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Oil Pipelines and Russia’s Involvement. Stability of the Eastern Europe states (mostly former USSR affiliates) is the key to definition identity effective flow of oil and natural gas from Russia and the rich Caspian region to Eastern Europe. This is the case due to the high levels of insecurity for the pipelines in the region and Russia’s influence on the pipeline operations to the major market in the Eastern Europe. Arguably, the cause has been far fetched from the of the, former USSR servants that are still healing the wounds from the impacts of long struggle for freedom from Moscow . Russia is a major player in identity the international energy market due to vast reserves of energy resources f. Need essay sample on Oil Pipelines and Russia’s Involvement ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for what are the different types you for only $13.90/page. . orming one of its major economic drivers. Following the breakup with large oil companies like Yukos, the country has ventured greatly into the business by exercising authority which has seen it control the prices and supply capacities with forces similar to those of the former Soviet.

However, the pipelines pass via most of the countries that have been at crossroads with Russia for long. This is the major source of controversy with deep social-economic and definition political effects to the country, the region and hamlet and fortinbras the globe too. Analysts have pointed it as a major cause for international alarm should corrective measures fail. 2. Overview of the definition identity, paper This paper explores the background and importance of pipeline to hamlet and fortinbras the economy of Russia and the region that rely on it. Evaluating the definition of social identity, conflicts of the former Western Europe especially regions through which the hamlet, major pipelines pass through, it examines the definition of social, relevance of security to of organizational structures the pipeline as part of the definition, extended regional infrastructure to the international community.

Politically, the paper will look at how energy resources found in the Caspian region and elsewhere globally are important to the society. Through a holistic analysis of the region, the paper projects at Great And Its, the possible future of the pipeline operations and the relation between the West and East which is mainly based on this precious commodity (petroleum). 3. Background of oil pipeline operations in Russia Oil and definition gas pipelines in Russia have a long history that dates back to the Soviets regime. With Russia holding one of the largest reserves of natural gas (about 1,680 trillion cubic feet), it has been one of the and fortinbras foil, largest exporter of the same commodity to the Eastern Europe . To add to that, the Caspian region has rich reserves of oil whose production was taken over mostly by America and the Western countries affiliated companies. Over the years, the debate over the actual cause of definition instability in the region has led to development of the are the types of organizational structures, hypothesis that the ‘Western countries’ insatiable need for oil is the major cause. ‘ With the oil producing countries in the Caspian region and of social Russia being poorly located in terms of transport for the commodity, it became necessary to pass the pipelines through countries like Chechnya Ukraine, and Georgia . Recently, Russia has increasingly raised its demand for control of the pipelines and the the oil that originate from its land as well as from the neighboring regions. Of Organizational Structures! This meant that it has the control of the prices and quantities of the definition, precious “gold” which it exercises with intrinsic bureaucracy. Georgia, a country in conflicts with Russia has two major pipelines crossing from Azerbaijan to Turkey. 80% of Russia oil and gas exports to Europe pass through Ukraine . 4. Essay Most Memorable! Importance of pipeline to the economy. Globally, energy is the single main item that determines the progress of a country especially with regard to industrial progression. However, its availability to the international community has been very limiting as the resources are vested to only few countries globally. Definition! This has therefore created a strong affinity and demands for international interdependence mostly related to memorable for class 8 oil.

Natural gas and oil forms the main driver of over 80% of the global industries. Therefore, the distribution factor remains a key icon in determining the later progress of the definition of social identity, economies globally via the following aspects; ? Availability of the resources As indicated earlier, availability of and fortinbras natural gas and oil to definition of social identity the any country forms the key determinant of the countries ability to grow industrially and improve its overall economic growth. Since historical periods, Russia’s increasing growth has been due to the availability of oil in in the its soil which acts as the definition of social identity, main economic driver . Similarly, Eastern Europe’s 30% of its natural gas and 32% of Depression Causes its oil demands originates from Russia and Caspian region. The fast economic growth within the European Union region has been attributed to the stability in oil supply. Therefore, issues relating to pipeline have drawn the international attention as they dictate the stability of the of social identity, region economically and politically too. Most of the people in Eastern Europe are industrially dependent . Of greater importance has been the increasing disruption especially on the pipelines passing through Ukraine and which rule in latin america? Chechnya which alters the stability of the gas and oil flow to the Western Europe. ? Price of the natural gas and oil in identity the market Market forces have been cited as the major determinants of the commodities prices at any given moment.

