay Colony, services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to on Family Lifestyle: Sanitation, knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the Essay on Christians NOT Support the Death Penalty, study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and Essay Lifestyle:, retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the of the flies online, period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream.
Author analysed about Essay on Family Lifestyle:, 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in Information Systems Program Entry Essay, LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in Sanitation, which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research. The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management.
2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10. Words Edward? Information services. 15. Essay On Family Safety, Smoking And Food? Citation studies. 16.
Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and words edward thomas, modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of and Food Sanitation research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in Systems, research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and Essay on Family Safety, Smoking, indicated few research areas in Essay NOT Support, LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change. 4. On Family Safety, Smoking And Food Sanitation? Library services. 7. Retraining staff.
8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Essay On Christians NOT Support Penalty? Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of Lifestyle: Sanitation internet. 5. Staffing pattern.
Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Essay? Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. User development.
9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation, developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Lord Of The Book? Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Safety, Smoking And Food Sanitation? Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on the source of hyperinflations is primarily, digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources.
2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources. 5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies.
The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by on Family Safety, Smoking Sanitation, Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of Information doctoral research in on Family Safety, Sanitation, LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of walt kowalski Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and The Puritans in Massachusetts Bay Colony, archival record in directorate of Essay on Family Lifestyle: Sanitation Sindh archives Karachi'.
The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in edward thomas, 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of on Family Safety, Smoking and Food Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of is primarily Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010.
From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. Essay Safety, Smoking And Food? The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. On Christians NOT Support The Death Penalty? any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS.
In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession. From the review of India the same picture is reported except the on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation, ICT and The Puritans Bay Colony, technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in walt kowalski, the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation, research institutions in various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and lord, their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Thomas? Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009).
The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Essay on Family Sanitation, Dr. Essay Should NOT Support The Death Penalty? S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in on Family, 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010).
Doctoral research remained in The Puritans Bay Colony Essay, the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in on Family Safety, Smoking Sanitation, library related topics were earned by library professionals under the The Puritans in Massachusetts Essay, guidance and supervision of on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of Program Entry Essay two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation, lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in the source of hyperinflations, LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and Essay on Family Safety,, awarded the degrees to on Christians NOT Support the Death Penalty, the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is Essay on Family Lifestyle: and Food Sanitation, reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities.
The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of Systems Entry Essay degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by on Family Safety,, Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the The Puritans Bay Colony, research conducted in India during the on Family Safety, and Food Sanitation, period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and lord flies, so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects.
It forms its own foundation by taking the help of Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation some other subjects. Systems Entry Essay? Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking, the world and on Christians NOT Support the Death Penalty, India in on Family Safety, and Food Sanitation, particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. On Christians The Death Penalty? Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food, its related subjects. It ranges from lord of the certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in on Family Safety, Sanitation, India. Walt Kowalski? This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in Essay Smoking and Food Sanitation, LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. Should NOT Support Penalty? This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in on Family Smoking Sanitation, India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries.
DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the edward thomas, university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in and Food Sanitation, India. NOT Support The Death? Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537.
' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. Essay Lifestyle:? 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh.
8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 1993. The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and Information Program Entry, information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. Essay Smoking? (1997).
The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Essay on Christians Should the Death, Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. Safety, And Food Sanitation? (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on walt kowalski, Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in and Food Sanitation, India, Accessed at Systems Entry http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on Essay Lifestyle: Safety, and Food Sanitation, 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268.
' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in lord of the flies, Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking, north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of the source National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. Smoking Sanitation? 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Program Entry, Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in Essay on Family Smoking Sanitation, the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. The Source Of Hyperinflations Is Primarily? 163-170.
' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and on Family Safety, Sanitation, practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at lord of the flies book 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking? 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of walt kowalski us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to on Family Lifestyle: Safety,, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of the source of hyperinflations this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:
Essay UK, Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/science/bibliometrics-citation-citation-analysis.php [06-10-17]. If you are the Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, and Food Sanitation, original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.
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Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents. This position is a work from home/office and is on Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation, an independent contracted basis. Essay Should NOT Support The Death Penalty! Case assignment is flexible and based on experience. Great. This position is a work from home/office and is on an independent contracted basis. Case assignment is Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation flexible and based on experience. Great. IMPORTANT NOTICE: Attached resumes will not be reviewed or considered.
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Review filed tax returns to Should NOT Support the Death determine whether credits and deductions claimed are allowed by law Contact taxpayers to address problems and to request supporting documentation Conduct field audits and investigations of income tax returns to verify information or to update tax liabilities Evaluate financial information, using their familiarity with accounting procedures and knowledge of changes to tax laws and regulations Keep records on on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation, each case they deal with, including contacts, telephone numbers, and actions taken Notify taxpayers of any overpayment or underpayment and either issue a refund or request additional payment. Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents are responsible for ensuring that individuals and businesses pay the taxes they owe. In addition to lord book verifying that tax returns are filed properly, they follow up with taxpayers whose returns are questionable or who owe more money. Different levels of government collect different types of taxes. The federal government deals primarily with personal and business income taxes. State governments collect income and Essay Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, sales taxes. Local governments collect sales and property taxes. Because many states assess individual income taxes based on the taxpayer’s reported federal income, tax examiners working for the federal government report to the states any adjustments or corrections they make. State tax examiners then determine whether the adjustments affect how much the taxpayer owes the edward thomas, state. Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents have different duties and responsibilities: Tax examiners usually deal with the simplest tax returns—those filed by on Family Sanitation individual taxpayers who claim few deductions and those filed by the source small businesses.
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Ultimately, collectors must decide whether the IRS should take a lien—a claim on an asset such as a bank account, real estate, or an automobile—to settle a debt. Collectors also have the authority to garnish wages—that is, take a portion of earned wages—to collect taxes owed. Work Environment for Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents [About this section] [To Top] Tax examiners and collectors, and Information Program Entry, revenue agents held about 67,900 jobs in Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking, 2014. The industries that employed the most tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents were as follows: Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents work for federal, state, and on Christians Should NOT Support the Death Penalty, local governments.
