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Resmenes del pensamiento de los filsofos para la preparacin de la. Black Mile! PAU (prueba de acceso a la universidad) Curso de entrenamiento de la compasin y el amor benevolente: Mindfulness para la buena vida - En Casa Asia - Abril-Junio . Why Were The Articles Replaced With! Este curso se centra en el uso de las herramientas y actividades mindfulness para que el alumno descubra sus habilidades en el cuidado de su mente y desarrolle sus capacidades naturales para vivir con plenitud su vida y sus relaciones con otras personas. The Green Mile! El alumno se ejercitar en la gestin de sus emociones y pensamientos, en poner freno a las reacciones mecnicas de su mente, observar sus estados y procesos mentales y responder con sabidura y amabilidad a las distintas circunstancias de la vida. Floor Slabs! El recurso principal ser la meditacin, con la que el alumno podr cultivar su habilidad para estar atento, concentrado y en conexin con sus recursos naturales para el amor y el autocuidado. Guy In The Green Mile! Trabajaremos principalmente con las meditaciones y actividades de atencin plena que nos ayuden a conectar con nuestro yo verdadero, y con nuestra fuente interior de amor, compasin y generosidad.

El curso est inspirado en tres programas de entrenamiento de la compasin y la autocompasin, programas validados por la comunidad cientfica y de creciente inters en psicoterapia, la educacin y el llamado desarrollo personal: el Mindful self-compassion (MSC) creado por Christopher K. Makes! Germer y Kristin Neff; el Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT) del CCARE de la Universidad de Stanford, y la Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) de Paul Gilbert. Y SU DIMENSIN ANTROPOLGICO-SOCIAL. Black The Green! LA TEORA DE LAS IDEAS Y LA ONTOLOGA PLATNICA. Cosmetic The Cure Or Are! La Teora de las Ideas de Platn (parte central de su filosofa) defiende un claro dualismo ontolgico al proponer la existencia de dos tipos de realidad antagnicos: el mundo sensible y el mundo inteligible. Black The Green Mile! En el Mundo Sensible (el interior de la caverna en el mito de la caverna) estn las realidades individuales, materiales, temporales, espaciales, la multiplicidad, el cambio, y la generacin y destruccin; es el conjunto de cosas perceptibles por los sentidos. Mary Shelley Information! El Mundo Inteligible (el mundo exterior en aqul mito) consta de las Ideas (o Formas), realidades universales, inmutables, eternas, invisibles, inmateriales, atemporales, aespaciales; las Ideas se conocen por la razn y son la autntica realidad.

Las Ideas son entidades extramentales, objetivas e independientes del hombre, y causas de las cosas: aunque ellas sean el autntico ser, Platn no negar realidad a lo que se da a los sentidos; el mundo sensible, aunque inferior a las Ideas, posee tambin cierto ser, que le vendr dado por su imitacin o participacin de las Formas. Guy In The Green! La tarea del Demiurgo es hacer que la materia informe y eterna tome rasgos semejantes a las Ideas. Mary Shelley Biographical! El mundo de las Ideas est ordenado jerrquicamente pues hay distintos tipos de Ideas: Idea de Bien, otras Ideas morales; Ideas estticas, Ideas de Multiplicidad, Unidad, Identidad, Diferencia, Ser, No Ser, Ideas matemticas y otras Ideas (Idea de Hombre. Black Guy In The Green! ). Bipedalism Possible?! Platn sita a la Idea de Bien en la cspide de ese mundo; a veces la identifica con la Idea de Belleza e, incluso, con Dios. La Idea de Bien (el sol en el mito de la caverna) causa lo real pues la conducta humana se hace con vista a ella y todo lo real tiende a ella. Guy In The Green Mile! Platn crey que slo si existen las Ideas tiene sentido el lenguaje humano, principalmente el de los trminos universales (nombres comunes, sustantivos abstractos); por otro lado, el conocimiento estricto (las verdades eternas) como la matemtica slo es posible si adems del mundo sensible, siempre cambiante, hay tambin un mundo inmutable y eterno. Of The In A Democratic Society! LA TEORA DE LAS IDEAS Y LA EPISTEMOLOGA PLATNICA (EL PROBLEMA DEL CONOCIMIENTO) El conocimiento estricto, el siempre verdadero, se fundamenta en la teora de las Ideas, que divide lo real en dos mbitos distintos y a los que le corresponder saberes muy distintos: la ciencia, que se ocupa de las Ideas, lo permanente, y la opinin, o conocimiento del mundo sensible, de lo que est sometido a generacin y corrupcin, de los animales, plantas y cosas fabricadas (la creencia) y de sus sombras y reflejos (la conjetura).En la CIENCIA, distingue Platn el pensamiento discursivo y la dialctica. Black The Green Mile! El primero se identifica con la matemtica, que, a pesar de su valor, posee dos deficiencias: el uso de signos sensibles y el apoyarse en hiptesis (afirmaciones sobre el ser de sus objetos no suficientemente reflexionadas). Shelley Biographical Information! La dialctica es el conocimiento superior, se refiere al Mundo de las Ideas, a lo inmutable y universal, lo eterno, y se identifica con la filosofa.

Platn la concibe de dos modos: como mtodo racional que no usa de signos sensibles, pues emplea slo la razn, ni descansa en hiptesis, pues prescinde de todo supuesto y no deja ninguna cuestin sin examen o evaluacin; el objetivo de la dialctica es descubrir las relaciones existentes entre las Ideas. La autntica filosofa es una ascensin al ser: el filsofo (el dialctico) debe ascender del mundo sensible al Mundo Inteligible o de las Ideas y en stas a la Idea del Bien, fundamento del ser y de la inteligibilidad de las Ideas y de todo lo real. Guy In The Green! En cuanto al origen del conocimiento estricto, Platn defiende una teora innatista, la teora de la reminiscencia, segn la cual conocer es recordar: al conocer verdades de tanta calidad como las de la matemtica, en realidad nuestra alma est recordando algo que aprendi cuando, antes de encarnarse, vio en el Mundo Inteligible las Ideas y sus relaciones. Aristotle To Be To A Tragedy It! Pero Platn tambin entiende la dialctica como impulso ertico: el filsofo, mediante el cultivo de su sensibilidad, ascender desde el plano sensible al inteligible, desde las bellezas sensibles hasta la Idea de Belleza. Guy In Mile! El motor de dicho ascenso ser un impulso ertico y el objeto del amor la belleza. By Charlotte Perkins! DIMENSIN ANTROPOLGICA DE LA TEORA DE LAS IDEAS (EL PROBLEMA DEL HOMBRE) Platn concibe al hombre como un compuesto de dos sustancias distintas (dualismo antropolgico): el cuerpo, vinculado al mundo sensible, y el alma, relacionada con el mundo inteligible. Guy In The Green Mile! El alma humana es superior al cuerpo debido a que el alma es el principio de conocimiento y de bondad, pero ms an the role of the in a, a que el cuerpo est sometido a corrupcin y muerte mientras que el alma tiene un destino inmortal. Black Guy In! Platn utiliza varios argumentos para demostrar la inmortalidad del alma, destacando el que se basa en la teora de la reminiscencia, teora que exige la preexistencia del alma antes de su encarnacin para comprender el conocimiento eterno. Mary Shelley Information! Para Platn, el alma nos iguala a los dioses y permite el conocimiento de las Ideas; distingue tres partes en ella: la racional, representada en el mito del carro alado por el cochero; es la ms noble y elevada, y su funcin es conocer intelectivamente y guiar a las otras dos; la irascible, representada por el caballo bueno y hermoso, smbolo del valor y la voluntad; y la parte concupiscible, representada por el caballo malo, difcil de guiar, smbolo del deseo y la pasin sensible inmoderados. Black Guy In! El alma busca la liberacin del cuerpo y en esa bsqueda practica la filosofa como aproximacin intelectual al mundo que le es propio.

La parte racional del alma debe intentar purificar al individuo de los apetitos sensibles, y le corresponde dirigir la conducta humana. Shelley Biographical Information! El dualismo antropolgico de Platn se caracteriza por mantener una radical escisin en el hombre: el alma inmortal, lo ms divino, principio de conocimiento y moralidad; y el cuerpo, origen de la ignorancia y del mal. Para Platn el cuerpo y sus pasiones son responsables de todas nuestras desgracias y sufrimientos. Black Guy In Mile! La tarea ms importante del hombre ser, por ello, la prctica de la virtud, basada en la renuncia a los apetitos corporales, y la prctica de la filosofa. Mary Shelley! La purificacin moral e intelectual tiene como objeto que las almas se dejen guiar por lo que es justo y recto y de ese modo cumplan con su destino ltimo, la morada divina, en donde preexistan.

CONSECUENCIAS DE LA TEORA DE LAS IDEAS EN TICA Y POLTICA (EL PROBLEMA DE LA MORAL Y LA SOCIEDAD) La teora de las Ideas de Platn permite la superacin del relativismo moral de los sofistas, pues las Ideas sern el fundamento objetivo y eterno de la vida moral. Black The Green! Platn quiere averiguar lo que sea el Sumo Bien para el hombre. Why Were The Articles! El Bien absoluto son las Ideas, cuya contemplacin es la felicidad suprema. The Green Mile! Mediante la prctica de la virtud se accede al Sumo Bien y, por tanto, a la suprema felicidad; la virtud es el estado del alma que le corresponde por naturaleza, y como el alma tiene tres partes habr una virtud peculiar para cada una de ellas: a la parte concupiscible le corresponde la templanza, o continencia de los placeres; a la parte irascible, la fortaleza o valor, y a la parte racional la virtud de la sabidura o prudencia que se encarga de regular la totalidad de las acciones humanas. Concrete Floor Slabs! La virtud del alma en su conjunto es la justicia, entendida como armona u orden entre esas tres partes.

Platn creer que el hombre es un ser social por naturaleza; ello explica la aparicin del Estado (la Polis). Guy In The Green! El individuo puede alcanzar su mxima realizacin en el Estado, pero para ello el Estado deber ser perfecto. Mary! En el anlisis del Estado, Platn utiliza una divisin tripartita anloga a su divisin del alma; el Estado tiene las mismas necesidades materiales y los mismos fines ticos que el hombre. Guy In The Green! Cada parte del alma se puede relacionar con una clase social: la parte racional con la clase de los gobernantes, el alma irascible con la clase social de los guerreros, y la concupiscible con la de los artesanos. Why Were Of Confederation Replaced With! Los filsofos, cuya virtud es la sabidura o prudencia, son los nicos aptos para el gobierno; los soldados deben defender y guardar la polis; los artesanos suministran los medios materiales que la comunidad necesita. Guy In! El fin del Estado es la justicia, el bien de todos los ciudadanos, que slo es posible cuando todos los elementos que componen la sociedad realizan su funcin propia. De entre todas las clases sociales destaca la de los dirigentes: para Platn, puesto que cabe el conocimiento del Bien (de las Ideas), es legtima la tutora de los que han tenido acceso a dicho Bien (los filsofos) sobre el resto de los ciudadanos; el filsofo ha de ser el gobernante, o los gobernantes han de ser filsofos. On Fluoride! Puesto que los filsofos deben buscar el bien general, con el fin de evitar tentaciones interesadas y distracciones intiles no poseen propiedad privada alguna, ni mujer, ni hijos propios (comunismo platnico). Black Guy In! Tambin los soldados renuncian a la familia y a la propiedad privada.

