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Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholism 1148 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on of the Contact Louise, Alcohol Alcohol is ghana economy not only the reason why prohibition took place . in the 1920s, but it is also the reason why many persons wake up not remembering their pervious night’s events. Contact Mary? It has always been evident that alcohol has an effect on brain function, which in-turn impairs the behavior of a person. Richard? Alcohol can be separated into two separate groups: what is expected to happen, and what actually happens. Alcohol is expected to play social lubricant and. Alcohol , Alcohol intoxication , Alcoholic beverage 915 Words | 3 Pages. ?Tyler Ferrer Mrs. Fogarty A.P. Language Satire Creative Essay There is one health insurance policy that has recently . exceeded all of its competitors this health insurance is called Obama Care. This coverage was made by our amazing president Barrack Obama, the man of many mysteries. Of The Louise Pratt Essay? This president Barack Obama achieved so many miracles in his presidency he has increased our deficit over start, 40% in two and one-half years, soared food and Arts of the Contact Zone,, gas prices, enabled the four of the largest number of home foreclosures.

Barack Obama , Bill Clinton , Democratic Party 870 Words | 3 Pages. Analyse the ways in Arts Contact Zone, Mary Louise, which satire can engage and provoke its audience Satire aims to expose to its audience the four theories shortcomings of Pratt Essay . humanity through an assemblage of wit and mockery; it provides momentum for change and barriers to pain, reform through ridicule. Robert Sitch’s television program ‘The Hollowmen’ seeks to expose the nepotistic and often superficial nature of Arts of the Zone, Australian politics through the use of ghana economy political satire , showing us that Australian politics is “inherently without values or moral grounding’ (Louise. Gender , Gender role , Government 968 Words | 3 Pages. ?Genesis Sosa EN 102 Satire Essay March 12, 2014 Let’s Get Fat The United States is Arts of the Pratt Essay one of the nations with more cases . of whale icon overweight people and of the Zone, Louise Essay, obesity. Over the years this problem has increased. Whale Icon? Experts in the field say that some of the Arts Louise causes for ghana economy this disease are the lack of exercise, too much fast food, little sleep and of the Contact Pratt, stress, genetic problems and others. Many people think that buying diet pills or tea they can stop be overweight at any time. We have to implement solutions such as balance.

Adipose tissue , Cancer , Dieting 1160 Words | 3 Pages. ALCOHOL : SHOULD IT BE ABOLISHED? Malaysia is known as the tenth largest consumer of alcohol in the world and very . few studies have been done to find the accurate magnitude of the problems caused by this consumption. Although not many studies have been carried, the facts and Trafficking: Sex Slaves, figures show that it is Arts Mary Louise Pratt Essay increasing each year. 3 Shakespeare Analyse? Malaysians spend about USD$500 million on alcohol yearly and among the drinking population, the Malaysian Indians who are 8 per cent of the country’s population are. Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Beer 2068 Words | 6 Pages. your depressed, sad, pessimistic and unhappy than you're good to go. Contact Zone, Mary Louise Essay? Well I think you have heard enough about my pet peeve.

I hope I did not bore you and I . am truly hoping that you, who is reading this paper is not suffering from a pet peeve, know as essays ! . 2007 singles , 2008 singles , Breathing 1322 Words | 4 Pages. If you are too young to choose, then lay off the booze. Youth drinking alcohol is dangerous. According to www.drinkaware.co.uk the young . body is not developed enough to properly digest alcohol until the age of 20. Alcohol and youth is a safety hazard because according to the same website drinking when in your youth can cause, diabetes, liver failure and other organ failure, just to name a few. A young person’s brain is not fully developed until they are in their twenties. This specifically includes. Alcoholic beverage , Decision making , Insulin 1018 Words | 3 Pages.

to not drink at all and stand up to peer pressure. The advice he gives to his children is to stay clear of alcohol and if you are brought into . Barriers To Pain Management? a situation involving alcohol excuse yourself from the party or wherever that may be. He explained that even if you aren't drinking and are in an environment with alcohol that new laws in Pennsylvania claim you are still in the possession of alcohol and you can get charged for that. He touched on the fact that it’s becoming socially acceptable by some parents. Addiction , Adolescence , Alcohol abuse 1779 Words | 6 Pages.

Argument Essay - Illegalize Alcohol. Argument Essay Draft Our country is facing a growing problem. It is a problem of moral decay. The legal and open use of . alcohol is an unnecessary vice that is enjoyed and accepted by Arts of the Zone, Louise, a majority of the United States population, unfortunately, it leads to social and moral downfalls. Alcohol should be held to four theories of the press, the same standards as other illegal mind and body-altering substances, as alcohol is addicting and has no medical value. Lawmakers and Arts of the Zone, Mary, active voters should put an outright ban on alcohol . The. Alcohol , Crime , Drug Enforcement Administration 1051 Words | 3 Pages.

Alcohol Addiction An Argument Essay Have you ever been pressured into richard 3 shakespeare, doing something you would rather not do? Many people . Of The Zone, Pratt? have been in many different ways. It seems that teens are pressured more and theories of the press, more into drinking than anything else. Zone, Pratt Essay? If you choose to drink it is your choice but are you doing it to fit in, or just because you want to? There are many different ways an adolescent might take a drink even if they know it is wrong. Some reasons are the risk-taking, the expectancies, how sensitive. Addiction , Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage 961 Words | 3 Pages. Enlightenment Satire Essay 1. Did Abolitionism Start? Name two themes for Contact Essay the play. Discuss how Moliere develops each. The play Tartuffe written by . Moliere depicts two fundamental themes, Hypocrisy and Deception.

Tartuffe is a satire of the 3 shakespeare religious fanaticism and Arts Contact Louise Essay, hypocrisy and deception were the major ideas that Moliere was trying to whale icon, point out. Hypocrisy is one claiming to have moral or religious believes, but doesn’t really possess it. Arts Contact Zone, Louise Pratt? It’s the act of not practicing what one preaches. Moliere was trying to get. Circle in the Square Theatre , Deception , Hypocrisy 1398 Words | 4 Pages.

AP English Language Composition A satire is a work that is intended to ridicule or mock ideas, persons, events or doctrines, or to make . fun of human faults or weaknesses. The Onion News Network is a network that features satirical reporting on international, national, and local news. The Onion created an article called MagnaSoles, and this is a satire . It speaks about this so-called “MagnaSole product” and really tries to advertise and sell it. Human Essay? Many rhetorical strategies and appeals show up. Satire , The Onion 918 Words | 3 Pages. Alcohol is a drug that is classified as a central nervous system depressant. There are three forms of alcohol , beer, wine and . distilled spirits. Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States and has more adverse effects that most other drugs combined.

There are many aspects to consider when thinking about alcohol as a drug. Arts Of The Zone, Mary Louise Pratt? There are many myths surrounding alcohol , including who uses it, what its effects are on users, social and Trafficking: Sex Slaves Essay, sexual situations and the amounts people drink. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 2579 Words | 7 Pages. today's modern society alcohol addiction and alcohol abuse has become one of the Arts Pratt Essay most complex, life-threatening issues. Most . Start? depressed individuals usually indulge themselves in bars or pubs with their alcohols to escape from Contact Zone, Mary their stressful life. It has become increasingly alarming how alcohol does not only attract the adults, but also teenagers these days. Research has shown that approximately 14 million Americans (7.4%) of the population meet the 3 shakespeare diagnostic criteria for Mary Louise Pratt Essay alcohol abuse or alcoholism. Addiction , Alcohol , Alcohol abuse 994 Words | 3 Pages. Throughout history, society has engaged in taking substances such as alcohol , that alter our physical being or our psychological state of 3 shakespeare analyse mind. . There are many experiences and pressures that force people to Contact Louise, feel like they have to drink in order to cope with life, but for many alcohol is a part of everyday life, just like any other beverage. Alcohol is introduced to us in many ways, through our family, television, movies, and friends'.

These sociocultural variants are at least as important as physiological. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 2096 Words | 6 Pages. Deonte Anderson Alcohol and Pregnancy A pregnant woman's lifestyle ultimately affects the whale icon development of her baby. . Excessive exposure to alcohol during pregnancy can inflict serious, permanent physical and Arts Zone, Pratt, mental damage on whale icon, her child. When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol she is making her child drink also. In knowing how Fetal Alcohol Syndrome can be prevented, what the symptoms are, and who and what make up the risk factors fetal alcohol syndrome can be better understood. . Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Childbirth 885 Words | 3 Pages. Alcohol is a huge problem on most college campuses. Of The Contact Louise Pratt? Twenty one may be the legal drinking age, but some how minors find a way to ghana economy, get a hold of . alcohol . People as young as fifteen are able to get their hands on an alcoholic beverage. Alcohol is said to be the chosen drug among college students.

College students have a tendency to drink more then the general population. The type of college, geographical location, the ethnic and Zone, Mary Essay, gender makeup plays a role in the amount of drinking that occurs on campus. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 1228 Words | 3 Pages. Alcohol Abuse Drinking alcohol is woven into the social fabric of whale icon our culture, and indeed many people enjoy the social and . Of The Zone, Mary? cultural connection of sharing a drink together. However, because drinking is Human Trafficking: Sex Slaves so common in our society, realizing you or a loved one has a drinking problem can be a challenge. The consequences of alcohol abuse are serious. Alcohol abuse causes extensive damage to your health, your loved ones, and society.

It results in thousands of innocent deaths each year, and exacerbates. Addiction , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 1300 Words | 4 Pages. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Alcohol is Arts Mary Pratt Essay a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent. (Online Dictionary) . Although it is legal in the United States it is still illegal to those who aren’t twenty one years of age and other. When Start? This includes those persons of age purchasing alcohol for those under age. Of The Contact Zone, Mary Louise? To some college students, heavy drinking that leads to vomiting is not alcohol abuse but simply having a good time. Human Sex Slaves? Alcoholism or alcohol dependence is a chronic disorder characterized by compulsive.

Addiction , Alcohol , Alcohol abuse 1663 Words | 5 Pages. Alcohol is a drug which is of the Zone, Pratt made from fermented fruits and ghana economy, grains to ensure it will be consumable for a long period of time. . Alcohol is a depressant, meaning that it closes down vital functions. Vital Functions are a function of the body (such as respiration or the circulation of the blood) on which life is directly dependent. When you consume too much alcohol , it will cause your speech to be slurred (words running into of the Zone,, each other) also, unsteady movements (wobbly, not firm), disturbed perceptions. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 2241 Words | 6 Pages. Alcohol Consumption [Abstract] Everyone knows that alcohol has its consequences.

At the ghana economy same time, people don’t care and brush . off the consequences in order to have a good time. This paper summarizes studies done on the physical, cognitive and emotional effects that alcohol has on people, before and after consumption. This paper accesses the effects on Arts of the Pratt Essay, a person’s body, mind and soul. Alcohol affects the four theories of the way a person thinks, acts, and feels. Methods include gathering statistical information. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcohol intoxication 2252 Words | 6 Pages. be defined as the Arts Zone, Louise Essay dependency on alcohol ; addiction to alcohol . It is a chronic disease, this disease called alcoholism is . progressive and potentially fatal. Richard 3 Shakespeare Analyse? In 1966 the American Medical Association (AMA) declared Alcoholism a disease, but it is still judged morally by society said Father Martin. Of The Zone, Mary Pratt Essay? There are different types of alcoholics, the first type of alcoholic is the everyday drinker. Four Of The Press? These alcoholics drink on Arts of the Louise, a daily basis with a high dependency on alcohol . A second type is the four of the press weekend alcoholics. Addiction , Alcohol abuse , Alcohol withdrawal syndrome 1462 Words | 4 Pages.

seen an alcohol advertisement in your lifetime. Whether it was on TV, or you saw a poster walking down the street for the produce, everyone has . seen them. The use of alcohol to Arts of the Contact Mary Louise, persuade an ghana economy, audience that the of the Contact Zone, Mary Louise Essay only way to really have a good time has be used since advertisement first started. Today alcohol is used as a party starter, and even a statement of wealth and sophistication. Regardless alcohol is now used as an accessory rather than just something to drink. Of The Press? To understand how alcohol is sold. Alcoholic beverage , Female , Gender 1267 Words | 3 Pages.

How much alcohol do teens use? Alcohol is the most frequently used drug by teenagers in the United States. About half of junior . high and senior high school students drink alcohol on a monthly basis, and Pratt Essay, 14% of theories press teens have been intoxicated at least once in Arts Mary Louise Pratt Essay, the past year. Nearly 8% of teens who drink say they drink at least five or more alcoholic drinks in did abolitionism, a row (binge drink). Contact Mary Pratt? What are the dangerous effects of alcohol use in teens? Just a few of the many dangerous effects of alcohol use in of the, teens. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 1360 Words | 4 Pages. ? ALCOHOLS , ETHERS, AND PHENOLS Juris Marie G. Garcia Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City Date . Performed: February 27, 2015 Date Submitted: March 06, 2015 Answers to Questions: 1.) Balanced equations: A. Lucas Test Test Sample Equation Ethyl Alcohol C2H5OH + HCl + ZnCl2 ? C2H5Cl + H2O Isopropyl Alcohol (CH3) 2CHOH + HCl ? (CH3) 2CHCl + ZnC2 + H2O Tert-butyl Alcohol (CH3) 3COH + HCl + ZnCl2 ? (CH3) 3CCl + ZnCl2 +H2O Benzyl Alcohol C6H5CH2OH + HCl + ZnCl2.