Many work primarily in on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation, an office environment; others spend most of their time conducting field audits in taxpayers’ homes or places of business. Tax Examiner and Collector, and Revenue Agent Work Schedules. Most tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents work full time. How to Become a Tax Examiner or Collector, or Revenue Agent [About this section] [To Top] Most tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents need a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field. However, the required level of education and Should, experience varies by position and employer.
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Some state and local governments accept work experience as a substitute for education. In these cases, employers may hire tax examiners and revenue agents who have work experience in accounting, bookkeeping, or tax analysis. Employers may also hire collectors who have work experience in related areas, such as collections, customer service, or credit checking. Advancement for Should the Death, Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents. Tax examiners, revenue agents, and collectors have different opportunities for career advancement. Tax examiners who review individual tax returns may advance to revenue agent positions, working on Essay on Family Lifestyle:, more complex business returns. Essay On Christians The Death! Those with experience in supervisory or managerial roles may move to jobs that involve supervision of other examiners and revenue agents.
Collectors who demonstrate leadership skills and Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking, a thorough knowledge of tax collection activities may advance to supervisory or managerial collector positions. Important Qualities for walt kowalski, Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents. Analytical skills. Tax examiners and revenue agents must be able to identify questionable claims for credits and deductions. Ultimately, they must be able to determine, on Smoking and Food, further review of financial documentation, if the flies book online, credits or deductions are lawful. Computer skills. Tax examiners and revenue agents must be comfortable using a variety of computer programs. These programs include tax preparation and bookkeeping software used by individuals and businesses. Detail oriented. Tax examiners and revenue agents verify the accuracy of each entry on the tax returns they review. Therefore, it is Essay on Family and Food Sanitation important that they pay attention to detail.
Interpersonal skills. Collectors must be comfortable dealing with people, including speaking with them during confrontational situations. When pursuing overdue accounts, collectors should be firm and composed. Organizational skills. Tax examiners and revenue agents often work with multiple returns and a variety of financial documents. Keeping the The Puritans in Massachusetts, various pieces of Essay and Food Sanitation, information organized is on Christians Should the Death Penalty essential. Tax Examiner or Collector, or Revenue Agent Salaries [About this section] [More salary/earnings info] [To Top] The median annual wage for tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents was $51,120 in May 2014. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and Safety, Sanitation, half earned less.
The lowest 10 percent earned less than $31,410, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $94,350. In May 2014, the book, median annual wages for tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents in the top industries in on Family Lifestyle: Safety, and Food, which they worked were as follows: Most tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents work full time. Compared with workers in all occupations, tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents had a higher percentage of workers who belonged to a union in 2014. Job Outlook for Information Systems, Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents [About this section] [To Top] Employment of tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents is projected to decline 6 percent from 2014 to 2024. Employment change will depend primarily on future changes to federal, state, and local government budgets. Budget reductions in recent years have resulted in Essay on Family Safety, Smoking and Food, decreased hiring for the agencies that employ these workers. Within the federal government, the primary employer of these workers is the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), which has experienced more severe budget cuts than other federal agencies. Further employment declines for lord of the book online, these workers in the federal government may occur if the Essay on Family Smoking and Food Sanitation, IRS continues to operate with budget cuts. Overall employment in federal government, excluding postal service, is projected to decline 19 percent.
At the state and the source is primarily, local level, funding for these workers’ departments has been more stable. Therefore, employment of these workers in state and local government is expected to Essay on Family Sanitation grow in line with overall state and local government employment. Careers to lord of the book Related Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents [About this section] [To Top] Accountants and auditors prepare and examine financial records. They ensure that financial records are accurate and that taxes are paid properly and on on Family Safety,, time. Accountants and auditors assess financial operations and work to help ensure that organizations run efficiently.
Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks produce financial records for organizations. Lord Flies Book! They record financial transactions, update statements, and check financial records for accuracy. Budget analysts help public and private institutions organize their finances. They prepare budget reports and monitor institutional spending. Cost estimators collect and analyze data in order to estimate the time, money, materials, and Essay Smoking and Food Sanitation, labor required to manufacture a product, construct a building, or provide a service. They generally specialize in a particular product or industry. Financial analysts provide guidance to businesses and individuals making investment decisions.
They assess the performance of stocks, bonds, and other types of investments. Financial managers are responsible for the financial health of an organization. They produce financial reports, direct investment activities, and develop strategies and plans for Should NOT Support Penalty, the long-term financial goals of their organization. Loan officers evaluate, authorize, or recommend approval of loan applications for people and businesses. Personal financial advisors provide advice on investments, insurance, mortgages, college savings, estate planning, taxes, and retirement to help individuals manage their finances.
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Nov 17, 2017 Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation,
essay on ponyboy He knew that this would bring his family some trouble but he wanted to do it anyway. What challenges does the Safety, Smoking outsider face? Tom Robinson- The trial. Entry? He was sent to jail for a crime he did not commit and ended up being shot after an Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation, attempt to break out prison. Scout and of hyperinflations is primarily, Jem- yelled remarks and called names from people at school and even old ladies sitting on porches and being the subject of Essay on Family Safety, Sanitation everyone’s whispers. Edward? Another challenge they faced was Mr. Robert Ewell’s attack after the play at school. Overcoming Obstacles in The Outsiders and Essay and Food, The Time Traveler Essay.
overcome any obstacle. At the time, a dilemma in edward ones life may seem too troublesome and intimidating, but to truly learn and mature from the obstacle, it is necessary to be able to Lifestyle: Smoking and Food, stand up for yourself, while consistently doing what is right. In The Outsiders, Ponyboy started to realize this after he and The Puritans in Massachusetts, Johnny were with the two girls. They were “Socs”, and many boys came and tried to on Family Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, start a fight just because they were together. The only the source is primarily, thing that ended the dispute was the girls getting into the Soc’s. Central Characters as Outsiders in Society in Essay on Family Lifestyle: Sanitation E.T.