Slo a los artesanos se le permite la propiedad privada (limitada y controlada por el Estado) y los vnculos familiares estables. The Cure Self- Esteem? Or Are The Risks! En este Estado ideal slo los mejores, una minora muy selecta, ostentan el poder. Es un Estado de clara inspiracin aristcrata. Mile! Finalmente, junto con la descripcin de la sociedad ideal, Platn hace tambin una descripcin y valoracin de las formas reales de gobierno; existen cinco formas de gobierno: de la monarqua o aristocracia, por degeneracin sucesiva, surgen las dems: la timocracia, la oligarqua, la democracia y, la peor de todas, la tirana.

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Black guy in the green mile

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native genius essay Peter N. Herndon. Contents of Curriculum Unit 99.03.03: This war did not spring up here in our land. It was brought upon us. by the children of the Great Father (whites) who came to take our. land from us without price, and who do many evil things. . . . It. seems to me that there is a better way than this. When people come. to trouble it is better for both parties to come together without arms, to talk it over, and find some peaceful way to settle. (Spotted Tail. Brule, Sioux leader, 1877)

Five hundred years after Columbus' discovery of the New World, the descendants of the original native immigrants he encountered continue to feel the effects of the guy in mile 'second great immigration'-the European invasion. What happens when claims of older inhabitants and new immigrants conflict? This question was first addressed in U.S. history in the conflicts between the the articles replaced the constitution native tribes and European colonizers, and black the green mile it has never been resolved. There are still major issues that concern Native Americans: citizenship, civil rights, religious practices, land use, fishing rights, resource development and self-governance. Here in Connecticut, the Mashantucket Pequots and Mohegans are making new rules in concrete floor slabs a game that includes amassing huge amounts of money by way of immensely profitable gambling casinos. Tribes in New Mexico, California, Nevada, Wisconsin and Washington State have won court cases that re-establish ancient land and fishing rights, while local citizens can only stand back and complain. Ancient Native American ancestral artifacts and bones have been removed from anthropological museums across America, due to successful Indian lawsuits. How is it that these victories have been won in courts that for centuries shut the door on so-called Indian cultural and legal claims?

What are some of the implications for the future, if courts continue to reinterpret the law in favor of Native American claims? And what implications do these Indian settlements have on civil rights cases that may be brought into courtrooms on behalf of other native minorities or immigrant groups in the green America today? What are some of the major issues that confront Native Americans in the 1990s? What tribal rights--political, religious and cultural--should be given protection from our government? Should Indian lands be returned to on Fluoride Electrodes, them, even if it means displacing other citizens or industry? How has government policy changed since the late 1960s when President Richard Nixon stated that federal policy would include Indians on black mile, key committees and assured the Indian that he can assume control of his own life without being separated from the tribal group? (Bordewich, p. 12) What of the adaptation makes bipedalism possible? legendary mismanagement of the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), which a Congressional report in 1990 called a national disgrace?

How realistic are notions of black preserving a distinct Indian culture in an America in which statistics reveal that Indians are continuing to blend in with the by charlotte perkins dominant population through intermarriage at an ever-increasing rate? ____ I hope to create a teaching unit that addresses not only past issues of cultures in black guy in the green conflict but also will make students more aware of legal issues that continue to plague our society as many Indians are continuing to find it difficult to the articles of confederation with, cope with life in present-day America. Are Native Americans just one more minority ethnic group that is finding it difficult to the green, become mainstreamed into American life? Or does their status as first peoples make them so historically and culturally unique that they belong in a separate category where conventional laws and values don't apply? The ultimate question I want students to pursue is: Who are the replaced with the constitution Indians in the 1990's?

What are they to us and what are we to them? To most of black mile us, there is something appealingly noble and free about an Indian warrior. Aristotle To Be Important Tragedy It? In the 1991 film, Dances with Wolves, the main character, John Dunbar, played by black the green, Kevin Costner, found something he had always been missing when he became accepted into the Sioux community: the mystery of his own personal identity. The cavalry soldier, Dunbar, toward the end of the Cosmetic Surgery: The Cure Or are too risky? film, makes the amazing statement, I had never known who John Dunbar was, but as I heard my Sioux name being called, I knew for the first time in my life who I really was. I plan to show segments of this Oscar-winning film as part of my unit, primarily because the movie is very sympathetic to black guy in the green, American Indians, who are depicted as heroic people with real ambivalence toward whites. In my view the film poses two major conflicts that are virtually always present between older inhabitants and new immigrants: conflicting cultures and conflicting values. I would like my students to observe and adaptation possible? write about the more obvious external conflicts portrayed in the film; and also the more subtle inner conflicts. Is the film true to the green mile, history?

Are there any stereotypes in the movie? Is the ending a satisfying one? Is there more to Ion-Selective, the story? I want students to divide into groups and try their hand at writing a sequel to the movie. This film is very much about the guy in Indian identity and the ruthlessness of the policies of the United States government. This is a popular view. To what extent was it true?

One of Costner's lines upon discovering hundreds of bison carcasses left to rot on the plains was, Who would do such a thing? It must be a people without values, without soul. He is, of course, referring to members of his own race. In referring to the Sioux, in contrast, he declares, Every day ends with a miracle. John Dunbar has reversed himself. He now despises what his own race represents and acknowledges what he perceives to be the higher ecological and spiritual plane that his blood brothers, the catharsis it Sioux have attained. Students must be careful not to mile, stereotype Indians as people that have always lived in complete harmony with the land and have somehow passed down this attribute to their descendants. How far must the courts go in protecting sacred Indian religious rights? We will be discussing these issues later in gilman the section on black mile, modern court cases involving Native claims to tribal sovereignty and self-determination.

____ The residents of St. Lawrence Island are descendants of the first Asian migrants to the so-called New World. They are Eskimoes who still stretch walrus hides on precast concrete slabs, wooden racks to make traditional skin boats for whale hunting every spring, since the black noise of modern aluminum boats causes the Ion-Selective Electrodes whales to dive out of harpoon range. Mile? There are no island roads to speak of, so the people get around by the articles of confederation replaced, modern dune buggies. They ice-fish and hunt deer in the winter, as well as cater to the tourists who fly over from the mainland. Their lives are a curious blend of the ancient and modern worlds. Even before man's arrival to the New World, the so-called land bridge was the route of choice for many pre-historic creatures such as the three-toed horse, the eohippus, the camel and others. Black Guy In Mile? And what about man's first steps onto North American land? When do scientists date his arrival and what were the conditions that surrounded his migration?

Semi-nomadic Asiatic people lived on Beringia, the subcontinent that connected eastern Siberia and Essay Ion-Selective Electrodes Western Alaska, and guy in mile contained a low basin where animals and people from northern China and aristotle catharsis to a tragedy because Mongolia lived to guy in the green, flee the spread of the glaciers. It was fertile, but its existence was temporary. When the ice melted, the basin filled with water, sending its residents scurrying to higher ground. According to scientists, between 15,000 and considered catharsis to be important to a because it 10,000 B.C., the final flood began, caused by the melting ice of the huge glaciers. First the western plain flooded, preventing a return to Siberia. The only choice was to travel east, into the less fertile plains of Eastern Beringia. The scene must have been terrifying:

During the evacuation, as catastrophic as anything in human experience, hundreds, perhaps thousands of people fled the plain, as biting winds blew down from the glaciers, darkening the sky with volcanic grit. Imagine families separated and children lost, a scene of confused alarm and desperate flight as the tide broke through the the green straits, linking the Arctic Ocean with the Bering Sea for the first time in thousands of years, drowning the plant life, and disrupting the great animal herds. (Morgan, p. 23) These frightened refugees moved from bison watering holes to marshy areas teeming with migratory waterfowl. They crossed frozen lakes and rivers, working their way south, not knowing what they would face or where they were going. This was the adaptation makes possible? Great Migration of Early Man. These were the the green mile First Families of America. And they walked here. Some groups moved eastward into Alaska and Canada. Of Confederation Replaced The Constitution? Some moved farther south down the Rocky Mountains into Montana and black guy in the green Colorado where there were no more threat of glaciers. Some went as far as Mexico and beyond, across Panama into Colombia, down the coast of Chile, and why were the articles of confederation with the constitution even as far as the tip of South America, a distance of 12,000 miles. The trip down the Pacific Coast took approximately 1,250 years, at a rate of about 10 miles per year. Black Guy In Mile? (Morgan, page 24)

The earliest American immigrants began inhabiting two continents with nobody else already there. Nobody to run them off their land. Nobody telling them to go home where they came from. They would have this land exclusively to themselves for Cosmetic for Low Esteem? Or are too risky?, about 15,000 years! What they would do in America and how they would advance culturally is the black guy in the green mile subject of our next segment. ____ The Spaniards wandered through an aristotle to be important tragedy, Indian metropolis of more than 200,000 people, and marveled at a great market that rivaled those of Seveille and Constantinople. The Aztecs, polished warriors and diplomats, people of grace and manners, were a far cry from the Bahamian Indians, even if they did engage in human sacrifice. (Fagan, page 16) Amazed residents of Spain in the 1520s observed imported cultured Aztec nobles and performing acrobats. Curious citizens of Bristol, England watched some North Americans clothid in beastys skinnys, ate meat raw and black the green had the manners of bruyt bestis. (Fagan, page 16) It became obvious to all that there was a world of difference among Indian tribes and civilizations, many of Essay them in competition with one another.

Scholars wondered how such lifestyle and cultural differences existed among societies that lived only a few hundred miles apart from each other? According to one historian, most Europeans thought of guy in all Indians as a heathen, irreligious people in need of Christian teaching. They had come from the Garden of Eden and had not been in the New World for very long. The philosopher Francis Bacon summed up this view in the articles replaced the constitution the following quotation: 'Marvel you not at the thin population of America, nor at the rudeness and ignorance of the people, for you must accept your inhabitants of America as a young people: younger a thousand years, at least, than the rest of the world.' (Quoted in Fagan, page 28) ____ There was a second early view of the Indian, a more ominous one. Columbus also wrote of the elusive cannibalistic Caribs, who go to all the islands and eat the people they are able to capture. In Virginia, following the Jamestown colony's war against the Powhatans, a Virginia poet wrote in 1622, that the guy in the green mile Indians were. ____ 'Rooted in Evill, and opposed in Good; Errors of nature, of inhumane Birth, The very dregs, garbage and spanne of Surgery: Self- Esteem? Or are the Risks Earth.' In 1711, the Virginia House of Burgesses set aside 20,000 pounds as bounty money for black guy in the green, those who would do the colony a favor and exterpate (sic) all Indians without distinction of Friends or Enemys. (Bordewich, page 35) Except for the Iroquois of the Northeast woodlands, who created a military state to keep away neighboring tribes and Europeans alike, most of the early inhabitants of on Fluoride Ion-Selective North America lived in small settlements, scattered throughout the continent.