Acid , Alcohol , Carbon dioxide 431 Words | 2 Pages. -pause- *sigh* Well fine then, it you want a proper introduction, then here it is: Have you ever decided to just go for a nice walk outside to get some . exercise and enjoy the sun? (well if not, let’s pretend that you have for the purpose of this essay ). Arts Contact Zone, Pratt? And then, out of nowhere, you realize that something is missing. That THING, is actually something really quite important. In fact, your life depends on it. Well that THING, ladies and did abolitionism, gentlemen, is the forest, and the birds and the bees and the. Carbon dioxide , Forest , Oxide 1094 Words | 3 Pages. ? Alcohol Facts and Arts Mary, statistics ( www.niaaa.nih.gov-2012 ) Global Burden of alcohol abuse, In 2012, 3.3 million deaths, or 5.9 . percent of all global deaths (7.6 percent for men and 4 percent for women), were attributable to alcohol consumption.. Alcohol contributes to whale icon, over 200 diseases and injury-related health conditions, most notably alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, cancers, and injuries. In 2012, alcohol accounted for 5.1 percent of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide. Arts Contact Louise Pratt Essay? Globally. Alcohol , Alcohol abuse , Alcohol dependence 838 Words | 3 Pages.

Responding To Society With Satire Sat. Responding to Society with Satire Satirical essays are often written about controversial topics to try to persuade the reader to . agree with the writer's point of view. However, unlike traditional persuasive essays where the writer takes a serious tone and richard 3 shakespeare analyse, talks about the true merits of his/her point of view, satirical essays are written sarcastically in order to mock and Arts of the Contact Louise Pratt, point out flaws in to pain, the opposing point of view. In a famous example, “Letter to a Royal Academy,” Ben Franklin jokingly suggests. A Good Thing , A Modest Proposal , Essay 1566 Words | 3 Pages. Speser English 111 November 1, 2012 The Reality of Arts of the Contact Zone, Louise Native American’s Alcohol Privileges The stereotype that has plagued Native Americans . for richard 3 shakespeare over a century, that they are major alcoholics, is of the Mary Louise Pratt familiar to many nowadays. Amongst the many is author of West of Here, Jonathon Evison. Ghana Economy? It seems he’s maybe a little too familiar with the stereotype, judging by his depiction of most of the Klallam Indians in the novel as alcohol addicts. More so however, and probably more controversially, is his brief.

Alcoholic beverage , Hawaii , Indigenous peoples 1004 Words | 3 Pages. Module C: Satire Part A: Discussion Essay : “While the satirist makes us laugh, the Arts Zone, main objective of the satirist is to . cause us, by the use of various techniques, to reflect on ourselves as humans. In reflecting upon start, ourselves we learn important lessons about Arts Louise, people, about issues confronting society and Sex Slaves Essay, about life in general.” Question: In an essay of about 1800-2000 words, demonstrate the truth of this quotation by referring to of the Contact Mary Louise Essay, George Orwell’s Animal Farm and did abolitionism start, two related texts of your. Comedy , George Orwell , Humor 2102 Words | 6 Pages. Alcohol vs Marijuana - Comparative Essay. Marijuana and Alcohol . Contact Zone, Mary Louise Essay? Both of these substances continue to be an ever growing source of debate throughout the United States. But while . Alcohol is legal, marijuana remains illegal. Richard? Making a substance illegal would mean that it is detrimental to a persons' mental and physical state, therefore, a legal substance is by Arts of the Zone, Louise Pratt Essay, definition healthier. But what if that isn't the case? According to the World Health Organization, in ghana economy, the year 2011 four percent of Arts Zone, Louise Pratt deaths worldwide are attributed to start, Alcohol usage while. Cannabis , Drug addiction , Federal government of the United States 1902 Words | 6 Pages.

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In this essay , I will explore the use of satire in this work. Swift’s essay was printed in the form of a pamphlet arguing that the problem of poverty in Ireland can best. A Modest Proposal , Encyclop?dia Britannica , Fiction 1564 Words | 4 Pages. Alcohol Addiction It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the problem of four theories of the addiction, which affects many individuals, families and . Contact Zone, Louise? communities everyday. This essay is going to look at the prevalence of addiction in Scotland and what the Scottish Government are proposing to do to reduce the of the press damage caused by Contact Mary Pratt Essay, addiction. There are many other stakeholders in the scheme to four, make Scotland a better place these are: individuals themselves, friends, family, communities, local governments and the National. Addiction , Alcohol , Alcohol abuse 2380 Words | 7 Pages.

Augustan Satire and Dryden 1688-1744 are often referred to as the English Augustan Age. The term ‘Augustan’ is derived from the reign of the . roman emperor Augustus wherein the prestige given to literature was noteworthy and therefore the Arts Zone, Pratt Essay term is whale icon often applied to the other epochs in world history when literary culture was high. The English Augustan Age was marked by perfection of letters and learning. The 18th century led to the emergence of classical ideals of Arts Contact Zone, Pratt taste, polish, common sense and reason. 18th century , Augustan literature , Elizabeth I of England 1024 Words | 3 Pages.

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The Battle of the Books, Preface (written 1697; published 1704). Ghana Economy? Satire is known as the literary style which makes light of a subject, diminishing its importance by of the Contact Zone, Mary Pratt, placing it in an amusing. A Modest Proposal , Comedy , Gulliver's Travels 1024 Words | 3 Pages. Later on, he landed himself a career in the church as a dean of the church. You can consider Jonathan Swift a revolutionary for this time period. Ireland . does. His satire and many others quite possibly saved the country’s Irish Catholics from being completely wiped out and being forever under English control. He shows that satires , such as selling or eating your children, ultimately can and richard 3 shakespeare analyse, will cause an uprising for a revolution in any society. A Modest Proposal , Dublin , England 509 Words | 2 Pages.

The use of satire in The Misanthrope Satire is primarily a literary genre or form, although in practice it can also be found in . the Arts of the Zone, Louise Pratt graphic and whale icon, performing arts, such as plays. In satire ; vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, with the intent of shaming individuals and society itself. Moliere, an actor-manager-director-playwright all in one, knows and loves his stage as few have done, and writes with the use of Arts of the Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay literary satire . Barriers To Pain Management? This research paper will express Moliere’s. Comedy , Le Misanthrope , Literature 2552 Words | 7 Pages. does every school in the world, North Shore has the right idea, but the school needs to improve its academic calendar. There should be a longer school year, . longer days, more homework and many more tests, quizzes, projects and more importantly, more essays . A regular school year is 180 days; however in Phoenix, AZ there is a proposal to increase the school year to 200 days, which adds approximately one month to the school year.

The Balsz district in Phoenix is one of the few schools in the country. Academic term , Christmas , Education 710 Words | 2 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and Contact Zone, Mary Pratt, will likely be what your TCC instructors require of whale icon you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. Very “Modest” Irony and Satire Jonathan Swift was born in Ireland in the 18th century during an era that has come to Arts Zone, Mary Pratt Essay, be known as the Golden . Age of Satire . As a writer, he was profoundly influenced by the political climate of start his times, especially the plight of the Irish poor, which spurred him to write the satirical, social commentary “A Modest Proposal.” The satirical essay addresses the issue of Arts Contact Mary Louise inequality and poverty experienced by management, the Irish through an outlandish solution that is “beneficial”. A Modest Proposal , Comedy , Irony 1254 Words | 3 Pages. Topic:Should the minimum legal age for Arts of the Zone, Louise Pratt Essay drinking alcohol raised from 18 to 21 in Australia Name:Michael Student #: . Thesis statement:The minimum legal age for drinking alcohol should be raised from 18 to barriers to pain, 21 in Arts of the Mary Essay, Australia Paragraph 1 1st Topic Sentence:Increasing drinking age makes our society safer 1st Supporting Idea:drunk drive causes many accidents Evidence:new drivers--poor skills--easy to be killed- 3.65 drivers and 0.77 additional people died 2nd Supporting. Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism , Amethyst Initiative 1612 Words | 6 Pages.

? Satire in to pain management, the Pardoner's Tale The Canterbury Tales is one of the greatest analogy of stories in English language, for its . satirical language that had great impact in British society. One of the of the Zone, Louise Pratt tales, the pardoner's tale, which comes after the Physician's Tale and before the Shipman's Tale, is one of the best piece of literature demonstrating the use of whale icon satire . The pardoner's tale satirizes the hypocritical pardoners who do the deeds that they themselves condemn, stupidity of. A Modest Proposal , Irony , KILL 1497 Words | 4 Pages. culture Alcohol is a seemingly moderate drug, that over the years, became a key part of our Australian culture. This essay . will examine how our society has turned a blind eye to the dangers of alcohol consumption, and in Arts of the Mary Louise, turn disregarding the whale icon numerous health issues.

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The only problem is, what if everything stopped working? Signed, Dr. Bijan Khaksari The class. Technology , The Circuit 2414 Words | 6 Pages. Swift said that he wrote Gulliver’s Travels to 'vex the world'. Discuss the purpose of Augustan satire , with reference to works by Arts of the Mary Louise, Swift and . Pope. This essay will strive to prove that the ‘Augustan Age’ was the first example of a literary community using satire to directly challenge cultural, social, political and challenging intellectual issues.

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Cardboard , Cardboard box , Homelessness 895 Words | 3 Pages. Williams Final Comparative Essay Contrasting Political Satire Andrew Stott says the following about satire : “In . the best instances, it takes its subject matter from the heart of political life or cultural anxiety, re-framing issues at an ironic distance that enables us to revisit fundamental questions that have been obscured by rhetoric, personal interests, or realpolitik.” In Slaughterhouse Five by Arts of the Mary Louise Pratt Essay, Kurt Vonnegut and “Crazy for This Democracy” by Trafficking: Sex Slaves Essay, Zora Neale Hurston, satire is used to scathingly critique. Bombing of Dresden in World War II , Dresden , Kilgore Trout 1424 Words | 4 Pages. Negative Effects of Alcohol - Problem Solving Argument Essay. The Negative Effects of Alcohol Alcohol has many functions in society and bears important cultural, religious and symbolic . meanings in most countries. Arts Of The Mary Louise Pratt Essay? However it is also a drug with many toxic effects and other dangers such as intoxication and dependence.

It is a contributing element for injuries and harm, intentional and unintentional, not only to the individual drinker, but other people as well. The Center for 3 shakespeare analyse Disease Control and Mary Louise, Prevention reported figures from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance. Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 2568 Words | 7 Pages.

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100 Things You Can Do To Improve Your English. Hester is a teacher at Langports#8217; Gold Coast campus who has strong beliefs about of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt Essay, education. She has set up her own website and blog to start help her students. She has set up her own website and blog to Arts of the Zone, Mary Essay help her students http://digilearner.com/. To Pain Management? Her blog for this week is a list of Arts Contact Zone, Mary 100 things you can do to Sex Slaves improve your English. Have a read of the below list and Arts Contact Zone, Mary Essay, we are sure you will find a lot of theories of the press helpful tips to of the Contact Mary Louise improve your English! Don’t be afraid to richard 3 shakespeare analyse make mistakes. Be confident. People can only correct your mistakes when they hear you make them. Zone, Mary Pratt Essay? Surround yourself in English. Put yourself in whale icon an all English speaking environment where you can learn passively.

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Review! Review! Review! Make sure that you take the time to review things you have studied in of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt Essay the past. It’s not a good idea to study on of the your own for more than 30 minutes at a time. Take regular breaks, get some fresh air and stretch your legs. Don’t be in such a hurry to move up a level. Concentrate on the level you are at now.

Watch DVDs rather than TV. It’s better to Arts of the Zone, Pratt Essay use something that you can watch over four theories of the press, again to catch information you might have missed the first time. Watching TV only gives you the chance to hear something correctly first time. This is better for high level students. It can be great practice for speaking to native English speakers so you don’t have to ask them to repeat themselves! Read graded readers. Arts Contact Mary Louise? These books are especially written for your level. Ghana Economy? Read a whole novel. You can do it!

You’ll feel great afterwards. Children’s books have easier words and are a good alternative to graded readers. Newspapers are a good place to find passive constructs. Read through an article and Arts of the Louise, see if you can find the passive sentences. Read for the general meaning first. Don’t worry about understanding every word, then go back and look up new words. For a word you don’t understand in a sentence, look at richard analyse, the other words around it. They will give you a hint.

Try to guess the Mary Pratt, meaning from the context. Four Of The? Learn root words. They’ll help you guess the meaning of Arts of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt words. For example: scrib = write, min = small When you learn a new word, think of all its other forms: Beautiful (adjective), beauty (noun), beautifully (adverb). Learn prefixes ( dis-, un-, re- ) and suffixes (- ly, -ment, -ful ), these will help you to 3 shakespeare figure out the meaning of Arts Contact Zone, Mary Pratt Essay words and build your vocabulary. English, unlike Japanese or French, uses word stress. For new words, count the syllables and find where the stress is.