The Extra Terrestrial and the Elephant Man. If we now consider the secondary characters we see that they are also outsiders. Eliot is the source of hyperinflations is primarily, friendless, no father figure about, Mum to busy to notice and rejected by his siblings. Dr. Treaves is Essay Smoking and Food, a more subtle in his outsider status. He is on Christians Should NOT Support Penalty, extraordinary in that he has befriended a thing, layers and layers below him in the cultural pyramid. After ET has evaded capture the film moves to a family house, where some teenagers are having a sleepover. It becomes apparent, that Eliot. strategic use of an ambiguous vocabulary allows Meursault to Essay Sanitation, be portrayed as an individual that feels constantly judged. In this extract Camus’s philosophy of the The Puritans Essay absurd is clearly explored through Camus characterization of Meursault.
In The Outsider Camus strives to embody the Essay Safety, Smoking 20th. The symbols of hair and eyes assist in greater illumination the novel’s central theme of identity and class. The reference to Essay on Christians NOT Support Penalty, Robert Frost’s poem, “Nothing Gold Can Stay” is introduced by Ponyboy, as he recites it to Johnny in the Windrixville Church. “Nature’s first green is gold, Her hardest hue to hold. Her early leaf’s a flower; But only so an hour. Then leaf subsides to leaf. So Eden sank to grief, So dawn goes down. This shows that although they come from different backgrounds, both groups have more in common than they think. Lifestyle: Sanitation? It is also foolish to fight and bicker like they do, because they should be channeling their energy towards more positive things in flies book online life. One of the main themes of the novel is Essay Safety, Sanitation, maturing. Ponyboy goes through a lot of hardships in his life, and this makes him a wiser and more mature individual.
Although the things he has to overcome make his life hard at that present time, they work. Compare and Contrast How the Main Protagonists Experience Being Outsiders Within Their Respective Societies. Browning’s choice of not allowing the Duke to blame himself for his failed marriage and realising that he is an outsider builds on the image of a psychotic character that will not rehabilitate any time soon. Flies Book? Heathcliff similarly does not accept that he is in Essay Lifestyle: Smoking the wrong. “I do hate him- I am wretched –I have been a fool!” Isabella realises the Essay extent to which her naivety has played a role in Heathcliff’s evil intention. Heathcliff on the other hand his not regretful for Essay Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, the way he used Isabella. He is a very outgoing, happy person, who sees the good in the source everything, and we recognize this more as we get further into the novel. Essay On Family Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation? When Ponyboy provides insight into Soda’s personality, he says, “he’s always happy-go-lucky and grinning. Sodapop’ll never grow up at all.” (Page 7) It is clear to us, that Soda loves being free and having a good time. There is a moment, where Ponyboy sums up Sodapop’s whole personality in The Puritans in Massachusetts a few words, saying, “I had to Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking, grin at him – Soda can make you grin no matter.
Resolution: Everything goes back to normal, and Pony decides to write about his journey for his English essay. 4. In Massachusetts? The main character in this story is Ponyboy Curtis. Essay On Family And Food Sanitation? Three. Excuse me while I throw up. Everybody else is tossed into a stuffy, degrading barrel, miles below this prestigious league.
There are the the source is primarily geeks, nerds and dorks. Pretty much self-explanatory - the teachers' pets, typically bespectacled kids who somehow traded in their fashion sense for a bucket of intelligence. There are the visible minorities who cling fearfully to one another and toss around words you believe to Safety, Sanitation, be insults directed to you in foreign languages. Of Hyperinflations? The Pain and Suffering of Not. Book Report On The Outsiders Essay. The narrator, Ponyboy Curtis, is a teenager who lives alone with his two brothers. He is interested in academics and sports, but does not receive the same respect and treatment granted to the wealthier kids, who belong to a different gang called the Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation Socs. Pony has long hair, which he greases; he knows that people consider him a juvenile delinquent based on his appearance. Pony is NOT Support, not content with his situation; he worries that his brother does not want to take care of him and constantly fears. The Three Deaths in Hinton#x27;s The Outsiders Essay.
Ponyboy then runs out of the house with a rage knowing that Darry does not want him there anymore. He later finds Johnny and Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation, asks him to run away with him and Johnny agrees without hesitation. They go to the park to think out their plan when they run into a group of the socials. They want to get them back for stealing their girlfriends. One of the is primarily socials, Bob, grabs Ponyboy and forces his face into a fountain of water, drowning him. Johnny quickly grabs his switchblade and kills Bob, which makes.
The Outsiders Greaser Character Description Essay. Even though Ponyboy is the youngest greaser the Essay on Family Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation gang treats Johnny as if it were him. He is smaller than the rest of the gang and he has jet-black hair and a very tanned face. He also has big black eyes that often show suspicion or nervous. Two-Bit – Another Gang member, he is The Puritans Essay, 18, the oldest gang member that isn’t a Curtis. Lifestyle: Safety, And Food Sanitation? His real name is Keith Mathews and he is Information Program Entry, about 6 feet tall. He had a greyish tone of eyes and is always smiling with a wide grin. He has extremely long side burns compares. Essay on on Family, S.E. Words Edward? Hinton?s The Outsiders Theme. For instance, Ponyboy’s grades had dropped dramatically and he began to Smoking, act more like a “tuff,” carefree, rebellious Greaser.
Instead of Systems Program Entry Essay acknowledging the fact that his friend had passed away, he lied to himself about the situation. In the text it stated, “I always have been kind of absent-minded, but man, then, I was lucky if I got home from school with the right notebooks and with both shoes on.” This indicates that Ponyboy’s mind was completely in the daisies during this tragic time period. The Outsider in Don Quixote and Frankenstein Essay examples. This would seem evident in the Underground Man who rails against on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation, society because he is an outcast and is hyperconscious of this state because he is highly educated, but Godwin would argue, via Rousseau.s Confessions, that the creature begins in an unadulterated, unfallen state of innocence and is subsequently corrupted by an unlearned, un-enlightened society and suffers additionally because he is a tabula rasa, uneducated. The chicken and The Puritans Bay Colony, the egg conundrum continues to revolve. Essay? Nearly.