At the black mile time of Columbus discovery, there were probably fewer than 10 million citizens of North America. Native Americans had neither the concrete floor slabs desire nor the means to manipulate nature aggressively. Yet they did sometimes ignite massive forest fires, deliberately torching thousands of acres of trees to create better hunting habitats, especially for deer. (Bailey, page 7) The fact is that the black guy in the green mile Indian population was so thinly scattered around North America that huge areas were literally untouched by human beings prior to Ion-Selective Electrodes, 1492. This would soon change upon the arrival of the new immigrants, the Europeans. Colonial Times and the Clash of Cultures. The Powhatans, like Native Americans in other locations, had been the victims of several factors, each of them beginning with the letter D: Disease, Disorganization and Disposability. (DISEASE) 'they were extremely susceptible to European-imported maladies.

Epidemics of smallpox and measles raced mercilessly through their villages. (DISORGANIZATION) The Powhatans alsolacked the unity with which to make effective opposition to the relatively well-organized and militarily disciplined whites. (DISPOSABILITY) Finally they provided no reliable labor source and, after the Virginians began growing their own food crops, had no valuable commodities to offer in commerce. Guy In The Green Mile? They therefore could be disposed of without harm to the colonial economy. Indeed the Indian presence frustrated the colonists' desire for why were the articles, a local commodity the Europeans desperately wanted: land.' (Quoted in Bailey, page 29) Not all policies toward Native Americans were as systematically cruel as De La Warr's in guy in the green Jamestown. During the early period of colonization, whites and Indians lived in scattered settlements that were, for perkins gilman, the most part, peaceful. In New England missionaries offered the Indians the opportunity to settle into praying towns where they were encouraged to black guy in the green, pray to the Christian God. Roger Williams, the founder of Rhode Island, and William Penn in Pennsylvania both fought the barbaric ways the Indians were often treated. Essay Electrodes? Williams was an guy in, advocate of humane treatment when it was unpopular to be so.

During the bloody Pequot War of 1636, he had the courage to write: ____ ____ 'Boast not proud English of thy birth and blood, ____ ____ Thy brother Indian is by birth as good. ____ ____ Of one blood God made him, and thee, and all, ____ ____ As wise, as fair, as strong, as personal.' (Quoted in Bordewich, page 36) Indians were often cruel to their enemies. The Cure? Although it is often claimed that the whites invented scalping as evidence of black mile having killed an Indian, words for ceremonial scalping (as well as other forms of dismemberment) existed in many Indian languages prior to adaptation bipedalism, the white man's arrival. Also, there were many strictly Indian wars among cultures such as the mile Iroquois who fought the Hurons, and why were replaced with the constitution the Navahos who colonized the Hopis. The Sioux on the Great Plains ruthlessly put down and subjugated smaller groups who dared oppose their empire building. It was the norm for members of each tribe to consider themselves the People and guy in the green everyone else something less. For example, the Catawbas of on Fluoride South Carolina considered other natives to be dogs or snakes and white colonists Nothings. The name Comanche comes from a Ute nickname which means those who are always against us. Apache comes from the Pueblo word for enemy. (Bordewich, pages 36-37) Early Policies Toward Native Americans. In 1791, the the green Treaty of Holston between the United States and the Cherokees warned that if any non-Indian should settle on any of the Cherokees' lands, such person shall forfeit the protection of the United States, and the Cherokees may punish him, or not, as they please. (Bordewich, page 37) Secretary of War Henry Knox proposed criminal action against violators.

But the flood of settlers was unrelenting. The central government was too distant; the hunger for land too great. So, despite treaties and government warnings, American settlers streamed into Indian lands with little regard for the law. Indians sometimes responded to the situation with an eye toward the future, realizing it was in their best interest to adapt to important to a, the changing times. In 1791, the Seneca chief Cornplanter wrote to Quakers in Philadelphia for guy in mile, financial help so that he could provide his people with the technical skills they would need in order for precast slabs, them to become more Americanized and less dependent on the old ways. (Bordewich, page 38) According to Thomas Jefferson and many early Christian missionaries, the way of the future was to guy in the green, teach the catharsis to be important Native Americans the black guy in mile principles of property ownership, farming and cattle raising. In the early nineteenth century, government policy toward pacifying the Indians was to attempt to incorporate them into the American culture. Quakers, Methodists, Moravians and Baptists established model settlements along the herland perkins gilman frontier intended to attract Native Americans to a life-style in keeping with Protestant values.

Along with Bibles, church groups supplied the Indians with plows, looms, spinning wheels and livestock, often courtesy of federal funds. Christian missionaries trekked into the wilderness hand-in-hand with government-paid carpenters and blacksmiths. The whites gave religious instruction along with house-building and tool-forging skills. Black Guy In Mile? David Zeisberger, who committed his life to working among the the articles replaced with Delawares, and believed that all people had the right to a place in God's family, welcomed the Native Americans into mile, the Christian community as equal members. The Articles With? He noted that Those who come to Christ and join the guy in church turn to agriculture and raising stock, keeping cattle, hogs and the articles the constitution fowls. (Bordewich, page 39) There seemed to be a definite link between church and state policies of the time, since both intended to assimilate Native Americans into the Euro-American way of life. The government's task, then, was to convince the Indians to reject their old identity as antiquated and impractical and embrace new ways and the green mile skills that would better equip them to survive in a land that was rapidly changing its identity. Among questions many Native Americans must have been asking themselves were: will it be worth it? Will the gains outweigh the losses? Is becoming a white-Indian and adopting white ways a good deal, or one that should be rejected on moral and other grounds?

Will it work? Case Study in Assimilation: The Cherokees. ____ The Cherokee nation's constitution of 1827 modeled itself after the one in Washington, D.C. It had an elected congress made up of a lower and upper house, who then chose three members of the executive branch: the Principal Chief, his assistant and a treasurer. By Charlotte? The independent judicial branch was made up of eight district courts and an appeals court. There was a bill of rights, taxation laws and protection from unreasonable searches and seizures. Their representatives created a preamble that emulated the original: We the Representatives of the people of the Cherokee Nation, in Convention assembled, in order to establish justice, ensure tranquillity, promote our common welfare, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of liberty . . Guy In? . (Bordewich, page 41)

Elias Boudinot, the Cherokee Phoenix editor, was the man most responsible for westernized leadership of New Echota. Electrodes? He was born as Kilikeena, a full-blooded Cherokee in 1804, and black the green mile later took on the name of herland his white benefactor. He was formally educated in Connecticut at black guy in the school of the American Board of Foreign Missions and even corresponded with Jedidiah Morse, who taught astronomy at Yale. After graduation, he married a white woman, then returned to Georgia, as pressure steadily increased to open Cherokee lands to white settlement. Boudinot's vision for the Cherokees was inseparably tied to a future for the United States where both would benefit. He was convinced that the survival of the Cherokee nation depended on their leaving behind the why were of confederation with old ways in order to avoid extinction. Under Boudinot's leadership the Cherokees had adopted democratic ways and black guy in mile private enterprise, and pointed the way to peaceful change, a model for other tribes in partnership with the which adaptation makes United States government. He realized how important the Cherokee model was to black guy in the green mile, the future of such experiments nationwide. If it should succeed, other tribes would certainly follow suit and there would be great expectations of an enlightened solution to the age-old Indian question.

If it should fail, Boudinot said, then all hopes are blasted, and of confederation replaced the constitution falls the fabric of Indian civilization. (Bordewich, page 43) His vision was a remarkable one. In 1826, Boudinot went throughout the United States on guy in mile, a speaking tour to create support for the Cherokees. His speech, An Address to the Whites, was later published as a pamphlet. In it, he appealed to logic and spiritual reasoning: 'The world should know what we have done in the past few years (in Georgia) to foresee what yet we may do with the assistance of our white brethren, and that of the aristotle considered to be important it Common Parent of us all. In times of peace she will plead the common liberties of America. In times of war her intrepid sons will sacrifice their lives in your defense. And because she will be useful to you in coming time, she asks you to assist her in her present struggles. She asks not for greatness; she seeks not wealth; she pleads only for assistance to become respectable as a nation, to enlighten and ennoble her sons, and to ornament her daughters with modesty and virtue.' (Quoted in Bordewich page 43) As those who have studied our nation's history know, despite successful appeals to the United States Supreme Court, Boudinot's worst fears were realized when, in January of 1830, Georgia declared Cherokee laws null and void and black the green prohibited Cherokees from testifying in cases involving whites. Several months later, Congress passed President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal bill, which resulted in the state of Georgia auctioning off Cherokee lands without any consultation with the Indians.

Several thousand U.S. army troops arrived in New Echota and herded the native inhabitants into Essay Electrodes, stockades where some two thousand died even before the forced march began. Then, in guy in the green mile the fall of 1838, the Cherokees started their grueling Trail of Tears to Oklahoma, which resulted in the death of herland perkins another four thousand Cherokees from exposure and sickness. The fate of the Cherokee nation as a self-governing body was sealed. In a larger sense, with the death of the green mile New Echota in floor Georgia any hopes of guy in the green Indian tribes having the right to catharsis important to a tragedy because, decide their own fate were essentially gone. Still to come were the guy in mile Plains Wars of the 1870s, the closing of the frontier, and the creation of reservations. Essentially, once the Cherokee decision was made, there would be no turning back. Independent tribal life was doomed and the Indian voice was silenced. Not until the civil rights movement of the herland by charlotte gilman 1960s did American Indians begin to raise their voices publicly and appeal to the wider American conscience. Under increasing pressure, in 1960 the U.S. government decided to stop their decade-old policy of termination of Indian rights on reservations. Guy In The Green? (Hazen-Hammond, p. 258) At various locations throughout the United States Native Americans held fish-ins to highlight the refusal of the government to honor tribal fishing rights, public school boycotts and sit-ins. In 1969, Native Americans invaded and occupied the old prison buildings on Alcatraz Island as a way of protesting government policies toward Indians. (Ibid., p. 268) Organizations such as the Surgery: The Cure the Risks National Congress of American Indians, the American Indian Movement and the American Indian Historical Society were formed. Cultural museums were founded.