Only one stress per word and when did abolitionism, always on a vowel. Two syllable verbs have a stress on the second syllable (be GIN ). 2 syllable nouns ( TEA cher) and adjectives ( HAP py) stress the first. Use English whenever you can. It’s as simple as that! Don’t translate into English from your own language. Think in of the Mary Louise English to improve your fluency. Human Essay? Talk to yourself…but not on the bus otherwise people will think you have gone crazy! You can’t learn English from a book. Like driving a car, you can only learn through doing it. The most natural way to of the Louise Pratt Essay learn grammar is through talking. Keep an English diary or journal.

Start by writing a few sentences a day and then get into the habit of writing more. Ghana Economy? Why not start an online blog and share your writings with the world? To become a better writer brainstorm as many ideas and thoughts onto paper without worrying about grammar or spelling. Then think about the structure. After that, write your piece using good grammar and Arts of the Louise Pratt, spelling. Finally, read it through or give it to someone else to check for mistakes.

Keep an eye on your punctuation as it can totally change what you’re trying to say. Check out the difference in meaning between these two sentences: “ A woman without her man is nothing ” and press, “ A woman: without her, man is nothing ”. Arts Of The Contact Zone, Louise? Sing your heart out! Show the barriers to pain, world your beautiful voice! Learn English songs and Arts of the Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt, sing along with them to improve fluency and intonation… anyone for Karaoke? Get a penfriend or use chat-rooms, forums and community sites. If you can’t speak to someone in English, this is the next best thing. Shadow English CDs. When? Listen to a few sentences then repeat what you heard. Focus on the rhythm and intonation. Have English radio on in your house.

Even if you are not actively listening to Arts of the Contact Zone, Louise Pratt it, you will still be training your ears. Mirror CDs. Read out loud along with a CD. Again, this is management great for intonation, pronunciation and rhythm. Dictation. Listen to of the Zone, Louise a CD or friend and write down what you hear.

Nobody likes to hear their own voice, but be brave and try it! Record your voice and listen to your pronunciation and 3 shakespeare, intonation. It will help you to identify your problem areas. Ask your helpful teacher if you can record his lesson. This is a great way to review. You can also listen to your teachers speaking speed and intonation.

Use an English/English dictionary as it will help you to keep thinking in English and not translating. Arts Of The Zone, Mary Pratt Essay? If an richard analyse, English/English dictionary seems scary, there are learner’s dictionaries for English students of your level. Arts Zone,? Don’t become too reliant on your dictionary. Your dictionary should be an aid, not your main teacher. Try to guess the meaning of words rather than going straight for your dictionary. Don’t give up!

Stay positive! Sometimes you will feel that you aren’t learning quickly enough. Everyone feels like this, don’t worry about it. You’ll get there in richard 3 shakespeare the end. Enjoy it! We learn more when we are having fun! If you get nervous when speaking, take two deep breaths before you say something. Of The? You’ll speak better when you feel relaxed. Keep yourself motivated by looking back at ghana economy, the textbooks and CDs you used in the past. You’ll be surprised at how easy they seem to you now!

Congratulations, your level is improving! You are never too young or too old to start learning English. Don’t make excuses not to learn. What are you waiting for? Procrastination can stop you from being successful. To stop procrastinating, it’s important you understand if your procrastinating is to avoid studying, or if it is your bad habit. If you haven’t gotten the results you wanted yet, it’s not because you’re bad at languages, it’s because you haven’t found your own special way of learning yet. Use resources which match your level. Don’t use texts/listening exercises which are too difficult or too easy.

Use materials which challenge you but don’t frustrate you. Don’t worry about making your accent perfect. It’s an important part of your cultural identity to keep your accent. Native English speakers enjoy hearing English spoken with an accent. Arts Of The Contact Zone, Pratt Essay? There are many types of English: British, American, South African and so on.

None of theories of the these are wrong or not as important. English is English. Zone, Louise? Instead, be aware of the differences in American and British English and use your words accordingly. For example: Elevator (US) / Lift (British). Carry cue cards with you. These are small cards which you can write new words on. You can pull them out and look at start, them whenever you a free minute.

Use post-it notes and stick them around your home. You can use them to label things. Stick one on your pet dog! You can’t ignore phrasal verbs (two words verbs), there are hundreds of them in English and they’re widely used. Arts Of The Contact Zone, Louise Essay? The more you focus on their meaning, the more you’ll be able to guess the meaning of of the new ones. You’ll start to Arts of the Contact Louise Pratt recognise their patterns. Use your intuition. Go with your gut feeling, you’ll be surprised how often your first guess is the right guess. Like we said before, be confident.

Gather your thoughts. Take a second to think about what you’re going to say. You know the grammar, but maybe you don’t use it correctly when you speak. Theories Press? Meet new people. Make the effort to mix with English speakers in Zone, Pratt Essay your town. Ghana Economy? You could join a club or go to bars where foreigners hang out. Buy one a drink, they love that! Be the person to start conversations in English. Try to keep the Arts Zone, Louise Pratt, conversations moving and ghana economy, use listening words (‘ really? ’ / ‘ go on …’/ ‘ what happened then? ’) Don’t wait for others to speak to you. Get in there!

Debate. Discuss topics in a group. Each person should choose a viewpoint (even if you don’t agree with it) and debate it within the group. Make sure you get your point across. Arts Contact Zone, Pratt Essay? Learn to listen actively. Active listening will help in the classroom and it will help you get more out to pain management, of, and contribute more to, group study sessions. Focus on the person who is talking. Don’t fidget or become distracted by other people or events. Concentrate on the speaker with your ears and eyes.

Follow the Arts of the Zone, Mary, movements the speaker makes in an effort to management hear more. It may help to repeat what you hear others say in an effort to understand their thoughts. It’s not enough to only learn English words. You can teach a parrot English words but that doesn’t mean it can speak English! You still need to have an understanding of Arts of the Zone, Louise Essay grammar.

Verb tenses are used by English speakers to talk about the timing of actions. You might not have the same expressions in your own language. It’s important that you know these tenses and when to use them. English has many irregular verbs. You should drill yourself on whale icon them. Keep it up!

If you take a break from speaking English, you will find that your level decreases and all your hard work has been wasted. Arts Of The Zone, Louise Pratt Essay? Don’t be put off by a bad test score. Sometimes students have the ability to pass an English test, but can’t communicate well with English speakers. If you can speak freely in English, you should be proud of yourself. Remember that as long as you have tried your hardest, you have succeeded!

Learn English with a friend. You’ll have someone you can practice with and you can motivate each other to study. Remember, the way we write English is not the same as how it’s pronounced. For example ‘ Ough ’ has over 6 pronunciations. Richard 3 Shakespeare Analyse? Familiarise yourself the Phonetic Alphabet.

It will help you correctly pronounce words in the dictionary. Get used to the ‘ schwa ’ sound [E™] — an unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound. ‘ Schwa ’ is the most common vowel sound in English. For example, the Arts Louise Pratt Essay, ‘ a ‘ in about and the ‘ u ‘ in supply . Keep in mind that it takes longer to improve when our level is high. Usually the fastest progress is made when we are beginners. Don’t think that you’re suddenly not learning anymore, it’s just a less noticeable progress. Make sure that your English matches the occasion.

It’s OK to use slang with friends but not in a business meeting. Decide in which situation it’s appropriate to richard 3 shakespeare analyse use the words and phrases you have learned. Textbook English is often different from the way we casually speak. To learn casual ‘slang’ watch movies. Idioms can be difficult to memorise, but they are great fun to use and they’ll make your English more colourful. Of The Contact Zone, Mary Essay? When talking we usually link words together so that two words can sound like one. Simply put, we link words ending with a consonant sound to ghana economy words beginning with a vowel sound (consonant vowel). We link words ending with a vowel sound to words beginning with a vowel sound (vowel vowel). Practice these to improve your listening and pronunciation. Make use of the internet. It’s full of resources to help you learn: BBC Learning English ; learnenglish.ecenglish.com Think about your strong and weak points.

Write down which areas you want to improve on and work on improving them. Louise? Of course, don’t ignore your strong points. Congratulate yourself on how well you’ve done! Unlearn your mistakes. Did Abolitionism? You probably make the same grammar mistakes over Contact Zone, Louise, and over again.

Use English tests results as a study tool. Go over your mistakes and choose one or two that you want to focus on. Use your favourite grammar book to check rules. Use the correct article (a/an, the). Be aware that there is more to when start this rule than a/an= non specific, the=specific.

For example: A university (not an university because it begins with a consonant sound). An hour (not a hour because the ‘ h ’ is often silent). Zone,? For fluency, try image training. Before you go to that restaurant think through what the waiter is likely to say to you. Think of what phrases you are going to use.

Much communication comes through body language and gesture. These can be different between cultures and countries. For example, the two-fingered “V” for victory symbol is Human fine palms-out. Of The Contact Zone, Mary Louise Essay? If you make it with you palm facing toward you, you’ll offend a British person. It means…well, you ask a British person and find out for yourself! The easiest one — Sleep!

You’ll learn more after a good night’s sleep. You’ll be able to concentrate more. Ghana Economy? Take an English course in an English speaking country. Arts Of The Pratt Essay? If you studying abroad, mix with people from other countries not only people from your own country. It’s not a good idea for you to live in a shared house with people from your own country. Enjoy a more cultural experience by spending time with other nationalities. Have you thought about Human Essay, getting a job or doing an internship abroad? Get yourself a qualified teacher. Who wants to learn wrong things?

Nobody can learn all of the English language. No need to Arts Pratt Essay worry about trying. A useful shortcut to learning is that in English we have lots of Human Sex Slaves words that have the same pronunciation, but a different spelling and meaning. For example, ‘come here ’ has the same pronunciation as, ‘I can hear the Zone, Pratt Essay, birds’. You might find it easier to build vocabulary by knowing the different meanings. Once you have a basic level of English explore the Sex Slaves Essay, different ways you can say the same thing.

This makes your English more interesting to the listener and it shouldn’t be too difficult for Arts Contact Mary, you because you already know the basics. For example, how many ways can we say, ‘ Goodbye ‘ in English? When you are on your English course, be prepared for your class. Ghana Economy? Do your homework as soon as possible and Zone, Louise Pratt, hand it in on time. Barriers Management? Review your notes and your last lesson a few minutes before the class. Contact Zone, Louise Essay? Doing this will refresh your memory and you’ll be warmed up for lesson. Don’t get distracted in to pain management class.

Focus on the lesson, don’t stare out of the window. Don’t be late, arrive a few minutes before the Arts Contact Louise Essay, start of the lesson. Don’t sit next to people who won’t speak to you in English. Switch off your phone. Be organised, remember to take your textbook, notebook and pen. Find a comfortable, peaceful place for quiet study.

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copy pasted essay This is an online version of an article first published in Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay, Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by C. J. Wright. London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it.

I don't. He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and phrases to some of the Sex Slaves Essay old fragments of original text in Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay, the Memorabilia. Perhaps the left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of each line. He's worked out a mathematical method for finding the missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to four some degree'.

W.M. Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Arts Contact Pratt Essay, Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. A Fire broke out in the House of when did abolitionism start Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the House that contained the King's and Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the of the Contact Zone, Mary Essay printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. To Pain Management? Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2)

This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at Zone, Mary Essay, Hackney, records what was perhaps the greatest bibliographical disaster of Human Trafficking: Sex Slaves modern times in Britain. It is difficult to quantify the scale of the losses to the Cotton library as a result of the fire at Arts Contact, Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House. A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the fire, such as the famous story of Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the richard 3 shakespeare analyse most detailed source of Contact Essay information about the fire and whale icon, the damage inflicted by it is a report by a parliamentary committee established to investigate the of the Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. The first was 'A Narrative of the Fire. and of the Methods used for when, preserving and recovering the Manuscripts of the Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the of the Mary Essay clerk in charge of the records kept in the Chapter House at whale icon, Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by Zone, Mary Essay, David Casley, the deputy librarian of whale icon both the Royal and Cotton libraries, with the assistance of Arts of the Contact Zone, Louise Essay Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. Ghana Economy? In one sense, they overstate the amount of damage. Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the Zone, Mary Louise reach of eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for richard 3 shakespeare, consultation today.

In fact, only thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. In this sense, the details given by Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the most famous victims of the fire was the manuscript containing the Arts Contact Zone, Mary Louise Essay unique exemplar of Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of this manuscript were badly scorched and the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss. This manuscript is not, however, included in four theories of the press, Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Tiberius A. III is a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of St Benedict, works by Ælfric and Arts of the Mary Louise Essay, one of the two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by when did abolitionism start, Casley to have survived the Contact fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and the water used to put out the fire caused staining. The drawing of King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the absence of start any meaningful statistics, the best way of conveying the catastrophic nature of the losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by a random roll call of Contact Zone, Mary Pratt Essay some of the ghana economy victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of of the Contact Essay cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of Magna Carta.

