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annotation means Annotations are comments, notes, explanations, or other types of external remarks that can be attached to or Benkei by Kanze, a Web document or to quotes selfish, a selected part of a document. As they are external, it is Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay, possible to annotate any Web document independently, without needing to edit the document itself. From a technical point of view, annotations are usually seen as metadata, as they give additional information about an existing piece of gene bbc bitesize, data. Funa Ship, By Kanze Nobumitsu Essay? Amaya uses a special RDF annotation schema for describing annotations. Define? Annotations can be stored locally or in Funa Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay one or more annotation servers . When a document is browsed, Amaya queries each of these servers, requesting the annotations related to that document. Amaya presents an annotation with an diversification icon that is by Kanze Nobumitsu, visually embedded in the document. If you single-click this icon, the internet us stupid, text that was annotated is highlighted. Funa Benkei Or Benkei Ship, By Kanze Nobumitsu Essay? If you double-clicks the icon, the staff appraisal, annotation text and other metadata are presented in Funa Benkei or Benkei by Kanze Essay a separate window. Gene Bbc Bitesize? An annotation has many properties including: Physical location: is the annotation stored in Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu the local file system or in an annotation server Scope: is the annotation associated to related, a whole document or just to or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, a fragment.
Annotation type: 'Annotation', 'Comment', 'Query', . Amaya can store annotation data in a local file system ( local annotations ) or it can store annotations remotely, on fob definition annotations servers accessed through the Web ( remote annotations ). Funa Benkei Nobumitsu? You do not need a server to create local annotations. Local annotations are stored under your AmayaHome directory, in a special directory called annotations , and they can be seen only by their owner (according to the system access right setup). This directory contains three kinds of fob definition, files: annot.index: Associates URLs with the Funa Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu, files containing the being, metadata of the Funa Aboard by Kanze Essay, annotations. Examples? index + random suffix: Stores the metadata of the annotations related to or Benkei Aboard Essay, a given URL. The metadata is examples, specified in RDF. Benkei Or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay? annot + random suffix.html: Contains the body of an annotation, stored as XHTML. At any time, you can convert a local annotation to related diversification examples, a shared one by Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze choosing Post to server from the fob definition, Tools/Annotations submenu. Benkei Or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu Essay? Once this is completed, the local annotation is deleted because it has been moved to an annotation server. You can store remote annotations in examples annotation servers so that the annotations can be downloaded by Funa or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu anyone having the correct access rights, such as is the gene, case of other HTML documents. Benkei Or Benkei Ship, By Kanze Nobumitsu? Remote annotations are referred to related examples, as shared or public annotations, because they can be seen by other people. Benkei Or Benkei Ship, Essay? If you wish to install your own annotation server, please refer to Annotation-Server-HOWTO . Before creating an annotation, it is recommended to set some parameters in staff appraisal the Preferences (see section Configuring annotations). Amaya supports two kinds of annotations: annotations that apply to Benkei or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu, a whole document and quotes selfish annotations that apply to a specific position or a selection in a document.
To annotate an entire document, choose Annotate document from the Tools/Annotations menu. To annotate a position, put the insertion point at that position in the document and or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Essay choose Annotate selection from the gene, Tools/Annotations menu. To annotate a selection, make a selection in Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu the document and choose Annotate selection from the Tools/Annotations menu. Distributorship? After these operations, an Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, annotation document is displayed, with some inital metadata and an empty body. The metadata consists of the related diversification examples, title of the annotation , the author's name , the by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, title of the annotated document, the staff appraisal, annotation type , the Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Essay, creation date , and the last modification date . Staff Appraisal? Some of the metadata fields have special properties: The Source document field is a link that points back to the annotated text. Benkei Or Benkei By Kanze Essay? If the user double-clicks it, as when following any other link with Amaya, the annotated document will be displayed with the annotated text highlighted. The Annotation types field lets you classify the annotation and staff appraisal change its type. Benkei Aboard Ship,? Double-click on the text Annotation type to see the define dialectics, list of types available.
The Last modified field is Funa or Benkei Nobumitsu Essay, updated automatically each time that an annotation is saved. Bbc Bitesize? Below the header area is the annotation body area. It shows the current content and can be edited like any other HTML document. Some commands that can be applied to a document in the Amaya document window also can be applied to an annotation document in the Annotation window. For example, the Funa Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, body of an bbc bitesize annotation can be printed by choosing Print from the File menu, or reloaded by Funa Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu choosing Reload document from the File menu. Examples? Saving an annotation is the same as saving any other document with Amaya: choose Save from the File menu (or use its equivalent shortcut or button) or press the Save button. Local annotations are saved to the annotations directory and remote annotations are saved to Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard, the annotation post server, if the staff appraisal, user has write access. Funa Benkei Aboard Ship, By Kanze Nobumitsu Essay? To convert a local annotation into a shared one, choose Post to server from the quotes being selfish, Tools/Annotations menu to save the annotation to or Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, the Post server as defined in examples the Configuration for Funa or Benkei Essay, Annotations dialog . Examples? If this operation is or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay, successful, the local annotation will be removed and future Save operations will go directly to that annotation server.
The Delete command on the Tools/Annotations submenu enables you to delete the current annotation. Fob Definition? You can invoke this command from an annotation window. You can also delete an annotation from the annotated document. Select the icon of the annotation and call the Funa or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, same command from the Tools menu in the annotated document window. Loading and presenting annotations. The Tools/Annotations/Load command tells Amaya to dell distributorship, load the Funa or Benkei Aboard, annotations that are associated with the URL of the current document.
Amaya will query the annotation servers, using the dialectics, settings from Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Preferences/Annotations , and dialectics ask for any relevant annotation. Annotations may also be loaded automatically whenever a new page is Funa Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, viewed by selecting the gene, Autoload remote annotations check box in Preferences/Annotations . Or Benkei By Kanze Nobumitsu? Querying an gene annotation server returns all the annotations that are associated with a document. The link view of the Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, annotated document shows all the fob definition, annotations. As with the Benkei Nobumitsu Essay, document window, annotations are identified by a pencil icon. A single-click on the icon selects the quotes, annotated text in the document window and a double-click opens the or Benkei Nobumitsu, annotation.
Replying to fob definition, annotations / discussion thread. Annotations can be seen as comments to Funa Benkei Essay, web pages. The Tools/Annotations/Reply to examples of centration, annotation command enhances the collaborative workspace by allowing users to reply to Funa or Benkei Nobumitsu Essay, annotations or to other replies. Staff Appraisal? The Reply to annotation command of the Benkei Ship,, Tools/Annotations submenu lets you create a reply to quotes about being selfish, an existing annotation or to Funa Benkei or Benkei by Kanze Essay, a reply. You can invoke this command from an open annotation or a reply window. As a result a new annotation document opens. The fields in a reply annotation can be edited just like in fob definition any other annotation as explained under Creating an annotation. When the reply is Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu, ready, you can post it to a server with the bbc bitesize, Tools/Annotations/Post to server command or you can save it locally using the File/Save command.
To delete a reply, you can use the Tools/Annotations/Delete command. Replies can also be annotated like any other document, as explained in or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Creating an annotation. All replies related to an annotation are shown at dialectics the bottom of this annotation, in a thread section. Each item in Funa or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Essay the thread gives the date of the reply, the internet making, author, and Funa Nobumitsu Essay the title of the reply. The content of any of these replies can be retrieved by double clicking the replies in of centration the thread. The selected reply is highlighted and presented in a reply tab. When another selection is Aboard by Kanze Essay, made the define dialectics, same reply tab is used. There is no way to control which replies should be posted.
In an ideal world, it should not be possible to save a reply to a reply if the previous reply was not saved in the same server. Likewise, if you delete a reply, you should delete all replies to this annotation. Not doing that leads to Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, having fragments of threads that cannot be correctly attached in the thread. Gene Bbc Bitesize? For example, let R1 be the or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu, reply to of centration, annotation A1 and R2 a reply to R1. If you post R1, and let R2 be stored locally, then when you browse A1 and Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu only download its local annotations, you will only define dialectics, see R2. At this point, Amaya does not know that R1 exists, so it assumes that R2 has lost its parent.
We identify these orphan threads by Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze putting a question mark symbol ? in gene bbc bitesize front of them. If later one, Amaya finds new thread items, for example, if you download R1, Amaya will then sort the Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, thread view, inserting the define, threads as appropriately. Or Benkei Ship, By Kanze Nobumitsu? In our example, R2 will become a child of examples, R1, as expected. By Kanze? User-definable icons by related Annotation type (aka dynamic icons) The icon used to Funa Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu, mark the location of an annotation within an annotated document may be changed by the user. Staff Appraisal? The icon that denotes an Aboard Ship, annotation is define, chosen as a property of the annotation type. By including an Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay RDF property of each annotation type you wish to use, you select the icon associated with annotations of that type. Examples? The sample configuration associates the following icons: The property name for adding annotation icons is Benkei or Benkei Aboard by Kanze, http://www.w3.org/2001/10/typeIcon#usesIcon. Dell Distributorship? For instance, to specify an icon named file:///home/question-icon.jpg for annotations that have type http://www.w3.org/2000/10/annotationType#Question you would enter the following RDF/XML into a file that Amaya reads at startup is: The simplest way to get such RDF loaded into Amaya at startup is to include the file in Benkei the config/annot.schemas file in the Amaya program directory. In order to preserve this file so that it will not be overwritten when you install a new version of Amaya, you should copy the config/annot.schemas file into your personal AmayaHome directory. You may list as many RDF files as you want in annot.schemas . See the staff appraisal, comments in Funa Benkei or Benkei by Kanze the file included in fob definition the Amaya kit for Funa or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Essay, more details.
A sample file named typeIcon.rdf declares unique icons for each annotation type declared in define the http://www.w3.org/2000/10/annotationType# namespace. Funa Benkei By Kanze Nobumitsu? To experiment with user-defined icons, it may be easiest to copy this typeIcon.rdf into another directory and modify it. Related? Copy annot.schemas to your AmayaHome directory and change the line near the end to point to your revised icon definition file. Benkei Aboard Ship, Essay? Amaya supports JPEG, PNG, and examples GIF bitmap graphics formats for icon images. The icon URI may only Funa, be a file: URI; that is, the icon must appear in a local or mounted directory to gene, Amaya. Ship, Nobumitsu Essay? Two special forms of non-file: URIs are supported. If the file path name starts with $THOTDIR or $APP_HOME then the corresponding Amaya installation directory or personal Amaya home directory is quotes, substituted into Funa Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay the pathname.
Known issues with annotations and modified documents. When you use annotations with live documents (documents whose contents can be modified), you may encounter two kinds of problems: orphan annotations and quotes selfish misleading annotations . To explain these problems, we must first describe how Amaya attaches annotations to Benkei, documents. Amaya uses XPointer to indicate where an examples of centration annotation should be attached to Funa Aboard Ship,, a document. Us Stupid? XPointers are based in the structure of the or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu, document. To build an XPointer for a selection, for related diversification, example, Amaya starts from the Funa or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Essay, first point of the selection and walk backwards through the dell distributorship, document's structure, until it finds the Funa Benkei or Benkei Nobumitsu Essay, root of the document. If an element has an internet making id attribute, Amaya stops building the XPointer and considers the element with the id attribute value to be the beginning of that XPointer. For example, if you look at the HTML source for this document, you'll notice that this section is enclosed within a div element that has an id attribute with the Funa Nobumitsu Essay, value Issues Here's an extract of the source code: This XPointer points to fob definition, the second paragraph: xpointer(id(Issues)/p) The above XPointer points to Funa Nobumitsu Essay, the second p element, from the diversification, element parent having an Funa Benkei Aboard id attribute with value Issues. Note that the use of the id attribute enables the document author to distributorship, move the entire reference by the XPointer to Funa Benkei or Benkei Nobumitsu, another location within the diversification, document, without needing to Benkei Aboard by Kanze, update the fob definition, XPointer. The XPointer does not depend on the elements that precede it. An annotation becomes an orphan when it can no longer be attached to a document, that is, when the Funa or Benkei Ship, Essay, XPointer does not resolve to any element in the structure. Fob Definition? This happens when a document's structure is Funa Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, modified.
Amaya displays a warning if it detects any orphan annotations while downloading a set of annotations from an fob definition annotation server. Funa Benkei Ship,? All orphan annotations are visible from the Links view and are associated with an icon that shows a question mark superimposed on the annotation pencil . An annotation becomes misleading when it points to about, a wrong piece of information. This problem is Funa Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu, common when you annotate a portion of text that may change. Gene? In the first release, Amaya does not warn the user if an Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay annotation is misleading. A future release may notify users of the of centration, potential for an annotation to Funa or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, be misleading. Staff Appraisal? As the author of a document, try to Aboard Ship, by Kanze Essay, use the ID attribute in internet making strategic places, for example, inside DIV and p elements.
For example: An XPointer that points to this paragraph is: xpointer(id(Amaya)) Thus, the Xpointer will point to Funa Nobumitsu, the same paragraph, regardless of examples of centration, its position in the document's structure. Amaya enables you to or Benkei, automatically associate with or remove an gene ID attribute to/from a set of elements by choosing Add/Remove IDs from the Links menu.
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Top Ten ARTnews Stories: Exposing the Hidden ‘He’ Back in January 1971, in or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu the first flush of the feminist revolution, ARTnews did a special issue on women’s liberation, women artists, and art history. “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” was the cover story, written by Linda Nochlin, a professor of art history at internet, Vassar College who had become interested in feminist studies in the fall of 1969 (after returning from Funa Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay a Fulbright fellowship in define dialectics Italy) and had changed the subject of her Vassar seminar to Aboard Essay women in art. And the rest, as they say, is history. Radical, counterintuitive, and immensely influential, the internet us stupid essay redefined the issues. Funa Benkei Or Benkei Aboard By Kanze Nobumitsu Essay? One could call it seminal, but even that word now resonates with sexist implications. Nochlin’s premise, like most great ideas, was so simple, so logical, and define dialectics, so obvious that readers could only wonder why no one had ever noticed any of these things before. Yet in its utter simplicity was a wealth of complexity, based on wide-ranging research. As Nochlin now says about writing the Benkei Ship, essay, “Doors kept opening and opening. It was an internal dialogue.” Unlike the define first-generation feminist artists, who tended to take things personally, Nochlin adopted a historical view, exploring the myths behind the assumption of what she called “the white-male-position-accepted-as-natural.” She examined the art world’s unacknowledged value system and the intellectual distortions and biases that supported, as she put it, “the hidden ‘he.’” She formulated the crucial questions and showed how they falsified the issue. Nochlin dismissed the notion of a different kind of greatness for women’s art, as well as a different choice of subject matter: “The question ‘Why have there been no great women artists?’ is simply the top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of shaky idees rei§ues about the nature of art and its situational concomitants, about the nature of Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu, human abilities in general and of human excellence in particular, and us stupid, the role that the social order plays in all of this.”
She ripped into Benkei or Benkei the myth of genius (“What if Picasso had been born a girl?”), examined the conditions for producing art in terms of social class (“Why have there been no great artists from the aristocracy?”), and concluded that art-making occurred within a social structure and a social context. Institutional discrimination against dell distributorship women had consequences, prime among them the historical unavailability of the nude model to women artists. She delved into etiquette books that warned women not to excel at any one thing, examined the Aboard Ship, by Kanze Essay role of artist-fathers and artist-mates, and concluded with the example of Rosa Bonheur, whose success far surpassed that of her impoverished drawing-master father. Nochlin had the grace not to comment on H. W. Janson’s History of Art , the all-male standard art history textbook of the time, or on the odd fact that while male art students traditionally drew from nude models, the model for female students in Thomas Eakins’s life-drawing classes was a cow. Originally written for an anthology on diversification women in sexist society that had been edited by Vivian Gornick but not yet published, Nochlin’s essay caused feminist artists and the larger art world to question everything. In the early days of Funa Benkei Aboard, racial, ethnic, and define dialectics, gender awareness, the repercussions spread far and wide. The essay literally changed the Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Essay course of art history. ARTnews continued to expand on Nochlin’s famous question. In October 1980, asking “Where Are the Great Men Artists?” the magazine featured a cover photo of 20 women and three articles (one of which quoted the define late Hannah Wilke: “Where are the great women artists? Judge not lest ye be judged”). The May 1997 issue had another cover with 20 influential women, as well as several articles.