Important books were written such as N. Scott Momaday's House Made of Dawn, which was awarded the guy in the green mile Pulitzer Prize in 1969. In the same year, Vine Deloria, Jr. Concrete? wrote Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto, which challenged whites to guy in, look at Native Americans and Native American history from the Indian perspective. (Ibid., p. 270) Congress and Surgery: The Cure Esteem? the Risks the courts began to black guy in the green, pay attention in the l970s. Tribal members began to get compensation and reparations payments to make up for past wrongdoings done to them by the government. For example in gilman 1971, Alaska Natives collected $962 million under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. (Hazen-Hammond, p. 275) Other states followed suit; in 1980, the Maine Indian Land Claims Settlement Act was passed. (Ibid., p. 295) Many unrecognized tribes, such as the Mohegans of Connecticut (in 1994) received federal recognition and reestablished their legal right to exist on tribal lands. (Ibid., p. 310) Today, the future looks bright for black the green, American Indians. Since the late 1970's Indians have made many gains. In 1978, the Supreme Court declared that the floor Indian Civil Rights Act of the green 1968 gives tribes sovereign power to rule within their borders. Surgery: The Risks? (Hazen-Hammond, p. 290) In the same year, Congress authorized funding to set up tribally controlled community colleges within their borders. In the decade of the 1980's many tribes gained the right to manage hunting, fishing and black the green natural resources within their territories. Millions of dollars in government compensation payments have been made to tribes such as the $100 million granted the Sioux Indians in payment for the illegal government seizure of the adaptation makes bipedalism Black Hills in the 1880s. Also, $29 million in compensation for unsound federal accounting practices have been awarded to tribes such as the Blackfeet.

Tribes now have a major say in the development of guy in the green mile energy resources on their lands and why were of confederation the constitution have received the black guy in mile right to tax mining operations, as a result of a 1982 Supreme Court decision. (Ibid., p. 296) In 1985, the Supreme Court permitted tribes to Essay on Fluoride Electrodes, levy business and property taxes on black guy in the green, their lands, without any interference from the Department of the Interior. (Ibid., p. 300) Then in adaptation makes bipedalism possible? 1987, the Court opened the door for casino gambling on Indian reservations (California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians), when it allowed tribes to negotiate with states in setting up casino operations. (Ibid., p. 302) Pro-gambling and the green mile anti-gambling factions are split on the benefits and drawbacks of gambling. In terms of Indian culture and history, in 1990 Congress declared that all museums in the U.S. are required to make an inventory of Indian human remains, sacred artifacts and cultural objects. Aristotle Considered To A Tragedy Because It? (Hazen-Hammond, p. Mile? 305) Important items would then be turned over to tribes that claimed them. Museums such as the Peabody in New Haven have been required to return objects permanently borrowed from Indians. For example, the Omaha Indians of Nebraska, in 1991, reclaimed and reburied ancestral remains on their lands, and received back the Sacred White Buffalo Hide from the Museum of the American Indian. The number of cultural festivals and powwows are on the rise. Native American culture is being celebrated widely and freely.

Indians in some states, supported by activists in the Native American Church, have won the right to use and transport the traditional hallucinogenic drug peyote on herland perkins gilman, tribal lands. (Ibid., p. 306) Among the San Carlos Apaches, medicine people predict the the green mile Anasazi Indians will return from aristotle considered important it, their home in the Big Dipper and create a renaissance of Native American beliefs and life. (Quoted in Hazen-Hammond, page 314) I recently visited the state-of-the-art Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center in Ledyard, Connecticut. I could not help wondering if this prophecy was in partial fulfillment, at least in our local area. Are more and more Americans taking more of a genuine interest in who Indians are and why their history is mile so unique as first Americans? Hopefully this teaching unit will spark interest in why were with both teachers and their students to guy in, put away a romanticized notion of who Indians were and begin to inquire into who they are and why their history and culture is precast of such significance in our pursuit of who we are: Americans all. I close with a quotation by Chief Blackfoot, the Mountain Crow leader who spoke at guy in a peace council in Montana in 1873: ____ 'We always give the Great Spirit something. I think that is good.

We see the sun, we give him something; and the moon and the earth, we give them something. We beg them to take pity on us. For Low The Risks? The sun and moon look at black guy in mile us, and the ground gives us food. Concrete Floor Slabs? You come and see us, and that is black guy in mile why we give you something. We are men like each other; our religion is Essay on Fluoride Electrodes different from yours.' (Quoted in Hazen-Hammond, page 168) 1. To make students aware of recent court cases involving Indian rights; 2. To cause students to prepare for a debate and defend their position;

3. To encourage students to learn in small groups; 4. To prepare and give a classroom presentation to other students. 1. Students are assigned one of several topics of current interest in Indian communities; 2. They are divided into groups of four or five students and each is given a Background Issues sheet, describing the the green mile pros and cons of why were the constitution each issue. 3. Black Mile? The group then decides how to proceed in preparation for aristotle tragedy it, their presentation to black the green mile, the rest of the class. Options include: a short dramatization, a courtroom simulation, a role play where different spokesmen present their views; a visual presentation, where students prepare a visual display to considered to be tragedy because, illustrate factual information Procedures:

1. The teacher prepares a Recent Issues Sheet handout for each group. (See below) Topics may include but are not limited to the following: Casino Gambling Hunting and black the green Fishing Rights Peyote Use and Religious Freedom Artifacts and Burial Remains Reservation Mismanagement Powwows (cultural festivals) 2. Students use the teacher prepared handout to get them started. They may use the Internet and other information available to them. Slabs? In their presentation the issues for debate must be clearly presented by black guy in the green mile, both sides. 3. They must try to on Fluoride Ion-Selective, come up with a solution to the problem that both sides can agree to. If not, have the class vote on a solution to the problems. (How should the guy in the green government respond to Ion-Selective, the Issue under discussion?) 4. Students will prepare a first draft to guy in the green mile, hand in to the teacher, along with evidence of further research, prior to each group's classroom presentation. ____ Pros include: Increased tribal revenues Increased job opportunities, both for tribal members and Connecticut citizens Cons include: Deterioration of tribal values, replaced by greediness and commercialism Dangers of organized crime involved.

Is the state willing to lend us money to develop our land into by charlotte, a. public recreation area for black the green, boating, fishing and Cosmetic Surgery: for Low Self- Esteem? too risky? camping? Is the black guy in state willing to give us unrestricted hunting and fishing rights within reservation land according to our traditions? Is the state willing to allow us to Cosmetic too risky?, sell hunting and the green mile fishing permits to Connecticut residents who want to hunt or fish during the regular season? ____ State Concerns: What guarantee would the Mohegans make to on Fluoride Ion-Selective, be able to repay the state for loans made to improve their lands? Unlimited hunting and fishing would threaten to eliminate all wildlife and fish from the area. How would this be prevented?

There would be a loss of revenue to guy in the green mile, the state if Indians sell hunting and which adaptation bipedalism possible? fishing licenses that the state would otherwise sell. How would the state share in guy in the green mile money charged to Connecticut residents? ____ ____ Obstacles: State laws would need to be changed to which adaptation bipedalism possible?, make exceptions for Indian lands. There are costs to black guy in mile, funding these projects. Any plan affecting land use needs to be environmentally acceptable. Should Connecticut tax funds be used to help the Mohegans develop their tribal lands in a way that would benefit them? Is this project something the taxpayers should support or oppose?

Why? ____ Note: Similar Recent Issues Sheets could be developed for concrete floor slabs, each topic. There are various ways the teachers and students may choose to present both sides of these issues. See narrative section for a fuller description of issues. LESSON: Understanding the Indian Mind. 1. To acquaint students with some of the famous Indian leaders of the past; 2. To familiarize students with some of the enduring ideas expressed by these leaders; 3. To discuss reasons for the statements made by these individuals in black an attempt to understand the context for these remarks; 4. To get into the heads of the individuals who spoke for others as well as themselves and concrete floor slabs create empathy with them.

5. To remind students that difficulties in communicating across cultures still exists today among peoples of different racial and cultural backgrounds. (native Americans and immigrant Americans, for example) ____ ____ 1. Introduce the black guy in lesson by reminding students that Indians often suffered and were killed for no reason other than the fact that they were in the way of progress. What good is progress if in precast slabs the process we treat innocent people as obstacles and guy in the green forget that they are human beings? Were there solutions available other than the trail of tears or outright extermination and starvation? Why weren't they put into place? What does this tell us about the character of many of adaptation makes our citizens? ____ ____ 2. The Indian leaders we will discuss were different from one another in appearance, personality and culture. As we read these quotations, ask yourself: What is the attitude of this person (defiant, sad, resigned, philosophical)? Are there events causing this person to speak as he did? What values does this person express? Who was this person's audience? Be able to summarize in your own words what the speaker was really saying. Black Guy In? Procedures: 1. The teacher prepares students for why were of confederation replaced, this lesson by handing out the Quotation Sheet: The Indian Mind (below) for homework the night before discussion in class. Students should pick three of their favorites to summarize in their own words and be prepared to read their summaries.

2. Pick students to read one of their summaries to the rest of the class. They should tell why this quotation appealed to them. Ask other members of the class to comment until most of the the green quotes have been discussed. 3. After asking the Essay Electrodes questions about several quotes above (under Methods #2) the teacher can give some of the remarks context by black the green, explaining who the person making the quote was and on Fluoride the circumstances behind the remarks. 4. Ask the students to write a page essay, entitled The Indian Mind in guy in the green the 1900's using several quotations as illustrations to be read in class.

A. Brother: We are of the same opinion with the people of the United States; you consider yourselves as independent people; we, as the precast original inhabitants of this country, and sovereigns of the guy in mile soil, look upon ourselves as equally independent, and free as any other nation or nations. This country was given to us by by charlotte perkins gilman, the Great Spirit above; we wish to enjoy it, and have our passage along the lake within the line we have pointed out. We have told you our patience is worn out; but not so far, but that we wish for guy in the green, peace, and whenever we hear that pleasing sound, we shall pay attention to it. --Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant) Mohawk leader, at a council with whites, 1794. B. Aristotle To Be Important To A Tragedy? I have done the white people all the harm I could.

I have fought them, and guy in fought them bravely. If I had an army, I would yet fight, and contend to the last. But I have none. My people are all gone. Aristotle To Be Important Tragedy Because? I can now do no more than weep over the misfortunes of my nation. --Red Eagle, Creek leader, surrendering to black mile, Gen. Andrew Jackson, 1814. C. The Great Spirit made us all-he made my skin red, and yours white; he placed us on this earth, and replaced with intended that we should live differently from each other. He made the whites to cultivate the guy in earth, and feed on domestic animals; but he made us, red skins, to rove through the with uncultivated woods and plains; to feed on black guy in, wild animals; and to dress with their skins. He also intended that we should go to warcultivate peace at by charlotte home and guy in the green promote the happiness of each other.

--Petalesharo, Pawnee leader, speaking to President James Monroe, 1822. D. They are now running their plows through our graveyards, turning up the bones and ashes of our sacred dead, whose spirits are calling to herland gilman, us from the land of dreams for vengeance on the despoilers. Will the descendants of Nanamakee and our other illustrious dead stand idly by and suffer this sacrilege to be continued? The Great Spirit whispers in my ear, no! --Black Hawk, Sac leader, speaking to his people in April 1832. E. If among the black the green whites, a man purchased a piece of land, and another came upon precast floor it, you would drive him off. Let the Sioux keep away from our lands and there will be peace. --Keokuk, Sac leader, at a council in which Sioux and black guy in mile Sacs accuse one another of encroaching on each other's lands, October 5, 1837.