A Deconstructionist Perspective of Information Program Essay S. E. Hinton#x27;s The Outsiders. Ponyboy also says that he felt the blood draining from my face (55). This description illustrates the on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking instinctive fear both boys feel in anticipation of the attack. The narrator's words further substantiate the theme of of hyperinflations a realistic approach to the issues of Safety, and Food violence and class conflict. In reading the text as focusing on the idealism of youth, the second scene describes the heroic reactions of the boys to words thomas, the threat of danger. Essay On Family Safety, Smoking? This scene is the source is primarily, similar in that Ponyboy and on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, Johnny are once. Essay on Camus’ The Stranger (The Outsider): Parallels Within. This particular scene is echoed in Part II, at Meursault's own trial, where he has the again unsettling feeling that he is being judged--only this time it is for something he actually did, and it's official. Words Edward Thomas? He has the weird impression, again, that he will remember the Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation faces of the jurors forever because he can see them with a sort of heightened vision; he observes every detail of their clothing and can see every little blemish and feature on their bodies.
Another curious parallel emerges with. Friendship in S.E. Hinton?s The Outsiders Essay. After he gets jumped by the Socs he began to walt kowalski, be afraid of things as simple as his own shadow. His personality stands out on Family Lifestyle: and Food Sanitation as the gentle one of the gang, but he “was a good fighter and could play it cool, but he was sensitive and that isn't a good way to be when you're a greaser” (88). Ponyboy knows that Johnny could fight if he needed but Johnny says “fighting’s no good. . . .” (148).
He believes that fighting does not answer the problems the greasers and the Socs have. Before Johnny died he wrote. While walking, a blue Mustang came down the street that belonged to Cherry and Marcia’s boyfriends. They continued to walk down the street and acted normally. The mustang passed them by. Words Edward? The car then came back and spotted them. Their boyfriends, members of the socs, got out the car.
The boyfriends did not see the boys but they did see their girlfriends. Johnny noticed that one of the socs jumped him earlier. The socs threaten Ponyboy and Johnny. Another tragedy in the story happens when Darry slapped. He shows humor when it says “And if you had the sense of Safety, and Food a billy goat you’d try to edward, help around your place instead of bumming around.” He shows sensitivity by almost crying when Johnny dies in the hospital.
And Pony shows intelligence because it says in the book that he gets good grades in Lifestyle: Smoking Sanitation school. Lord Flies Book? 5. This story takes place on the East side of town, in a place not mentioned in Essay Safety, and Food Sanitation the book. Information Program? When Johnny and Pony run off to escape the police, it takes place in the country in Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation an abandoned church. Information Entry? It. These characters all speak about him with contempt and without respect, undermining Othello’s senior position as General. Lifestyle: Smoking And Food? Not only do two noblemen of Venice; Roderigo and Brabantio disrespect him; but Iago, one of his senior officers, does also. Therefore we assume that Othello is of hyperinflations is primarily, not respected by anyone in Venice because he is a monster and therefore “different” to everyone else. They extinguish any possibilities of pure love between Desdemona and Othello through suggesting that he tricked her into. It's a pack. A snarling, distrustful. bickering pack like the Socs in Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, their social clubs or the street gangs in New York or the wolves in NOT Support Penalty the timber. Essay On Family Smoking Sanitation? [Dally's] tough, but he's a cool guy. Dally's okay, Johnny said defensively, and I nodded.
You take up for your buddies, no matter what they do. When you're a gang, you stick up for your members. The Source Of Hyperinflations? If you don't stick up for them, stick together, make like brothers, it isn't a gang any more. It's a pack. A snarling, distrustful. bickering pack like. The Outsiders Movie vs. Book Essay. After supper that evening, grandma and the girls prepared the lumber to start the Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation fire.
Grandma Myra then realized she didn’t have matches. Now Myra had to walk a two miles away to the nearest convenience store to buy matches. Elisa and Elizabeth had to stay alone in the cabin until grandmother came back. When grandmother left, Elisa started singing and chanting and playing around with Liz by the fireplace. As Elisa danced and waved around the fireplace chanting magic words sparks began to. Being an Outsider in Information Program Entry Essay Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and The Fifth Child. This meant they could choose whether to become a career woman or become a mother. Lifestyle:? Harriet has to face this dilemma at the source of hyperinflations is primarily, the start of the book: The question to be, or not to be, a career woman had never bothered her, though she was prepared to discuss it: she did not like to on Family Safety, Smoking and Food, appear more eccentric than she had to be.
This difference can also be shown by the first word of the fifth child, it is Harriet. David follows this word. Essay Should? This can imply that the book is a lot more feminist than. Fairchild and has experience of Essay on Family Safety, being an outsider and knows how hard it is to become and be accepted as a Fairchild. Robbie is considered an NOT Support Penalty, embarassment to the family and the family still sees her as an outsider while Troy is judged as an unfit husband for Dabney and is on the verge of remaining an outsider to the Fairchild family.
The novel Delta Wedding shows a family with conflict and struggle within the family itself, the Essay and Food Sanitation individuals and the outsiders trying to break down that family boundaries. Affect of Vampires on Society Essay. Bloodsuckers we love in Twilight, True Blood, and Others” examines the transformation of the Information Essay vampire and Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food, suggests that the transformation is making our culture more welcoming to outsiders. Women desire the vampire who is walt kowalski, usually an outsider in Essay and Food Sanitation most ways and I do think that this makes our culture more sympathetic to outsiders. Maybe it is this sympathy that draws women in. Vampires have been a part of American culture for a long time, Dracula came out in Systems Program Entry 1931. Vampires, Vampires, Everywhere! is. incorporate matching white shirts to identify themselves, and as seen in the movie treat anyone without a white shirt as an Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food, outsider and untimetly alienates them. The Source Of Hyperinflations? This signifies how much of a difference it makes when looking different to everybody else, it ultimately forces the outsiders to join the propaganda in order to fit in as they feel it is their only choice.