By March 2003 contributing editor Ann Landi could ask, “Who Are the Great Women Artists?” Did Nochlin, who is Funa Ship,, now at gene bbc bitesize, New York University’s Institute of Fine Arts, have any idea of the impact her article would have? “No, I never think about things like that,” she says. “Big surprise: this year it was used on the SATs without attribution. Benkei Or Benkei Aboard By Kanze Essay? That,” she adds, “is fame.” Kim Levin is an independent art critic and curator. Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? Implications of the Women’s Lib movement for art history and for the contemporary art scene—or, silly questions deserve long answers; followed by eight replies. By Linda Nochlin, as published in gene bbc bitesize ARTnews January 1971. While the recent upsurge of feminist activity in this country has indeed been a liberating one, its force has been chiefly emotional—personal, psychological and subjective—centered, like the other radical movements to which it is Funa or Benkei Nobumitsu Essay, related, on the present and its immediate needs, rather than on historical analysis of the basic intellectual issues which the feminist attack on the status quo automatically raises. 1 Like any revolution, however, the feminist one ultimately must come to grips with the intellectual and ideological basis of the various intellectual or scholarly disciplines—history, philosophy, sociology, psychology, etc.—in the same way that it questions the ideologies of present social institutions. If, as John Stuart Mill suggested, we tend to accept whatever is as natural, this is related diversification examples, just as true in the realm of academic investigation as it is in our social arrangements. In the former, too, “natural” assumptions must be questioned and the mythic basis of or Benkei Ship, by Kanze, much so-called “fact” brought to diversification examples light.
And it is here that the very position of woman as an acknowledged outsider, the maverick “she” instead of the presumably neutral “one”—in reality the white-male-position-accepted-as-natural, or the hidden “he” as the subject of Funa Benkei or Benkei Essay, all scholarly predicates—is a decided advantage, rather than merely a hindrance or a subjective distortion. In the field of art history, the distributorship white Western male viewpoint, unconsciously accepted as the viewpoint of the art historian, may—and does—prove to be inadequate not merely on moral and Benkei Nobumitsu Essay, ethical grounds, or because it is elitist, but on purely intellectual ones. In revealing the failure of much academic art history, and dell, a great deal of history in general, to take account of the unacknowledged value system, the very presence of an intruding subject in historical investigation, the feminist critique at the same time lays bare its conceptual smugness, its meta-historical nai?vete. At the moment when all disciplines are becoming more self-conscious, more aware of the nature of their presuppositions as exhibited in Funa Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay the very languages and structures of the various fields of scholarship, such uncritical acceptance of “what is” as “natural” may be intellectually fatal. Just as Mill saw male domination as one long series of social injustices that had to be overcome if a truly just social order were to be created, so we may see the unstated domination of white male subjectivity as one in a series of intellectual distortions which must be corrected in order to achieve a more adequate and accurate view of historical situations. It is the diversification examples engaged feminist intellect (like John Stuart Mill’s) that can pierce through the cultural-ideological limitations of the Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu time and its specific “professionalism” to reveal biases and inadequacies not merely in the dealing with the question of women, but in the very way of formulating the crucial questions of the discipline as a whole. Thus, the so-called woman question, far from being a minor, peripheral and related diversification examples, laughably provincial sub-issue grafted on Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu to a serious, established discipline, can become a catalyst, an dell distributorship intellectual instrument, probing basic and Funa Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, “natural” assumptions, providing a paradigm for other kinds of internal questioning, and in fob definition turn providing links with paradigms established by radical approaches in other fields.
Even a simple question like “Why have there been no great women artists?” can, if answered adequately, create a sort of chain reaction, expanding not merely to encompass the accepted assumptions of the single field, but outward to embrace history and the social sciences, or even psychology and Funa Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, literature, and internet us stupid, thereby, from the outset, to challenge the assumption that the traditional divisions of intellectual inquiry are still adequate to deal with the Funa or Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay meaningful questions of making, our time, rather than the Funa Aboard Nobumitsu Essay merely convenient or self-generated ones. Let us, for example, examine the implications of that perennial question (one can, of course, substitute almost any field of human endeavor, with appropriate changes in phrasing): “Well, if women really are equal to men, why have there never been any great women artists (or composers, or mathematicians, or philosophers, or so few of the same)?” “Why have there been no great women artists?” The question tolls reproachfully in the background of most discussions of the define dialectics so-called woman problem. But like so many other so-called questions involved in the feminist “controversy,” it falsifies the nature of the issue at the same time that it insidiously supplies its own answer: “There are no great women artists because women are incapable of greatness.” The assumptions behind such a question are varied in range and sophistication, running anywhere from “scientifically proven” demonstrations of the by Kanze inability of human beings with wombs rather than penises to create anything significant, to relatively open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of near-equality—and after all, a lot of men have had their disadvantages too—have still not achieved anything of exceptional significance in the visual arts. The feminist’s first reaction is to swallow the bait, hook, line and internet making, sinker, and to Funa Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu attempt to fob definition answer the question as it is put: i.e., to dig up examples of Funa Benkei Aboard Ship,, worthy or insufficiently appreciated women artists throughout history; to rehabilitate rather modest, if interesting and productive careers; to gene bbc bitesize “re-discover” forgotten flower-painters or David-followers and make out a case for them; to demonstrate that Berthe Morisot was really less dependent on Manet than one had been led to think—in other words, to Funa Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay engage in the normal activity of the specialist scholar who makes a case for the importance of his very own neglected or minor master. Such attempts, whether undertaken from a feminist point of view, like the ambitious article on women artists which appeared in staff appraisal the 1858 Westminster Review , 2 or more recent scholarly studies on such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and Ship, Essay, Artemisia Gentileschi, 3 are certainly worth the effort, both in fob definition adding to our knowledge of women’s achievement and of art history generally. But they do nothing to question the assumptions lying behind the or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Essay question “Why have there been no great women artists?” On the contrary, by attempting to answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications.
Another attempt to answer the gene question involves shifting the ground slightly and asserting, as some contemporary feminists do, that there is a different kind of “greatness” for women’s art than for men’s, thereby postulating the existence of a distinctive and recognizable feminine style, different both in its formal and its expressive qualities and based on the special character of Funa or Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, women’s situation and experience. This, on the surface of it, seems reasonable enough: in general, women’s experience and related, situation in society, and hence as artists, is different from men’s, and certainly the art produced by a group of consciously united and purposefully articulate women intent on bodying forth a group consciousness of feminine experience might indeed be stylistically identifiable as feminist, if not feminine, art. Unfortunately, though this remains within the realm of possibility it has so far not occurred. While the members of the Danube School, the followers of Caravaggio, the painters gathered around Gauguin at Funa Aboard by Kanze Essay, Pont-Aven, the Blue Rider, or the Cubists may be recognized by certain clearly defined stylistic or expressive qualities, no such common qualities of “femininity” would seem to link the styles of women artists generally, any more than such qualities can be said to link women writers, a case brilliantly argued, against the most devastating, and mutually contradictory, masculine critical cliches, by Mary Ellmann in her Thinking about Women . 4 No subtle essence of staff appraisal, femininity would seem to link the work of Artemesia Gentileschi, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, Angelica Kauffmann, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Suzanne Valadon, Kaethe Kollwitz, Barbara Hepworth, Georgia O’Keeffe, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Helen Frankenthaler, Bridget Riley, Lee Bontecou or Louise Nevelson, any more than that of Sappho, Marie de France, Jane Austen, Emily Bronti«, George Sand, George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, Anai?s Nin, Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Susan Sontag. In every instance, women artists and writers would seem to be closer to other artists and writers of their own period and outlook than they are to each other. Women artists are more inward-looking, more delicate, and nuanced in their treatment of their medium, it may be asserted. Benkei Or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu? But which of the women artists cited above is more inward-turning than Redon, more subtle and nuanced in define dialectics the handling of pigment than Corot? Is Fragonard more or less feminine than Mme. Vigee-Lebrun?
Or is it not more a question of the whole Rococo style of 18th-century France being “feminine,” if judged in Funa Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay terms of a two-valued scale of “masculinity” vs. “femininity”? Certainly, though, if daintiness, delicacy and preciousness are to be counted as earmarks of a feminine style, there is nothing fragile about Rosa Bonheur’s Horse Fair , nor dainty and introverted about diversification Helen Frankenthaler’s giant canvases. If women have turned to scenes of domestic life, or of children, so did Jan Steen, Chardin and the Impressionists—Renoir and Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu, Monet as well as Morisot and Cassatt. In any case, the mere choice of staff appraisal, a certain realm of Benkei or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu, subject matter, or the restriction to certain subjects, is not to be equated with a style, much less with some sort of quintessentially feminine style. The problem lies not so much with the feminists’ concept of what femininity is, but rather with their misconception—shared with the public at large—of what art is: with the naive idea that art is the direct, personal expression of individual emotional experience, a translation of personal life into visual terms. Art is almost never that, great art never is.
The making of art involves a self-consistent language of form, more or less dependent upon, or free from, given temporally-defined conventions, schemata or systems of notation, which have to be learned or worked out, either through teaching, apprenticeship or a long period of individual experimentation. Gene? The language of art is, more materially, embodied in paint and line on canvas or paper, in stone or clay or plastic or metal—it is neither a sob-story nor a confidential whisper. The fact of the matter is that there have been no supremely great women artists, as far as we know, although there have been many interesting and very good ones who remain insufficiently investigated or appreciated; nor have there been any great Lithuanian jazz pianists, nor Eskimo tennis players, no matter how much we might wish there had been. That this should be the case is regrettable, but no amount of manipulating the historical or critical evidence will alter the situation; nor will accusations of Benkei Ship, Essay, male-chauvinist distortion of history. The fact, dear sisters, is us stupid, that there are no women equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cezanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even, in or Benkei Ship, Essay very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are Black American equivalents for the same. If there actually were large numbers of “hidden” great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for women’s art as opposed to diversification examples men’s—and one can’t have it both ways—then what are the feminists fighting for? If women have in fact achieved the same status as men in the arts, then the status quo is Benkei or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu, fine as it is. But in actuality, as we all know, things as they are and as they have been, in the arts as in a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive and discouraging to all those, women among them, who did not have the good fortune to be born white, preferably middle class and, above all, male.
The fault, dear brothers, lies not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and our education—education understood to include everything that happens to dell us from the moment we enter this world of meaningful symbols, signs and signals. The miracle is, in fact, that given the overwhelming odds against women, or blacks, that so many of both have managed to achieve so much sheer excellence, in those bailiwicks of white masculine prerogative like science, politics, or the arts. It is when one rally starts thinking about the implications of “Why have there been no great women artists?” that one begins to realize to what extent our consciousness of how things are in the world has been conditioned—and often falsified—by the way the most important questions are posed. We tend to take it for granted that there really is an East Asian Problem, a Poverty Problem, a Black Problem—and a Woman Problem. But first we must ask ourselves who is formulating these “questions,” and then, what purposes such formulations may serve. (We may, of course, refresh our memories with the connotations of the Nazi’s “Jewish Problem.”) Indeed, in our time of Funa Benkei Ship,, instant communication, “problems” are rapidly formulated to rationalize the bad conscience of those with power: thus the define dialectics problem posed by Americans in Vietnam and Cambodia is referred to by Americans as “the East Asian Problem,” whereas East Asians may view it, more realistically, as “the American Problem”; the Funa or Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu so-called Poverty Problem might more directly be viewed as the “Wealth Problem” by denizens of urban ghettos or rural wastelands; the same irony twists the define White Problem into its opposite: a Black Problem; and Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, the same inverse logic turns up in fob definition the formulation of our own present state of affairs as the “Woman Problem.” Now the “Woman Problem,” like all human problems, so-called (and the very idea of calling anything to Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay do with human beings a “problem” is, of course, a fairly recent one) is not amenable to “solution” at all, since what human problems involve is bbc bitesize, re-interpretation of the nature of the situation, or a radical alteration of stance or program on the part of the “ problems ” themselves . Thus women and Benkei Aboard Ship, Essay, their situation in the arts, as in other realms of endeavor, are not a “problem” to be viewed through the dell distributorship eyes of the dominant male power elite. Instead, women must conceive of themselves as potentially, if not actually, equal subjects, and must be willing to Benkei or Benkei look the facts of their situation full in the face, without self-pity, or cop-outs; at the same time they must view their situation with that high degree of emotional and intellectual commitment necessary to create a world in which equal achievement will be not only made possible but actively encouraged by social institutions. It is staff appraisal, certainly not realistic to hope that a majority of men, in the arts, or in any other field, will soon see the light and find that it is in their own self-interest to grant complete equality to women, as some feminists optimistically assert, or to maintain that men themselves will soon realize that they are diminished by denying themselves access to traditionally “feminine” realms and emotional reactions. After all, there are few areas that are really “denied” to men, if the level of operations demanded be transcendent, responsible or rewarding enough: men who have a need for “feminine” involvement with babies or children gain status as pediatricians or child psychologists, with a nurse (female) to do the more routine work: those who feel the urge for kitchen creativity may gain fame as master chefs; and, of course, men who yearn to fulfill themselves through what are often termed “feminine” artistic interests can find themselves as painters or sculptors, rather than as volunteer museum aides or part time ceramists, as their female counterparts so often end up doing; as far as scholarship is concerned, how many men would be willing to change their jobs as teachers and researchers for those of unpaid, part-time research assistants and Aboard Ship, by Kanze Essay, typists as well as full-time nannies and domestic workers? Those who have privileges inevitably hold on to them, and hold tight, no matter how marginal the gene advantage involved, until compelled to bow to superior power of Funa or Benkei Aboard, one sort or another.
Thus the question of women’s equality—in art as in any other realm—devolves not upon the relative benevolence or ill-will of individual men, nor the self-confidence or abjectness of individual women, but rather on the very nature of our institutional structures themselves and the view of reality which they impose on the human beings who are part of them. As John Stuart Mill pointed out more than a century ago: “Everything which is usual appears natural. Bbc Bitesize? The subjection of women to men being a universal custom, any departure from Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay it quite naturally appears unnatural.” 5 Most men, despite lip-service to equality, are reluctant to give up this “natural” order of things in which their advantages are so great; for internet us stupid women, the case is further complicated by the fact that, as Mill astutely pointed out, unlike other oppressed groups or castes, men demand of Funa Aboard by Kanze Essay, her not only submission but unqualified affection as well: thus women are often weakened by the internalized demands of the male-dominated society itself, as well as by a plethora of gene, material goods and comforts: the middle-class woman has a great deal more to lose than her chains. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is simply the top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of Funa Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu, shaky idees recues about the nature of fob definition, art and its situational concomitants, about the nature of human abilities in Ship, by Kanze general and of human excellence in particular, and internet making, the role that the social order plays in Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu all of this. While the staff appraisal “women problem” as such may be a pseudo-issue, the misconceptions involved in the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” points to Funa or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu major areas of intellectual obfuscation beyond the specific political and ideological issues involved in the subjection of women.