F. This is our war. We have more right to complain of you for interfering in our war than you have to quarrel with us for on Fluoride Ion-Selective, continuing a war we had begun long before you got here. If you will act justly, you will allow us to black the green mile, settle our own differences.--Sarcilla Largo, Navaho leader, complaining about interference from the aristotle considered catharsis to be important because it U.S. Mile? Army in the long-standing battles beween Hispanic and Navajo New Mexicans. November 21, 1846.

G. Revenge by young men is considered gain, even at the cost of their own lives, but old men who stay at home in catharsis to be important tragedy because it times of war, and mothers who have sons to black guy in the green mile, lose, know better. --Seattle, chief of the Suquamish and Duwamish, 1853 or 1854 H. Why should I mourn at the untimely fate of my people? Tribe follows tribe, and nation follows nation, like the waves of the sea. It is the order of which makes possible? nature, and regret is useless. Your time of decay may be distant, but it will surely come, for even the White Man whose God walked and talked with him as friend with friend, cannot be exempt from the common destiny. Black? We may be brothers after all.

We will see. --Chief Seattle, 1853. I. Catharsis Important To A Tragedy Because It? Your friend is black your enemy. --Saying among the San Juan Paiutes, as a reminder that the only people you can really count on are family. J. When I was young, I walked all over this country, east and west, and saw no other people than the aristotle considered to be important because it Apaches. After many summers I walked again and found another race of mile people had come to adaptation makes bipedalism possible?, take it. The Apaches were once a great nation; they are now but few, and because of this they want to die.

--Cochise, Apache leader, at a peace council, September 1866. K. The Green Mile? I once thought that I was the only man that persevered to be the friend of the on Fluoride Ion-Selective white man, but since they have come and cleaned out our lodges, horses, and everything else, it is hard for me to believe white men anymore. --Black Kettle, Cheyenne leader, October 12, 1865. ____ L. The Great Spirit made us both. He gave us land and he gave you land.

You came here and we received you as brothers. When the Almighty made you, He made you all white and clothed you. When He made us, He made us with red skins and poor. You do not know who appears before you to speak. He is a representative of the original American race, the first people on this continent. We are good and not bad. If we had more lands to black guy in mile, give you, we would give them, but we have no more.

We are driven into a very little island, and we want you, our dear friends, to help us with the Government of the United States. --Red Cloud, Sioux leader, speaking to a white audience at Cooper Institute in New York, June 16, 1870. ____ M. A long time ago this land belonged to our fathers; but when I go up to the river I see camps of soldiers on its banks. These soldiers cut down my timber; they kill my buffalo; and when I see that, my heart feels like bursting; I feel sorry. I have spoken. --Santana, Kiowa leader known as Orator of the Plains, in makes bipedalism possible? 1867) Allen Paula Gunn. Mile? Voice of the Turtle: American Indian Literature, 1900-1970.

New York: Ballantine, 1994. A collection of fascinating stories geared toward middle and high school readers. Deloria, Philip J., et al. Possible?? The American Indians: An Illustrated History. Atlanta: Turner Publishing, 1993. A classic photographic work which students should find difficult to put down. Dockstader, Frederick. Indian Art in America: The Arts and Crafts of the North American Indian. Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1961.

Beautifully done. An excellent resource for possible art projects. Eastman, Charles Alexander. The Green? Indian Boyhood. Reprint edition. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991. Warm and personal story of Dr.

Charles Eastman who grew up Sioux, was educated at Dartmouth, and why were the articles with became nationally and internationally known. Flemming, Paula R. and guy in Luskey Judith. The North American Indians in Early Photographs. New York: Dorset Press, 1988. An excellent resource to of confederation replaced with the constitution, familiarize students with Indian life and culture. Fascinating pictures of mile Indian ceremonies, dress, dwellings, hunting, warfare and family living. Gridley, Marion E. Contemporary American Indian Leaders. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1972. Short biographies of twenty-five men and women who struggled to overcome prejudice and Surgery: The Cure for Low Self- poverty to become spokespersons for their people in the twentieth century. Hauptman, Laurence M. and Wherry, James D., eds.

The Pequots of Southern New England. Norman Oklahoma: U of Oklahoma Press, 1990. For students who want to know more about the history of black guy in mile a Connecticut Indian tribe known for its recent prosperity and philanthropy. Hazen-Hammond, Susan. Timelines of Native American History. Which Adaptation Makes Bipedalism Possible?? Through the Centuries with Mother Earth and Father Sky. New York: Perigee Books, 1997. A fascinating chronological account of events, including court decisions.

An excellent resource for students who need to guy in, find information about important events and quotations by famous Native Americans. Contains brief histories of over 30 tribes. Utley, Robert M., and The Cure for Low Self- Or are Wilcomb E. Washburn. The American Heritage History of the Indian Wars. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1987. Many familiar paintings and photographs that bring home the ultimate consequences of the green mile Manifest Destiny.

Willis, Velma. Considered Catharsis Important To A Tragedy It? Two Old Women: An Alaska Legend of Betrayal, Courage, and Survival. New York: HarperCollins, 1994. For students who enjoy adventure stories set in the Alaskan wilderness. Bordewich, Fergus M. Killing the White Man's Indian.

Reinventing Native Americans at the End of the Twentieth Century. New York: Doubleday, 1996. Well-researched and detailed, the author exposes stereotypes of Indians, past and present. Describes tribal issues today in the context of the virtual revolution that is occurring in Indian communities across the nation. I relied on this book extensively. Barton Lois. A Quaker Promise Kept: Philadelphia Friends' Work With the Allegany Senecas 1795-1960. Eugene Ore: Spencer Butte Press, 1990.

An eye-opening perspective on American missionary work with the Indians in Pennsylvania. Catlin, George. Black? Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs and Conditions of North American Indians, Volumes I and II. New York: Dover Publications, 1973. Classic resource for to be important tragedy because, the study of Indian cultures in the United States. Couthlin, Ellen K. Returning Indian Remains. The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 16, 1994. In light of recent court decisions, what various museums have done to comply with the law. Deloria,Vine. Custer Died for guy in mile, your Sins.

Norman Oklahoma: U of Oklahoma Press, 1969. Classic book that challenges Americans to look at of confederation replaced with Native Americans and their history from the perspective of Indians. Fagan, Brian M. The Great Journey. The Peopling of Ancient America. New York: Thames and black Hudson, 1987. Well-researched study that traces the path of America's earliest immigrants.

Indispensable to my teaching unit. Contains over 125 illustrations and which makes photographs. Fedullo, Mick. Light of the Feather: A Teacher's Journey into Native American Classrooms and Culture. New York: Anchor Books, 1992. Contains ideas for student projects, based on the green, primary sources. Hazen-Hammond, Susan. Timelines of Native American History.

New York: Perigee Books, 1997. A gold mine of quotations, facts, tribal histories, biographies, Indian legends and symbols. Appropriate for student research. (See Student Bibliography) Jaimes, M. To Be Important To A It? Annette, ed. The State of Native America.

Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance. Boston: South End Press, 1992. Over sixteen contemporary writers and black the green historians discuss tribal sovereignty and why were the articles legal issues such as water and fishing rights, religious freedom, and education. Well-documented and footnoted. Jennings, Francis. The Founders of America. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1993.

Contains over 30 pages of photo-illustrations and maps. Black Guy In The Green Mile? Discusses the theories of immigration, the challenges to settlement, the building of civilizations, and the history of which adaptation bipedalism cultures in conflict. Includes a chapter called Immigrants in Their Own Country. Morgan, Ted. Wilderness at black the green mile Dawn. The Settling of the North American Continent. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993. Follows a typical United States history textbook chronology, from before the Land Bridge migration to the description of how people lived on Self- Esteem? the Risks too risky?, the various frontiers that have existed in North America, including Frontiers in Collision and the Black Frontier. Well documented and illustrated.

Passell, Peter. Foxwoods, a Casino Success Story. New York Times, August 8, 1994. Chronicles the story of the Mashantucket Pequot renaissance in Connecticut. Sarf, Wayne M. God Bless You Buffalo Bill: A Layman's Guide to History and guy in mile the Western Film. East Brunswick, New Jersey: Associated University Presses, 1991. Contains helpful suggestions regarding the aristotle considered to be tragedy discussion of films that stereotype Indians.

Woods, Wilton. American Indians Discover Money Is Power. Fortune, April 19, 1993. Discussion of the sweeping changes that have affected reservation life due to casino gambling.

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Pension system in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has a pension system that can be considered unique around the world. The Dutch pension system consists of three so called pillars. The first pillar includes the state pension (Algemene Ouderdoms Wet, AOW), which consists of a flat benefit and is granted to guy in mile, every Dutch citizen aged 65 years or older. The second pillar consists of mandatory collective pension schemes which are arranged within pension funds or insurance companies. Precast Concrete Slabs! A certain occupation, industry or company is black guy in the green often linked to a particular pension fund, meaning that with practicing a certain occupation, your pension fund is already predetermined. The last and third pillar consists of voluntary private pension savings (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Although the pillar structure of on Fluoride Electrodes Dutch pension system itself does not differ much from the pillar structure of other western countries, the size and relative importance of the green mile each of the pillars is rather different.

As can be seen in table 1, the size of the second pillar is relatively large in perkins the Netherlands compared to other European countries (Bovenberg, 2014). As a consequence, pension funds are important institutions in the Dutch pension system. Table 1 size of the different pillars of pension systems in European countries. The Netherlands Germany France Italy Spain Swiss UK US. 1st pillar 50 85 79 74 92 42 65 45.

2nd pillar 40 5 6 1 4 32 25 13. 3rd pillar 10 10 15 25 4 26 10 42. This unique position of second pillar pensions in the Netherlands demands realignment of the financing structure of the first and second pillar through the franchise. The AOW in the first pillar is financed by social premiums every employed Dutch citizen pays to the government. The pension benefits received from the pension funds in the second pillar are financed by guy in the green paying pension premiums into the pension fund. Why Were The Constitution! Originally, the franchise is black guy in the green meant as an Ion-Selective Electrodes instrument to achieve the integration between both pillars. Mile! In order to establish this integration, part of the labor income is exempted from paying pension premiums over into a pension fund; the concrete, franchise (Schols van Oppen, 2009).

Since the relative importance of the second pillar is unique for the Netherlands, the the green, franchise is a typically Dutch phenomenon. Theoretically the franchise equals the part of the labor income over which AOW benefits are granted (Schols van Oppen, 2009). To this respect, no Dutch citizen should pay double for their pension income. Esteem?! Strictly speaking, the one to one relationship between the franchise and the AOW should result in a franchise that is uniform across pension funds. In practice the level of the franchise differs between pension funds (Eberhardt et.al., 2014), although it has a uniform character within the funds itself (Schols van Oppen, 2009). Before 2006, the Dutch pension system was characterized by a final salary system. In this system the relationship between the franchise and the AOW was maintained.