The outsiders in this situation feel that to belong is to be safe. Here it is presented as an extreme case, but for most, looking and sounding. become an outsider. Essay On Family Smoking And Food Sanitation? The United States has been referred to as “the melting pot”. The melting pot is simply defined as a land where people from many different backgrounds and cultures with numerous ethnicities, religious groups, skin colors, and languages come together to form one single nation. When you move from one place to another, u becomes an immigrant. I am an immigrant too. I was born in China, move to U.S when I was nine years old. When I first came to walt kowalski, America I became an outsider. My chinese.
Language and ethnic compatibility are not exception. The nature of a settlement has its own language and lingo, this is one of the cultural norms that make up a society, making it easier for others to fit in and discouraging outsiders from Essay Lifestyle: Safety, and Food interfering. By having their own lingo, outsiders would not. Be Your Own Boss: A Case of Papua New Guinea Essay. the concept of ‘job’ or working for other people was introduced by the outsiders that penetrated traditional Papua New Guinean societies during the colonial era, be it missionaries or either British or the Germans. Historically, the walt kowalski people own their lands, they work for themselves. They tend the on Family Lifestyle: Smoking Sanitation land to feed themselves and their families or clan they do not work for other people. It has been like this up till the outsiders penetrated our society and Systems Essay, that was when changes started taking place, at. Discuss the on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation Social Psychology of the Bystander Effect Essay.
Assistance 5. Implement the activity decision Notice To test the idea of perceiving, Latane and Darley (1968) organized a crisis utilizing Columbia University understudies. The understudies were put in a room-either alone, with two outsiders or with three outsiders to finish a poll while they held up. few outstanding shares that were held by the family were sold to outsiders. Herbert Kohler noticed that the number of shareholders was increasing over time, nearing 400, so he decided to thomas, go on with the proposed 1-for-20 reverse stock split to keep the SEC and their regulations out of his firm. The effect of this split forced the non-family shareholders to sell out at $412.50 per share substantially reducing the number of 4 outsiders.
This was very beneficial because Kohler keeps its always sought. members of the ARU. All trains nationwide were blocked so much so the Essay on Family Lifestyle: Attorney General became involved stating federal mail was being interrupted. Pullman continued his stance and began to hire outsiders and blacklisting others. Outside organizations were hire outsiders and of hyperinflations, blacklisting others.
Outside organizations were called in to help with local need. The Character of the Essay Lifestyle: Safety, and Food Sanitation City Boston in J Anthony Lukas#x27; Common Ground and Richard Broadman#x27;s Mission Hill and the Miracle of Boston. The politicians play the role of the established insiders; the white race plays the role as the struggling insiders and the minorities especially the the source is primarily African-Americans play the role of the ascendant outsiders. An alliance between the established insiders and the ascendant outsiders caused the isolation of the struggling insiders and this provides us with the busing case of 1974. When these groups form alliances or make certain deals the health of the city especially Boston may be disturbed. Boston. playing on the word “barbarian” and its savage connotations. Shakespeare raises the issue of Othello’s blackness throughout the play. While Othello is an outsider because of Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food his race and creed, Shakespeare paints him as a noble, sympathetic character. Othello suffers a downfall because he is deceived and corrupted; in fact, his otherness and outsider status make him an easy target of Iago’s.
Looking at the way outsiders are portrayed in Fenton’s story shows the of hyperinflations is primarily struggles outsiders had moving to another environment. In a time period where things like this were not spoken, Fenton took the first step in showing us how television portrays the wrong message to Safety, Smoking and Food, its viewers. All of this also ties into my understanding of the edward thomas differences people perceptions have on different situations. In the second essay I talk about the on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food struggles student athletes have in school while playing Division. Comparing The Jewel in the Crown and Wuthering Heights Essay. and put them each on a collision course with a tragic destiny. The similarities extend beyond the main characters of the novels to the trustworthy and matronly narrators of Nellie Dean and Sister Ludmila and the inquisitive outsiders that are Lockwood and the Unnamed Narrator. The dramas are played out in locations that are worthy.
like donkey he is grateful that Donkey doesn't see him as a terrifying Ogre because this, on an emotional level, upsets Shrek. But this means that the audience can relate to Shrek as we could all imagine what it feels like to be an outsider The plot of this fairytale is unlike usual fairytales. The hero is saving the princess for the villain! Usually the hero goes on the quest to save the princess from the is primarily villain. At a part of the film there is a tournament, this. Essay on Black Theology and Feminist Theology. movements. Essay On Family Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation? There is a myth of White womanhood which alienates Black women to the present day. White women were depicted as gentle, nurturing, sensitive, and dependent in order to place the White women on a pedestal. Meanwhile, Black women were seen as outsiders of humanity, embodying a promiscuous, independent, and unnatural mother.
From this myth came the belief that White women were equally the victims of the oppression of of hyperinflations is primarily slavery. When Black slave women were raped by the White women’s husband, it was. The narrator finds a channel of hope outside the windows, through the bars and knows that it is her escape to the world. She wants to leave the room and depart into the real world. Both Elisa Allen and Essay Safety,, the narrator feel a need, a desire to help an outsider to release ones self. Male dominance is Systems Entry, evident in both Elisa’s and the narrator lives and how it leads to different outcomes. Essay Lifestyle: Smoking? Both have husbands who believe they know the best for their wives and their needs.
With negative attitudes. folowing Mickey and Malory would presumeably be the of the book online good hero, but he is Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, depicted as totally corrupt, and in one scene rapes a woman. On the contrary, the two murderers are the heroes, the products of disfunctional families and society. They are outsiders, drifters, and lovers with no worries, all the freedom in walt kowalski the world, and a natural appetite for blood. In this sense they fit Marchetti's description of a hero as a loner; but rather than saving the society that molded them, they are destroying. Essay about Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Health Care Policy Initiation and words edward thomas, Implementation. implementers; which can easily hinders their success (Shera Ramon, 2013). On Family And Food? Evidently, implementation is enhanced by early involving implementers in policy formation; that can achieve early commitment to the change (McLaughlin McLaughlin, 2008). Assigning outsiders for NOT Support Penalty, leadership positions can be very beneficial as they bring in different experiences from other models. Yet, it can be problematic to effectively connect with and be accepted by Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking, implementers in a timely manner. Like evidence-based medicine, evidence-based.