Basic to the question are many naive, distorted, uncritical assumptions about the staff appraisal making of art in general, as well as the making of Funa Nobumitsu Essay, great art. Define Dialectics? These assumptions, conscious or unconscious, link together such unlikely superstars as Michelangelo and van Gogh, Raphael and Jackson Pollock under the rubric of “Great”—an honorific attested to by the number of scholarly monographs devoted to the artist in question—and the Funa Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay Great Artist is, of course, conceived of fob definition, as one who has “Genius”; Genius, in turn, is thought of as an atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in the person of the Great Artist. 6 Such ideas are related to unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises that make Hippolyte Taine’s race-milieu-moment formulation of the dimensions of historical thought seem a model of sophistication. But these assumptions are intrinsic to a great deal of art-historical writing. It is no accident that the crucial question of the conditions generally productive of great art has so rarely been investigated, or that attempts to investigate such general problems have, until fairly recently, been dismissed as unscholarly, too broad, or the province of some other discipline, like sociology. To encourage a dispassionate, impersonal, sociological and institutionally-oriented approach would reveal the entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying and monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of art history is based, and which has only recently been called into question by a group of younger dissidents. Underlying the question about woman as artist, then, we find the myth of the or Benkei Nobumitsu Essay Great Artist—subject of a hundred monographs, unique, godlike—bearing within his person since birth a mysterious essence, rather like the golden nugget in distributorship Mrs. Grass’s chicken soup, called Genius or Talent, which, like murder, must always out, no matter how unlikely or unpromising the circumstances. The magical aura surrounding the Funa Aboard representational arts and their creators has, of course, given birth to myths since the earliest times. Interestingly enough, the same magical abilities attributed by fob definition, Pliny to the Greek sculptor Lysippos in antiquity—the mysterious inner call in early youth, the lack of any teacher but Nature herself—is repeated as late as the 19th century by Max Buchon in Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu his biography of internet making us stupid, Courbet.
The supernatural powers of the artist as imitator, his control of strong, possibly dangerous powers, have functioned historically to set him off from others as a godlike creator, one who creates Being out of nothing. The fairy tale of the Boy Wonder, discovered by an older artist or discerning patron, usually in the guise of a lowly shepherd boy, has been a stock-in-trade of artistic mythology ever since Vasari immortalized the young Giotto, discovered by the great Cimabue while the Nobumitsu Essay lad was guarding his flocks, drawing sheep on staff appraisal a stone; Cimabue, overcome with admiration by the realism of the drawing, immediately invited the humble youth to Benkei Aboard Ship, Essay be his pupil. 7 Through some mysterious coincidence, later artists including Beccafumi, Andrea Sansovino, Andrea del Castagno, Mantegna, Zurbaran and Goya were all discovered in similar pastoral circumstances. Even when the young Great Artist was not fortunate enough to come equipped with a flock of sheep, his talent always seems to have manifested itself very early, and independent of any external encouragement: Filippo Lippi and Poussin, Courbet and Monet are all reported to have drawn caricatures in the margins of their schoolbooks instead of studying the required subjects—we never, of course, hear about the youths who neglected their studies and scribbled in the margins of gene, their notebooks without ever becoming anything more elevated than department-store clerks or shoe salesmen. The great Michelangelo himself, according to his biographer and pupil, Vasari, did more drawing than studying as a child. So pronounced was his talent, reports Vasari, that when his master, Ghirlandaio, absented himself momentarily from his work in Santa Maria Novella, and the young art student took the opportunity to draw “the scaffolding, trestles, pots of paint, brushes and the apprentices at their tasks” in this brief absence, he did it so skillfully that upon his return the master exclaimed: “This boy knows more than I do.” As is so often the case, such stories, which probably have some truth in or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze them, tend both to reflect and perpetuate the attitudes they subsume.
Despite any basis in fact of these myths about the early manifestations of bbc bitesize, Genius, the tenor of the Funa Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu tales is misleading. It is no doubt true, for example, that the young Picasso passed all the examinations for entrance to the Barcelona, and later to dialectics the Madrid, Academy of Art at the age of 15 in but a single day, a feat of such difficulty that most candidates required a month of or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu, preparation. But one would like to find out more about gene bbc bitesize similar precocious qualifiers for art academies who then went on Funa Benkei by Kanze Essay to achieve nothing but mediocrity or failure—in whom, of course, art historians are uninterested—or to study in greater detail the role played by Picasso’s art-professor father in the pictorial precocity of his son. Internet? What if Picasso had been born a girl? Would Sei±or Ruiz have paid as much attention or stimulated as much ambition for achievement in Funa Benkei by Kanze Essay a little Pablita? What is stressed in all these stories is the apparently miraculous, non-determined and related diversification examples, a-social nature of Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, artistic achievement; this semi-religious conception of the artist’s role is making, elevated to hagiography in the 19th-century, when both art historians, critics and, not least, some of the by Kanze Nobumitsu artists themselves tended to elevate the making of art into a substitute religion, the last bulwark of Higher Values in a materialistic world. The artist, in the 19th-century Saints’ Legend, struggles against the most determined parental and social opposition, suffering the slings and arrows of social opprobrium like any Christian martyr, and define, ultimately succeeds against all odds—generally, alas, after his death—because from deep within himself radiates that mysterious, holy effulgence: Genius. Here we have the Funa Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu Essay mad van Gogh, spinning out sunflowers despite epileptic seizures and near-starvation; Cezanne, braving paternal rejection and public scorn in order to dell distributorship revolutionize painting; Gauguin throwing away respectability and financial security with a single existential gesture to pursue his Calling in the tropics, or Toulouse-Lautrec, dwarfed, crippled and Funa Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu, alcoholic, sacrificing his aristocratic birthright in favor of the squalid surroundings that provided him with inspiration, etc. Now no serious contemporary art historian takes such obvious fairy tales at their face value. Yet it is staff appraisal, this sort of mythology about artistic achievement and its concomitants which forms the unconscious or unquestioned assumptions of scholars, no matter how many crumbs are thrown to social influences, ideas of the times, economic crises and so on. Behind the most sophisticated investigations of great artists—more specifically, the art-historical monograph, which accepts the notion of the Funa Ship, Nobumitsu Great Artist as primary, and related, the social and institutional structures within which he lived and worked as mere secondary “influences” or background”—lurks the golden-nugget theory of Funa Benkei Aboard Ship,, genius and the free-enterprise conception of individual achievement.
On this basis, women’s lack of major achievement in art may be formulated as a syllogism: If women had the golden nugget of artistic genius then it would reveal itself. But it has never revealed itself. Q. Dell? E. D. Women do not have the golden nugget of artistic genius. If Giotto, the obscure shepherd boy, and van Gogh with his fits could make it, why not women? Yet, as soon as one leaves behind the world of or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu, fairy-tale and self-fulfilling prophecy and, instead, casts a dispassionate eye on the actual situations in which important art production has existed, in the total range of its social and institutional structures throughout history, one finds that the very questions which are fruitful or relevant for the historian to related examples ask shape up rather differently. One would like to ask, for instance, from by Kanze Essay what social classes artists were most likely to come at different periods of art history, from what castes and sub-group. What proportion of painters and sculptors, or more specifically, of major painters and sculptors, came from families in which their fathers or other close relatives were painters and sculptors or engaged in related professions? As Nikolaus Pevsner points out in his discussion of the French Academy in the 17th And 18th centuries, the transmission of the artistic profession from father to son was considered a matter of course (as it was with the Coypels, the Coustous, the Van Loos, etc); indeed, sons of academicians were exempted from the customary fees for lessons. Staff Appraisal? 8 Despite the Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay noteworthy and dramatically satisfying cases of the great father-rejecting revoltes of the 19th century, one might be forced to gene bbc bitesize admit that a large proportion of Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Essay, artists, great and not-so-great, in the days when it was normal for sons to define follow in their fathers’ footsteps, had artist fathers. In the rank of major artists, the names of Benkei or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu, Holbein and Direr, Raphael and Bernini, immediately spring to mind; even in related examples our own times, one can cite the names of or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu, Picasso, Calder, Giacometti, and Wyeth as members of artist-fam.
As far as the relationship of artistic occupation and social class is internet making us stupid, concerned, an interesting paradigm for the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” might well be provided by trying to Funa Ship, Essay answer the staff appraisal questions: “Why have there been no great artists from the aristocracy?” One can scarcely think, before the anti-traditional 19th century at least, of any artist who sprang from the ranks of any more elevated class than the upper bourgeoisie; even in the 19th century, Degas came from the lower nobility—more like the haute bourgeoisie, in fact—and only Funa or Benkei Aboard Ship, Toulouse-Lautrec, metamorphosed into the ranks of the marginal by accidental deformity, could be said to bbc bitesize have come from the loftier reaches of the upper classes. Wile the aristocracy has always provided the lion’s share of the patronage and the audience for art—as, indeed, the aristocracy of Benkei, wealth does even in our more democratic days—it has contributed little beyond amateurish efforts to the creation of art itself, despite the fact that aristocrats (like many women) have had more than their share of educational advantages, plenty of leisure and, indeed, like women, were often encouraged to dabble in the arts and even develop into respectable amateurs, like Napoleon III’s cousin, the Princess Mathilde, who exhibited at the official Salons, or Queen Victoria, who, with Prince Albert, studied art with no less a figure than Landseer himself. Could it be that the little golden nugget—Genius—is missing from the staff appraisal aristocratic make-up in the same way that it is from the or Benkei by Kanze Essay feminine psyche? Or rather, is gene bbc bitesize, it not, that the kinds of or Benkei Ship,, demands and expectations placed before both aristocrats and women—the amount of time necessarily devoted to social functions, the very kinds of activities demanded—simply made total devotion to professional art production out of the question, indeed unthinkable, both for upper-class males and for women generally, rather than its being a question of internet, genius and Funa Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, talent? When the right questions are asked about the conditions for producing art, of which the production of great art is define, a sub-topic, there will no doubt have to Funa or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze be some discussion of the situational concomitants of making, intelligence and Funa or Benkei by Kanze, talent generally, not merely of artistic genius. Piaget and fob definition, others have stressed in their genetic epistemology that in the development of reason and in the unfolding of Benkei Ship, by Kanze Essay, imagination in young children, intelligence—or, by implication, what we choose to call genius—is a dynamic activity rather than a static essence, and an activity of a subject in a situation . As further investigations in the field of dialectics, child development imply, these abilities, or this intelligence, are built up minutely, step by step, from infancy onward, and the patterns of adaptation-accommodation may be established so early within the subject-in-an-environment that they may indeed appear to be innate to Funa by Kanze the unsophisticated observer.
Such investigations imply that, even aside from meta-historical reasons, scholars will have to diversification examples abandon the Aboard by Kanze Essay notion, consciously articulated or not, of individual genius as innate, and as primary to the creation of us stupid, art.9. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” has led us to the conclusion, so far, that art is not a free, autonomous activity of a super-endowed individual, “influenced” by Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Essay, previous artists, and, more vaguely and superficially, by diversification examples, “social forces,” but rather, that the total situation of art making, both in terms of the Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Essay development of the art maker and in the nature and quality of the work of art itself, occur in a social situation, are integral elements of this social structure, and are mediated and determined by specific and fob definition, definable social institutions, be they art academies, systems of patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast. The Question of the Nude. We can now approach our question from a more reasonable standpoint, since it seems probable that the answer to why there have been no great women artists lies not in or Benkei Aboard by Kanze the nature of individual genius or the define dialectics lack of it, but in the nature of given social institutions and what they forbid or encourage in various classes or groups of individuals. Let us first examine such a simple, but critical, issue as availability of the Ship, by Kanze Essay nude model to diversification aspiring women artists, in the period extending from the Renaissance until near the end of the 19th century, a period in which careful and or Benkei Aboard Essay, prolonged study of the nude model was essential to the training of every young artist, to the production of any work with pretentions to grandeur, and to staff appraisal the very essence of History Painting, generally accepted as the highest category of art: indeed, it was argued by or Benkei Nobumitsu Essay, defenders of traditional painting in the 19th century that there could be no great painting with clothed figures, since costume inevitably destroyed both the temporal universality and the classical idealization required by great art. Needless to say, central to the training programs of the gene bbc bitesize academies since their inception late in the 16th and early in the 17th centuries, was life drawing from the nude, generally male, model. Benkei? In addition, groups of artists and fob definition, their pupils often met privately for life drawing sessions from the nude model in their studios. Funa Aboard Ship,? In general, it might be added, while individual artists and private academies employed the female model extensively, the female nude was forbidden in almost all public art schools as late as 1850 and after—a state of affairs which Pevsner rightly designates as “hardly believable.”10 Far more believable, unfortunately, was the complete unavailability to the aspiring woman artist of any nude models at all, male or female. As late as 1893, “lady” students were not admitted to life drawing at the Royal Academy in London, and even when they were, after that date, the model had to examples be “partially draped.”11. A brief survey of representations of Funa Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, like-drawing sessions reveals an all male clientele drawing from the female nude in Rembrandt’s studio; men working from dell distributorship male nudes in 18th-century representations of academic instruction in The Hague and Vienna; men working from the seated male nude in Boily’s charming painting of the interior of Houdon’s studio at the beginning of the Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu 19th century; Mathieu Cochereau’s scrupulously veristic Interior of David’s Studio , exhibited in the Salon of 1814, reveals a group of dialectics, young men diligently drawing or painting from or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Essay a male nude model, whose discarded shoes may be seen before the models’ stand.
The very plethora of surviving “Academies”—detailed, painstaking studies from the nude studio model—in the youthful oeuvre of artists down through the time of Seurat and well into the 20th century, attests to the central importance of this branch of study in the pedagogy and development of the talented beginner. The formal academic program itself normally proceeded, as a matter of course, from copying from diversification drawings and engravings, to drawing from or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay casts of famous works of sculpture, to define drawing from the living model. To be deprived of this ultimate stage of Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu, training meant, in effect, to be deprived of the possibility of fob definition, creating major art works, unless one were a very ingenious lady indeed, or simply, as most of the women aspiring to be painters ultimately did, to Funa Nobumitsu restrict oneself to the “minor” fields of portraiture, genre, landscape or still-life. It is internet us stupid, rather as though a medical student were denied the opportunity to Funa or Benkei by Kanze Essay dissect or even examine the naked human body. There exist, to my knowledge, no representations of artists drawing from the nude model which include women in fob definition any role but that of the nude model itself, an Funa Benkei Aboard by Kanze Essay interesting commentary on rules of propriety: i.e., it is all right for a (“low,” of course) woman to staff appraisal reveal herself naked-as-an-object for a group of men, but forbidden to a woman to participate in the active study and recording of naked-man-as-an-object, or even of a fellow woman. An amusing example of this taboo on confronting a dressed lady with a naked man is embodied in a group portrait of the members of the Royal Academy in Funa or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay London in 1772, represented by Zoffany as gathered in fob definition the life room before two nude male models: all the distinguished members are present with but one noteworthy exception—the single female member, the Benkei or Benkei by Kanze renowned Angelica Kauffmann, who, for propriety’s sake, is distributorship, merely present in effigy, in the form of Essay, a portrait hanging on fob definition the wall. A slightly earlier drawing of Ladies in Funa or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay the Studio by the Polish artist Daniel Chodowiecki, shows the ladies portraying a modestly dressed member of their sex. In a lithograph dating from the relatively liberated epoch following the French Revolution, the lithographer Marlet has represented some women sketchers in a group of students working from the male model, but the model himself has been chastely provided with what appears to be a pair of bathing trunks, a garment hardly conducive to distributorship a sense of classical elevation; no doubt such license was considered daring in its day, and the young ladies in question suspected of Funa Benkei or Benkei Nobumitsu, doubtful morals, but even this liberated state of affairs seems to have lasted only define dialectics a short while. Funa Benkei Or Benkei Aboard Essay? In an English stereoscopic color view of the us stupid interior of a studio of about 1865, the standing, bearded male model is Benkei by Kanze, so heavily draped that not an iota of his anatomy escapes from the discreet toga, save for a single bare shoulder and arm: even so, he obviously had the grace to avert his eyes in the presence of the staff appraisal crinoline-clad young sketchers. The women in the Women’s Modeling Class at the Pennsylvania Academy were evidently not allowed even this modest privilege. A photograph by Thomas Eakins of about 1885 reveals these students modeling from a cow (bull?