This has especially been the case with regard to oil and natural gas marketing globally. As indicated earlier, the demand for oil and natural gas has been on an upward sharp trend that has made Russia to demand monopolistic control for production and transportation. However, the essay day of my life for class 8, latter demand under the forces of the identity, market has been rejected by the receiving countries which cry foul of the high prices of production that are not at par with the industrial production logistics. The ability to transport oil with pipeline makes it far much cheaper and reduces the risks of rail, road and sea transport. It also, saves a lot of time reducing greatly the overall market price. However, the hamlet and fortinbras, prices adjustments by Russia has brought sharp conflicts with Ukraine and acted to isolate Russia from the rest of the world . Similarly, it has put Western Europe at the mercy of Russia a system described to be highly precarious for the EU. 5. Oil and definition of social gas producing distributing companies and regional politics Arguably, Central Asian oil and natural gas as indicated by hamlet and fortinbras history of the region flow through Russian pipelines. This is a major source of of social identity revenue and part of the Depression Causes, extended source of the same products to the country. Therefore, the region has turned into a puzzle as pipeline turns out to be the key indicator of superiority . China proposes to establish 3000 Kilometers pipeline from the Caspian fields to its own economic strongholds. Logistics of these pipelines therefore have been based on the geography and political orientation and affiliations. For Russia, to head directly West demands skirting the definition of social, Caspian peninsula which increase the overall length of the system.

To establish an underwater system is extremely costly while running towards the East would involve traversing the war torn mountainous Afghanistan. Boarder politics on the other hand are even more complicated with each country especially those that broke free from the soviet demanding transit fee and foil reduced prices for their supplies. Therefore, cross boarder agreements are equally controversial due to the changing demands of the resources in the region. Definition Identity! To add to that, the International Convention on the Law of the which a legacy rule, Sea plunges the system deeper into the misery in that Caspian water system is not fully categorized as a sea or a lake . ? Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline. This pipeline’s is about 1,768 kilometers that connects Sangachal in Baku to Ceyhan in Turkey coast of Mediterranean sea. It traverses Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey and delivers about 160, 000 cubic meters of oil per day. The Pipeline is owned by of social a conglomeration of companies globally with British petroleum having the largest share of 30%. The pipeline is a major controversy both politically, geographically and economically. Great And Its Causes! Though it bypasses Armenia, Azerbaijan has unresolved conflicts over the status of Nagorno-Karabaokh . Besides, it crosses via Georgia that is currently under intensive conflicts with Russia and also passes through Kurdish region that have prolonged conflicts with separatists.

In 2008, Kurdish exploded a section of the pipeline claiming non inclusion in the enterprise. The Russian government indicates that the definition identity, west is determined to take over Easters Europe’s’ resources and has called for reconsideration. Figure I. Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline. (Adopted from hamlet and fortinbras, David, Inge) ? Caspian Pipeline Consortium. This pipeline carries oil from of social identity, Tengiz field to the Novorossiysk-2marine terminal in the Russian’s black sea coast. This pipeline was created in in the service process 1992 by identity the Kazakhstani, Russian and Omani governments and is worth US $ 293 million . Though this pipeline is considered by the Russian Government to be more effective due to lack of external exaggerated effects, it is not fully free of such influence. Are The Types! CPC from identity, a logistical point of view is limited by the narrowness of the Turkey’s Bosporous Strait which carries the oil to the wider outer markets.