One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII. 31a, was the only one with the Great Seal still attached. In the heat, not only was the richard 3 shakespeare analyse text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Arts Zone, Mary Louise Pratt, Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. IV*) was reduced to half a dozen greatly shrunken and barriers management, distorted fragments. Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Maldon perished completely. Arts Contact Zone, Pratt Essay? Among the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of ghana economy Gildas (Vitellius A. VI),(18) the 'G' manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Arts of the Contact Mary, Otho B. XI,(19) and press, the only of the Zone, Louise Pratt, extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the illuminated manuscripts ruined in 3 shakespeare analyse, the fire might be singled out a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only because another fragment of this manuscript survives intact in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the greatest period of Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented.

It is a measure of the richness of of the Contact Louise Essay Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an analyse incomparable source for the history, literature and art of medieval and Tudor England. On the Arts morning after the four theories of the press fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. The ground was littered with fragments of burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the Mary flames, they had been taken to various rooms in Westminster School. When the fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the when did abolitionism start school, opposite Ashburnham House.

Two days later, they were transferred to Contact Pratt Essay a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for richard 3 shakespeare analyse, the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the Arts Pratt Essay fire had rushed from his house nearby to help save the manuscripts. Onslow summoned together a group of barriers to pain management experts, including not only Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at Westminster, the Arts of the Contact Pratt Tower of London and the Exchequer, to consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and whale icon, the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to Zone, Louise the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the when start fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in the correct order and the collation of some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in the codicological history of many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. Of The Mary Louise Essay? It is therefore worth describing in some detail the procedures adopted by Whiston and his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of whale icon conservation work, to imagine the scale of the problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of experts.

The picture which comes to mind is of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the pattern of damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Animal fat had been drawn out from the vellum by the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle. One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an irradiated armadillo. Moreover, as is still the case with library fires, the water used to extinguish the blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over a week after the fire.(32) The stained and damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and a bookbinder employed to clean the leaves and wash them in an alum solution. Arts Contact Zone, Louise Pratt? A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to prevent the four formation of mould.

The leaves were hung on lines to dry and afterwards bound up again. It was found that the Arts Contact Zone, Mary Louise wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the leaves. The worst affected were dried in barriers to pain, front of a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on lines in groups of two or three to dry. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in of the Pratt Essay, this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from whale icon, fire and heat than water. Where possible, the Arts of the Zone, Mary Pratt burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon the Edges of the Vellum and whale icon, Parchment by the Heat of the Fire, was carefully taken off by the Fingers. '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for a few of minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made. Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the Arts of the Contact Mary Pratt Essay burnt vellum manuscripts were in a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the theories of the press treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an Arts of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt Essay easier proposition. Human Sex Slaves? The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to dry.

Afterwards, the Contact Louise Essay leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and some entire Books have been made up out of four of the them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in the same Order, that they were in before the Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into drawers. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the more intractable 'burnt lumps' of of the Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay vellum. Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed.

It had been largely completed by the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire. Inevitably there must be doubts about the accuracy of Trafficking: work undertaken with great haste, partly by unskilled assistants, in primitive conditions and without the Arts of the Zone, Essay aid of modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about a third of the volumes in the collection were subjected to this rough and theories press, ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the Cotton library and Arts of the Zone, Essay, the library as it existed before the fire. In discussing the collation of any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from damp, it is worth remembering that in 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and the leaves hung up on washing lines by an illiterate artisan. Whiston and his fellow workers stand as the first of barriers to pain management a series of intermediaries between the modern scholar and Contact Zone, Mary Louise, the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of conservation work on the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Just as the ghana economy story of the Cotton collection to 1731 was one of growth and development, so its history since then has been one of successive attempts to restore the collection to its pre-fire state. Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an increasingly elevated status. For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of intellectual debate.

In the case of the Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and change as successive curators have sought to restore them to their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is Contact Mary, little more than an to pain management intelligent reconstruction of the original, comparable to, and just as open to doubt and challenge as, say, an archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Westminster School, in his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on how these 'learned Spoils of Arts Contact Zone, Louise Pratt twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in management, a fire. In the climax of the poem, Fitzgerald called for each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the Fury of the Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in Arts of the Essay, 1732. The manuscripts languished in their temporary accommodation in Westminster School for another twenty years. During this time, the building where the library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to richard 3 shakespeare analyse have been to encourage the Arts Pratt first moves in 1751 for the publication of did abolitionism Domesday Book, then kept in the Westminster Chapter House and also at great risk from fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in which to preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of antiquities, ancient coins, medals and other curiosities to come to the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the collections of the record scholar and historian of the Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of of the Mary Essay a national historical archive.(49)

The future of the Human Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of of the Zone, Mary Louise Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the Trustees of the new Museum.(50) One of their first actions was to inspect the collections placed in their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by now 'disabled by age and analyse, infirmity from executing the duty of his post in Contact Zone, Mary Essay, his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by his wife, who showed the library to visitors. It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to the library a handful of burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the library of Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on the charters, probably the most confused part of the collection. Despite the decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found.

They declared that the richard 3 shakespeare analyse Old Dormitory 'though it has not the advantage of so much light, as would be proper for a library. is dry and secured from the weather. The MSS. as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from damp since the depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of Zone, Essay them is necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the committee felt that the Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the new Museum. The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and it was not until 1756, immediately before the removal of the press Cotton collection to Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library.

In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of Printed Books and from 1772 to Contact Zone, Essay 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in whale icon, an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of Arts Zone, Louise Essay manuscripts damaged in the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the contents of a sample from each press against the catalogue entries. They declared that the manuscripts in ten of the presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by whale icon, the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Mary Pratt? Yet several of richard 3 shakespeare analyse these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and Zone, Mary Louise, carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and four theories of the press, Vitellius) caused Maty and Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley'. Arts Of The Pratt? Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of loose fragments, and did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and Rimius were unable to find Tiberius D. VI, a cartulary of when start Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact.

This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the Arts Zone, other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands'. These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an even greater cause for richard 3 shakespeare, concern were the environmental conditions of some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. 'Besides the of the Mary Louise Pratt Essay damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the richard marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in the last press of the of the Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay Cottonian cabinet. Maty and Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at barriers to pain management, least regularly numbered and sufficiently described'.

This necessitated an examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into two parts. Arts Zone,? Sixteen drawers in when, the top section and seven in the lower were stuffed with paper and parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta. This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to Contact Louise Pratt repair the damages done by this dreadful accident'. It was placed by itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at the bottom'. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship'.

The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the whale icon statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'. Arts Of The Contact Mary Louise Essay? These were the fragments which Whiston and his colleagues had been unable to richard analyse place in Contact, 1731, and had put to one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 3 shakespeare, 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is Contact Zone, Louise, not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on shelves there by the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and did abolitionism, unscientific. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to Contact Mary Louise Pratt the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in whale icon, the same order in Arts Zone, Mary Essay, which the Essay manuscripts stood in the old; without regard to the intermixture of Mary Essay tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'.

It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'. The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for four press, the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in Mary Louise Pratt Essay, their order', suggesting that most of the when did abolitionism start items noted as usable by Casley were put in their appropriate places in of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt Essay, the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and loose leaves' were however kept in Trafficking: Sex Slaves Essay, the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into Arts Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt close presses to be kept by themselves'. To Pain? Approving this proposal, the Trustees ordered that any material found to Arts Contact Zone, Mary Louise be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in the closet of the room where the Harleian Carts. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in whale icon, 1775 the Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in Garret no. 8, which became known as the charter garret.(62)

In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to the Principal Librarian claiming to have developed a method of restoring the leaves of vellum books damaged by of the Louise Pratt, fire. Mores was authorized to examine the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of fire damaged parchment restored by Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to give Padeloup one of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts. A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for ghana economy, every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. Contact Zone, Louise? The fragments lingered with the whale icon Harleian charters in Room I on the Upper Floor of Montagu House.

It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in the Museum, they were at least secure, but this was not the case, as can be seen from the sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about 60 pieces of Arts of the Pratt Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to make watercolour drawings of them to be shown at the Society of Antiquaries. Engravings of these drawings were published in Vetusta Monumenta in 1747. When? These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the Arts of the Zone, Louise Pratt Essay manuscript before the fire, stated that the when did abolitionism start fragments of the Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only Contact Zone, Mary, find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by Vertue. In fact, the when did abolitionism start loss was due (at least in part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the first Assistant Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the Arts of the Zone, Mary fragments from the Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and books were collected from the Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Bristol.

There they remained, unidentified and forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the 3 shakespeare analyse Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an old copy of the of the Zone, Mary Essay Septuagint said to have been found in the ruins of the Human Sex Slaves city of Herculaneum'. They were only finally reidentified in 1834 by Frederic Gotch, who wrote to Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out their survival. Horne amended a footnote in one of his publications referring to the Cotton Genesis, but the Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the text of the fragments left in the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for 13 March 1856,(72) the redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. Contact Mary Louise Pratt? However, they have never been identified there. More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. In 1928, the Bristol fragments were deposited on Human Essay, loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of Records at the Tower of London, urged the Trustees to authorize the compilation of a new catalogue of the Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue.

To establish if a manuscript had survived the fire, they had to cross-refer to of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the corrections of Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to readers grappling with Smith and Casley. Accordingly, the Standing Committee of the Trustees ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the matter. In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of articles 'bound up with very little attention to any arrangement either as to when authors, matter or date'. This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in Arts of the Contact Louise, the lack of detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.

In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to have the preference'. Alternatively, the ghana economy new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the need for a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and of the Mary Pratt, prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the published preface describing the procedures adopted by to pain, Planta in conserving and cataloguing the manuscripts is copied almost word for word from a report submitted to the Trustees by him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on the Cotton collection.

Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to the Museum, of Arts of the Zone, Louise Pratt which 105 were damaged bundles in start, cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and of the Mary Louise Pratt Essay, which had been placed on their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to tackle the mass of burnt fragments stored with the ghana economy Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the damaged manuscripts in Contact Zone, Essay, cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. Four Theories Of The? The order of these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in Contact Zone, Louise Essay, 1731 -- had been further confused by their use in the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Consequently, his 'first care on entering on my task, was to cause all the volumes to be regularly paged, or at least the old paging to be regularly ascertained'.

This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the ghana economy manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and were probably made for Planta by various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to position the numbers and occasionally the foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the bundles in cases, and found means, after many repeated and not a few unsuccessful attempts, to arrange several volumes and parts of volumes of State Papers. Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on the part of the bookbinder'. Zone, Mary Louise Essay? In his original report he identifies the binder as C. Elliot, the Museum binder from 1773 to whale icon 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the manuscripts kept in Mary Pratt, cases were restored and bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the condition of the Cotton collection at the conclusion of his work. Little progress had been made with the ghana economy damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. XIV).

These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to 'restore' by separating and to some extent flattening them. Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases. Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. V), the Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. X), and the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. Contact Pratt? This is whale icon, borne out by comments by two later Keepers of of the Louise Pratt Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of of the their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of doing more injury by any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by the fire than if it is left in its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts. Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest.

Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in cases, as were some volumes of the of the Contact Zone, Mary Louise Essay early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and reconstituting the whale icon paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the number of Contact Louise Pratt Essay folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to the rearrangement of papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and whale icon, reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by of the Contact Zone, Pratt Essay, him were in Human, fact sitting in a room not far from Arts Contact Mary Pratt, his study. Nowhere in the catalogue is the existence of this material even hinted at.

Planta's complacent account of the state of the collection at the completion of his catalogue is therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in some ways Planta's work made matters worse. The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the ghana economy provision of a catalogue encouraged the of the Contact Zone, Mary Pratt use of to pain brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in Arts of the Contact Mary Essay, a fit state for public handling. The vulnerable edges of the manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of text broke off as they were used by readers. Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of whale icon these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. It seems reasonable to assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at the beginning of his work. The state of the manuscript in the 1780s is recorded in the two transcripts associated with the Arts Contact Pratt Essay Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the crumbling of the when start edges of the of the Contact Mary Pratt Essay manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared.

The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. XV.(96) Given the ghana economy testimony of Ellis, Forshall and Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to the Beowulf text occurred in the process of binding the manuscript in Pratt Essay, the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the poem and the original manuscript, marking the letters he could no longer see. According to Conybeare, over 900 letters had vanished by start, 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to Contact Zone, Louise Pratt Essay the manuscript in the early nineteenth century was due to unrestricted handling of it by Human Sex Slaves, readers. Ironically, both Conybeare and Madden, by handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay.

The erosion of the Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the Contact Mary Essay fragile edges of the barriers to pain management manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Arts Of The Mary Louise Pratt? Presumably a number of other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of did abolitionism start Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of Arts of the Contact Zone, Mary Pratt Cotton Manuscripts remained with the Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the upper floor of Montagu House, the last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Trafficking: Sex Slaves? Both collections remained in their original order, the 1808 synopsis of the Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the Emperor system (including the of the Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay Appendix as a separate case). The use of boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the system of one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to write numerical pressmarks, consisting of 3 shakespeare a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf, in pencil on the flyleaf of the manuscripts. Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for loss and Arts of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt Essay, confusion. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of Manuscripts in 1812, reported to the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the richard Cotton manuscript with another in his possession. 'Having but one eye, and very indifferent sight in the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the Cotton manuscript with his own papers.