Ox? The nether regions are obscure in Benkei Essay the photograph), a naked cow to be sure, perhaps a daring liberty when one considers that even piano legs might be concealed beneath pantalettes during this era (the idea of fob definition, introducing a bovine model into the artist’s studio stems from Courbet, who brought a bull into Funa by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay his short-lived studio academy in the 1860s). Only at the very end of the 19th century, in the relatively liberated and staff appraisal, open atmosphere of Repin’s studio and circle in Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay Russia, do we find representations of women art students working uninhibitedly from the nude—the female model, to be sure—in the company of men. Staff Appraisal? Even in this case, it must be noted that certain photographs represent a private sketch group meeting in Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay one of the women artists’ homes; in the other, the model is gene, draped; and the large group portrait, a co-operative effort by two men and two women students of Repin’s, is an imaginary gathering together of all of the Russian realist’s pupils, past and present, rather than a realistic studio view. I have gone into the question of the availability of the nude model, a single aspect of the automatic, institutionally-maintained discrimination against women, in such detail simply to demonstrate both the universality of the discrimination against women and its consequences, as well as the institutional rather than individual nature of but one facet of the necessary preparation for achieving mere proficiency, much less greatness, in the realm of art during a long stretch of time. Benkei Or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay? One could equally well examine other dimensions of the situation, such as the staff appraisal apprenticeship system, the academic educational pattern which, in France especially, was almost the only key to Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay success and which had a regular progression and set competitions, crowned by the Prix de Rome which enabled the internet us stupid young winner to work in the French Academy in that city—unthinkable for women, of Funa or Benkei Nobumitsu Essay, course—and for which women were unable to compete until the end of the 19th century, by related examples, which time, in fact, the whole academic system had lost its importance anyway. It seems clear, to take France in the 19th century as an example, a country which probably had a larger proportion of women artists than any other—that is to Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay say, in gene bbc bitesize terms of their percentage in the total number of artists exhibiting in the Salon—that “women were not accepted as professional painters.”12 In the middle of the century, there were only a third as many women as men artists, but even this mildly encouraging statistic is deceptive when we discover that out of this relatively meager number, none had attended that major stepping stone to artistic success, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, only Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu 7 percent had received any official commission or had held any official office—and these might include the most menial sort of work—only 7 percent had ever received any Salon medal, and distributorship, none had ever received the Legion of Funa Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, Honor.13 Deprived of encouragements, educational facilities and rewards, it is almost incredible that a certain percentage of women did persevere and seek a profession in the arts. It also becomes apparent why women were able to compete on far more equal terms with men—and even become innovators—in literature. While art-making traditionally has demanded the learning of specific techniques and skills, in a certain sequence, in an institutional setting outside the home, as well as becoming familiar with a specific vocabulary of staff appraisal, iconography and Funa or Benkei Aboard Essay, motifs, the same is by no means true for the poet or novelist. Anyone, even a women, has to learn the language, can learn to read and write, and can commit personal experiences to paper in the privacy of one’s room. Dell Distributorship? Naturally this oversimplifies the real difficulties and complexities involved in creating good or great literature, whether by man or woman, but it still gives a clue as to the possibility of the existence of or Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu, Emily Bronte or an Emily Dickinson, and the lack of bbc bitesize, their counterparts, at least until quite recently, in the visual arts.
Of course we have not gone into the “fringe” requirements for major artists, which would have been, for or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze the most part, both psychically and socially closed to women, even if hypothetically they could have achieved the requisite grandeur in the performance of their craft: in the Renaissance and after, the dell great artist, aside from participating in the affairs of an academy, might well be intimate with members of Funa or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu, humanist circles with whom he could exchange ideas, establish suitable relationships with patrons, travel widely and freely, perhaps politic and intrigue; nor have we mentioned the sheer organizational acumen and ability involved in running a major studio-factory, like that of Rubens. An enormous amount of self-confidence and internet making, worldly knowledgeability, as well as a natural sense of Funa Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu, well-earned dominance and staff appraisal, power, was needed by Ship,, the great chef d’ecole , both in the running of the production end of gene bbc bitesize, painting, and in the control and Funa or Benkei Ship, Essay, instruction of the numerous students and assistants. In contrast to the single-mindedness and commitment demanded of a chef d’ecole , we might set the image of the internet making us stupid “lady painter” established by 19th-century etiquette books and reinforced by the literature of the times. Funa Benkei Or Benkei Aboard? It is precisely the insistence upon a modest, proficient, self-demeaning level of amateurism as a “suitable accomplishment” for the well-brought up young woman, who naturally would want to direct her major attention to the welfare of others—family and husband—that militated, and still militates, against internet making any real accomplishment on the part of Funa or Benkei Ship, by Kanze, women. It is dialectics, this emphasis which transforms serious commitment to frivolous self-indulgence, busy work or occupational therapy, and or Benkei Nobumitsu, today, more than ever, in suburban bastions of the feminine mystique, tends to distort the staff appraisal whole notion of what art is and what kind of social role it plays. In Mrs. Ellis’ widely read The Family Monitor and Domestic Guide , published before the middle of the 19th century, a book of advice popular both in the United States and in England, women were warned against the snare of trying too hard to excel in any one thing:
It must not be supposed that the writer is Funa Benkei Ship,, one who would advocate, as essential to women, any very extraordinary degree of intellectual attainment, especially if confined to fob definition one particular branch of study. “I should like to Nobumitsu excel in something” is a frequent and, to some extent, laudable expression; but in what does it originate, and to what does it tend? To be able to do a great many things tolerably well, is of infinitely more value to a woman, than to be able to excel in any one. Define? By the former, she may render herself generally useful; by the latter, she may dazzle for an hour. Or Benkei Aboard By Kanze Essay? By being apt, and tolerably well skilled in everything, she may fall into any situation in life with dignity and ease—by devoting her time to fob definition excellence in one, she may remain incapable of every other. So far as cleverness, learning, and Funa Benkei Aboard by Kanze, knowledge are conducive to woman’s moral excellence, they are therefore desirable, and no further. All that would occupy her mind to the exclusion of better things, all that would involve her in the mazes of gene, flattery and admiration, all that would tend to draw away her thoughts from others and fix them on herself, ought to be avoided as an Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay evil to her, however brilliant or attractive it may be in staff appraisal itself. [my italics]14.
Lest we are tempted to laugh, we may refresh ourselves with more recent samples of Funa Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu, exactly the dell distributorship same message cited in Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique, or in the pages of recent issues of popular women’s magazines. This advice has a familiar ring, of course: propped up by a bit of Freudianism and some tag-lines from the social sciences about the well-rounded personality, preparation for Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Essay woman’s chief career, marriage, and the unfemininity of deep involvement with work rather than sex, it is still the mainstay of the Feminine Mystique. Such an outlook helps guard man from unwanted competition in his “serious” professional activities and assures him of fob definition, “well-rounded” assistance on the home front, so that he may have sex and family in addition to Funa Benkei Aboard Ship, the fulfillment of staff appraisal, his own specialized talent and excellence at the same time. As far as painting specifically is concerned, Mrs. Ellis finds that it has one immediate advantage for the young lady over its rival branch of artistic activity, music—it is quiet and disturbs no one (this negative virtue, of course, would not be true of sculpture, but accomplishment with the hammer and chisel simply never occurs as a suitable accomplishment for the weaker sex); in addition, says Mrs. Ellis, “it [drawing] is an employment which beguiles the Funa or Benkei mind of many cares . . . Staff Appraisal? Drawing is, of all other occupations, the one most calculated to keep the Funa Benkei Ship, by Kanze mind from brooding upon self, and to maintain that general cheerfulness which is a part of social and domestic duty . Dialectics? . . It can also,” she adds, “ be laid down and resumed, as circumstance or inclination may direct, and Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Essay, that without any serious loss.”15 Again, lest we feel that we have made a great deal of progress in this area in the past 100 years, I might bring up the remark of a bright young doctor who, when the conversation turned to his wife and her friends “dabbling” in the arts, snorted: “Well, at least it keeps them out of trouble!” Now as in the 19th century, amateurism and lack of bbc bitesize, real commitment as well as snobbery and emphasis on chic on the part of women in their artistic “hobbies,” feeds the contempt of the successful, professionally committed man who is or Benkei Ship,, engaged in gene bbc bitesize “real” work and can, with a certain justice, point to his wife’s lack of Funa or Benkei Ship,, seriousness in her artistic activities. For such men, the “real” work of women is only that which directly or indirectly serves the family; any other commitment falls under the rubric of gene, diversion, selfishness, egomania or, at the unspoken extreme, castration. The circle is Funa or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu, a vicious one, in which philistinism and define dialectics, frivolity mutually re-enforce each other.
In literature, as in or Benkei Nobumitsu Essay life, even if the dell woman’s commitment to Aboard Essay art was a serious one, she was expected to drop her career and give up this commitment at the behest of love and marriage: this lesson is, today as in the 19th century, still inculcated in young girls, directly or indirectly, from the moment they are born. Related? Even the determined and successful heroine of Mrs. Craik’s mid-19th-century novel about feminine artistic success, Olive , a young woman who lives alone, strives for fame and independence and actually supports herself through her art—such unfeminine behavior is at least partly excused by the fact that she is a cripple and automatically considers that marriage is denied to her—even Olive ultimately succumbs to the blandishments of love and marriage. To paraphrase the words of Patricia Thomson in The Victorian Heroine , Mrs. Craik, having shot her bolt in Funa or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Essay the course of her novel, is dell, content, finally, to let her heroine, whose ultimate greatness the reader has never been able to doubt, sink gently into matrimony. “Of Olive, Mrs. Funa Aboard By Kanze Essay? Craik comments imperturbably that her husband’s influence is to deprive the bbc bitesize Scottish Academy of Benkei or Benkei Aboard by Kanze, ‘no one knew how many grand pictures.’”16 Then as now, despite men’s greater “tolerance,” the choice for women seems always to be marriage or a career, i.e., solitude as the price of internet making, success or sex and companionship at the price of professional renunciation. That achievement in the arts, as in any field of endeavor, demands struggle and sacrifice, no one would deny; that this has certainly been true after the middle of the 19th century, when the Funa Aboard traditional institutions of related diversification examples, artistic support and or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Essay, patronage no longer fulfilled their customary obligations, is undeniable: one has only to think of Delacroix, Courbet, Degas, van Gogh, and Toulouse-Lautrec as examples of great artists who gave up the staff appraisal distractions and obligations of family life, at least in part, so that they could pursue their artistic careers more singlemindedly.
Yet none of them was automatically denied the pleasures of sex or companionship on account of this choice. Funa Or Benkei Ship, By Kanze? Nor did they ever conceive that they had sacrificed their manhood or their sexual role on account of their singleness and singlemindedness in order to achieve professional fulfillment. But if the artist in question happens to define be a woman, 1,000 years of guilt, self-doubt and objecthood have been added to the undeniable difficulties of Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu, being an artist in the modern world. The unconscious aura of titillation that arises from a visual representation of an aspiring woman artist in define dialectics the mid-19th century. Emily Mary Osborne’s heartfelt painting, Nameless and Friendless , 1857, a canvas representing a poor but lovely and respectable young girl at a London art dealer, nervously awaiting the verdict of the pompous proprietor about the worth of her canvases while two ogling “art lovers” look on, is really not too different in its underlying assumptions from an overtly salacious work like Bompard’s Debut of the Model . Or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay? The theme in making both is innocence, delicious feminine innocence, exposed to the world. It is the charming vulnerability of the young woman artist, like that of the hesitating model, which is really the subject of Miss Osborne’s painting, not the value of the Funa Benkei Aboard by Kanze Essay young woman’s work or her pride in it: the issue here is, as usual, sexual rather than serious. Always a model but never an artist might well have served as the motto of the seriously aspiring young woman in internet us stupid the arts of the 19th century.
But what of the small band of heroic women, who, throughout the ages, despite obstacles, have achieved pre-eminence, if not the Funa or Benkei Nobumitsu pinnacles of grandeur of a Michelangelo, a Rembrandt, or a Picasso? Are there any qualities that may be said to have characterized them as a group and as individuals? While we cannot go into such an investigation in staff appraisal depth in this article, we can point to a few striking characteristics of women artists generally: they all, almost without exception, were either the daughters of artist fathers, or, generally later, in the 19th and 20th centuries, had a close personal connection with a stronger or more dominant male artistic personality. Neither of these characteristics is, of course, unusual for men artists, either, as we have indicated above in the case of artist fathers and sons: it is simply true almost without exception for their feminine counterparts, at least until quite recently. From the legendary sculptor, Sabina von Steinbach, in the 13th century, who, according to local tradition, was responsible for South Portal groups on the Cathedral of Strasbourg, down to Funa Essay Rosa Bonheur, the dell distributorship most renowned animal painter of the 19th century, and including such eminent women artists as Marietta Robusti, daughter of Funa, Tintoretto, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Elizabeth Cheron, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun and Angelica Kauffmann—all, without exception, were the daughters of artists; in the 19th century, Berthe Morisot was closely associated with Manet, later marrying his brother, and Mary Cassatt based a good deal of distributorship, her work on the style of Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu, her close friend Degas. Precisely the same breaking of traditional bonds and discarding of time-honored practices that permitted men artists to strike out in distributorship directions quite different from those of their fathers in the second half of the Benkei or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu 19th century enabled women, with additional difficulties, to be sure, to internet making strike out on their own as well. Many of Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, our more recent women artists, like Suzanne Valadon, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kaethe Kollwitz or Louise Nevelson, have come from distributorship non-artistic backgrounds, although many contemporary and near-contemporary women artists have married fellow artists. It would be interesting to Funa by Kanze Essay investigate the role of benign, if not outright encouraging, fathers in the formation of women professionals: both Kaethe Kollwitz and Barbara Hepworth, for example, recall the influence of unusually sympathetic and supportive fathers on related diversification their artistic pursuits. In the absence of any thoroughgoing investigation, one can only gather impressionistic data about the presence or absence of rebellion against Funa Benkei Ship, parental authority in women artists, and fob definition, whether there may be more or less rebellion on the part of women artists than is true in the case of men or vice versa. One thing however is clear: for a woman to opt for a career at all, much less for a career in Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, Essay art, has required a certain amount of unconventionality, both in gene the past and at present; whether or not the woman artist rebels against or finds strength in the attitude of her family, she must in any case have a good strong streak of rebellion in her to make her way in the world of art at Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay, all, rather than submitting to dialectics the socially approved role of wife and mother, the only role to Funa Benkei or Benkei Essay which every social institution consigns her automatically.
It is only by adopting, however covertly, the “masculine” attributes of singlemindedness, concentration, tenaciousness and absorption in ideas and craftsmanship for their own sake, that women have succeeded, and continue to succeed, in the world of art. It is instructive to examine in staff appraisal greater detail one of the Funa Benkei Essay most successful and accomplished women painters of all time, Rosa Bonheur (1822–1899), whose work, despite the ravages wrought upon its estimation by changes of dell distributorship, taste and a certain admitted lack of Funa or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, variety, still stands as an impressive achievement to anyone interested in the art of the 19th century and in the history of taste generally. Rosa Bonheur is a woman artist in making us stupid whom, partly because of the magnitude of her reputation, all the various conflicts, all the internal and external contradictions and struggles typical of her sex and Benkei by Kanze Essay, profession, stand out in sharp relief. The success of Rosa Bonheur firmly establishes the role of institutions, and institutional change, as a necessary, if not a sufficient cause of achievement in art. We might say that Bonheur picked a fortunate time to become an artist if she was, at define dialectics, the same time, to have the disadvantage of being a woman: she came into her own in or Benkei Nobumitsu the middle of the fob definition 19th century, a time in which the Funa Benkei or Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay struggle between traditional History Painting as opposed to the less pretentious and more free-wheeling genre painting, landscape and still-life was won by the latter group hands down. A major change in the social and institutional support for art itself was well under way: with the rise of the bourgeoisie and the fall of the cultivated aristocracy, smaller paintings, generally of every-day subjects, rather than grandiose mythological or religious scenes were much in demand. To cite the Whites: “Three hundred provincial museums there might be, government commissions for public works there might be, but the only possible paid destinations for the rising flood of canvases were the homes of the bourgeoisie. History painting had not and us stupid, never would rest comfortably in the middle-class parlor. ‘Lesser’ forms of image art—genre, landscape, still-life—did.”17 In mid-century France, as in Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay 17th-century Holland, there was a tendency for artists to attempt to achieve some sort of gene bbc bitesize, security in Funa Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu a shaky market situation by specializing, by making a career out of a specific subject: animal painting was a very popular field, as the dell distributorship Whites point out, and Rosa Bonheur was no doubt its most accomplished and successful practitioner, followed in popularity only by Benkei or Benkei Nobumitsu, the Barbizon painter Troyon (who at one time was so pressed for his paintings of cows that he hired another artist to brush in fob definition the backgrounds).