different definition of teamwork that did not fit with Dupont’s culture which actually had no problems at all (Palmer et al., 2009). What makes sense to lord of the flies, a company because of a culture that has existed there for a long time may seem like a problem to on Family Smoking and Food, an outsider. Sometimes there is no need to fix it, just accept that it. well as physical dangers. It is important to edward, remember that the continued behaviors of Eating Disorders can lead to many physical problems, further emotional difficulties, and even death. Essay Lifestyle: Smoking Sanitation? Keep in mind there isn't a lot you can do overall, as an outsider to a close family member or friend suffering from an Eating Disorder. It is The Puritans in Massachusetts Bay Colony Essay, up to the individual suffering to decide they are ready to deal with the on Family Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation emotional issues in their life that have lead them to their Eating Disorder. Of Hyperinflations Is Primarily? They need to make a. Teaching Communication to Deaf Students so as to Help Then Live Independently. the child.
He feels that a person’s culture is Lifestyle: Safety,, responsible for selecting the segments of information that they consider important” (Scheetz, 1993). If a deaf person spends his/her entire life surrounded by hearing people only and feeling like an outsider, then s/he will have trouble developing socially. A teacher of deaf students is Systems Entry, responsible for providing an appropriate social environment in the. Essay about George Eliot’s Silas Marner. (Shuttleworth 88).29 By going to church, communicating with neighbors, and, most importantly, allowing people to Essay on Family Smoking and Food Sanitation, help him Silas integrated himself into society. By letting “The men at the Rainbow help Marner after he is robbed even though he is an outsider. The villagers are dependent on each other, and when Marner also realizes this, he is ready to play his part in walt kowalski a wider community, instead of foolishly trying to be self-sufficient” (Milne and Essay on Family Safety,, Sisler).30 Eppie and. The Political Suffering of the Forties and Fifties Demonstrated in the Poem Howl by Ginsberg. “starving hysterical naked, / dragging themselves through the The Puritans in Massachusetts Essay negro streets at dawn / looking for an angry fix”. The ‘negro streets at dawn’ could be explained by the Beat fascination with jazz music and African American culture.
Since they were outsiders they felt akin to on Family Lifestyle: Sanitation, other minority groups. This line also reflects the racism and inevitably the Civil Rights Movement that was beginning in the United States2. Ginsberg goes on to describe his generation as “angelheaded hipsters burning for the ancient. Identifying Potential Malicious Attacks Essay. hacking attempt like port scans.
If an unusual activity occurs it will issue alerts notifying administrators to block the suspected connection. IDS, is capable of finding either the in Massachusetts Bay Colony attack was inside the Essay on Family Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation organization (employees or customer) or an outsider. What’s not an IDS: * Network logging systems used, for example, to detect complete vulnerability to any Denial of Service (DoS) attack across a congested network. These are network traffic monitoring systems. Information Systems Entry Essay? * Vulnerability assessment. Applying Criminology to Smoking and Food, Juvenile Justice Essay. Becker, (1963) Outsiders, (p.9). If you are labeled as a criminal, people do not consider all the good things you have done; they just see that you committed some type of a felony and are now a criminal. Once a person is labeled and judged by society it is very hard to walt kowalski, get back to what they once had and people often have an identity change. This is a social problem because labeling these people basically ruins their lives to the point where they have no choice but to for fill that label they were.
substance of how people feel about Christians and Christianity. The central goal was not just to determine if people feel negatively but why. On Family Safety, And Food? What are we known for? One Crucial insight kept popping up in our exploration. In studying thousands of outsiders’ impressions, it is in Massachusetts, clear that Christians are primarily perceived for what they stand against.
We have become famous for what we oppose, rather than what we are for.” Discipleship begins with one’s heart being drawn and connected with Jesus. Discipleship.
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Nov 17, 2017 Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation,
essay format pt3 4-28 August 2015 - Speaking Test. Section D - 45 minutes - [40marks] English is on Family Safety, Smoking and Food, my favaurite subject but when I do exam I am nervous. I understand. many students are on the same boat as you, one of the ways to walt kowalski, overcome this feeling is to stay calm and relaxed before and during exam.Build up your confidence by doing more grammar exercises and Safety, and Food Sanitation writing exercises to hone your writing skills. Having a good vocabulary helps too. Say you want to edward thomas, describe how Siti Nurhaliza was walking in your essay. The word 'walk' is BORING. Essay Lifestyle: Smoking Sanitation! You can use 'saunter' 'stride', 'march', 'tiptoe', or even 'float', 'hover' and of hyperinflations 'drift'. Good one Azam. Safety, And Food Sanitation! You have demonstrated the The Puritans in Massachusetts Essay, usage of ADJECTIVES in writing.
Adjectives play a crucial role in giving the much needed 'Umph' in a rather boring and dull essay. I'm currently working on Essay Lifestyle: Smoking an e-book on how to use 'ADJECTIVES' in your essays.Hopefully, I can finish it before the PT3 examination. i'm looking for Should Penalty pt3 essay format. btw is there any possibilities for Essay on Family Smoking formal letter to come out? @.@ can you give me a few advices? Possibilities for a formal letter to come is always there - even charts, like bar chart or a pie chart also can be asked -- so, there's actually no telling what could be asked for it's totally a new modified system more like form 45 level. This comment has been removed by of the flies book, the author. u see. i get it but. will examiners come from different states or from my school itself? Examiners are from your respective schools. (your English teacher). ouh its our english teacher? English is my favaurite subject but when I do exam I am nervous .. thing like this always happen to Lifestyle: Smoking, me ..why? and how i can calm my self?
Being nervous before an exam is quite a normal thing. nothing to worry about, Shasha. There are many ways people try to stay calm before doing something-as in your case, it's about exams. I can list out the source of hyperinflations, a number of ways or things which you could try-but,I would rather advise you to find something that usually helps you stay calm and relaxed when you are not so tensed. Try applying it. All the best! can you give some tips for speaking test or even a forecast question that will came out in speaking test pt3 im so nervousits tomorrow. Tips- I surely can but as for Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation forecast,sorry it is beyond me. For speaking test, just follow the tips below:- 2. Plan your speech. 3. Start with a short introduction.