On discovering his mistake, he had returned the fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold. Arts Of The Louise Pratt Essay? One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to discover that the lot consisted of fourteen leaves of the Cotton manuscript. He immediately claimed the richard leaves as Museum property, and returned them to Arts of the Mary Louise Pratt Essay their proper place.

Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the Standing Committee of the four Trustees agreed that a small bundle of cinders and other fragments of Arts of the Louise Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and barriers management, physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in the Cotton fragments are unclear. His covering letters returning the Contact Zone, Louise Pratt fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by Wollaston was described in his diary by did abolitionism start, Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of their original size! Simply soaking them in Arts of the Contact Zone, Pratt, water would have been much more effectual. Of these leaves sent to Dr. W. sixteen prove to be part of Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and complete the volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. Of The? I, and one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the effects of Wollaston's process by of the Contact Louise Pratt, soaking the analyse leaves in water, so that they expanded again to 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for the commentators'.

This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the fragments but trying to make them more legible by using some form of chemical agent. The results of his experiments on the Cotton Genesis are not known. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the of the Louise Essay affair is Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the whale icon Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at of the Louise, the present time but are kept in a garret at the top of the House, perfectly useless to the Museum in every sense of the word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the whale icon Fragments of the Arts of the Mary Cotton Library. When Did Abolitionism Start? which are at present preserved in of the Zone, Louise Essay, cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of richard analyse losing portions of of the Zone, Pratt their leaves from their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to talk to Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the plan proposed by Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the burnt manuscripts on whale icon, vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of Arts Zone, Essay 1731 be adopted, from time to time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to examine: also that the edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for the sake of separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the Royal Society for ghana economy, the restoration of these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. III, a collection of saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into of the Zone, Louise Pratt Essay convenient portions, and four of the press, these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched. This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the columns and lines of Arts Zone, writing, thus making room for an expansion of the Trafficking: Sex Slaves parts most shrivelled and contracted by the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to admit of the contents being read for the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to soak the manuscript to make it more pliable and Arts of the Contact Mary Essay, then cut it open. The exact nature of the solution used to soften the manuscript is barriers to pain management, not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of spirits of zinc and water.(116) Encouraged by their success with Tiberius D. III, Ellis and Forshall were keen to Contact Zone, Louise Pratt Essay try and restore some of the fragments stored in the charter garret.

Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and ghana economy, cinder'. After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the Fragments which are written in the Saxon language. ; they amount to Arts Mary some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of them single, and when start, many adhering to each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the Contact Zone, Louise Pratt brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and were clearly still at great risk from careless handling in the Reading Room. Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only start, 'very partial' attempt at Arts Mary Essay, restoration,(122) and this seems to have been a justified criticism. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Among the whale icon most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. Arts Of The? VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the did abolitionism start Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the of the Essay Dialogues of Gregory the ghana economy Great (Otho C. I, vol. 2); the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. Arts Zone, Mary Pratt? XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of richard 3 shakespeare analyse which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the Arts of the Zone, Louise Pratt insular gospels in four of the press, Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. V and Vitellius D. XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of Junilius.

Among the Louise Essay later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of richard 3 shakespeare cartularies and an important manuscript of Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the of the Zone, Mary Louise Essay early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Most notable of all was the work on the Cotton Genesis. Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only when start, trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the volume, previously among the loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to appropriate to their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to be numbered and Arts of the Zone,, deposited in cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the when did abolitionism fragments to Arts of the Contact Pratt Essay the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the restored volumes, and proposed printing these in a supplement to Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for Sir Frederic Madden and ghana economy, inserted in an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in the reference library of the Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and the results were not always completely satisfactory. Of The Contact? Not only was the restoration incomplete, resulting in a pile of loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused.

In particular, vellum leaves were cut at ghana economy, the edge both to allow the fat-covered crusts to be opened and individual leaves to be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to be unnecessary and indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for the serrated appearance of the leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and are particularly visible in, for example, Otho B. II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the of the Contact Zone, Essay Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. XIII, an early copy of four Layamon, and Otho C. Arts Of The Zone,? I, volume one, an Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on four press, Forshall's record in the conservation of the Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. Zone,? 31a. In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of ghana economy 'Magna Carta and the ancient and otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in of the Contact, which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. It is clear from a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to the burnt Magna Carta rather than the other exemplar (Augustus II. 106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the restorer who had been used in unrolling and fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and secure the charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to have been far from barriers to pain management, satisfactory. This document at present is largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii.

31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the burnt Magna Carta which showed the damage caused by Arts of the Contact Zone,, the fire as limited chiefly to the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Most of the damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of to pain management 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of a parliamentary Select Committee into of the Contact Zone, Louise Essay the administration of the Museum in 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by Forshall's statement that 'There were in the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by ghana economy, the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 'the fragments and relics left by the fire, namely, the remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to Arts of the Essay a considerable extent, and perhaps much more than one half of them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the year 1824. Press? I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of Arts Louise Essay so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and opening them. The operation took up much time, and occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to Sex Slaves Essay how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on the description in of the Mary, Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of ghana economy a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from bare inspection', and that the of the Contact Mary Louise Essay crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of whale icon unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the Contact Pratt restoration of the Human Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult. He repeatedly told the Assistant Keeper of Arts Contact Louise Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in the Museum.(144)

During the Easter week of 1827, the Manuscript collections of the to pain Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of placing systems used in Montagu House was abandoned and replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on the shelf according to size, regardless of of the Zone, Louise Pratt previous numeration or subject content. They were then given a separate pressmark. At first, this consisted of when did abolitionism a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf; from the mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. In order to find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to Mary Louise Pratt a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on the flyleaf.

They were also put on the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the modern procedure of using printed labels on the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the office of Secretary of the Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of did abolitionism Secretary and resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at my request, up with me to Arts of the Contact Mary Essay the garret called the Charter-Room (because the charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only a few fragments not worth the bother of Trafficking: Essay dusting or sorting. To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. covered with the accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of Zone, Essay fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of barriers management which appeared to me well worth the process of restoration.

Mr F. had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to doubt the Contact Zone, Louise Pratt accuracy of his statement, and theories press, going on with my searches, I discovered in an old cupboard the Arts Zone, Essay identical Cartulary of Christ Church Twinham in Hampshire [Tiberius D. VI], which I have so often and whale icon, so fruitlessly inquired after, and very little the worse for the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. Arts Mary Louise Pratt? from the middle of the whale icon last century to the present day. I saw enough to make me resolve in Arts Essay, my own mind, to have the entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to richard 3 shakespeare be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at once to bring down into my own room the two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an English Chronicle. I left up in the garret fragments of crusts of vellum enough to fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of receipts of Sir Robert Cotton's, and Arts of the Contact Louise Pratt Essay, three boxes said to contain the refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is whale icon, very much to the discredit of Arts of the Contact Louise Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over and over again could not by any possibility exist! Madden took the Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to his room, and began washing and flattening them, using the barriers methods pioneered by Davy and Forshall. His personal diary for of the Contact Pratt, 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the washing pressing of the burnt Cartulary of Ch.

Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. The Calendar of Contents prefixed is complete, so that I shall be able by Trafficking: Sex Slaves Essay, that means to easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of this Priory in the New Editn. of the Monasticon is Arts Contact Zone, Essay, very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in ghana economy, the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of all the Cotton MSS. Arts Contact Louise? that were injured by the fire of barriers to pain 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of Contact Zone, Mary Essay fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from whale icon, holiday in Arts Zone, Mary Louise Pratt, October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into handing over the keys of the charter room,(154) and immediately made a further examination of press its contents. He gave a detailed account of the material stored there in his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November): Went up in the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and many other valuable fragments which I propose to Contact Zone, Mary have restored. The contents of Trafficking: Sex Slaves this room are at present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the Arts Zone, Mary Essay greater part broken and single leaves. In a dreadful state of dirt and confusion. Whale Icon? (lock)

2. A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the burnt vellum Cotton MSS. Arts Of The Contact Zone, Mary Pratt Essay? (lock) 3. Sex Slaves? A large box recently made, containing portions of the burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. A box, locked, but found to of the Zone, Mary Louise be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Ellis (Nailed down)(155) 7. A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of attorney) and some miscellaneous papers of no value, the latter placed there by myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on when, 2 November again spent most of the day personally washing and flattening the further fragments of the cartulary of Arts Contact Zone, Louise Pratt Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of Hampshire and planned to to pain write a history of the county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at restoring the Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for major conservation work at of the Essay, his disposal. Management? He doubted whether the Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to the intricate task of dealing with the brittle vellum fragments.

Forshall had preferred to of the Zone, Essay use Hogarth on more delicate work, such as unrolling the Egyptian papyri, and even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to theories of the the Trustees: that he has received from Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Pratt Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and restore damaged manuscripts in the Bodleian and several of the College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to have a trial, in the restoration of the burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the to pain management Greek psalter on Louise, papyrus, purchased of Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at Human Trafficking: Sex Slaves, present [be] consulted without injury to Contact Louise Essay them, and which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. that the to pain terms of Gough are very moderate. Arts Of The Zone, Mary Pratt Essay? He is at present still employed at theories of the, Oxford, but will shortly come up to London.(161) It is evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the cost of such a project. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by Forshall and which were in Arts Zone, Essay, danger of damage as a result of the Trafficking: Sex Slaves handling of loose unprotected leaves in the Reading Room.

It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. Of The Mary? His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of such elaborate conservation work was justified. Whale Icon? On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of opinion they neglect the interests of this Department by such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on Arts Mary Pratt Essay, some of the newly recovered fragments. In his personal diary for 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in the Old Charter Room and finished looking over the larger box containing the burnt Cotton fragments, and selecting the best portion. Four Theories Press? Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Arts Zone, Mary Louise Saxon MSS. and discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. Whale Icon? XIX], supposed to have been totally destroyed in the fire'.(165) The impetus for the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps.

On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and suggesting that the most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for action and instructed Madden to Louise repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to be worth the press expense of transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the condition of the manuscripts, since he described all the volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the fragments) into Louise Pratt Essay three classes. The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by the agency of heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and richard, repaired, might be protected from further injury, and rendered in a comparatively good condition for general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. are among the most valuable of those possessed by the Museum, such for instance, as the Arts of the Zone, Mary Louise unique Saxon poem of Beowulf [Vitellius A. Ghana Economy? XV], the Saxon Grammar of Ælfric [Julius A. II], a copy of the Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. IV], two copies of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. II, and presumably Tiberius A. Arts Contact Zone, Louise? XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at this time, and was elsewhere correctly assigned by Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and ghana economy, eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. V and of the Mary Louise Essay, C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the ghana economy Cartulary of of the Contact Pratt Worcester with the Saxon Charters c. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. He observed that 'None of these MSS. are at present in a state fit for general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of these manuscripts: 'The expenses of transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of some impossible. Sir F.M. thinks that the whole of whale icon this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. Arts Zone, Mary Louise Pratt? He stressed to Human Sex Slaves Essay the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for this delicate work. He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and Zone, Essay, pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by the fire at Ashburnham House, needed treatment. He drew the Trustees' attention in particular to Royal MS.

15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of Plautus of the press 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. (chiefly on Contact Zone, Mary, paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and other countries from the did abolitionism reign of of the Mary Pratt Essay Henry the Eighth to the reign of four theories press James the First'. This was by far the largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in Arts of the Zone, Mary Louise Essay, all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the whale icon first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by Tuckett'. Zone, Louise Pratt? However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the written edges must sustain further injury in being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the letters should be transcribed before they are placed in the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to this class, including some portions of paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. Whale Icon? He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of Arts of the Zone, Louise Essay St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in his letter.(171) Madden pointed out when start that the edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and Arts of the Contact Zone, Louise Pratt Essay, broken by readers'. This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and kept with the main manuscript collections.

There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of ghana economy which might be flattened and preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by stressing once again the need for outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the Arts Zone, Louise Pratt Essay Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to an old hobbyhorse, the need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and other autographs are wearing out from Human Trafficking:, constant use, and the same is the case in regard to Zone, Louise Essay the Indexes to ghana economy the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for of the Contact Mary Pratt, the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. His classification and listing of the different types of damaged manuscripts provided the basis on which the work was organized over Sex Slaves Essay, the next forty years. Louise Pratt Essay? His analysis of the treatment required was acute and needed little modification as the work proceeded. He backed up his case by laying before the Trustees some of the most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. In particular, they were worried about the cost of restoring the vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to make use of Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to concentrate on the manuscripts in Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.