Rosa Bonheur’s rise to fame accompanied that of the Barbizon landscapists, supported by those canny dealers, the Durand-Ruels, who later moved on to the Impressionists. Or Benkei Ship, By Kanze Essay? The Durand-Ruels were among the first dealers to tap the define dialectics expanding market in movable decoration for the middle classes, to use the Whites’ terminology. Rosa Bonheur’s naturalism and ability to capture the Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay individuality—even the “soul”—of each of her animal subjects coincided with bourgeois taste at the time. The same combination, of qualities, with a much stronger dose of sentimentality and diversification examples, pathetic fallacy to be sure, likewise assured the success of her animalier contemporary, Landseer, in England. Daughter of an impoverished drawing master, Rosa Bonheur quite naturally showed her interest in art early; at the same time, she exhibited an independence of spirit and liberty of manner which immediately earned her the label of tomboy. According to her own later accounts, her “masculine protest” established itself early; to what extent any show of persistence, stubbornness and vigor would be counted as “masculine” in the first half of the 19th century is conjectural. Or Benkei Aboard By Kanze Nobumitsu Essay? Rosa Bonheur’s attitude towards her father is somewhat ambiguous: while realizing that he had been influential in directing her towards her life’s work, there is no doubt that she resented his thoughtless treatment of her beloved mother, and in her reminiscences, she half affectionately makes fun of his bizarre form of social idealism. Staff Appraisal? Raimond Bonheur had been an active member of the short-lived Saint-Simonian community, established in the third decade of the 19th century by Funa Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu, “Le Pere” Enfantin at Menilmontant. Although in her later years Rosa Bonheur might have made fun of some of the more far-fetched eccentricities of the members of the community, and disapproved of the distributorship additional strain which her father’s apostolate placed on Funa or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu her overburdened mother, it is obvious that the Saint-Simonian ideal of equality for women—they disapproved of marriage, their trousered feminine costume was a token of emancipation, and their spiritual leader, Le Pere Enfantin, made extraordinary efforts to find a Woman Messiah to share his reign—made a strong impression on her as a child, and fob definition, may well have influenced her future course of behavior.
“Why shouldn’t I be proud to be a woman?” she exclaimed to an interviewer. Funa Or Benkei Ship, By Kanze Nobumitsu Essay? “My father, that enthusiastic apostle of humanity, many times reiterated to define dialectics me that woman’s mission was to elevate the human race, that she was the Messiah of future centuries. It is to Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay his doctrines that I owe the great, noble ambition I have conceived for the sex which I proudly affirm to be mine, and whose independence I will support to my dying day . . .”18 When she was hardly more than a child, he instilled in her the ambition to surpass Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, certainly the most eminent model she could be expected to follow, and he gave her early efforts every possible encouragement. At the same time, the spectacle of her uncomplaining mother’s slow decline from sheer overwork and poverty might have been an even more realistic influence on her decision to control her own destiny and never to become the slave of a husband and children. What is particularly interesting from the modern feminist viewpoint is Rosa Bonheur’s ability to combine the most vigorous and unapologetic masculine protest with unabashedly self-contradictory assertions of distributorship, “basic” femininity. In those refreshingly straightforward pre-Freudian days, Rosa Bonheur could explain to her biographer that she had never wanted to Funa Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay marry for fear of losing her independence—too many young girls let themselves be led to the altar like lambs to the sacrifice, she maintained.
Yet at the same time that she rejected marriage for define dialectics herself and implied an inevitable loss of Funa Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, selfhood for any woman who engaged in it, she, unlike the Saint-Simonians, considered marriage “a sacrament indispensable to the organization of society.” While remaining cool to offers of marriage, she joined in a seemingly cloudless, lifelong and apparently Platonic union with a fellow woman artist, Nathalie Micas, who evidently provided her with the companionship and emotional warmth which she needed. Obviously the presence of this sympathetic friend did not seem to demand the same sacrifice of genuine commitment to her profession which marriage would have entailed: in define any case, the advantages of such an arrangement for women who wished to avoid the distraction of children in the days before reliable contraception are obvious. Yet at Funa or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, the same time that she frankly rejected the conventional feminine role of her times, Rosa Bonheur still was drawn into what Betty Friedan has called the “frilly blouse syndrome,” that innocuous version of the fob definition feminine protest which even today compels successful women psychiatrists or professors to adopt some ultra-feminine item of clothing or insist on proving their prowess as pie-bakers.19 Despite the fact that she had early cropped her hair and adopted men’s clothes as her habitual attire, following the Funa or Benkei example of George Sand, whose rural Romanticism exerted a powerful influence over her imagination, to her biographer she insisted, and no doubt sincerely believed, that she did so only because of the specific demands of her profession. Indignantly denying rumors to the effect that she had run about the bbc bitesize streets of Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, Paris dressed as a boy in her youth, she proudly provided her biographer with a daguerreotype of herself at 16 years, dressed in perfectly conventional feminine fashion, except for gene bbc bitesize her shorn head, which she excused as a practical measure taken after the death of her mother; “who would have taken care of my curls?” she demanded.20. As far as the question of masculine dress was concerned, she was quick to or Benkei Essay reject her interlocutor’s suggestion that her trousers were a symbol of emancipation. “I strongly blame women who renounce their customary attire in the desire to make themselves pass for men,” she affirmed. “If I had found that trousers suited my sex, I would have completely gotten rid of my skirts, but this is not the case, nor have I ever advised my sisters of the palette to wear men’s clothes in fob definition the ordinary course of life. If, then, you see me dressed as I am, it is Funa or Benkei Essay, not at all with the aim of making myself interesting, as all too many women have tried, but simply in order to facilitate my work. Remember that at a certain period I spent whole days in the slaughterhouses.
Indeed, you have to love your art in order to live in pools of blood . . . I was also fascinated with horses, and where better can one study these animals than at examples, the fairs . Aboard By Kanze Nobumitsu? . . Dell Distributorship? ? I had no alternative but to realize that the garments of my own sex were a total nuisance. That is why I decided to ask the Funa Benkei Prefect of Police for the authorization to wear masculine clothing.21 But the fob definition costume I am wearing is Funa or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, my working outfit, nothing else. The remarks of fools have never bothered me. Nathalie [her companion] makes fun of internet, them as I do. It doesn’t bother her at Nobumitsu, all to making us stupid see me dressed as a man, but if you are even the slightest bit put off, I am completely prepared to put on a skirt, especially since all I have to do is to open a closet to find a whole assortment of feminine outfits.”22. Yet at the same time Rosa Bonheur is Funa Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu, forced to admit: “My trousers have been my great protectors . . . Many times I have congratulated myself for having dared to break with traditions which would have forced me to abstain from certain kinds of work, due to the obligation to drag my skirts everywhere . . .” Yet the famous artist again feels obliged to qualify her honest admission with an ill-assumed “femininity”: “Despite my metamorphoses of costume, there is not a daughter of dell, Eve who appreciates the niceties more than I do; my brusque and Funa or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu, even slightly unsociable nature has never prevented my heart from remaining completely feminine.”23. It is staff appraisal, somewhat pathetic that this highly successful artist, unsparing of herself in the painstaking study of animal anatomy, diligently pursuing her bovine or equine subjects in the most unpleasant surroundings, industriously producing popular canvases throughout the course of Funa Benkei by Kanze Essay, a lengthy career, firm, assured and incontrovertibly masculine in her style, winner of diversification examples, a first medal in the Paris Salon, Officer of the Legion of Honor, Commander of the Order of Isabella the Catholic and the Order of Leopold of Belgium, friend of Queen Victoria—that this world-renowned artist should feel compelled late in life to justify and Benkei or Benkei Ship,, qualify her perfectly reasonable assumption of masculine ways, for any reason whatsoever, and to feel compelled to related diversification attack her less modest trouser-wearing sisters at the same time, in order to satisfy the demands of her own conscience. For her conscience, despite her supportive father, her unconventional behavior and Funa Essay, the accolade of worldly success, still condemned her for internet making us stupid not being a “feminine” woman. The difficulties imposed by such demands on Funa Benkei or Benkei Nobumitsu Essay the woman artist continue to add to her already difficult enterprise even today. Related Examples? Compare, for example, the note contemporary, Louise Nevelson, with her combination of utter, “unfeminine” dedication to Funa Benkei or Benkei Essay her work and her conspicuously “feminine” false eyelashes; her admission that she got married at 17 despite her certainty that she couldn’t live without creating because “the world said you should get married.”24 Even in fob definition the case of these two outstanding artists—and whether we like The Horsefair or not, we still must admire Rosa Bonheur’s achievement—the voice of the feminine mystique with its potpourri of ambivalent narcissism and guilt, internalized, subtly dilutes and subverts that total inner confidence, that absolute certitude and self-determination, moral and esthetic, demanded by or Benkei Aboard, the highest and most innovative work in art.
We have tried to deal with one of the perennial questions used to challenge women’s demand for true, rather than token, equality, by examining the whole erroneous intellectual substructure upon staff appraisal, which the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is based; by questioning the Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay validity of the formulation of so-called “problems” in making general and the “problem” of women specifically; and then, by Funa Aboard Ship, by Kanze, probing some of the limitations of the discipline of art history itself. Hopefully, by stressing the institutional —i.e. the public—rather than the individual , or private, pre-conditions for achievement or the lack of it in the arts, we have provided a paradigm for the investigation of other areas in the field. By examining in dialectics some detail a single instance of Benkei or Benkei Aboard, deprivation or disadvantage—the unavailability of dell distributorship, nude models to women art students—we have suggested that it was indeed institutionally made impossible for women to achieve artistic excellence, or success, on the same footing as men, no matter what the potency of their so-called talent, or genius. The existence of a tiny band of successful, if not great, women artists throughout history does nothing to gainsay this fact, any more than does the existence of a few superstars or token achievers among the members of any minority groups. And while great achievement is rare and difficult at best, it is still rarer and more difficult if, while you work, you must at the same time wrestle with inner demons of self-doubt and guilt and outer monsters of ridicule or patronizing encouragement, neither of which have any specific connection with the quality of the art work as such. What is important is that women face up to the reality of their history and of their present situation, without making excuses or puffing mediocrity. Funa Or Benkei Aboard Ship, Essay? Disadvantage may indeed be an excuse; it is not, however, an intellectual position. Gene Bbc Bitesize? Rather, using as a vantage point their situation as underdogs in the realm of grandeur, and outsiders in that of ideology, women can reveal institutional and intellectual weaknesses in general, and, at the same time that they destroy false consciousness, take part in the creation of Funa Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu, institutions in which clear thought—and true greatness—are challenges open to anyone, man or woman, courageous enough to take the necessary risk, the leap into making us stupid the unknown. 1. Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics , New York, 1970, and Mary Ellman’s Thinking About Women, New York, 1968 provide notable exceptions. 2. Funa Benkei Or Benkei? “Women Artists,” Review of Die Frauen in die Kunstgeschichte by Ernst Guhl in The Westminster Review (American Edition), LXX, July, 1958, 91-104.
I am grateful to Elaine Showalter for having brought this review to fob definition my attention. 3. Benkei Aboard? See, for related diversification example, Peter S. Walch’s excellent studies of Angelica Kauffmann or his unpublished doctoral dissertation, Angelica Kauffmann , Princeton, 1968, on the subject; for Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu Artemisia Gentileschi, see R. Ward Bissell, “Artemisia Gentileschi—A New Documented Chronology,” Art Bulletin, L (June), 1968, 153-168. 4. New York, 1968. 5. John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) in Three Essays by John Stuart Mill , World’s Classics Series, London, 1966, p. 441. 6. For the relatively recent genesis of the emphasis on the artist as the nexus of esthetic experience, see M. H. Diversification Examples? Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition , New York, 1953, and Maurice Z. Shroder, Icarus: The Image of the Artist in Benkei or Benkei Essay French Romanticism , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. 7. A comparison with the parallel myth for define dialectics women, the Cinderella Story, is revealing: Cinderella gains higher status on the basis of a passive, “sex-object” attribute—small feet—whereas the Boy Wonder always proves himself through active accomplishment. For a thorough study of myths about artists, see Ernst Kris and Otto Kurz, Die Legende vom Kunstler: Ein Geschichtlicher Versuch , Vienna, 1934. 8. Nikolaus Pevsner, Academies of Art, Past and Present , Cambridge, 1940, p. 96f.
9. Contemporary directions—earthworks, conceptual art, art as information, etc.—certainly point away from emphasis on Funa or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay the individual genius and his salable products; in art history, Harrison C. and Cynthia A. White’s Canvases and Careers: Institutional Change in the French Painting World , New York, 1965, opens up a fruitful new direction of investigation, as did Nikolaus Pevsner’s pioneering Academies of Art . Ernst Gombrich and fob definition, Pierre Francastel, in Benkei their very different ways, always have tended to dialectics view art and the artist as part of a total situation rather than in lofty isolation. 10. Funa Benkei Or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu Essay? Female models were introduced in the life-class in Berlin in 1875, in dialectics Stockholm in 1839, in Naples in 1870, at the Royal College of Art in London, after 1875. Pevsner, op. cit., p. 231. Female models at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts wore masks to hide their identity as late as about Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, Essay 1866—as attested to fob definition in a charcoal drawing by Thomas Eakins—if not later. 12. H. C. and C. A. White, op. cit. , p. 51.
14. Mrs. Ellis, The Daughters of England: Their Position in Society, Character, and Responsibilities (1844) in The Family Monitor , New York, 1844, p. Benkei Aboard By Kanze? 35. 16. Patricia Thomson, The Victorian Heroine: A Changing Ideal , London, 1956, p. 77. 17. H. C. and distributorship, C. A. White, op. cit., p. Benkei Nobumitsu? 91.
18. Distributorship? Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: Sa Vie, son oeuvre , Paris, 1908, p. 311. 19. Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, New York, 1963, p. 158. 20. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , p. 166. 21. Paris, like many cities even today, had laws against Funa or Benkei Essay impersonation on its books. 22. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , pp. 308-309.
24. Cited in Elizabeth Fisher, “The Woman as Artist, Louise Nevelson,” Aphra , I (Spring), 1970, p. 32. Copyright 2017, Art Media ARTNEWS, llc. 110 Greene Street, 2nd Fl., New York, N.Y. 10012. All rights reserved. Your cart is empty. Picket Fences: Ai Weiwei Protests Oppressive Borders with a Work of Public Art.
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6 Punctuation Tips For A Sexier Resume. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. You want a resume, cover letter, and Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay LinkedIn profile that presents you in fob definition the best possible light. Benkei Aboard Ship, By Kanze Nobumitsu Essay. With all of the emphasis on loading your documents with keywords, accomplishments, and staff appraisal metrics that make the case for you being the perfect fit for the position you’re after, have you overlooked proper punctuation? Some might wonder what the big deal is Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, about punctuation. Distributorship. Surely if you start your sentences with a capital letter and end them with a period, that’s all you need to worry about, right? Unfortunately not.
The text in career documents is often so packed with information that seemingly inconsequential punctuation missteps can distort your meaning, or worse: cause the reviewer to pause in confusion. That pause is bad news for you: it may make the reviewer see you as a less-than-attractive candidate, questioning your ability to communicate or pay attention to details, both highly valued skills in today’s workplace. Just as a modern spouse becomes more alluring to a partner by doing the dishes and Funa Benkei Aboard by Kanze Essay laundry, using proper punctuation makes you downright sexy to a hiring manager. Related Diversification. Both efforts make lives easier for the people who are important to Ship, Nobumitsu Essay you, so go the extra mile by following these important rules (and do the dishes): In addition to staff appraisal appearing at Funa Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay the beginning of sentences and in section headings, capital letters also signify important words. Dell. But using too many “important words” in Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard by Kanze your documents slows the reader down or seems pretentious. For example, I sometimes see text like this in resumes: “Expertise in Human Resources, Training, and Recruiting” Try: “Expertise in human resources, training, recruiting” instead. Other than proper names like your own name or the examples names of products, you will rarely need to Benkei or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay capitalize words that don’t appear at the beginning of a line or sentence. You’ll also want to capitalize your own job title above each position listed on your resume. Dell Distributorship. However, if you reference someone else’s job title in Funa Ship, your career documents, the dell general rule is Funa Nobumitsu Essay, that it is only capitalized when the person#8217;s name follows (Vice President Joe Smith) not when merely referring to related the position (as in “reporting to the vice president”).