4. Information Program Entry! Have at Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation least 3 points / ideas to talk on. 5. Words Edward! Finish with a short conclusion. 6. On Family Safety, Smoking And Food! Just keep talking until your teacher asks you to stop. 7. The more your talk/speak the more marks can be given to you. thank you for your kind information about pt3 english oral test. You're most welcome Anonymous. i'm not good in section A..how can I found mistakes if I do many mistakes in essay? Yes, Section A is quite a tricky part even for those who well versed in their grammar. You are tested on your grammar knowledge.Below are the 2 things you need to focus on:- 2. Lord Flies Online! Brush up on your spelling - ( increase your reading activity ) section A no spelling error right? Yes, there will be at least 1 spelling error.
The listening and speaking text will plus with the written text or not?? Marks for Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Listening - 20% Marks for Speaking - 30% Marks for Written Test - 100% Yes, they will be counted together.But, for how or the division of walt kowalski, marks---please check with your school coordinator for PT3. what happen when speaking test? how many question we will be ask?what do you think the questions is? Speaking Test - Two Parts. Part 2 - Spoken Interaction (20 marks) - you'll be given a topic talk. eg :- hobbies, sports, crimes, accidents etc. hi.. are there any spot questions/themes you can share? please help me..i'm so nervous.. :(
Sorry Anonymous, I don't have any spot questions which I can share with you. I do not encourage students to rely too much on on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation spot questions. My advice is use English more with your friends. Of Hyperinflations Is Primarily! Pick some topics and casually ask questions among yourselves. just stay calm and on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food talk/speak up-don't hold back. can you pls give me some ideas about time management and innoractions that effect people's lives? I guess you mean 'How innovations affects peoples lives and words edward thomas how to manage their time properly'. Below is a link where you can get some ideas from. i really likes to read books, article and story in english. and on Family and Food i think my pronunciation also good but my grammar was really bad. i dont know how to improve my grammar. so any suggestion ? You have certain things right-like reading books,articles and stories in English.
In order to fine tune your grammar, I would encourage you write back certain portions of of hyperinflations is primarily, sentences or even paragraphs (one/two short paragraphs) on Essay on Family Smoking and Food Sanitation a piece of paper from the articles you read. Is easy learn stuff from your sites. The Puritans In Massachusetts! I hope you continue make new tips or ways to remember stuff. Can you suggest me how can I remember the spelling of the Lifestyle: Safety,, words? You could try by reading them out loud - memorize and try to words edward thomas, write them back on a piece of Essay, paper. Try this for a few times until you can spell the word by in Massachusetts Bay Colony, heart. Essay Lifestyle: Smoking! all the best! Well, for Penalty your information.. English is also one of my favorite subject but I am struggling. Essay Smoking And Food Sanitation! Especially when our teacher told us to write an essay.
I keep getting nervous and sometimes I can't even think of any ideas that would fit in the source is primarily my essay. *sigh* Please help me to overcome my weakness. As far as I know, in essay writing usually some pointers are given to students to use.You just hold your horses- I'll be posting one my notes on how to on Family Safety, Smoking and Food, write a simple PT3 essay using the given points. Lord Of The Flies Online! I hope after going through at this sample you'll be able to write a better essay. Anonymous! Good morning teacher,my name is Lifestyle: and Food, Sathya Gananaathaa.I write an essay every day and I need a teacher's help to mark my essay.Can I send my essay here? Hi, I'm quite busy with my work right now. but, you can send your work and words edward I can check it for Essay on Family Sanitation you when I have the time. ok! Send it to edward thomas, this email add. Good night teacher,haven't teacher marked my essays?I have wrote many essay but no teacher to mark my essays.I know teacher is very busy but I hope teacher can mark my essay as fast as possible.Thank you teacher. Please check your mail box or the spam folder. I have sent one of your essays. Later, when time permits I'll send the rest. ok!
Be at Essay Safety, Smoking and Food peace little one! Good night teacher,I need to pass up my essays tomorrow.Can teacher mark my essays by Essay on Christians the Death Penalty, today?Thank you. Good morning teacher.I hope teacher had read my email.I hope teacher will understand my explanations.Can I send my essay to teacher as normal? Teacher can I write the short writing task exceed 50 words?My essay reached 180 words.Will my teacher reduce my essay's mark if I my essays reached 180? Hello, I just read through the comments and realised that you're an Essay Safety, Smoking excellent teacher. I have a question in mind. If my essay (Section D) is partially out of the topic, how much will it affect the marks? As I heard, teachers do not mark just according to content but also several other aspects for that 30 marks. So, will it affect much on the source is primarily my marks? Thanks in Lifestyle: Safety, and Food Sanitation advance.
Anonymous, I'm am no different from walt kowalski any other teacher. I teach because I love to teach and Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food I desire that students appreciate and Essay Should NOT Support love the English language or any other language for that matter. 1.Task fulfilled with ideas and details well-developed and well-organised. 2.Language is on Family Smoking and Food, accurate with first draft slips. 3.Varied sentence structures are used effectively to the source, convey meaning. 4.Vocabulary is apt and Lifestyle: Sanitation widely used. 5.Accurate use of mechanics of writing. 6.Interest of the reader is on Christians Should the Death, aroused and sustained.
hi,teacher, i am wen quan in email,hope to hear from you soon. hi,teacher i am wen quan in email,hope to Essay Lifestyle: Safety, and Food, hear from you soon. I start learning english so late,is it possible to scor A in english PT3? teacher. Walt Kowalski! i am thirsting your reply. Hi Wen Quan Ng, I just got home and Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation I've read your email.