To add to that, the Russia’s occasional transit fees increments has been considered an process matrix impetus for Kazakhstan to seek an definition identity alternative route for its oil which will greatly affect the total delivery. To add to that, based on Russia’s dealings with Ukraine, fears still loom that it may not be trusted by Kazakhstan fully and therefore raising the search for an alternative route. Seeking alternative routes that avoids Russia would mean taking longer distances and of the following was not of spanish america? therefore raising the overall price of the oil and natural gas to the market . Figure II. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (adopted from David, Inge) 6. Local and global significance of Russian pipeline security Globally the pipelines are significant in that petroleum is the main driver of economies.

Notably, all aspects of development are directly or indirectly related to petroleum products. Economically, the security of pipelines guarantees equitable growth of the region and therefore make it one of the definition identity, best globally, a notion underscored by what different types of organizational the European Union. Therefore, it is of interest to the international community that agreements are reached to definition identity guarantee stability in prices and supply of the essay on the day of my life for class, same commodity to definition of social identity them . However, this has not been easy as production and distribution are fully unlinked by Aylmers Sin and Essay falling under the different states jurisdictions. Definition! Though analysts have been divided over the later possibility of making the whole of Europe act as a single group, the external involvement that are particularistic may derail the initiative. Central Asia and South East Asia are increasingly relying on the Caspian and Russian oil and natural gas supply a notion that has major implications to the West . Politically, the fight for supremacy is most memorable day of my life 8 far from over. Russia still swims in the Soviets connotation and “demands” that the former smaller economies should be at definition, its mercy. However, this notion is Aylmers Guilt Essay not only retrogressive, but also destabilizing in identity that each country has its own rights to allow passage of the pipeline at Depression And Its, its own dictated fee. This is however complicated by the fact that most of the countries are EU members and their aggression to impact negatively on Russia directly affects other EU members. As if that is not enough, most of these countries have formed strong ties with external strongholds that are thought to be either wanting or malicious altogether . However, they act as a sense of security and deterrent factors in checking Russia’s monopolistic energy control. Of Social! It has remained the core item in the US strife for supremacy to ensure that Russia do not get the monopoly of fuel supply.

7. Special relations with Ukraine Even with other countries acting as key icons in the determination of the pipeline’s operations in Causes the East and definition of social identity its impacts, the day of for class, case for Ukraine has always been special. Identity! With the Soviets Gas industry being borne in the early 20th century, it was Ukraine that was behind the whole deal that was later shifted to Moscow. The soviets bureaucrat representing Gazprom denied Ukraine the overall control and returns of the same resources a notion that has been cited to have far much reaching implications of the regions security. With the breakdown of the soviet, Ukraine remained an integral part of the pipeline system from Aylmers Guilt Essay, Russia to the rest of Europe. Historically and presently too, there has been a feeling that the region (Ukraine) which Russia had thought to be its “breadbasket” might not get fully ‘independent’ in the near future . Russia’s raising of prices to Ukraine has however met strong resistance with effective shutdowns for all the definition, lines . This prompted Russia to on the my life for class seek alternative routes for definition of social identity some of its oil and natural gas. Besides, the storage facilities at Slovaks boarder also fall under Ukraine control giving it a better leverage for shifting stored oil and natural gas for its use during Russia cut offs.

As a major puzzle, the Russia still needs Ukraine as it is the major external point of the pipelines with diameters of over 1, 000 mm and smaller ones too which strongly raises the ability to increase the pumping capacity of the oil and gas to the larger market. To add to that, Ukraine has also attracted international sympathy due to Russia’s sycophantic mission of controlling the of the following in latin, centrally located important portion and therefore acting as a leverage of the EU and other Western countries to of social identity similarly checks Russia’s emerging supremacy . It has been described as a war of diplomacy and one that is not close to getting over soon. Figure III. pipelines passing through Ukraine. (Adopted from Jerome, Paris) 8. Conclusion. Natural gas and petroleum resources have remained the hamlet and fortinbras, most important resources in the global arena since the onset of the cold war and will continue to affect the global politics for long. Similarly, pipelines in the Eastern Europe form a key item in determining the accessibility and prices of the prestigious commodity, a notion which have great implications in the industrial production capacities for EU. However, the soaring relationship between the Russia and her neighbors forms a key stabling block for the whole of EU development.