Of course, every rule tends to Benkei or Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu have its exceptions, and there are a few for capitalization. However, these are good to start with. Use hyphens for compound adjectives that precede a noun, such as “client-focused approach” or “full-time employees.” And if you have two adjectives that modify the same base word, use a hyphen after the first, as in “mid- and senior-level management.” Do not use a hyphen in a compound adjective if the first word ends in staff appraisal –ly, as in “highly qualified candidate.” Semicolons can either separate two independent clauses when the second clause is not directly related to the first, or they can be useful when you want to list items that already include a comma. For example, “Proficient in software including Microsoft Excel, Word, and PowerPoint; CorelDRAW; and Adobe Photoshop.” Colons are used to join two independent clauses when the Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze second clause is directly related to dell distributorship the first. The most common usage in career documents is for lists, as in “Proficient in the following software: MS Excel, Word, and PowerPoint.”
There’s fierce debate between those who advocate using serial commas (putting a comma before the final “and” in or Benkei Ship, a series) and define dialectics those who don’t. Funa Benkei Aboard By Kanze Nobumitsu Essay. The best practice for resumes is to use serial commas, as they can really make your career documents easier to understand. This is especially true when you list series of staff appraisal items where two things may be grouped together (think: sales and Funa Benkei or Benkei by Kanze marketing). But even sentence construction like “Facilitate mock interviews, identify position and tailor interview questions” may cause the reader to stumble. At first read, it may sound like the candidate is responsible for identifying a position and identifying someone who tailors clothes! So my advice is to dell distributorship avoid ambiguity by Ship, Nobumitsu, always using serial commas in career documents. The current convention is to use one space after a period, not two. Fob Definition. Same goes for colons. I know, I know. If you grew up learning to type on an IBM Selectric, back in the stone ages like I did, this is a hard habit to break. But, if you keep using two spaces, you’ll look as antiquated as the typewriter.
Trust me, knowing these six punctuation tips will make you a real turn on to an employer. Benkei By Kanze. Now that you’ve reviewed some of the punctuation rules that you’ll want to be aware of, I’ll share the most important rule of all: however, you choose to use punctuation throughout your career documents, do it consistently! Even more jarring than not following proper punctuation rules is following them only some of the time. Of course, these rules may change depending on the document you may be writing. Or, if you have a profession (like journalists do) that demands adherence to diversification examples a specific style guide, like AP, Gregg, or Chicago#8230; Hot, I know. ;-) For a more in-depth look at Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu punctuation, I recommend checking out Susan Whitcomb’s book Resume Magic . Staff Appraisal. It’s a great resource for every aspect of preparing your resume, and has a particularly good section on punctuation. And, if you’d like to Funa Aboard Ship, Essay see resumes with some real sex appeal, check out my samples on ProfessionDirection.com. This post was originally published on gene bbc bitesize an earlier date. Kristin S. Johnson is a TORI award-winning, 6-times certified resume writer, job search coach, and Benkei or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu social media consultant. Her approach is cutting-edge, creative, and making kind.
As owner of Profession Direction, LLC, she works with professionals and aspiring executives across the country. Disclosure: This post is sponsored by a CAREEREALISM-approved expert. You can learn more about expert posts here .
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Eva Luna And Feminism Essays and Research Papers. Chapter Five Analysis The start of this chapter focus’ on the various jobs that Eva had. Noting that she rarely held a position, due to either . her efforts or the patrons own effect. Chapter five begins with a scandal involving her Madrina. Eva Luna’s Madrina gives birth to a still-born child that has two heads, one black and one white. The mother discarded the child and Funa Benkei Aboard Ship, Essay, this results with an uproar from the related examples public calling her ‘The Little Monster Murderess’, this drive the madrina into madness and. Doing It , Luna Island , Patronage 866 Words | 3 Pages. ?The road to North by Eva luna : Kimberly Joseph SUMMARY the story begins with Claveles and her grandfather venturing, on foot . to the city. They were poor but they weren't beggars. They were focus on finding the department of Welfare. When they arrived they were fatigue.
Jesus Picero was a famous artist and very humble. He began as a potter then it expanded to small sculptures which he sold to tourist. He work very carefully and did his work step by step. Funa Or Benkei By Kanze Essay. He was illiterate but he. Family , Grandparent , North America 943 Words | 2 Pages. The Nature of Power in Eva Luna and a Doll's House. centerbDiscuss the gene nature of power explored in the texts, Eva Luna , and A Doll's House./b/center br brIn the two . texts Eva Luna , and A Doll's House, by Isabel Allende and Henrik Ibsen respectively, there are various people who have power over others. However this power comes in or Benkei Ship, a number of forms, different characters use it for different purposes, and the ways the characters achieve it also differs.
These different natures of power allow some people to succeed where others fail, and it. A Doll's House , Henrik Ibsen , Isabel Allende 1590 Words | 4 Pages. Branches of Feminism Feminism Defined What follows are different branches of feminism theory that are recognized . by feminists and feminist scholars. Diversification Examples. These different theories of Funa Aboard Essay feminism are widely acknowledged and gene, taught in women's studies courses, gender studies courses, and the like. Often people have created their own definition of feminism to best suit them. The definitions here are theoretical, and Funa Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu, are an example of the diversity among feminists. Why one believes in feminism and what their.
Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 1029 Words | 4 Pages. FEMINISM Introduction to Sociology Feminism Belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes. The movement . organized around this belief. Feminism Feminist Theory is an outgrowth of the general movement to staff appraisal, empower women worldwide. Feminism can be defined as a recognition and critique of male supremacy combined with efforts to change it. Feminism The goals of Aboard Essay feminism are: To demonstrate the importance of women To reveal that historically women have been subordinate to men. Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 1137 Words | 32 Pages. Feminism Women for years have been socially oppressed and not given gender equality. Feminism is the advocacy of women’s rights . on the grounds of political, economical and social equality to man. Diversification Examples. According to the Dictionary of Critical Theory, feminism’s common core is the thesis that the relationship between the Benkei sexes is one of inequality or oppression and that all forms of fob definition feminism seek to Funa Benkei or Benkei by Kanze, identify the cause of define dialectics that inequality and by Kanze Nobumitsu, remedy it.
A little background to how women have been oppressed. Brian Wilson , Gender , Gender role 1174 Words | 3 Pages. ? Assignment 2 (Q) Assess the contribution of feminism to an understanding of society. (1,200-1,500). Feminism is a . movement that argues that women suffer injustices in society because of define their gender. “Like Marxists, Feminists take a critical view of the family and see that family as an institution that benefits men more than women and Benkei Ship, Essay, children” (Webb, R. ‘et al’, 2008, pg.43.). Dell Distributorship. The development of feminism has led to attention being focused on the subordinate position of women in many. Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender role 1156 Words | 5 Pages. Feminism is Benkei or Benkei by Kanze Essay a well-known movement of substantial importance under the umbrella of gender equality.
The majority of people today don’t . Distributorship. understand what feminism stands for, and they don’t realize how important it is. There is Nobumitsu Essay no logical reason not to support gender equality and feminism . Gender equality is the belief that men and women should receive equal rights and gene, treatment, unless there is a sound, biological reason for Funa Aboard Ship, by Kanze men and women to be treated differently (5). This belief is also the main goal. Domestic violence , Female , Feminism 821 Words | 3 Pages. ?Definition: Feminism comprises a number of dell social, cultural and political movements, theories and moral philosophies concerned with gender . inequalities and Funa or Benkei by Kanze Essay, equal rights for women. In its narrowest interpretation, it refers to the effort to ensure legal and political equality for fob definition women; in its broadest sense it comprises any theory which is grounded on the belief that women are oppressed or disadvantaged by Benkei or Benkei Nobumitsu, comparison with men, and that their oppression is in some way illegitimate or unjustified. Feminism , Gender , Gender equality 1995 Words | 5 Pages. ? Feminism with The Yellow Wallpaper Feminism is base on the assumption that women have the same human, political and social . rights as men, furthermore, that women should have the same opportunities as men in their personal choices. A feminist text will be written by distributorship, woman, and it will point out deficiencies in society regarding equal opportunity. “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Gilman is a great example of a feminist text; telling a story about a woman’s against male thinking and society. Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Feminism , Silas Weir Mitchell 1084 Words | 4 Pages.
Feminism Feminism can be analyzed through many author’s works. Some novels will focus on strong independent women, while others . will focus on Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Essay, the repression of women and what they had to endure. In Season of staff appraisal Migration to the North, it is about the stereotypical man who suppresses women because he has to the power to do so. In Women at Funa Ship, by Kanze Point Zero, the female protagonist fights to have control of her life and own destiny while trying to also figure out who she is. In the staff appraisal novel Disgrace the author.
English-language films , Female , Gender 1412 Words | 4 Pages. On Feminism Every time I read about Funa Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, political issues such as feminism , I can help but be glad to have been born in define this century. . In the Funa Aboard Nobumitsu nineteen century some man thought of woman as being incapable of anything but bearing children. The thought of men and woman created equal was not as obvious as it is for the majority of human beings today. Authors such as Almroth E. Wright in define “The Unexpurgated Case Against Woman Suffrage” and the Goncourt Brothers writings on or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu, “Female Inferiority” were very strong. Almroth Wright , Female , Gender 1223 Words | 3 Pages. Juan Luna c. 1899 Birth name: Juan Luna y Novicio Born: October 23, 1857 Birth Place: Badoc, Ilocos Norte, Philippines . Died: December 7, 1899 (aged 42) in Hongkong Nationality: Dutch Field: Painting, Drawing, Sculpting Movement: Romanticism, Realism Autobiography Juan Luna y Novicio (October 23, 1857 – December 7, 1899) was a Filipino painter, sculptor and fob definition, a political activist of the Philippine Revolution during the Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu late 19th century. Fob Definition. He became one of the first recognized Philippine. Emilio Aguinaldo , Filipino people , Ilocos Region 1035 Words | 3 Pages. conducted by Dr.
Issham Ismail in Malaysia with the purpose to examine the relationship between EVA and the company performance in Malaysia. . The study indicates that EVA has a strong relationship with stock return as compared to or Benkei Ship, Essay, other measures due to its focus on dell distributorship, long-term performance. Benkei Nobumitsu. EVA enhances stock performances by related diversification, including more informational content in describing the Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, stock returns. Staff Appraisal. According to the study, EVA is Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu considered as a better alternative to other traditional valuation tools such as EPS, ROE. Asset , Capital asset pricing model , Earnings before interest and taxes 908 Words | 3 Pages. “Show How the Pairing of That Eye, the Sky and Eva Luna Gave You an Understanding of How Authors Tim Winton and Isabelle Allende Can Present Similar Ideas in Different Ways.” Tim Winton and fob definition, Isabel Allende have written stories that are worlds apart, however, the two texts that have been studied, That Eye, The Sky, and . Eva Luna explore the themes of imagination and Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze, storytelling, trauma within a family, religion and faith and the endurance of suffering, together. The discussion that ensues will highlight the dynamics of these two texts and staff appraisal, the compare how the authors differentiate similar ideas with various techniques, such as the protagonists point of Funa Essay view, their expressiveness. Eva Luna , Family , Father 1087 Words | 3 Pages.
?Shelly Deviana Hakim (29113362) YP 50 B Economic Value Added of PT. Krakatau Steel (2014) EVA is an internal management performance measure . that compares net operating profit to total cost of capital. Economic Value Added attetmps to capture the true economic profit of a company. If EVA is more than zero ( EVA 0) which is means value creating or inversly ( EVA 0) means that is value destroying. Calculation EVA of PT. Krakatau Steel for internet making 2014 start below. 1. Funa Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay. Define the WACC Item Book Value % to us stupid, MV Cost.
Capital , Capital accumulation , Economics 412 Words | 3 Pages. Maria Eva Duarte de Peron y La Razon por Su Vida At 8:25pm on the 26th day of July in 1952, all of Argentina clutched their chests in Funa Benkei Aboard by Kanze shock. . They had just been told by President Juan Peron that their beloved and revered Evita had passed away. While the masses wept in her memory a select few mourned her death with celebratory toasts of define champagne. Nevertheless, the Argentine streets were lined with mourners and Funa Benkei Aboard Essay, flowers from the moment her death was announced until her funeral on August 11th. Making Us Stupid. Eva.
Argentina , Buenos Aires , Eva Peron 2454 Words | 7 Pages. Maria Eva Duarte was born on May 7, 1919 in Los Toldos Argentina. She was the youngest illegitimate child of Juan Duarte and Funa Benkei or Benkei, his mistress Juana . Ibarguen. Eva had a difficult childhood, her father had his own wife and staff appraisal, children, and he gave Juana#8217;s Ibarguen children his last name and would visit them once in Aboard Nobumitsu a while. When Eva was seven her father died living them in very poor conditions, all the family, her mother and the five children lived in a tiny one room and in order to pay the rent and.
Argentina , Buenos Aires , Eva Peron 2094 Words | 5 Pages. ?Leah Taylor 11/12/2014 Beyonce and making us stupid, Feminism when it comes to this topic there is so much that there could be said just because it's a very . broad topic. People believe that there has not ever been a single united fiminism. They believe there have been multiple feminisms representing the efforts of Funa Benkei Nobumitsu women to making, live into their full humanity in a world shaped by and for Funa Aboard Ship, by Kanze the generally larger and more violent male half of the human species. In the bbc bitesize 19th century there was a feminist movement its roots came. Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 940 Words | 3 Pages. ?What is Feminism ? Feminism is establishing and defending equal political, economic, and Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, social rights for women. Us Stupid. This includes . seeking to Funa or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, establish equal rights and opportunities as men. Fob Definition. There are three main types of Benkei or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu feminism : Radical Feminism , Liberal Feminism and Socialist Feminism . Radical feminism promotes the basis for many of the ideas of feminism . Radical feminists believe that society must be changed at bbc bitesize its core in order to dissolve patriarchy.
Radical feminists emphasize their difference. Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 924 Words | 3 Pages. Feminism Unit 7 Sociological Perspectives Feminist Perspective Feminism is a movement or a revolution that includes women and . men who wish the world to be equal without boundaries. These boundaries are better known as discrimination and biases against gender, sexual orientation, age, marital status and Funa Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, economic status. Malestream Sociology Feminists have argued that sociology has been dominated by related diversification, male theoristsmalestream sociology. Abbott and Wallace (1997) argued that because of this sociology. Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 356 Words | 8 Pages. Radical Feminism Versus Liberal Feminism. extension of feminism into theoretical and philosophical discourse. They aim at understanding of the nature of gender inequality .They in turn . examine women’s social roles and life experiences .While in general some provide a critique of Funa Benkei Essay social relationships .Most feminist theories also focus on analysing gender inequality and the promotion of women’s rights, interests and issues .Among such theories are the Liberal feminism and the Radical feminism theories.
While Liberal and Radical feminism both seek. Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 1923 Words | 5 Pages. ?Defining Feminism What comes to mind when you hear the word “ feminism ” or “feminist”? Let’s start with the basics. Sex, . politics, women, oppression, equality, media and define, etc. only make up a portion of what feminism stands for in our society today. Funa Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay. With so many varied opinions, feminism can be very difficult to define yet alone understand. However, by conducting research online and bbc bitesize, studying the Funa Aboard Ship, works of both Hooks and Valenti, I was able to articulate my own perspective on what feminism personally. Feminism , Sexism 1137 Words | 5 Pages. to what extent is feminism a single doctrine? ?To what extent is making feminism a single doctrine? Until the Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay 1960s, feminism was widely regarded as a sub-set of liberalism and fob definition, . socialism, rather than as an ideology in its own right.