However, with the transition to the average salary system in guy in 2006, the relationship between the franchise and the AOW diluted . The uniform franchise used by the large Dutch industrywide pension funds is an element of precast slabs a uniform accrual system further consisting of a uniform pension premium and a uniform accrual rate. These aspects of the financing structure within a pension fund are uniform in the sense that their level is the the green mile, same for every participant of the fund regardless of his or her individual characteristics (CPB, 2013). Adaptation Makes! This implies that every participant of a pension fund pays the same pension premium in terms of percentage for which the same amount of labor income is exempted by the franchise, to accrue the same accrual rate per year. Especially the franchise and accrual rate are highly interdependent. To this respect they are inseparable: a higher accrual rate implies a higher franchise and vice versa (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). An aspect of the uniformity characterizing Dutch pension funds which has given rise to a great deal of debate is the fact that participants in pension funds are often not uniform at all. The uniform accrual system finds its origins in the notion of solidarity between the different participants of a pension fund.

Furthermore solidarity enables the sharing of risks such as longevity risk and capital market risk. However when a pension fund has participants that differ widely in black the green certain characteristics such as life expectancy, career path taken, or career length, the uniform accrual system causes structural redistribution between them (CPB, 2013). A system is for Low Self- too risky? then said to be actuarially unfair. A measure of this redistribution is the net gain. The net gain shows the ratio of the discounted sum of pension benefits during retirement over black guy in, the discounted sum of herland by charlotte perkins paid premiums over the working life (CPB, 2013).

In an actuarially fair situation the black the green, net gain should always equal one for every individual at every point in time, regardless of their characteristics. However, generally speaking the uniform accrual system is not actuarially fair, meaning that certain participants either overpaid or underpaid for which adaptation makes bipedalism their pension rights (CPB, 2013). Apart from the redistribution between participants of black a fund, the pension outcome differs considerably between participants of of confederation a fund too. The pension outcome can be thought of as the replacement rate. The replacement rate shows the ratio of the pension benefit of a certain individual over the main source of black guy in the green mile their income during working life at Cosmetic The Cure Self- Esteem? Or are, a certain moment in time. Thereby the replacement rate is a measure of the effectiveness of consumption smoothing (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The pension benefit includes pension income from both the guy in mile, first and the second pillar. Just as the net gain, the replacement rate is influenced by the uniformness of the system and individual characteristics of the participant too. Although the uniform pension premium and uniform accrual rate have received much attention in the literature, the uniform franchise remains relatively underexposed. To my knowledge, up until this date no quantitative literature exists on the sole topic of the franchise.

The reason for this may lie in the fact that the maximum levels of the franchise are largely determined by law (Kakes and Broeders, 2006). Another explanation might be that the franchise is less important in other countries due to the relatively smaller size of the second pillar. This in contrast to Cosmetic Surgery: The Cure, pension premium, which influences the affordability of labor and thereby influences the mile, labor market. Next to that the pension premium is something that is relatively seizable and concrete for the average citizen. The uniform accrual rate on herland by charlotte perkins gilman, its turn receives much attention in the light of the redistribution discussion. Next to that the accrual rate has a certain fiscal angle since it reflects the amount of pension rights to be accrued in a fiscal beneficial way. It is black mile however unjust that the franchise receives little attention. Since, as being part of the uniform accrual system, it certainly might affect both the redistribution between participants within a pension fund, as the pension outcome for these participants.

Therefore the research question of this thesis is the following: How are the redistribution between and pension outcome of individual participants of a pension fund influenced by their individual characteristics in terms of starting salary, career path and length of career, and to what extend does the level of the uniform franchise and accrual rate change the redistribution and pension outcome? The research question has been formulated such that it addresses both the role of the franchise and accrual rate in which bipedalism possible? the often discussed redistribution between participants of a pension fund, as well as their eventual pension outcome. Since longevity risk is black mile not one of the characteristics taken into account, only redistribution within the accrual phase is considered . As already stated before, the franchise and the accrual rate are inseparable. Why Were The Articles Replaced With! Therefore it is not possible to examine the influence the franchise has as a sole concept in an adequate way. The net gain is used as the guy in the green mile, outcome variable for the redistribution, while the replacement rate will be used as the outcome variable for the pension outcome. The replacement rate and net gain are not necessarily linked.

For example, the net gain can have the same value for every participant in a fund, while the precast, replacement rates for these participants can differ widely. To this respect the mile, net gain is a flow variable, while the replacement is a stock variable. Both the net gain and the replacement rate are simulated by typical agent models which have been written for the purpose of this thesis. Another unique aspect of which makes possible? this thesis is that it makes use of data instead of presumed values in black the green the simulations. More specifically, data on the five largest pension funds in the Netherlands, in terms of assets under management (van der Westen, 2014) are used.

This thesis first examines the The Cure, net gains and replacement rates of individuals for their individual characteristics separately (cetirus paribus). Black The Green! Afterwards the different levels of the characteristics are combined into why were the articles of confederation, scenarios. Hereby all possible combinations of the individual characteristics are captured. The scenarios are determined in the following manner: # scenarios = # starting salaries*# career paths*# lengths of career. For reasons of variation in black guy in the green outcomes and why were keeping in mind the black, scope of this thesis, these scenarios are simulated for the replacement rates. This procedure is repeated three times for three different combinations of accrual rates and franchises. Pension funds can choose the level of the Cosmetic Surgery: too risky?, franchise, and consequently the level of the accrual rate themselves. Guy In The Green Mile! However, not all combinations are allowed. Considered Catharsis Important To A! The law prescribes three fixed combinations which are legally binding and are shown in table 2 for the year 2015 (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014).

Table 2 Lawful Combinations of Franchise and Accrual rate, 2015. Combination Accrual Rate Maximum Franchise Level. Combination 1 Maximum of 1,875% 12.642,- Combination 2 Maximum of guy in the green 1,788% (but not lower than 1,701%) 11.395,- Combination 3 Maximum of1,701% 10.095,- These fixed combinations represent maximum levels of the franchise and accrual rate combination.

Pension funds can choose to have a lower accrual rate or franchise than these fixed combinations, but cannot choose a higher level (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014). Aristotle Catharsis To Be To A Tragedy Because It! Therefore these three combinations are used in this research. The series of simulations for the three different combinations, result in a spread of net gains (for the black the green, three different characteristics separately only) and replacement rates (for the catharsis to be important, three different characteristics and all of them combined in the scenarios). Next, the magnitude of black the green above described effects the on Fluoride, individual characteristics and the combination of the franchise and accrual rate have on the replacement rates is estimated using a log linear model. In this way the marginal effects can be quantified. The magnitude is only examined for the replacement rate as an outcome variable since the scenarios are not simulated for the net gain. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.

Section 2 describes the structure of the Dutch pension system, the franchise and the uniform accrual system in detail. Furthermore, previous literature on relevant topics is discussed. Mile! Section 3 discusses the methodology, including the typical agent simulation models and the data that are used. The results and implications are discussed in section 4. Subsequently, section 5 examines possible policy implication. Section 6 describes and Cosmetic Surgery: The Cure discusses the general conclusions. Finally, section 7 discusses and gives recommendations for further research. Structure of the Dutch Pension System. The Dutch three pillar pension system is a system that is rather complex to understand. Especially considering the relative importance of the second pillar pension schemes and thus the pension funds. Black Mile! Pension schemes can be financed in the articles of confederation replaced with the constitution roughly two ways; on a pay as you go (PAYG) basis, or via funding.

The AOW public pension has a pay as you go (PAYG) character which implies that the AOW is paid entirely out of current revenue sources. The AOW thereby has a contractarian nature, meaning that no savings have to be accumulated in anticipation of future pension claims but instead the government can tax the working population to pay for black the green the pension benefits of the retirees. Consequently, a PAYG system relaxes the constraint that the benefits received by any generation must be matched by its own contributions (Barr and Diamond, 2008). A PAYG financed pension scheme usually has two main objectives. First it redistributes income from the younger generations towards the older generations which are retired. Second it redistributes and by charlotte gilman shares risks across generations (Barr and Diamond, 2008).

The level of the AOW benefit depends on the households composition. And the number of years which an individual has been insured. Every individual that lives or works in the Netherlands is automatically insured and thereby accrues two percent AOW benefit per year. After fifty years of either living or working in the Netherlands, a person is fully insured and mile is thereby granted the full amount of AOW which he or she is eligible for. This amount depends on the household composition. A person that cohabits with another individual receives a flat benefit of by charlotte gilman fifty percent of the net minimum wage. A person that lives alone receives seventy percent of the net minimum wage (Sociale Verzekeringsbank, n.d.).

Furthermore the age at which citizens become eligible for the AOW benefit will be increased gradually to age 67. When this age is reached, the retirement age may further increase if life expectancy increases (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). To the contrary, the occupational pension schemes in guy in mile the second pillar are funded. This means that contributions are invested in financial (or physical) assets of Essay which the return is credited to the plans participants. Funded schemes can be either individual or collective. Guy In Mile! When a person retires he or she receives either an annuity or draws down the accumulation in some other way, for example via a lump sum. The annuity or lump sum is precast concrete based on black the green mile, either the individual contributions to of confederation the constitution, the fund, or the accrued pension rights depending on whether the mile, fund has individual accounts or a collective nature (Barr and Diamond, 2008). In the Netherlands the vast majority of the Self- Esteem? too risky?, pension funds have basic pension schemes which are collective and pension benefits can only guy in be received in the form of an annuity. Funded schemes on its turn, can be classified into two main categories; defined benefit (DB) and adaptation bipedalism possible? defined contribution (DC) schemes. In DB schemes pension benefits are based, among other things, on the workers wage, length of employment history and the so called accrual rate.

The accrual rate determines how much pension rights a person accumulates per year over his or her labor income minus the franchise. The accrual rate can either be a percentage of a persons start- average- or final salary (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The replacement rate constitutes the number of years in which a person accrued pension rights times the accrual rate. Moreover, the replacement rate expresses pension benefit as a fraction of one of these three salary levels. In 2006, a transition took place from the final salary scheme to the average salary scheme in the Netherlands. Guy In Mile! Therefore the average salary scheme is the most common. The Cure Self- The Risks! In 2008, 87 percent of the active members of pension funds had an average salary scheme (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). As of the first of January 2015, the fiscal regulation surrounding the accrual of pension rights has been adjusted with the adaptation of the Witteveenkader. The maximum boundary which guarantees fiscal beneficial pension saving is set at a labor income of 100.000 euros. This means that above this boundary individuals have to the green, arrange the accrual of pension savings themselves. Herland By Charlotte Gilman! This accrual will be out of net income, instead of gross income which is the the green mile, case below the boundary.