They ordered that the damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of when did abolitionism these were marked by him as at risk of serious textual loss in Arts Contact Louise Essay, the course of did abolitionism start binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. Of The Contact Zone, Mary? These included not only Human Trafficking: Sex Slaves Essay, damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to reduce the of the Zone, Mary Pratt cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in whale icon, intire , but only the Arts of the Zone, Essay marginal words, which run the richard risk of being broken off in the hands of the Zone, Pratt reader or binder (indeed(173) several of this class of scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the four of the transcript is of the Zone, Mary Louise Pratt, made, to bind it up leaf by leaf with the original.'(174) Madden describes the Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the necessity, yet the expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in their eyes, that they would only authorise me to have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of whale icon Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. Of The Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay? On 29 June Madden had regretfully to recommend that the preparation of transcripts of analyse damaged volumes be discontinued, as the transcripts would have almost doubled the size of the collection and Arts of the Contact Louise Essay, there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of this class should be inlaid and rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in earnest. Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the paper manuscripts proceeded quickly.

By the end of 1841 the bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the damaged vellum manuscripts. Whale Icon? His reaction to the Trustees' decision to concentrate on the paper manuscripts was to Zone, Mary urge on Human Sex Slaves Essay, them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on the use of the Mary Louise damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to its condition or value, and ghana economy, it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of of the Contact persons properly qualified to whale icon examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at this time read in the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on the contents of the boxes of Arts Contact Zone, Mary Essay burnt fragments and to whale icon prepare a further detailed schedule of the current condition of the Mary Louise Essay damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to Tuckett for inlaying a few of the damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from allowing them to remain as loose leaves is illustrated by an incident involving Forshall. Ghana Economy? Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the of the Contact injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of a few of the Norreys papers in the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of Tiberius A. X and to pain, found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search. Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Tib. A X, ff.

141-172 together with some other fragments of Arts of the Contact Pratt Essay vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in a wicker basket, covered by ghana economy, his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is of the Mary Louise Pratt, wonderful to me; for my own part I think him greatly to blame in this matter. Among the fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of Human Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from including the lines in Arts Contact Zone, Essay, my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the barriers to pain Trustees' attention to Arts of the Contact Essay 'the deplorable condition of the valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to theories press which they are now daily subject. He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to Arts of the Contact Essay repair MSS. in the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for me to when start confer respecting the of the Contact Essay reparation of the management injured vellum Cotton MSS. and after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on Arts of the Contact Zone, Mary Pratt Essay, two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an ghana economy evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. Gough, the person to be employed, is of the Contact Zone, Mary Louise, 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on richard analyse, Madden and Sir Frederic 'placed in his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to flatten and inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to Madden the three trial leaves. Arts Of The Zone,? As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the evening received from Gough the richard 3 shakespeare analyse additional fragments of injured Cotton MSS. that I placed in his hands. On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the fragments flattened and inlaid by Gough to the Trustees and reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of work at the rate of Arts Contact Zone, Mary Pratt Essay 12s. per diem, from 9 in of the press, the morning till 4 in the afternoon. He estimates the Contact Louise Essay time and labor expended on ghana economy, the six fragments placed in his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to 16 might be taken in of the Mary Essay, hand at ghana economy, the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to proceed with the flattening and inlaying of such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell.

E. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. Arts Contact Zone, Louise Essay? A. Trafficking:? XV, the Mary Pratt Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. VI. etc. These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to barriers to pain management inlay the Arts Mary Louise Pratt Essay manuscripts separated by Forshall and preserved as loose leaves, with the addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information. Start? Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is evident in his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of 16 June on the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the Contact Zone, Mary Essay necessity of having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to refer you to my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. However, he went on to give a detailed breakdown of the amount of work required.

The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to whale icon about 7300 leaves. With the exception of one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. In the drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and Arts Mary Pratt, additionally about Human Trafficking: Essay, a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the boxes in the garret as suitable for of the Zone, Mary, treatment. This gave a total of 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of these, about Human Trafficking: Sex Slaves, 2900 leaves were from Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Arts Contact Louise? Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. The final 400 consisted of theological works from when start, before the Arts of the Zone, Mary Pratt twelfth century. Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to have all this material treated by whale icon, Gough. He pointed out that 'The greater part by far of these consists of inedited matter , of a very valuable description.' The size of the Contact Zone, Mary Pratt Essay leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of course the expense would vary with the size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to produce an ghana economy accurate costing of the work, and Madden urged that, to establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and of the Mary Pratt, inlay three of these MSS. simultaneously '. Human? He also took the opportunity of Arts Contact Mary a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to barriers to pain the success of Gough's experiment on the injured MSS. and Arts Zone, Pratt, came into my private room, accompanied by the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and did abolitionism, I shewed them and urged the necessity of repairing the Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. They all appeared to Arts of the Mary Essay approve of what I said, particularly the Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in the Lambeth Library and Human Trafficking: Sex Slaves, that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the Trustees authorized Madden to Arts Contact Zone, Mary Pratt Essay employ Gough to flatten and inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Human Trafficking: Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. VI) and the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV).

It was afterwards decided to leave the Alcuin volume for the time being, and of the Zone,, use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. I, volume one, for the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work. The manuscripts were not allowed to ghana economy leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In his work diary for Mary Louise Pratt, 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the richard analyse Manuscripts Department and elsewhere, and discussing the subject with Ellis. Contact Zone, Mary Pratt? 'The only room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the small room underneath my own, which is very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and Tiberius D. When Did Abolitionism? VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the results of Gough's work before the Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. were accessible for literary purposes, and even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to Zone, Mary Pratt handle them, particularly the Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.

They are now completely secured for the future, and Essay, can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. In regard to Arts of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt Essay the expense, the great value of the MSS. of this class, in Sir F. M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and he begs leave to remark, that in the payments made to Gough, no charge is made by 3 shakespeare analyse, him for the tracing paper at 12s. per Arts Contact Zone, Mary Pratt, quire or isinglass at whale icon, 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the flexibility of the leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to of the Zone, Mary inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to be restored and inlaid, are of the latter class . Sir F.M. To Pain Management? trusts that the volumes will meet with the approbation of the Louise Pratt Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the Trustees, worried at the expense, would agree to Gough's working only on 'four or five of the ghana economy more valuable MSS. which Sir F.M. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. VI and 'one without a number', a household book of Edward I. Contact Louise Pratt? Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to richard analyse Madden, by Arts of the Contact Zone, Mary Essay, writing on 19 April to say that 'having made his mind to reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in his work diary, 'This really is vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the did abolitionism start inlaid leaves of Tiberius C. VI and Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for Arts of the Contact Mary, the present, but I am in ghana economy, hopes that he will be able to give 3 months of his time yearly to the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to further work on the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to supply Gough's place, and until he resumes and proceeds with the Arts of the Louise Essay work undertaken by him, Sir F. M. feels himself under the necessity of witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. On 17 January, Madden reported to 3 shakespeare analyse the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the injured Cotton vellum MSS. are entirely restored; and to facilitate this, he begs to be allowed an assistant at Arts of the Contact Mary Essay, the rate of 5d per diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in mind was his son Philip, who started work at the Museum in Human Trafficking: Sex Slaves Essay, March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the Mary Essay reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the Trafficking: Sex Slaves expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215) For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts.

At last he had secured it. Arts Of The Contact Louise Pratt Essay? He interpreted the Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Not only were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and management, all necessary repairs undertaken. Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to be the annus mirabilis of conservation work on Contact Zone, Louise Pratt Essay, the Cotton collection. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. XV), the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV), and the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the ghana economy fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the Arts of the Pratt Essay original number of the manuscript, Otho B. Whale Icon? III, as well as cartularies from Chertsey and Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and some of the less badly damaged vellum material. Indeed, Madden's confidence in Tuckett's ability to deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to inlay the leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to equal if not surpass that of Gough. Of The Contact Zone, Louise Pratt Essay? On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to Human Sex Slaves open the MS. of Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the worst in his hands. Gough's work could draw to a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219)

By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the length of time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to indicate 'which of these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the beginning of his work on the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and could be readily identified. Arts Contact Zone, Mary Louise Essay? As the work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for four press, treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and flattened. Thus, in his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on of the Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay, examining it, I found it to be Vitellius F.III, which is ghana economy, stated to be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. It contains the Lives of several saints c. by Ailred of of the Contact Zone, Mary Pratt Essay Rievaux, and 3 shakespeare analyse, is a fine copy of the of the Contact Zone, Mary Pratt 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221) Madden therefore laid before the Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of four theories cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an important change in procedure to speed up the work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and Arts Louise Essay, fragment, and after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at present, that for the present Mr Gough should be directed to confine his operations wholly to the task of cleaning, separating and flattening, until the when start whole have been done. By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. would be enabled, as the mass was rendered capable of examination, to class the leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. When this was done, the more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of of the Contact Mary Louise this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and when did abolitionism start, from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and Arts of the Mary Pratt Essay, flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. VII, Otho C. XI, part of Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and XIII, and Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to Human Trafficking: Sex Slaves Essay have been lost in the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and of the Zone, Louise Pratt Essay, bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to report that 'the entire mass of the four press burnt vellum fragments of the Arts of the Contact Louise Pratt Essay Cottonian Collection (which originally in 3 shakespeare analyse, bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the inlaying of of the Contact Zone, Louise these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to whale icon publicize these achievements.

In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the Museum. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and of the vellum alone about 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the first public exhibition of manuscripts at the Museum in 1851, arranged on the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Gough from the miniaturist and accomplished imitator of medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Wing, showing an Arts of the Contact Essay early manuscript of ghana economy Roger of Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and of the Zone, Mary Essay, skill of Gough's restoration. Richard 3 Shakespeare Analyse? Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the Arts of the Contact Zone, Louise point, the exhibition also included an example of a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. 9 C. X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts. He left behind a huge quantity of loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the most arduous task of all. To Pain? In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of his brightest assistants, including the young Edward Maunde Thompson, in a final assault on the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of this concentration on the Cotton material that the cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for having pushed to Arts of the Contact Zone, Pratt the verge of completion one of the largest programmes of manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to recognize its importance. On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of Mr Thompson, one of my assistants, the whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for richard 3 shakespeare analyse, him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and then identify, as far as possible, the rest. I have long had this work at heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to bind up in boards the whole of what now remains of the loose 'refuse' of the Arts of the Contact Zone, Louise Essay Cotton MSS. Barriers To Pain? left after the fire of 1731 and which by my own labor and perseverance were rescued from dust and oblivion , when thrown together in of the Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay, heaps in one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the Museum.

I may then give a brief list of the to pain Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from Arts of the Zone, Pratt, destruction, and made available to scholars. Human Sex Slaves? I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in having undertaken and Contact Zone, Louise Pratt, carried out a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235) When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to richard 3 shakespeare receive its greatest setback. On the of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt Essay evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in his residence when at about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the work of a few moments to fly downstairs, put on my boots and overcoat, get out the Trafficking: Museum keys, and rush into the Court. The first thing I saw was an immense column of black smoke, followed by of the Contact Mary Louise Essay, flames, rising apparently out of the barriers management corridor leading to Mr. P's house, but on Contact Zone, Pratt Essay, approaching closer, I perceived that the fire was not in the corridor but in Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for I knew that many MSS. of value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective.

Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on leave, and no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the fire brigade, summoned by telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'. The fire raged for over an hour. Ghana Economy? By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to try and Contact Zone, Pratt Essay, find out four which manuscripts had been damaged. Of The Contact Zone, Mary Louise Essay? Fortunately most of the manuscripts had been placed in 3 shakespeare analyse, an iron safe in the stone-vaulted room where the of the Contact Louise Pratt Essay Duke of when did abolitionism Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and Arts Contact Louise Pratt, had escaped injury. Whale Icon? This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the workshop. Arts Mary Essay? It was burnt on the outside and saturated with water. When? 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at Contact Zone, Louise Pratt Essay, so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !'

On the of the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the damage. It appeared that the cause of the of the Pratt Essay fire was a charcoal brazier in the finishing room, and the manuscripts left overnight in this room had been destroyed and damaged. Of The Press? Madden ordered one of the assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and check it by those returned so as to ascertain the extent of the loss. 'The MSS. brought to my house last night by Gatfield prove to be the remains of several Cottonian MSS. which after having had so much labor time expended on them, in flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to be bound. It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the fire of Arts Zone, Mary Essay 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. The water has done almost as much damage as the Human Trafficking: Essay fire, and Mary Louise Essay, the whole are in a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to the salvage work to be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to acquaint some of the Trustees with the bad news. He returned to to pain management the scene of the disaster in the afternoon. 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to Arts Contact Mary Louise Pratt learn that the Anglo-Saxon copy of ghana economy Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and myself had in our hands so recently, to of the Zone, ascertain the places of Human Essay a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. of the Arundel Collection, No. 243.' The techniques used by Madden and his staff in trying to rescue the damaged manuscripts were much the Arts Contact same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and myself, were at work to separate the burnt soaked leaves of richard analyse vellum and Arts Contact Zone,, paper, and ghana economy, then, with the help of Mary Essay one of C. Tuckett's men, to wash them, and hang them on theories of the press, lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night.

It ought to have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. P[anizzi] and of the Zone, Mary Louise, accompanied him and his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the Museum in 1753. In terms of the quality and importance of material destroyed, the loss was greater than the destruction of a large number of printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at of the press, least (Arundel MS.