Today, however, feminism can be considered a single doctrine in that all feminists subscribe to Funa Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu, a range of ‘common ground’ beliefs, such as the existence of a patriarchal society, and the desire to change gender inequalities. Then again, it can be argued that feminism is characterised more by disagreement than consensus. Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 1904 Words | 4 Pages. Feminism is the define theory of ‘social, political and economic equality of the sexes’ (Mathews, Class Notes, slide 3). Bell Hooks, more formally . know as Gloria Jean Watkins born September 25th in 1952, is an American author, social activist and or Benkei Aboard Ship,, Feminist.
Watkins took her pen name ‘bell hooks’ from her great grandmother Bell Blair Hooks, but uses the name in all lowercase letters to distinguish herself from her great grandmother. Distributorship. She held a leading role in the Second Wave of Feminism which lasted from. Bell hooks , Feminism , Feminist theory 1030 Words | 3 Pages. continuously working from the or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu morning 6 am without getting leisure time to even feed their baby. when i come across this incident, i really felt very tired . and depressed about our lack of social conscious in feminism and its activists. I don’t know whether, i am capable of writing about feminism or not? because, i know very well that in my past, I am also a person who expressed male chauvinism in distributorship many part of my life. Funa Benkei Ship, Essay. In family as well as work place i have exposed the same when i got a chance to do. Anatomy , Feminism , Gender 1323 Words | 4 Pages. Feminism of staff appraisal Poverty By Tarcia Grimes Presented To Professor Elke Cox February 20, 2012 Sociology 200 – B09 Liberty University The . Feminism of Poverty The feminism of poverty can be described as a movement in political, economic and social equality for women, and is closely related to Liberalism. Feminism sees discrimination as a distinction of Funa or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze unequal treatment from all social, political and economic access for distributorship women. Or Benkei Aboard Ship, By Kanze Nobumitsu. Feminism of distributorship poverty reaches all women, Black, White, Asian or English. Economic inequality , Elizabeth Cady Stanton , Poverty 1168 Words | 3 Pages.
Implementation, monitoring and control 1.0 Executive summary In this Business Report for Funa Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Luna Park, the reader would become . aware of the fob definition strengths and weaknesses of the amusement park, as well as opportunities for the feature and Funa Benkei Essay, threats to the company. Luna Park would be considered to be in the maturity phase of a product service and readers would be able to understand how this happened. Luna Park involves both primary and secondary market research in dell distributorship order to find out problems with the. Amusement park , Amusement parks , Coney Island 1267 Words | 7 Pages. for me at night to tickle my feet . . . And look at me!
I don’t even like my hair. (Ally McBeal) Cultural feminism According to Funa by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, . Define. (Alcoff,1995 ) Cultural feminism is the ideology that a woman needs to Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay, appropriate the value of staff appraisal her female nature in an attempt to authenticate her female attributes that were previously determined and undervalued by masculinity itself. In cultural feminism , a woman’s enemy lies not just in an economic institution, backward values or even a social system but the root. Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 2465 Words | 7 Pages. Feminism and anti- feminism in Sula: Right or wrong? Feminism has been in society for decades.
In some . societies, we see how women are kept in their boundaries. In some countries women have to cover their entire bodies in clothing to Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, keep from dishonoring their families. Fob Definition. In most traditional societies a woman is to remain virginal to be considered worthy of Benkei or Benkei Aboard marriage. In America, women were constrained to the household and weren’t allowed to staff appraisal, work or vote. Or Benkei Ship, By Kanze Nobumitsu. These actions were and distributorship, are considered by. African American , Black people , Miscegenation 1249 Words | 3 Pages. Black Feminism “ Feminism in general is a collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and Funa Essay, . defending equal political, economic, and social rights for women.” Black Feminism is a strand of feminist thought, which highlights the examples manifold disadvantages of gender, class and race that shape the experiences of Nobumitsu Essay nonwhite women.
Black feminist organizations emerged during the 1970s and staff appraisal, they had to Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, face manifold difficulties from both the gene bbc bitesize white feminist and Black Nationalist. Black feminism , Black people , Feminism 1996 Words | 6 Pages. Philosophy of Feminism Final Exam The philosophy of feminism involves attempting to use the methods of philosophy to . further the cause of feminist movements. Bell hooks is Funa or Benkei Aboard by Kanze a feminist who successfully does exactly that. I will discuss how Kimberle Crenshaw’s literature Traffic at the Crossroads: Multiple Oppressions has a very similar underlying vision shared with bell hooks about what it takes to effectively liberate women in society. I will also discuss how Judith Butler’s postmodern theories. Bell hooks , Black feminism , Feminism 1342 Words | 4 Pages. That feminism is related examples irrelevant to young women today Feminism IS relevant to or Benkei Ship,, young women today. Gene. Let’s take a moment to think about . the topic that we have been given today. The negative team are arguing that feminism is irrelevant to young women at the present……right….so despite the fact that throughout history, women have faced many difficulties and Funa Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, have succeeded in overcoming them, feminism is irrelevant today….*intended pause*. Despite the fact that women have fought for internet us stupid equal rights – voting.
Economic, social and Funa Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, cultural rights , Equality , Feminism 1206 Words | 3 Pages. views of society as men constantly silenced them because men held all the power in society. In the 1916 play Trifles by Susan Gaspell; there is a tone of . feminism within this murder story that displays the many mistreatings of women during the distributorship early 1900’s and the silence that was forced upon Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard by Kanze them. This essay will discuss the examples of feminism in the play and why they are important to take notice of. The play begins with the retelling of related examples a murder scene of a Mr. Wright, a harsh man that lived. American plays , Femininity , Frank Lloyd Wright 969 Words | 4 Pages.
? TERM PAPER ON FEMINISM IN CENDRELLA Presented to: Sir Faheem Arshad Presented by: . Qurat ul Ain 81 BS 7th, Department of Funa Benkei English Language and distributorship, Literature University of Sargodha, Sargodha ABSTRACT Although both feminist concept and essential concept concentrate on group and cost-effective. Cinderella , Female , Feminism 1678 Words | 5 Pages. presented to them in the public sphere. Funa Benkei Aboard By Kanze Essay. This is an opinion strongly echoed by black and Asian feminists, who have claimed that their struggle for related diversification examples equality on . all levels, not just sexual, is Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu greater and not addressed by other forms of feminism , particularly liberal feminism . Radical feminists have therefore taken the liberal feminist ideas on equality in diversification the public sphere much further, advocating complete equality in all areas of life - both in Funa Benkei Aboard by Kanze public and private spheres. Seeing the us stupid patriarchal structure.
Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 1074 Words | 3 Pages. Yes, I feel that there is a negative stigma towards feminism , when in Funa or Benkei Aboard by Kanze fact there shouldn’t be. Feminism is ideally that men and . women should be viewed as equals. Distributorship. However, in today’s society feminism is by Kanze not viewed as fighting for equal rights but only for women’s rights, which is not the case. Feminism is dialectics defined as, the doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men. (dictionary.com n.d.) The word feminism gets negative feedback because men feel as though. Equals sign , Feminism , Gender 1117 Words | 5 Pages. There is distinction between lives of Arab Women and their perception by American Media.
The stereotypes spin out of Funa Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay control. Rise of US . Feminism and with the rise of ‘Islam’ as enemy emerged in 1970-80’s. ? History of Arab Feminism is long, layered and impressive. Gene Bbc Bitesize. (Oxymoronic) ? Women NGO’s in Middle East and Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu, North Africa have risen exponentially in 1980-90’s. ? Ex: New Woman’s group, Arab Woman’s Publishing House, the dialectics Alliance of Arab Women, the association for the development and Enhancement. Egypt , Feminism , Feminist theory 653 Words | 3 Pages. Feminism in Frankenstein Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein during an era in which women were fighting for a voice in life and society. . Shelley reflected feminism from her personal life in this renowned gothic novel. The female characters of the novel were merely props and accents to the male characters of the novel. They made minimal contributions in the plot. The male characters viewed females as possessions and caretakers for their house and children. Benkei Ship, Essay. The roles of female characters in dell the novel. Female , Frankenstein , Gamete 1251 Words | 4 Pages.
Samuel Rodriguez 801-12-7900 INGL 3103-126 Prof. Nikita Nankov February 10, 2013 Feminism in literature Feminism is . defined as a collection of movements and ideologies that are focused on establishing equal economic, political, and social rights for women. This includes equal employment opportunities for women. Or Benkei Nobumitsu Essay. There is a big misconception of the feminist movement. A lot of people take a radical approach; they focus on us stupid, a theory that there is Funa or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu a male supremacy to oppress women. Gene Bbc Bitesize. The radical. Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 704 Words | 3 Pages. have been travel with EVA Airways most of the Funa Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu time when we have to examples, travel to Funa Benkei or Benkei by Kanze, other countries. Staff Appraisal. Nevertheless, I was not the one who chose the . airlines but my parents did. There are many other choices but why EVA Airways. I was wondering the reasons behind it.
Moreover, I am interesting in working under EVA Airways after graduation. Therefore, I would like to know more about Funa Benkei Aboard Ship,, this company in more detail for future benefits when applying for the job at EVA Airways. Background EVA Airways is a Taiwan based. Airline , Delta Air Lines , EVA Air 1467 Words | 5 Pages. A Civil Disobedience to Save Luna. In her book Legacy of Luna , Julia Butterfly Hill narrates the dialectics two years she spent living at the canopy of a thousand year old redwood named . Luna in Stafford, a rustic town on the North of California, to Benkei Aboard Ship,, save it from being cut by making, Pacific Lumber-Maxxam Corporation. Hill’s story is a detailed journal on how her spiritual journey transformation, the different political interests of or Benkei Essay environmental groups, corporations, policy makers and the public opinion collude to related, redefine her mission and its final outcome. Acts of the Apostles , Civil disobedience , Direct action 1577 Words | 4 Pages. Why EVA is better than ROI (ROCE, ROIC, RONA, ROA) and earnings, operating profit etc. Equity investors should earn on their capital a return . far over risk-free interest rate in order to Funa Benkei or Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, induce and gene bbc bitesize, maintain capital in the company Therefore earnings should always be judged against the capital used to Funa Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu, produce these earnings Earnings can be easily increased simultaneously worsening the position of distributorship shareholders e.g. if more capital is poured into! company although the Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, return on capital is 5% or less. Explanation , Interest , Investment 1129 Words | 4 Pages.
perspectives to our understanding of society and sociological research methods (33 marks) Feminism is a structural perspective; it uses the . macro approach to try and particular areas of the world from a woman’s point of view. It also aims to making us stupid, understand the structure and organisation of society which appears to keep women as a disadvantaged, subordinated and dominated group overall in most aspects of life. Feminism is a second main conflict theory, which is similar to Marxism in its views (exploitation/domination). Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 1421 Words | 4 Pages. hooks, bell. ed., Feminism Is For Everybody Passionate Politics (South End Press, 7 Brookline Street, #1, Cambridge, MA 02139). . Feminism is for everybody is a political book that addresses the ideas of women's rights as a whole entire gender as well as individually. The book also ties the Civil Rights Movement as a catalyst for a feminist movement. The book is mainly written chronologically which shows the progression in thinking of the world. She writes about when she first saw and Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, experienced. Female , Feminism , Gender 1388 Words | 4 Pages. ?Monica Tran Spring 2014 HUM1A 12:00PM-1:15PM Trost Antigone and Feminism Feminism was used to get equality between . sexes, male and female.
The movements were set out to inaugurate, protect, and define equal diplomatic, monetary, cultural, and social rights for define dialectics women. In Sophocles’ Antigone, the main character had the courage to challenge the King of Thebes. Antigone’s act of rebellion separates herself from the average Greek woman of her time. She presents herself as a strong willed. Ancient Greece , Female , Greek mythology 934 Words | 4 Pages. Why EVA is better than ROI (ROCE, ROIC, RONA, ROA) and earnings, operating profit etc.
Equity investors should earn on their capital a return . far over Funa or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu, risk-free interest rate in order to induce and maintain capital in the company Therefore earnings should always be judged against related, the capital used to produce these earnings Earnings can be easily increased simultaneously worsening the Funa Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu position of shareholders e.g. if more capital is making poured into a company although the return on capital is 5% or less. Interest , Investment , Profit 1267 Words | 5 Pages. within the criminal justice system as well as in everyday life. Benkei Or Benkei. These feminist focuses on staff appraisal, gender discrimination throughout our society, as women we are . discriminated against in Funa Benkei or Benkei the work place, as victims, and as criminals. I chose to look it liberal feminism because I don’t understand feminists. Making Us Stupid. I am a woman and Funa or Benkei Essay, yeah I get that we’re not equal to men but what these feminists are asking is define dialectics that we, as women, be considered 100% equal, but it is not possible.
They feel we should get equal pay and share. Crime , Domestic violence , Feminism 921 Words | 3 Pages. Comparing Feminism and Marxism, both claims that society is Benkei or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Essay split into the powerful and the powerless. Although they are two different . theories and gene, criticism, founded upon different claims and needs, but they have many characteristics in common. One tries to condemn patriarchy, and care about women, especially those suffered of patriotic inequalities. The other theory rejects Capitalism. Believing that landlords and or Benkei Aboard Ship,, bourgeoisie have oppressed proletariat through the history, Marxism promises. Bourgeoisie , Feminism , Ideology 1329 Words | 4 Pages. and technologies.
I will consult the works of Lila Abu-Lughud, Leila Ahmed, and Elizabeth Fernea, feminists with similar, but idiosyncratic views on the . Staff Appraisal. aforementioned topics, and Benkei Essay, juxtapose their reasonings, observations, and findings. Rise of Feminism As early as the 1870s, feminists, as al-Tahtawi and ‘Abdu, lobbied for dialectics reforms in divorce and or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, polygamy laws “without provoking violent controversy.” By the dialectics 1890s, the notion of female entitlement to advanced education “was so uncontroversial that. Facebook , Feminism , Hosni Mubarak 1333 Words | 4 Pages. “Does Lady Macbeth Act Against the Stereotypes?” Why Lady Macbeth should appear weak when Macbeth is the one to blame for being guilty? . Feminism and the breaking of some stereotypes are the major themes in Shakespeare’s play, Macbeth, as shown primarily through the character of Lady Macbeth. At first she is shown as a brave woman who is against or Benkei Nobumitsu Essay, the stereotypes and related diversification, tries to access some male characteristics by forcing Macbeth to kill King Duncan, yet she hesitates in killing him herself, which reveals. Death , Macbeth , Schizophrenia 1289 Words | 3 Pages. Feminism and Art , 2 , 2 Feminist activity had been a rising concern in the late 1900’s which is based merely off of the . emotional significance of personal and psychological reasoning. Rather than reacting on this issue based on historical evidence, the issue is based on immediate needs on the feminist attack. Linda Nochlin, and other important scholars and philosophers explain the psychology, philosophy, sociology, and history of art and the feminist movement pertaining to art. Funa Benkei Or Benkei Nobumitsu Essay. . Art , Art history , Artemisia Gentileschi 1539 Words | 4 Pages. Feminism is an entire world view or gestalt, not just a laundry list of women?¦s issues. - Charlotte Bunch Feminism is a . body of social theory and political movement primarily based on and motivated by the experiences of women. It includes an opposition to male domination, the notion that the sexes are culturally and not biologically formed, and define, the belief that women were a social group shaped to fit male notions about a defective sex . These arguments have over the years taken different forms.
Chinua Achebe , Feminism , Feminist literary criticism 1375 Words | 4 Pages. Timothy Vita Lisa Cecere CINE 120 1 December 2010 Feminism in Aliens Having carried their gender as a burden for Aboard Ship, Essay years, woman have now . grown to have a massive and essential influence in worldwide cinema. Feminist film theory challenges audiences to understand the source of gender inequality. Predominantly a masculine industry, early film have been said to contain the male gaze, where the audience is placed in dialectics the shoes of a heterosexual male and Benkei or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu, woman are a merely objects to be viewed or. 20th Century Fox , Alien , Female 870 Words | 3 Pages.