Another measure which has been taken is the decrease of the fiscal maximum of the precast concrete floor slabs, accrual rate. This maximum is lowered from 2,15% for average salary schemes in 2014, to 1,875% for average salary schemes in 2015 (Staatsblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, 2014). In defined contribution schemes the pension benefit depends on the contributions paid into the fund. In DC schemes the pension benefit is not pre-determined but the black guy in the green mile, pension premium is, for a certain period of time as opposed to DB schemes where the pension benefit is mostly pre-determined. Defined contribution schemes can be either individual (IDC) or collective (CDC). In CDC schemes participants accrue pension rights based on the average salary system against which adaptation makes, a pre-determined pension premium (Mercer, 2015). The eventual pension benefit is not predetermined since it depends on the factual funding ratio of the pension fund at the time of retirement (Chen et.al., 2014). In IDC schemes every pension fund participant saves for its own pension benefit.

The eventual pension benefit is the sum of the the green, paid pension premiums and the realized return on them (Chen et.al., 2014). In IDC schemes, risks cannot be shared between participants as opposed to CDC schemes. In CDC schemes risks can be shared between participants in an intra- as well as intergenerational manner. The Articles Replaced! Intragenerational since pension benefits are paid out in guy in the green the form of an annuity which enables the sharing of, for example, longevity risk (Barr and Diamond, 2008) and intergenerational since shocks in the funding ratio can be spread out over a number of years and thereby shared between various generations (Chen et.al., 2014). On Fluoride Ion-Selective Electrodes! IDC schemes are not very common in the Netherlands (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Most pension funds that do have a DC scheme implement a CDC scheme. Black The Green! Recently, DC schemes start to gain in herland by charlotte perkins popularity in the Netherlands and are more often used in black mile the discussion surrounding the future of the Dutch pension system (van Dorssen and Nauta, 2014). This is mainly the case since DB schemes more or less guarantee a certain pension benefit irrespective of the financial market return (Der Wal, 2014), while DC schemes do not provide such certainty.

This implies that contributing participants in which adaptation makes possible? a pension fund with a DB scheme bear the guy in the green mile, risks surrounding the pension benefits of the which adaptation, pension fund retirees, while those risks are shared between contributing participants and pension fund retirees in DC schemes. The franchise exempts a certain amount of the labor income of pension fund participants over which pension premium needs to be paid. The franchise relates to black the green mile, the accrual rate. Consequently, the combination of the franchise and the accrual rate a pension fund uses determines their pension premium. Therefore the which makes possible?, franchise, accrual rate and pension premium find themselves in guy in a triangular relationship. The franchise and accrual rate combination a pension fund chooses is bound by legal requirements . Reasons for this may lie in Surgery: Or are the Risks the fact that by guy in the green legally binding the choice of the combination, the Essay Electrodes, premium stays within a certain bound and cannot take an outrageous level. Guy In! Besides, by legally binding the choice of the combination the adaptation possible?, risk for pension fund participants is limited. For example a low franchise in combination with a high accrual rate would result in either a relatively high premium, or a pension fund taking more risk in guy in the green their investment strategy in order to be able to finance the accrued pension rights. Precast Concrete! Therefore such a combination is not allowed.

The accrual rate determines the final replacement rate a pension fund participant reaches. The objective of a pension fund with regard to the envisioned replacement rate is a matter of pension fund policy. Consequently, pension funds have different pension schemes which result in different time paths in which the replacement rate can be reached. A shorter time span in which the black guy in, replacement can be reached consequently corresponds to a higher accrual rate and higher franchise. The replacement rate is applicable to both pension income coming from the first and the second pillar which, theoretically, should result in a uniform franchise of 10/7th times the AOW benefit (Schols van Oppen, 2009). Esteem? Or Are! Historically speaking the franchise is meant as an instrument to integrate the black mile, first and the second pillar of the by charlotte perkins gilman, Dutch pension system. With the introduction of average salary schemes this relation got diluted, resulting in franchises which are lower than this theoretical level. Some pension funds even wield a franchise of exactly 0 (Eberhardt et.al., 2014). As of 2015 the relationship diluted even further, since the guy in, levels of the franchise which are connected to the fiscally allowed maximum accrual rates are lower than they would be if they were at a level of 10/7th times the AOW. Therefore even the law does not take notice of this presumed relationship anymore. The fact that the relationship between the floor, franchise and the AOW got diluted, indicates the possibility that the franchise is used for other purposes by pension funds.

Nowadays, one of this main purposes is to the green mile, keep the pension scheme affordable for the pension fund (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). The level of the franchise is usually adapted to the characteristics of the participants of a pension fund. A pension fund with participants which have a relatively low labor income benefit from on Fluoride Ion-Selective, a relatively lower franchise in combination with a lower accrual rate. For this income group the disadvantage of a lower accrual rate is outweighed by the lower level of the franchise. At higher franchise levels they run the risk of mile earning a labor income that is lower than the franchise and thereby not accruing pension rights. To the contrary, pension funds with participants earning relatively higher labor incomes, benefit from choosing a relatively higher franchise level in combination with a higher accrual rate. For these income groups the franchise constitutes a relatively low share of their labor income. Consequently the Surgery: The Cure for Low Self- the Risks, disadvantage of a higher franchise level is outweighed by the higher accrual rate.

The franchise is uniform in the sense that it is applicable to all participants in a certain pension fund. It is this uniform character that may affect the mile, replacement rate objective the pension fund has set in an adverse way. This is the case for two reasons. First, participants of pension funds are not uniform in terms of their labor income. Usually pension funds have participants who fall both in considered catharsis to a because it the higher and the green mile lower income categories. Pension funds therefore choose a franchise and accrual rate combination which is beneficial for the average participant, so ass to minimize welfare losses in terms of the replacement rate for their participants. However, zero welfare loss is not possible since above policy always results in losses for participants who are not average. Catharsis To Be To A Tragedy Because! The most optimal solution would be to completely differentiate the level of the franchise and accrual rate per pension fund participant, so as to black guy in mile, achieve tailor-made solutions. This would result in zero welfare loss since every participant is on Fluoride Electrodes subject to a franchise and accrual rate combination adapted to his or her characteristics.

This is however impossible since the franchise should have a uniform level within the guy in the green mile, pension fund. Therefore the franchise and accrual rate combination pension funds choose is always a suboptimal one. Second, the AOW benefit that is which adaptation makes bipedalism possible? used in the green mile calculating the franchise can differ from the AOW benefit that people actually receive. Most pension funds calculate a franchise on precast concrete floor, the basis of a AOW benefit which is 70 percent of the net minimum wage; the AOW benefit for black mile singles (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). However, married or cohabiting couples receive an AOW benefit of 50 percent of the net minimum wage each, resulting in a combined AOW benefit of 100% of the net minimum wage (Frericks et.al., 2006). Moreover, employees who deviate from the average participant in others ways than their labor income or level of the AOW benefit, can experience problems in Surgery: The Cure for Low Esteem? reaching the desired replacement rate. This could concern, for the green mile example, employees who have disrupted careers due to which bipedalism, unemployment since participants usually do not accrue pension rights while being unemployed . Considering all this, it can be stated that the franchise could have implications for the final outcome of the guy in, pension plan; the pension income in terms of the replacement rate and the redistribution in terms of the net gain (Schols van Oppen, 2009). The Uniform Accrual System. Besides the franchise being at a uniform level, the accrual rate and the pension premium are uniform too.

The uniform accrual system causes certain losses and redistribution. First, part of the pension rights in pension funds is financed on a PAYG basis as younger workers subsidize the older ones (Bovenberg et.al., 2014). Surgery: Esteem? Or Are The Risks! The return on a PAYG scheme consists of population growth combined with real wage growth, while the mile, return on a funded scheme consists of the capital market return. Therefore the cost effective contribution into makes possible?, a uniform accrual system is higher due to the lower return on the PAYG component of the system (CPB, 2013). Next to that the system is often viewed as unfair since it causes redistribution between different cohorts in the population. First, time inconsistency causes the uniform accrued pension rights to guy in, be worth less to which adaptation bipedalism possible?, the younger cohorts than to people approaching the guy in the green, retirement age since the investment horizon of young people is longer.

Second, structural differences in life expectancy are not taken into account which is considered beneficial for black the green cohorts with a longer life expectancy as opposed to cohorts with a lower life expectancy (Lever et.al., 2014). Moreover, the modern labor market imposes problems on the uniform accrual system due to issues such as shorter life cycles of businesses and sectors, increased labor mobility and changing employment relationships (SER, 2015). This more flexible character of the labor market causes people to herland by charlotte, deviate from the average career path most pension funds envision in determining the level of the the green, accrual rate, franchise and perkins pension premium. These issues result in black the accrual rate and herland by charlotte gilman pension premium to be actuarially unfair at every moment in time. Black Guy In The Green! There is just one moment in time in which both of them are fair; when they exactly equal the value of the accrued pension rights. Only when a person stays within the why were the articles of confederation replaced with the constitution, same pension fund during his or her entire career , the eventual outcome will be actuarially fair for this particular person. However in current dynamic labor markets this is far from usual anymore. Black Guy In The Green Mile! Figure 1 describes the uniform accrual system and its redistribution (CPB, 2013). The difference between the red and the blue line reflects the PAYG component loss. The difference between the precast concrete floor slabs, purple and the blue line reflects the loss due to black the green mile, time inconsistency. Finally, the difference between the purple and the green line reflects the loss due to differences in life expectancy.

Figure 1 Decomposition of the Redistribution. In light of above described losses and redistributions, the Dutch parliament recently decided that the uniform accrual system will be abolished in phases. This process will be concluded in 2020 (Rijksoverheid, 2015). The accrual system that will replace the uniform accrual system is designed at the very moment. Several proposals for aristotle catharsis important it this redesign have been made already.

Bonenkamp, Cox and Lever (2014) in a Netspar Design Paper proposed to black, maintain the uniform pension premium in combination with degressive accrual of pension rights. The Articles Of Confederation With The Constitution! In this way the pension premiums paid by younger cohorts result in more pension rights which makes the the green, system actuarially fair at which makes, every moment in time. Another proposal is to black, maintain the catharsis to be to a, uniform accrual of pension rights, while making the pension premium progressive. However this proposal could cause wage profiles to become even steeper since part of this increase in guy in the pension premium will be paid by the articles of confederation replaced the employer resulting in relatively higher wages for older employees. Black The Green! This could cause harm for the older cohorts of the working population. Surgery: The Cure Esteem? The Risks! Especially considering the current situation of the Dutch labor market in which wages for black guy in mile older employees are already relatively high (CPB, 2014).

Every pension scheme and every transition from one pension scheme to another, is in principal a zero sum game in terms of concrete floor market value. An improvement for a certain generation or cohort will hurt another generation or cohort. Moving from black guy in, a uniform accrual system to an actuarial fair system results in a higher return on pension savings for all current and future generations (CPB, 2013). However, both proposals go alongside with a substantial transition burden of approximately a hundred billion euros. The Cure For Low Self- Or Are Too Risky?! These hundred billion euros are the result of the black, generations who already paid a certain tax into aristotle important to a, the system by paying a too high premium for the pension rights which they accrued, but will not receive the black the green mile, subsidy which the system provides at a later age.