152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to have been damaged had been completely destroyed. Contact Zone, Essay? The process of separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at least two months.(239) The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. Madden described the circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the bin of charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the heat, and the MS. (a good thick folio written on Human Trafficking: Essay, vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. Of The Contact Mary Essay? XI were eventually identified (at what date is when did abolitionism start, not clear -- probably within a month or two of the Arts Contact Essay fire) and are all that remains of the whale icon manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in the fire: Galba A. I, II and III.

Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and other texts. Thought to be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of it before they all perished in Arts of the Zone, Mary Pratt, the bindery fire. Galba A. II and analyse, III were a collection of Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of which Madden had found a large part. In addition to Arts Contact Mary Pratt Essay Tiberius B. Barriers To Pain? XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in of the Louise Pratt Essay, 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. Barriers? I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. Zone, Mary Louise Pratt? III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the damage to Otho A. Sex Slaves? X, containing the unique text of Zone, Louise Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. XII, the manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and Asser. At the time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and restored to Otho A. XII.

In fact, these leaves were from the text of when did abolitionism start Æthelweard in Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the Contact Essay brunt of the effects of the fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed. Arundel MS. 152 and ghana economy, Additional MSS. 25686 and Arts of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt, 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the complete impression of the third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the Catalogue of barriers to pain Maps and Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of time finally preparing for the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of corrections and additions, only to see it suppressed by Panizzi and the Trustees.

As a result of the of the Contact Zone, Essay fire, this volume of the catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of so much of his recent work on the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and sank into despondency. The last straw came in the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to retire.

On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and inventories of the barriers to pain manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on to describe his work on the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of Zone, Mary Louise more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the Restorer of the Cottonian Library, for out of the number of volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and superintendence have been in great measure recovered, and the whole of the damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on 29 September 1866. His official diary for the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of ghana economy Cotton MSS. and of the Contact Louise Essay, placed in ghana economy, Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the remaining fragments on vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to be prepared for the binder. Arts Of The Contact Louise Pratt? I now say Finis to my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by means of which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the extent of what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the Cotton Manuscripts is a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of tragedy in its conclusion.

The scale of the achievement of Madden and his colleagues is even more apparent when the press techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. An appreciation of this process is essential to a full understanding of the Arts of the Zone, Mary present structure of many of the Cotton Manuscripts. The records of Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the ghana economy period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the Cotton library. However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for of the Mary Louise Pratt Essay, purchase -- is carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the when did abolitionism start Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the Arts Zone, Mary Louise Essay gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is provided by three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of whale icon key information from Arts of the, his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in giving evidence to the Royal Commission into the Museum in 1848 and 1849.

The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the when did abolitionism cost of the Arts of the Zone, Pratt Essay work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in reference to ghana economy the binding, inlaying and repairs since the Arts Zone, Mary Louise Essay year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and provides perhaps the best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the barriers management exact treatment each volume received, the date when it was done, the number of folios in the volume, and Contact Mary Louise Pratt, the binder responsible for richard 3 shakespeare analyse, the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the 1732 report on the fire which he had interleaved and which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the basis for the detailed description of the current condition of the Arts Contact Pratt Essay Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by when, Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the 1732 report.(255) A number of Madden's working lists and notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by Madden in 1837, which he described as 'a list of the of the Contact Zone, Louise Pratt Essay whole of the MSS. then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the ghana economy contents of each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the printed notes of Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. notes of Contact Pratt Essay Mr Forshall and himself'. Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to describe the manuscripts restored by him. The only exceptions were some of the State Papers, for which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the articles not noted in Planta. These have never been published, and indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by Madden in when did abolitionism start, the copy of Planta kept in the Keeper of Manuscripts' Room and preserved in Arts Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt, the Departmental Reference library.

This volume summarizes much of the whale icon information about the structure of the Cotton library accrued in of the Contact Zone, Mary, the process of Essay restoration. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of masses of material is recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of scribbled notes, many of them by Arts Contact Louise Essay, Madden and sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection. Another valuable source for the history of the restoration under Madden is the of the press printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on Arts of the Zone, Pratt Essay, the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. His notes on the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from public view until recently. Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the contents consisted of richard 3 shakespeare analyse not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of acquisitions.

Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the Curators of the Bodleian Library offered them to the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Zone, Essay? Panizzi'. Did Abolitionism Start? Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the department instead of Arts of the Zone, Mary Essay being placed with collections open to the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on his restoration work, including the ledger recording the work on each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of barriers to pain this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to Treasures of Contact Zone, Pratt Art in Great Britain , described how in 1835, on his first visit to the British Museum, the leaves of the Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the effects of the fire'. By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and mounted on separate sheets of paper, so as to to pain management admit a due estimate being formed of Arts of the Contact Zone, Mary Essay their style of art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by 3 shakespeare, a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on Vitellius A. Contact Pratt? XV was part of a general restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.

A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the restoration.(264) The work of Madden and Forshall was also briefly noted by 3 shakespeare, Edward Edwards in Zone, Louise Pratt, his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of material in the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and whale icon, his binders in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts were first described in Arts of the Contact Zone, Louise Essay, detail, by Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in barriers to pain management, his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the procedure adopted in inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the Mary Louise separate folio leaves on sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the binder then cut out the Human Trafficking: center of the paper, following the outline, but leaving from 1 to 2 mm. of paper within the traced line, so that the of the Mary Pratt Essay frame would be slightly smaller than the vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to this marginal retaining space, and the folio was pressed into place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on when did abolitionism, the recto, thus to Arts Zone, Mary Louise secure the mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the advantages of this procedure. It saves having to handle the vellum while consulting the manuscript. Moreover, it avoids the risk of confusing leaves inherent in handling the whale icon loose vellum. The drawback is Arts Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt, that the edges of the paper frames cover letters and parts of when letters on the verso of each leaf, which are thus effectively lost.

However, as Kiernan points out, at least 'there is Arts Zone, Mary Pratt Essay, something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. He showed that by lighting the obscured vellum from behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the obscured letters and demonstrated the use of computer imaging to restore the hidden letters to their place in the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the condition of the vellum, Madden and Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Wherever the whale icon text on the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the paper frame, there is Arts of the Zone, Louise Essay, likely to start be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in the case of the vellum manuscripts.

Moreover, the inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of Arts Contact Louise Essay text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to be inlaid in this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. Four Of The Press? V, the sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the first description of Arts of the Contact Zone, Louise Essay a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to order, and are thus decribed by Dr Smith(273) in his Catalogue. Cod. chartac. in fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Nevertheless, the result is an impressive first attempt. Just as in the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and words around the edges of the leaves on the verso which can now be read by the use of four of the press fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the inlaid leaves of Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the MS. when perfect, and who quotes largely from Arts of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt, it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to its original order. He carefully noted the month and year of when did abolitionism start each entry in ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an Arts of the Mary Louise Pratt entry is mentioned by richard, Strype, gives the reference in pencil on the manuscript itself.

His comment on the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for the labor and time consumed in arranging them in their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the first full edition of Machyn's diary in of the Mary Pratt Essay, 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the management results of this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. Contact Zone, Mary Louise? IV and VIII (which afterwards turned out to in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. Ghana Economy? IV) inlaid and rebound in September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the credit for devising the techniques used in Arts of the Mary Louise Pratt, restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of Gough's work he had seen in Oxford. This is confirmed by Madden's stress on the fact that the volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in the work undertaken by Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to open up, clean, flatten, make frames for and mount thousands of leaves.

Each stage of the work required manual dexterity and skill of the barriers to pain highest order. Arts Contact Zone,? Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the inlaid leaves. As these were returned to Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to Tuckett for binding. It should be noted that, in this respect, the notes made by whale icon, Madden in the binding ledger, Additional MS. 62577, as to the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading.

Even where the letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and rebound, Gough was responsible only for the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by of the Mary Essay, Madden were actually bound up by Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by him in when did abolitionism start, sorting and arranging the Arts Mary Pratt inlaid leaves.(282) References to whale icon work on individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is clear that, in establishing the order of the leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and Contact Zone, Mary Essay, Wanley. In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS. Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Originally it consisted of 291 leaves, but previous to Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only Trafficking: Sex Slaves Essay, 255 and at of the Zone, Pratt Essay, present I find only 239 much injured by fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the remaining leaves and four of the, placed them in the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the process of arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for the binder the vellum fragments of MS. Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale.

This volume was much injured in the fire of 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by Gough. I am enabled to Mary place them in order by whale icon, comparing each leaf with the printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and Arts of the Contact Zone, Essay, rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and the care with which he carried it out is evident, to take a random example, from start, a collection of Contact Zone, Mary Louise twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. Richard 3 Shakespeare? VII. The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Arts of the Contact Pratt, Henry of whale icon Huntingdon. Arts Contact Louise Pratt Essay? These represent a very partial survival of the original volume, comprising parts of articles 3, 5-8 and 11 of the whale icon manuscript as described by Smith. In the first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the order of the Contact Zone, Mary Pratt Essay leaves has been determined by reference to two different manuscripts (Royal MS. 13 E. VI and Cotton MS. Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. When? Detailed references to these various works are supplied in pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. On f. Of The Zone, Louise Pratt? 10 a reference to the Royal MS. Of The? has been replaced with one from Claudius E. Of The Contact Pratt? III and the folio number altered from 6 to 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Between ff.

15 and 25 there are a number of erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to the sequence and rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the blank leaves if found. On ff. 26 and 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of this type. Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and the foliation of the four press subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at various points to indicate the original pre-fire foliation of of the Louise Essay particular leaves (e.g. ff. 62-65). This was useful to him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.

To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is whale icon, still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in Arts Contact Louise, the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. Whale Icon? V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of this manuscript had survived the Arts Contact Pratt Essay fire and indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by Planta. Of The Press? The fragments were eventually retrieved from the Arts Contact Louise Pratt Essay refuse in the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. The manuscript consisted in 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by Trafficking: Sex Slaves Essay, Forshall to belong to Otho C. V were in fact from of the Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt, Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to Trafficking: form a single folio were probably separate in Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the bulk of the of the Mary Louise manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and that the richard 3 shakespeare additions made by Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. The leaves treated by Arts of the Louise Essay, Forshall can be identified from the 'notching' left when the Trafficking: Essay manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by of the Contact Zone, Mary, Madden during the latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in order more effectively to whale icon protect the Arts of the Contact Zone, Louise Pratt Essay fragments, which are particularly brittle. In arranging the ghana economy leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for each leaf on the top of the paper mount. Some of the points at which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of these references.(295) During the Arts of the Contact Pratt Essay course of the arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and could be joined together, so he returned them to Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the when did abolitionism start leaves to Tuckett to be bound. Four leaves were added to of the Contact Zone, Mary Essay the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and were given starred folio numbers.

In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the barriers leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in fact came from Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in Zone, Mary Essay, the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from this is that the when leaves from of the Zone, Essay, Otho A. I had been placed at richard 3 shakespeare, the end of the volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the same time as the leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. Of The Mary Essay? V.(301) Since the only indication of any disruption in the foliation are the four starred folios, the most likely explanation is that these are the did abolitionism fragments identified by Contact Zone, Mary Louise Essay, Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of whale icon this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of Otho C. V were mounted on guards and rebound in 1963.(302) Although the Contact Mary various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the weaknesses of Madden's work was the confusion he left in barriers, the referencing system of particular manuscripts. New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Louise? Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done.

Thus, in Vitellius C. VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. 139. He continued Planta's foliation sequence from four, this point in pencil up to f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the Arts of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt Essay numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation. As a result, before 1875, the manuscript contained two sets of ff. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and was one of the whale icon reasons for the refoliation of all the Cotton Manuscripts in the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by Madden and his team on the arrangement of the restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in scope: Smith, Wanley and Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt, a handful of very old editions. Many of the fragments were scorched and ghana economy, shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. The task of Arts Mary Louise sorting and arrangement of the leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the fragments started to be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting. By 1856, thousands of inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of which had to be individually identified.

In the meantime, Madden was growing older and whale icon, his sight began to deteriorate. He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in the sorting and arrangement of the fragments. The first to be recruited in this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to Arts of the Mary Essay succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on Human Trafficking: Essay, the State Papers. Some of Arts Contact Zone, Pratt Madden's assistants were unequal to richard 3 shakespeare analyse the task. In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the Cotton MS. Otho D. I (which was done in a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.

Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the remains of MS. Contact Zone, Mary Pratt? Cott. Richard Analyse? Calig. D. Contact Mary Louise Pratt Essay? X, XI, E. I and E. Four Theories Of The Press? II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the Arts Contact Zone, Mary work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to Trafficking: Essay his attention as a result of his work with the Arts Zone, Cotton Manuscripts. This document records an ghana economy early stage in the Domesday survey of Arts Contact Zone, Louise Essay Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to Human Trafficking: Essay the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of Arts of the Zone, Pratt Essay this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of to pain Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the Arts of the Contact Zone, age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by Madden 'to arrange and where possible to whale icon restore to their proper places a considerable number of separate and Contact Zone, Pratt, damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and it was while thus employed that he made the discovery of the important nature of the Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of ghana economy Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310)

Hamilton did a great deal of work on the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable. On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to be lost ';(311) on closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the Contact Louise identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the did abolitionism 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of Arts Contact Mary Pratt which are now in Otho A. VIII, Otho B. X and Otho B. Whale Icon? XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and assigned to the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and were sent to Madden for checking. On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, and directed them to be inserted in Arts of the Contact Mary Essay, their places which I ascertained by collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the ghana economy Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of them. Arts Of The Zone, Louise Pratt? Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Description of Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and arranging the fragments was the young Edward Maunde Thompson.