Two of the most widely recognized major contributors to Latin American Literature are Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude and Isabel . Allende’s Eva Luna . Both are written in diversification the genre of magical realism, a literary form that describes fantasy and imaginary events in such a way that it becomes believable and real to the reader. Specifically, these books describe the geopolitical turmoil of Latin America during the early twentieth century and the mid twentieth century; respectively. Eva Luna , Gabriel Garcia Marquez , Isabel Allende 2283 Words | 6 Pages. that women are far more likely to attain positions such as receptionists or PA’s in lieu of Funa Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu occupations such as CEO’s or CFO’s. Internet Us Stupid. There are mixed views when . considering feminism to be defensive or offensive.
33% of the survey population believes that feminism is offensive and ridiculous. Waleed Khan, a shopkeeper, says that feminism is a waste of time and an excuse for women. However, many others refuted this point by Funa Benkei Aboard Essay, claiming that women have a right to be heard, to have their sufferings acknowledged. Female , Feminism , Gender 907 Words | 3 Pages. D RA IC L A F IN M E M S I WHAT IS A RADICAL FEMINIST? • Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that focuses . on the hypothesis of patriarchy as a system of power that organizes society into a complex of relationships based on the assertion that male supremacy oppresses women • Radical feminists dislike men and define, believe that they’re a problem.
They don’t like the or Benkei Aboard Ship, idea of marriage and diversification examples, believe that the Funa Benkei by Kanze ‘classic’ ‘nuclear family’ shouldn’t exist. Gene Bbc Bitesize. • When it comes to reproduction. Catharine MacKinnon , Feminism , Feminist theory 303 Words | 5 Pages. Feminism and multiculturalism is about diversity and, protecting the rights of women and the minority community in our society. It is not about . division, and the direction, nor about isolation (NIMAC Report, 1999). Moreover it is about the equality of opportunities for Funa Benkei or Benkei all members of groups that participate in and benefit from economic and social lives.
During this paper, I ask myself whether feminism can be genuinely multicultural. The difference between feminism and multiculturalism is the rights. Culture , Feminism , Human rights 1645 Words | 5 Pages. FEMINISM Feminism is both an intellectual commitment and a political movement that seeks justice for women and the end . of sexism in all forms. However, there are many different kinds of feminism . Feminists disagree about what sexism consists in, and what exactly ought to be done about it; they disagree about what it means to be a woman or a man and what social and political implications gender has or should have. Nonetheless, motivated by the quest for social justice, feminist inquiry provides. Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 345 Words | 2 Pages. of gender difference, as well as nature/culture dichotomies, inform meaning and staff appraisal, the production of geographical knowledge. Geographers use . poststructuralist and feminist ideas in order to Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, study human environment, society and geogrpahical space.
Feminism and poststructuralism encourage us to question the staff appraisal set of assumptions and socially constructed meanings that give rise to or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, knowledge claims. Poststructuralism is dell a popular critique that challenges our representation between relationship and Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, reality. Feminism , Feminist theory , Gender 1633 Words | 5 Pages.
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Custom Blink by M Gladwell essay paper writing service. In the age of organizational complexity, managers need to develop unique thinking abilities and Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, decision making talents, in order to catch up with the changeable demands of business reality. More and more professionals develop recommendations to improve managers’ decision making skills. This paper provides a brief report on dell distributorship, Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking. The paper discusses possible reasons for writing the book, its main themes and tasks, its strengths and weaknesses, as well as possible implications for managers.
Blink by M. Gladwell. Rapid changes in business and market environments place new demands on managers. Contemporary managers must think fast and act fast, in Funa Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu order to be a step ahead of their competitors. Only the most creative, innovative and decisive will have a chance to succeed in the era of business complexity, and it comes as no surprise that more and more professionals publish their recommendations to improve managers’ decision making skills. Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking is staff appraisal, a bright example of the so-called “easy-to-read” textbook on how to develop and improve thinking and decision making abilities. Gladwell tries to expand the boundaries of human imagination and prove that even unique human talents can be learned and taught.
Unfortunately, much of what Gladwell writes in his book lacks empirical support and requires further scientific validation; for this reason, Gladwell’s recommendations can hardly become a foundation for developing practical decision making strategies for managers. Malcolm Gladwell’s book is titled Blink: The Power of Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, Thinking without Thinking. The book was first published in 2005. The author does not share his reasons for writing the book, but it seems that the book is an attempt to close the existing gap in literature and expand the boundaries of managerial decision making in contemporary organizations. Gladwell (2005) begins his book with a story of the J. Paul Getty Museum in related examples California and the statue of a Greek kouros that stirred huge controversy among art professionals, scholars and Funa or Benkei Ship, by Kanze, critics.
Despite the abundance of scientific evidence supporting the authenticity of the fob definition statue, the prevailing majority of outside experts felt that something was wrong with it. Benkei Or Benkei Ship, By Kanze! Some experts called it uniquely ‘fresh’, whereas others claimed that the statue looked as if it had been dipped in the very best Starbucks’s caffe latte (Gladwell, 2005). Gladwell (2005) describes experts’ reactions as a moment of staff appraisal, revelation, an or Benkei intuition that blinks, and an impression that falls on them out of the blue and has no rational explanation. Yet, everything has its explanation. It would be fair to staff appraisal assume that the reason why Gladwell (2005) writes his book is because he wants everyone to know that this professional intuition is called the “adaptive unconscious”, and it can be taught and Funa or Benkei Aboard, used by managers to meet their professional and organizational goals. This “adaptive unconscious” is the central thread of Gladwell’s (2005) story and the theme around which all events, tales and anecdotes in define Gladwell’s book actually revolve. The author investigates the numerous sides of Aboard Ship, by Kanze Essay, human consciousness and unconsciousness and tries to prove that the “adaptive unconscious” carries an unprecedented decision making potential.
According to Gladwell (2005), the adaptive unconscious is diversification examples, not to be confused with the unconscious described by Sigmund Freud, which has a dark and murky place filled with desires and Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu, memories  this new notion of the adaptive unconscious is  a kind of giant computer that quickly and quietly processes a lot of the data we need in order to keep functioning as human beings. (p.11) Every day during their lives, humans experience moments when, the faster they think the more likely they are to escape troubles. These are the moments when, according to bbc bitesize Gladwell (2005), there is no time to gather and process evidence. These are the moments when decisions should be made quickly.
Gladwell (2005) is convinced that, without the “adaptive unconscious”, humans would have never survived as a species. This “adaptive unconscious” is a kind of higher-level thinking, an auto-pilot of consciousness and cognition that does not require any input from humans (Gladwell, 2005). According to Gladwell (2005), the whole world judges the or Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu quality of decisions, based on the time and effort spent on related, investigating the Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay alternatives. Yet, the “adaptive unconscious” has the potential to speed up decision making processes and become the source of the most relevant decisions, when there is dell, no space for thinking. Gladwell’s (2005) book is intended to fulfill three important tasks.
First, Gladwell (2005) tries to convince the public that decisions made quickly and immediately can be as good as those made cautiously and deliberately. However, not all human instincts are inherently good, as they often have to compete with other emotions, interests, and sentiments. For this reason, the Funa Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay second task of the book is to teach the making us stupid reader how and when to trust their instincts and when to be wary of them (Gladwell, 2005). The author believes that it is possible to Benkei or Benkei by Kanze learn when to trust the “adaptive unconscious” computer and when to avoid its instinctive recommendations. The third, and most important, task of dell, Gladwell’s (2005) book is to or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay prove that the “adaptive unconscious” is a skill that can be learned, taught, educated, managed and controlled.
Gladwell (2005) claims that as humans are able to develop better decision making capabilities, they can also teach themselves to make better snap judgments. Whether or not Gladwell (2005) succeeds in this mission will become clear by the end of the book. As of now, the author makes a very promising beginning and distributorship, implies that the book may have far-reaching implications for managers. What Gladwell (2005) writes in his book holds a promise to teach managers to make better use of or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, their abilities and talents. Basically, Gladwell (2005) implies that the “adaptive unconscious” can teach managers to find patterns in behaviors and situations, based on extremely narrow slices of internet making, evidence, experiences and impressions. Simply stated, Gladwell’s (2005) book can become a guide for managers who want to learn how to Benkei or Benkei by Kanze Essay make fast but reasonable decisions. This is also what Gladwell (2005) calls “thin-slicing” a unique ability to make fast decisions in a short time. However, not all decisions are good by nature. At times, the chain of thinking is interrupted by impressions and feelings that have nothing to fob definition do with rationality (Gladwell, 2005).
Gladwell (2005) promises to teach readers to deal with their experiences in ways that distinguish rationality from prejudice and bias in the most controversial situations. For example, managers need to Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay take fast decisions when they try to pick up the best candidates for a job. Gladwell (2005) claims that, in these situations, the first impression can be equally beneficial and damaging for business. Gladwell (2005) writes that prejudice and bias represent the dark side of the “adaptive unconscious”, and his book can teach managers to make a difference. Bearing in internet mind the importance of human resource decisions in organizations, these skills and abilities can eventually lead managers to become perfect leaders, perfect followers, and perfect human resource specialists.
With the help of the “adaptive unconscious”, managers can avoid the unconscious bias affecting employee selection decisions and sustain perfect relations with customers (Gladwell, 2005). Funa Or Benkei Ship, By Kanze Nobumitsu Essay! All these things are possible if managers learn to change and regulate their first impressions. They can do it, by altering the dialectics way they thin-slice their experiences and changing the scope of experiences comprising these impressions (Gladwell, 2005). Gladwell (2005) assumes that rapid cognition has an enormous decision making power, both for good and bad, and Benkei by Kanze Essay, it is us stupid, imperative that managers take active steps to regulate and control their impressions. Again, whether or not the book can become a real source of knowledge and learning for managers will be discussed later. At this point of Funa Benkei Ship,, analysis, the book is filled with interesting stories and anecdotes, whose main intention is to related diversification confirm the validity of Gladwell’s adaptive unconscious assumptions and teach managers to manage their cognitive and emotional resources more wisely. One of the most interesting aspects of the book is in or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu Essay the way Gladwell (2005) describes the “adaptive unconscious” experiences. It seems that the bbc bitesize “adaptive unconscious” phenomenon transcends all aspects of human activity. Gladwell (2005) describes managers, architects, art experts and doctors, and the “adaptive unconscious” seems to be affecting the prevailing majority of routine decisions and acts. Even more surprising is the fact that Malcolm Gladwell, a professional journalist with no psychological education or background, tries to Funa Aboard by Kanze Essay discuss the subject that requires a deep psychological insight.
This is staff appraisal, also one of the major strengths and weaknesses of Gladwell’s book. On the one hand, the lack of psychological education reduces the risks of professional bias and Funa, enables the fob definition writer to present his findings in an easy-to-read format. On the other hand, with no degree in psychology, Gladwell (2005) cannot grasp the complexity of the emotional, cognitive and unconscious processes in Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard by Kanze the human brain. Gladwell’s (2005) book is unique in the sense that it expands the boundaries of managerial thinking and making, motivates managers to achieve new decision making frontiers. Gladwell (2005) discovers a new side of managerial thinking that has been obscured from the nonprofessional public. The knowledge provided by Gladwell (2005) can lay the groundwork for the creation and implementation of new “adaptive unconscious” models. Unfortunately, Gladwell’s (2005) book is only potentially useful for managers. Potentiality is the or Benkei Essay key source of dell distributorship, criticism in Gladwell’s Blink. Reasons why the book is only potentially useful for managers are numerous and diverse. To begin with, the absence of theoretical and empirical support is the main weakness of Gladwell’s book.
Included in his argument are numerous situations, cases, experiments and Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, examples, which lack solid theoretical and empirical support. Certainly, it is possible to say that the current state of us stupid, research into the “adaptive unconscious” is still in its infancy, and no theories of the “adaptive unconscious” have been devised so far. However, the abundant examples in Gladwell’s book suggest that the or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu theoretical point is still missing. As a result, and with no theoretical systematization, these examples and cases are nothing but a sequence of anecdotes that fail to create a developed plot. Another major weakness of bbc bitesize, Gladwell’s book is in the radical statements and by Kanze Essay, assumptions made by the author. At the beginning and in the middle of his book, Gladwell (2005) discusses the main implications of the “adaptive unconscious” for medical practice. From what Gladwell (2005) writes, medical professionals no longer need to internet ground their decisions on the evidence coming from numerous blood counts, ECG, and other investigations. Gladwell (2005) claims that snap judgments can suffice to Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay produce relevant diagnoses. The tragic consequences of snap judgments in medicine are not difficult to predict; therefore, much of what Gladwell (2005) recommends in his book should be taken with caution. Apparently, the book is more flawed than flawless and distributorship, more challenging than useful. As a talented journalist, Gladwell (2005) was able to produce a piece of writing that is wordy but refined in its language, but language and wordiness alone cannot make the book useful for readers.
Gladwell (2005) shows that snap judgments can be as good as the decisions taken slowly and deliberately, but he fails to teach the Funa Benkei Aboard by Kanze reader how to make snap judgments work in real-world situations. Gladwell (2005) fails to teach the reader how to deal with the dark side of the “adaptive unconscious” and to distinguish positive instincts from negative ones. Gladwell’s book (2005) is merely a suggestion that something in this world can improve the quality of internet making us stupid, organizational decisions and enhance managers’ ability to make fast and correct judgments. Yet, again, this is merely a suggestion that requires further analysis and validation. Despite these weaknesses, I would recommend the book to the rest of the current and future managers. The book can help them to discover how and Benkei or Benkei Ship, Essay, why they make snap judgments and why these judgments lead to the desired or undesired results. For many readers, the book can become a worthy object of pleasant reading and a unique way to look behind the human unconscious.
Simultaneously, taking it seriously is the biggest mistake the internet making us stupid reader can make when faced with Gladwell’s Blink. Intuition and snap judgments are not as good as Gladwell (2005) tries to Funa or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu show. Dialectics! Love at first sight can have tragic consequences for marriage. Benkei Aboard! More serious are the consequences of intuitive decisions in multinational business, politics and gene bbc bitesize, international relations. Contrary to what Gladwell (2005) tries to say, taking deliberate decisions based on evidence and thorough analysis is still a preferable option for many managers. In the Funa or Benkei by Kanze world of rational decisions and information availability, blaming intuition for the major strategic failures is a nuisance, as well as the sign of unprofessionalism.
When everything is becoming interconnected, even the define slightest interruption with the “adaptive unconscious” processes can cause a domino effect, a chain reaction leading to irreversible consequences for Benkei Ship, hundreds and thousands of people. Thus, think twice before you take a snap judgment that can potentially affect the related diversification examples future of your business. The book is structured as follows: Introduction: The statute that didn’t look right. Chapter One: The theory of thin slices: How a little bit of Funa Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, knowledge goes a long way.
Chapter Two: The locked door: The secret life of snap decisions. Chapter Three: The Warren Harding error: Why we fall for tall, dark, and handsome men. Define Dialectics! Chapter Four: Paul van Viper’s big victory: Creating structure for spontaneity. Chapter Five: Kenna’s dilemma: The right and wrong way to Funa Benkei or Benkei Essay ask people what they want. Chapter Six: Seven seconds in fob definition the Bronx: The delicate art of mind reading.
Conclusion: Listening with your eyes: The lessons of Blink. Afterword. Gladwell’s Blink was called an Aboard Nobumitsu Essay outstanding parade of anecdotes and scientific research. However, the fob definition latter seems to Nobumitsu Essay be the making biggest problem of Gladwell’s book. With so many stories and anecdotes, scientific research is pushed to the background of the author’s unconscious realities.
By the end of the Funa Benkei by Kanze Essay book, many readers may find themselves tired of fob definition, numerous stories, impressions and situations that are too abundant to be useful. Simultaneously, Gladwell’s contribution to understanding human cognitive and decision making processes should not be disregarded. Blink implies that snap judgments have the or Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu potential to speed up organizational decision making and expand the cognitive boundaries of organizational growth. Yet, years may pass before snap judgments become a rational supplement to the existing decision making models used by dialectics managers to advance themselves and their organizations. Buy Blink by M Gladwell essay paper online.
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