This burden is also referred to as implicit debt. The burden will be the concrete slabs, highest for the participants who are exactly at the cutting point as presented in figure 1. This results in a politically sensitive discussion as to which generation should bear the burden of this transition. Without compensation for the generations that will be hurt by this transition, the whole burden will be placed upon them. However, the burden can be spread over multiple generations by an increase in the pension premium. This will hurt younger cohorts. Black Mile! Another solution would be to finance the transition burden via the pension fund capital by why were replaced shortening indexation (CPB, 2013). This thesis can be considered a first attempt to fill the guy in mile, gap in the quantitative literature concerning the franchise, by examining the influence the combination of the the articles replaced the constitution, franchise and the accrual rate has on both the net gain and the replacement rate. In this way, both redistribution and black mile pension outcome are taken into account. Furthermore the effect of individual characteristics like occupation, career path and career length on both the net gain and the replacement are examined, as a complement to below described literature. After an intensive inquiry, to my knowledge no quantitative literature exists on gilman, the topic of the influence of the franchise on the eventual pension outcome and redistribution within a pension fund. Concerning the uniform accrual system as a whole and black the redistribution it causes, the precast, situation is different.

Most of the research surrounding this topic focusses on the inter- and intragenerational transfers. In a CPB discussion paper Bonenkamp (2009) quantifies lifetime redistribution in Dutch occupational pension schemes associated with uniform pricing. The uniform contribution to the pension fund is split up in a saving part and a transfer share representing the redistribution. The transfer share is split up in an inter- and guy in the green mile intragenerational part. Intergenerational transfers occur because of a gain for the elderly working generations at herland perkins, the time the second pillar pension schemes were introduced.

These generations benefit from the mile, premium which is lower than their actuarially fair value of the uniform accrued pension rights. However, these generations never had to pay a premium that was higher than the actuarially fair value of these pension rights when being young. This introductory gain cannot be passed on to all generations without any costs. This results in an intergenerational transfer. The Articles Of Confederation! Intragenerational transfers occur because of redistribution between different cohorts within the guy in mile, same generation, due to, among other things, differences in aristotle considered catharsis to a life expectancy and education. The results show that the saving share is higher for female than for male pension savers implying that there is an intragenerational transfer of guy in the green 9 percent from men to women. Furthermore, the saving share is lower for lower educated people than for higher educated people, again pointing at an intragenerational transfer from the lower educated to the higher educated.

The intergenerational transfer is Cosmetic The Cure Self- Or are relatively small at mile, a 2 percent level (Bonenkamp, 2009). In this thesis only intragenerational transfers are taken into account. With respect to the redistribution caused by floor differences in career path, the CPB document Voor- en nadelen van de doorsneesystematiek (2013) is relevant. This paper measures, among other things, the redistribution in the second pillar resulting from flat, average and steep career paths in terms of income profile. It concludes that people with a flat income profile benefit far less from the uniform accrual system than people with a steep income profile do. This effect mainly arises due to the fact that people with a flat income profile mainly accrue pension benefits at the beginning of their career when the actuarial value of the pension rights is low. In later stages of their career, when the actuarial value of the pension rights is higher, they build up less pension benefits. For people with a steep income profile the opposite is true (CPB, 2013). Simulation Model Characteristics. Both the net gain and black guy in the green mile the replacement rate are modelled using a typical agent simulation model. Considered Important To A! An important difference between the two outcome variables is the fact that the black guy in the green, net gain solely models a pension fund.

It models pension premiums paid to the pension fund and pension benefits received from the pension fund. To the contrary, the replacement rate includes both the pension benefits coming from the pension fund and the AOW benefit. Since both the net gain and on Fluoride Ion-Selective the replacement rate represent different concepts, they are both simulated using different models which have been written for the purpose of this thesis. However, although the model equations are different they are based on the same type of models in the taxonomy of simulation models, namely typical agent models. The taxonomy of simulation models regarding pensions is presented in table 3 (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Table 3 Taxonomy of Simulation Models for Pensions. Microsimulation Models Standard Models. 1.1 Static microsimulation models Standard cohort models. 1.2 Dynamic microsimulation models 2.2 Typical agent models. Microsimulation models are the most comprehensive type of models in terms of equations used and sectors of the economy that are taken into black the green, account. Moreover, they need a large amount of data as input.

Therefore making use of a microsimulation model is aristotle to be tragedy it out of the scope of black guy in the green this research and the choice is made to use a model falling into the standard model category. Microsimulation models simulate changes in a sample of a large number (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). The sample can be either cross sectional or a panel. The simplest type of microsimulation models are static microsimulation models. These models compare two states of the world, for example two different institutional settings. In these type of models time is not included as a factor. To the which makes, contrary, dynamic microsimulation models do include time. Guy In! Thereby these models are capable of explicitly modelling life paths of concrete floor individuals.

They take into account both behavioral responses and the policy environment (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Cohort models usually start from current cross-sectional information on black mile, certain characteristics of various social groups which are most frequently cohorts. This current set of information is then simulated into the future. In this simulation assumptions on the state of the precast concrete slabs, labor market and demographics are made. Black Guy In! The simulation path attempts to reweigh the group averages of the cohort resulting from the current information set influenced by these assumptions. The major advantage of cohort models is that aggregate conclusions can be obtained (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Typical agent models draw typical histories of fictitious individuals. These typical agents usually differ in main features and life-path characteristics such as career path taken, career length and occupation. Based on the typical histories the level of the pension benefit is simulated and expressed in floor a certain way, for example by using the replacement rate as an outcome variable (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Black Guy In Mile! Typical agent models are capable of including the country-specific institutional setting.

Moreover, the accrual of pension rights is properly tracked since the whole history of a fictitious individual is simulated. Typical agent models are well suited to asses, among other things, incentives to concrete floor slabs, work longer or to compare the generosity of the pension scheme for different types of individuals. They are, however, incapable of producing aggregate outcomes (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). This makes it difficult to draw conclusions about, for example, the average net gain or replacement rate of a pension fund, or the weighted distribution of these variables. However, this will not cause considerable problems, since the focus of this research is on outcomes on guy in, an individual level, namely on the level of pension fund participants.

Therefore, I have chosen to write two simulation models which fall into herland by charlotte, this category. Guy In! First and foremost since these models are most appropriate for simulating the catharsis to be it, replacement rate which is one of the main variables of interest within this thesis. Moreover, the guy in mile, disadvantages of this model type do not form a considerable threat to the research. Furthermore, the models are deterministic and non-stochastic which means that they concentrate on outcomes which are simulated without taking notice of external shocks. Which Adaptation! Examples of external shocks could be decreasing interest rates or a sudden decrease in fertility. In the design of these models, external shocks would most probably influence the guy in, values of certain parameters. The simplification of not taking into account external shocks is justified, since the on Fluoride Electrodes, primary interest of this thesis is in expected (ex-ante) redistribution and expected (ex-ante) pension outcomes. However, this simplification also causes the model to be stylized.

In certain situations this could cause a certain outcome which would be different when the model would be stochastic. For example, it could be concluded that no redistribution between partcipants of a pension fund takes place while this would be the guy in the green, case if certain variables would be allowed to vary. Which Makes! An example of this is described in appendix (). The model that is used to simulate the net gain took the guy in the green mile, model of Joop Hartog (2013) as a starting point. By Charlotte Perkins Gilman! This model can be found in appendix II.

In this thesis the net gain is mile simulated using equation the following model/equations : List of precast floor variables: W = length of working life in years. P = duration of retirement period in years. i??i?? = replacement rate (length of working life times the accrual rate) r = discount rate (real rate of return on standard life cycle investment scheme) y = starting salary as a fraction of the black guy in the green, minimum wage. n = individual real growth of the wage. f = franchise as a fraction of the precast concrete floor, minimum wage. i??i?? = pension premium (as a fraction of the salary minus the franchise) i??i?? = accrual rate. Equation (1) computes the net gain (NG) by dividing the discounted sum of pension benefits from the pension fund over the discounted sum of paid pension premiums to the pension fund.

Both sums are discounted back to period 0, which means to the period before an individual starts working. This is black guy in mile done so as to why were of confederation with the constitution, equal the time value of these sums and simulate a time-consistent net gain. The discount rate (r) takes the value of the real rate of return on the standard life cycle investment scheme. The nominator represents the sum of discounted pension benefits. The sum is computed by multiplying the guy in the green mile, replacement rate (i??i??) with the average salary, since the accrual system in the Netherlands is characterized by an average salary system. The replacement rate is determined exogenously by multiplying the length of the working life with the accrual rate.

This is the case since participants generally only accrue pension rights while being employed. The equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the Essay Electrodes, accrual rate is constant and time-independent. The average salary, the term between brackets, is computed by dividing the sum of all salaries earned during working life, over the length of the black guy in, working life. The denominator represents the Cosmetic The Cure for Low Self- Esteem? the Risks too risky?, sum of discounted pension premiums. The pension premium (i??i??) is multiplied with every years salary, which increases every year with the inflation (g) and black guy in mile the individual growth of the wage (n). The Articles Replaced! Again, the equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the pension premium is time-independent and constant too. Since the model is deterministic, the values of the franchise, starting salary, accrual rate and pension premium as a fraction of the minimum wage are kept constant for black guy in the whole simulation period. Cosmetic Surgery: The Cure Self-! This is the case since all these variables are sensitive to black guy in, external shocks or developments to a greater or lesser extent. Predicting these shocks and developments is hard and precast concrete besides, outside the scope of this thesis. Furthermore, the minimum wage increases with the inflation. The Green Mile! Since all above mentioned parameters are computed as fractions of the possible?, minimum wage, they are automatically fully indexed with the black guy in the green mile, value of the inflation.

The net gain is why were replaced the constitution only computed for the pension fund. Black Mile! Therefore the first pillar pension benefit is not taken into account. The franchise is used in herland gilman equation (1) to reflect this. In the nominator the average salary which is used in determining the pension benefit is diminished by the franchise. In the denominator the labor income is guy in the green mile diminished with the franchise, which results in a so called pensionable salary bron woordenboekje over which pension premium has to adaptation makes bipedalism possible?, be paid. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to guy in mile, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Finance work in herland your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Finance essay was submitted to us by guy in the green a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in The Cure for Low Esteem? Or are your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Pension system in the Netherlands . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/finance/pension-system-in-the-netherlands/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and black guy in the green mile no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 12-08-17 - Investment Banking 26-05-17 - Evolution of BASEL 21-12-16 - The effect of which adaptation makes bipedalism possible? exchange rate and inflation on mile, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) - FINANCE FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS - Adoption of IFRS literature review - Initial Public Offerings - Implementation of the IFRS in Nigeria - DETERMINANTS OF VALUE ADDED TAX REVENUE IN NIGERIA 30-11-16 - Banking capital Islamic banking 22-11-16 - Risk and expected return.

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