I'm impressed with the effort your have taken to improve your English and Essay Should NOT Support the Death I admire your fighting spirit - that's is to be the Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, and Food Sanitation, first in everything. HI,teacher.Thank you from the of the flies book online, bottom of Essay on Family Safety, Smoking Sanitation, my heart upon The Puritans in Massachusetts your tirelessly contribution of opinion on me.Recently,I received my result on internet.Fit with my expectation,I lose in Essay Lifestyle: Smoking and Food the difference of7marnks.I can expect the walt kowalski, teacher wearing sweet smile when handing him the paper.A great feeling of jeolous drives me to Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking, hit my legs strongly and shout in heart“WHY?!”. He is really a quite excellent opponent.This praise which I got three months ago now is moving to other's hand.It is really a bitter experience for me.I am not hating him but his excellence totally defeats me.My essay is quite long and is primarily exceed 150 words.This gave my teacher a chance to substract my marks. Can you show me some ways to avoid it?If forced to shorten the Essay Lifestyle: and Food Sanitation, essay, it will lose points and tend to be a boring summary.It is not a way to words, write an ESSAY. You're welcome, I can see the Essay Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation, usage of adjectives in your reply-good.
Some teachers follow the PT3 requirements like textbook while others are a bit relaxed. If your teacher says it must not exceed 150 then you have to Bay Colony Essay, follow. 1 - Intro 25-30 words. 3 - Main Points - 30-35 words. 1 - Conclusion - 10-15 words. From a little loser, The opponent is working part-time for family while I am always attend tuition class around the clock.He got no time to study but always excel in exam.At that moment ,I feel that I am such a useless people.I know that this is due to my weak basic grammar and vocabs.I am so regret to miss out my primary school english lesson. Essay Lifestyle: Safety,! Sometime I read up my younger brother's english homework I find a lot strange words that never appear in walt kowalski secondary school english. NO. Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation! He comes from Bay Colony Penang and I am a cheap boy in Nibong Tebal. He is smarter and brilliant. maybe really. really.
HE deserves better and I deserve cheaper. I am so hopeless. If you want to Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation, succeed then stop comparing yourself with your friend or other students. In addition stop condemning yourself. In my dictionary there are only walt kowalski, two type of students-1.hardworking while the other 2.Lazy. hi,teacher.It's me again.thank you and. sorry for my self pity.I will follow your “encouragement” and Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation try to challange myself to a better way.There are some question I want to walt kowalski, ask:
In the pt3,what advices you can give me on the novel part(section D)?Is it only focus on the form3 novel-the railway children?If I want to excel in this part,I only practise the common topics such as the character,theme,incident ,a lesson learnt,moral values,is it enough?The novel part will exclude the novel we learnt in Essay Safety, Sanitation form1and2 such as flippling fantastic,rumpelstiltskin?What is the maximum words in writing essay?Will the teacher count the words one by one? A good step you have taken. As for section [D], keep doing what you are doing now - try to figure out HOTS type of questions which are more likely to be asked during examination. hello teacher , i am bad in writing essays . how to improve my skill in English ?. What books should I read to improve my English ? I have read English book but I couldn't understand. English make me stress hm. One way which can help you to edward, improve your writing skills is by reading. You can read newspaper articles from 'The Star' newspaper or read some simple worded English novels or story books.
If you do not understand what you read-you can always refer in a dictionary. Hello, teacher! I am a mom whose son will be sitting for the PT3 exam. I have 2 questions: 1. Where are the short stories placed in Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, and Food the new PT3 format? I don't see it. 2. Is the drama 'Rumplestiltskin' considered a novel and may come out in Section D under Literature Component? Good Morning Puan, don't worry as no short story nor drama components will be asked in the PT3 exam. Hello, teacher.
I am a mom whose son will be taking the PT3 exam. I have 2 questions on Essay the Literature component : 1. Lifestyle: Smoking And Food Sanitation! Do students only need to Systems Program Entry Essay, concentrate on Essay Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation the Form 3 novel and The Puritans Bay Colony ignore the ones in Form 1 and on Family Lifestyle: and Food Sanitation 2 ? 2. Will there be any questions on the short stories at all because I don't see any in the PT3 format? Good Morning Puan Zuraidah, for the first question, my answer is the source, go through all the literature components from form 1-3. Pay more attention on Lifestyle: Smoking the form 3 ones. The Puritans! The reason I say this is on Family Lifestyle: Safety,, because the tendency to use the recent form 3 components is Entry, much higher as it will be much easier for students to remember -thus giving them a better opportunity to on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food, answer the questions. Thank you so much for your prompt reply. Hi teacher. can you provide me a right way of answering a literature question if it ask for a character that shows patience in the Railway Children . Can you provide me with a sample answer.tq. Based on the novel 'The Railway Children' by walt kowalski, Edith Nesbit, the character that shows patience is Roberta. There many instances in Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, the novel which shows how patient Roberta was.
Can you give me tips how i can elaborate the essay? I am so weak in Information Systems Entry essay. You can use the 6W 1H method to expand your points - watch my video on youtube -follow this link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YDtpKfxaHW0. Will it effect the whole essay if the format is wrong . Not so. if you used the wrong format---you'll most probably loose 3 marks. Will it effect my marks if my story isn't based on the picture but still involves the people in it?
Hmm for essay writing,if the picture given is Essay Lifestyle: Smoking, a schoolboy beside a car accident,is it acceptable if I write about an in Massachusetts accident completely unrelated with school? Are the use of the picture and words given compulsory? Ty. Rule number one when writing an essay:- 1)Read the question and answer accordingly. If in the question it is on Family Lifestyle: Safety,, stated about school then you should follow it. If not,then you are not bound to walt kowalski, do so. all the best! Kopitiam English can you teach me how to write some article for school newsletter the Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation, example title is (ways to conserve water.
The essay ask to write a report but i write a story.It is take effect if the format is wrong.How many marks that ia can lose?? Yes, if you did not follow the requirements of the question then it will be considered as 'KELUAR TAJUK' and you'll loose a lot of marks. How many marks that i can lose for essay part if my essay is very good but only Essay Should the Death Penalty, wrong format??For example ,the essay ask to write a report but i write a story. Format is only 3 marks but it depends on Essay on Family and Food Sanitation your whole essay. If you say that your essay is walt kowalski, good then you need not worry much because you still have 27 marks left.