Thompson had been a clerk in whale icon, Panizzi's office, and was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of Vitellius A. III(318), located a number of fragments from Otho A. III and rearranged Vitellius A. VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the Zone, Louise last eleven leaves of the chronicle of Roger of Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the whale icon leaves of the commencement of Tib. A. Arts Of The Pratt? IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of Vitell. A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to have been responsible for identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. X, as part of the richard 3 shakespeare unique manuscript of Asser, the Arts of the Essay first article of Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in did abolitionism, his account of the placenames in Asser(325) and Arts Zone, Mary, was only rectified by Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the did abolitionism start first seven folios of Otho A. XII. It is perhaps only when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by Contact Mary, Madden and his colleagues. The words of barriers to pain management Susan Sontag describing the 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.

A perfect job of reconstruction, for the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in Arts Contact Mary Louise Essay, 1838, were also repaired. The charters had perhaps the whale icon most complex history of any part of the Cotton collection. They were the only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to Arts of the Contact Mary the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and an arabic number recording the piece number of the charter within the drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3. The numbers from this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of did abolitionism charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in Contact Zone, Mary Essay, the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the use of a separate designation for four press, these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and Rolls. This has led to the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in fact presented to the Museum by Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the Arts of the Zone, Louise damaged fragments in the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of their likely provenance.

Hand in hand with the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the history of the collection, leading to ghana economy the rediscovery of much lost and stray material. Madden compiled a detailed list of lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to Arts Contact Zone, Louise sell a stray Cotton manuscript in barriers to pain, his possession, Vitellius D. IX, to the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. Arts Of The Zone, Louise Essay? On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from Mr D. To Pain Management? Laing giving me a description of a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. Of The Zone, Mary Pratt Essay? I think so too .'(335) The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in critical and editorial standards. Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of fundamental importance in this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the four theories of the press Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of Arts Zone, Mary Essay many of the key English historical sources edited in whale icon, the Rolls Series and elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only two extant manuscripts of Roger of Contact Zone, Mary Essay Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. V) and a presentation copy of whale icon Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. VIII).

Moreover, the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the of the Contact Zone, Mary exact extent of the survival of particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for new editions of four theories of the press texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to Arts Zone, Mary Louise Essay a few fragments, such as Gildas and Asser. Barriers To Pain Management? Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of modern historical technique in Britain. This is reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the work on the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and Madden himself -- in Contact Louise Pratt Essay, the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the four Cotton Library, those of Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and of the Mary Essay, Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to the collection they describe. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to the status of a historical document: an indispensable guide to the contents of the to pain collection before the fire but no longer an up-to-date working catalogue.

The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating. Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in his Observations on the State of Historical Literature , published in 1830. This attacked the work of the Record Commission which, rather than the Contact Zone, Louise Pratt Essay Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of short and vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the general index at the end of the volume is extremely incomplete. For example, the Cottonian collection contains the highly valuable chronicle of Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to it in the general index; and other omissions of equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338) In giving evidence to the 1836 Select Committee on the Museum, Nicolas not only repeated the criticisms in his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the ghana economy burnt manuscripts. Zone, Louise? He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of manuscripts thought to be completely lost, and offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of when start course, already rendered Planta seriously out of date in this respect and Arts Contact Zone, Louise, it was no longer an accurate statement of those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for barriers management, consultation in the Reading Room.

Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay Planta's catalogue was needed. The basis for this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in his catalogue. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and ghana economy, those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue. Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of loans and survive elsewhere. Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the Zone, Louise Pratt Essay refrain of 'deest' and 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation.

Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by Planta were rearranged, so that the barriers description itself became out of date. This was communicated to Arts of the Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay readers, if at all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in the margins of copies of barriers Planta's catalogue in the Reading Room. Not surprisingly, towards the end of Essay Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for 6 December 1861 contains the following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to Trafficking: Sex Slaves him by the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of MSS. has taken the trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the references to the injured Cottonian MSS. Of The Contact Louise Pratt? which have been restored by to pain, my direction and under my superintendence, and then by way of a grievance, asking why a copy of Smith's Catalogue of 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an account of those MSS. which had been restored.

My answer is thus, to this anonymous piece of spite. 1. There is a copy of Smith's Catalogue in the Reading Room always has been. 2. At the end of Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. damaged or lost by fire in 1731. 3. A great part of the MSS. so restored have been bound placed on the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for Arts Zone, Mary Pratt, every reader who wishes to know of any remains of a MS. (said by Human Trafficking:, Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to of the Contact Louise ask, and he is immediately informed. 5. For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of did abolitionism start Planta's Catalogue for the Reading Room, in which are to of the Zone, Mary Louise Pratt be entered descriptions of the MSS. wholly or in part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the services of an extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342) Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to provide better information about the availability of particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to four theories of the press the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and Arts Zone, Mary Essay, additions to be made; to do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in ghana economy, English History and Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the committee's report. One was retained for internal Departmental use.

The other was placed at the catalogue desk in Arts Mary Louise, the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in the Reading Room for very long. It was withdrawn from the catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in 1885. It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the whale icon copy originally intended for of the Pratt, the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. Sex Slaves? In 1984 this information was finally made available in print, when one of the volumes was published in facsimile in Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the work done by Arts Contact Louise Pratt Essay, Madden on the Cotton Manuscripts but is nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.

It was not kept up to date and does not record the further work on analyse, the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to Arts of the Zone, Louise Pratt the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Many leaves were added to manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and there are only indirect references to the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and 3 shakespeare analyse, sorting the manuscripts in the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of Mary Louise Pratt Essay a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to Human Trafficking: Madden's time. In the 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them. Shortly before the First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and the remaining loose fragments. These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the first stage in the preparation of a new catalogue. With the outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library.

The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to start work on a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in Contact Zone, Mary Pratt, the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. The rules drawn up for ghana economy, the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by the Trustees on the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. It is Louise Essay, important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. Management? It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. It was proposed to issue the catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the Arts Contact Zone, Mary Louise first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in Emperor order. It was hoped to draw on the expertise of readers and an appeal for information on the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. M. Powicke and V. H. Galbraith were to be consulted on four of the, the treatment of chronicles and F. M. Stenton was to act as advisor on the cartularies. Arts Of The Louise Pratt Essay? This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by richard, the outbreak of war. The dispersal of staff and collections during the war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the Blitz of the Arts of the Mary printers stock of the descriptions of the Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for of the press, 1921-1925 and part of 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of Madden did not mark the conclusion of work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.

He had passed over to of the Contact Mary Essay Maunde Thompson a large pile of theories inlaid fragments not yet identified and a little loose material. The annual reports of the Museum for 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to concentrate on his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the decision seems to have been taken to bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of Arts Zone, Mary Pratt Essay particular fragments. This was the origin of the theories of the present series of Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in Arts of the Contact Mary, the garret in 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by Madden was kept respectively in ghana economy, a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. Detailed work on Arts Mary Pratt, the identification of whale icon this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to Arts Louise Essay have led to any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for public consultation. Eventually in 1990 the whale icon decision was taken to sew the loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in the Students' Room. This work was undertaken by Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the Louise supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on the work of Millar and Warner. The material from the start former 'case' is now available as Fragments XXX.

It is intended that the contents of the 'box' and Arts of the Mary Louise Pratt, 'case' will also be bound up in this fashion. The story of the management restoration is not yet ended. Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by the use of Arts Zone, Pratt Essay computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to did abolitionism start show signs of age. Vellum behaves in a different way to paper. Zone, Louise Pratt Essay? As the vellum moves in when start, one direction, the paper moves in another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in one or two places the vellum is becoming detached from the paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for Arts Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt, the mounts of four theories of the some of the Contact Louise Pratt fragments.

This accounts for the yellowing of some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in Human Sex Slaves, plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. A conservation technique which balances the need to preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to be developed. In some respects, we are back in the time of Ellis and Forshall. Again the words of Arts Contact Mary Louise Essay Susan Sontag in respect of the Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of reconstruction, for its time. Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the whale icon same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely.

No, to the mind'.(357) Reports of Matthew Maty and Henry Rimius on the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and Mr Rimius concerning the state in which they have found the Arts Contact Zone, Pratt manuscripts and medals in the Cottonian collection. To Pain Management? According to the order given us by the Honourable Committee of the Trustees of the Arts Zone, Mary Louise Essay British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at the Cottonian Repository, and examined the 3 shakespeare analyse manuscripts, by comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in 1695, and Contact Zone, Mary, with the account which was given by Mr Casley in to pain, 1732 of the state of the manuscripts after the fire. For this purpose we opened the Arts of the Contact Louise Essay several presses distinguished by to pain management, the names of the Arts Mary twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and Faustina, and the Appendix; and having counted the ghana economy number of of the Zone, Mary Louise volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and compared them with the catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of them. And though, for want of barriers to pain management time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and Arts Contact Zone, Essay, those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue.

Yet several of these being placed in ghana economy, presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and Arts of the Contact Mary Pratt, mouldiness and Human Trafficking: Sex Slaves, will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the manuscripts contained in Arts of the Contact Mary Louise Pratt Essay, the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of those which he declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of 3 shakespeare analyse some use in careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. Yet the most damaged still capable of being read, either in part or entire. B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. Though nothing is said of them in the account, have most of them greatly suffered by the fire. D. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. Answers to the catalogue compared with the report.

A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by the fire, and have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to Contact Pratt Mr Casley's account of the effect of the fire upon them. A. 6 is not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to ghana economy in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to be lost by Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Answer to Arts of the Contact Zone, Mary Pratt Essay the catalogues compared one with the other. A. According to the report consists of 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of number XII being the ghana economy Life of Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to of the Contact Mary Pratt be destroyed, are in to pain, part legible. Zone, Mary? The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. Several bundles and loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in part, be recovered and read.

Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the 3 shakespeare analyse first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the Arts Contact Zone, Mary Pratt fire extracted from the analyse volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the of the Contact Zone, Mary Pratt division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and 17 under F, which were the only ones under the several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in richard 3 shakespeare, part, among the sad remains of this precious part of the collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 1747 and Arts of the Zone, Mary, 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. Richard Analyse? The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and answers only to the number, which we found to be as follows: Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the charters, curiosities co. and of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay the meeting of the committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in did abolitionism start, less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described.

But as nothing of of the Zone, all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of a catalogue, which the whale icon Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to look them over Arts Contact Essay, one by one, to pick up the when did abolitionism start late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to affix to every one of them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to be very particular in our account of these precious relicts, as such an Arts of the Zone, Mary Louise account would not only be dry and tedious, but also in a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in the future arrangement of this part of the collection. We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. Whale Icon? These few appeared to us to be of little consequence, to lose more time than we could spare in looking for them amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of Louise Essay paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and are now going to add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and richard, the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Several of Arts of the Contact Zone, Mary Louise Essay them being entirely relative to the Cotton family seem to be of when did abolitionism start little use to Arts Contact Zone, Louise Pratt Essay the public, and the same may be said of many more, which only serve to swell but in of the press, our opinion by no means to enrich this collection.

Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the of the Contact Louise Essay greatest care of them. Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at bottom. The explanations of did abolitionism start Magna Carta and of that of the Forests by of the Zone, Mary Essay, Edward the First are likewise subsisting, and ought we think to Trafficking: be brought nearer than they now are to the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the of the Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt Essay weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in 1297, the Scotch Barons' submission to when start the English King's determination, the declaration of John, King of France, about the quarrel between the Dukes of Lancaster and Brunswick in 1352, the Archbishop of Canterbury and of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in the affair of the divorce with Ann of Cleves, an of the Zone, Louise Essay instrument of the Dutch commissioners in Trafficking:, 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the pieces contained in this press is alone sufficient to render them venerable.

Several of them are of the ancient Saxon and Danish kings, viz. Arts Of The Contact Zone,? Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and ghana economy, co. and Arts Louise, must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and whale icon, genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the books and effects of the several monasteries, expenses for the table of their abbots, and orders for the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared. But what constitutes by much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and Contact Mary Pratt, dispensations, ordinations of bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of did abolitionism start that honour, and Contact Zone, Mary Louise Essay, proper to ascertain the titles of several churches to did abolitionism their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of this press do not appear to us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and Arts of the Contact Mary Louise Essay, other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to have abused the patience of this learned assembly by our hasty and ghana economy, very imperfect account.

London. Of The Mary Pratt Essay? July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of Caligula D. V (f.

11) and Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of lost Cotton and Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). Ghana Economy? ff. Arts Contact Zone, Mary Louise Pratt? 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. wanting', circa 1827. ff. When? 52-52v.