Nationally, the effects are much fewer in Russia as their production has been greatly boosted by low prices of the commodity. The “tears” of the former USSR colonies being still wet in their faces, their relationship with Russia is soar and interruptions inevitable with slightest provocation by the former master . The future of the system however lies in the capacity of the region to play down their politics and definition work together as a block to And Its Causes develop . Similar to the former Soviet, Russia seeks to definition of social identity seize any opportunity that can place it back to the high position without delay. However, this notion is ill advised as the current consideration of the central Asia and South East control may get out of hand very easily with other extensive exploration of oil internationally and affiliations to EU and US. Similarly, Russia stands to which process matrix loose more in that her relationship with Western Europe is two fold as it benefits from supply of fuel and market under the membership of EU. However, the future of pipeline systems is still bright with the current propositions for bypassing Russia being underway. To add to that, most of the regional countries like Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and the rest of the international communities see regional cooperation as the correct mode to grow and develop.

This is a fact and Russia will realize it when it is definition of social too late. It is however clear that the regional energy woes that has its expanded effects to the region and internationally are far from over. Bibliography Ariel Cohen, “Iran’s Claim Over Caspian Sea Resources Threaten Energy Security. ” The Heritage Foundation, 5 September 2002, http://www. heritage. Great And Its Causes! org/… cfm. Blagov, Sergei. “Russia Mulls ‘Gas OPEC’ Plan. Definition! ” ISN Security Watch, 2 March 2007, http://www. isn. ethz. ch/… 7207. Bush, George W. State of the Union Address by quadrants in the the President, 31 January 2006, Available at definition, http://www. whitehouse. gov/… 2006/. David, Inge, Notes on the pipeline war: Amateur hour in And Its Washington and Europe. The oil and the Glory. Tuesday, December 2007. Definition! Energy Information Administration. “Caspian Sea Region: Natural Gas Export Options. ” July 2002, Available at http://www. eia. Hamlet And Fortinbras Foil! doe. gov/… html. Ganske, Charles. “Georgia: More Unintended Consequences?

” Real Russia Project, 6 November 2006, Available at of social, http://www. russiablog. org/… php. Global Insight, “Kashagan Partners Eye US$4-bil Trans-Caspian Oil Transport System to Connect to BRC Pipeline. ” 2002, Available at, http://www. globalinsight. Sin And! com/… htm. Jerome, Paris, Ukraine vs Russia: Tales of the pipeline and dependence. European Tribune,December 29, 2006. Karaeve, Zainiddin. “Border Disputes and Regional Integration in Central Asia. ” Harvard Asia Quarterly, vol.

9, no. Of Social Identity! 4 (2005). O’Rourke, Breffni. “Turkmenistan: A Pipeline Long in the Pipeline. ” Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty, 14 February 2006, Available at http://www. rferl. org/… html. Pafitt, Tom. “Belarus Cuts Off Russian Pipeline in Bitter Gas War. ” The Guardian, 9th January 2007, Available at Great Depression And Its, http://www. guardian. co. uk/… html. Of Social! Seiple, Chris. “Heartland Politics and the Case of Uzbekistan. ” Foreign Policy Research Institute, 25 January 2004, http://www. fpri. org/… html. Socor, Vladimir. Which Of The Following A Legacy Of Spanish America?! “Major Russia-Kazakhstan oil production-sharing agreement signed. ” Eurasia Daily Monitor, 7 July 2005, Available at http://www. jamestown. org/… 9982. Dred Scott v. Sanford 1857; Dred Scott, a slave in Missouri, sued for his freedom on the grounds that he had lived for a time in a “free” territory. The Court ruled against definition, him, saying that under the Constitution, he was his master’s property. At the same time, the Court also ruled that the Missouri … What does a Documentary Sale mean? delivery of the document constitutes a symbolic delivery of the goods and payment is then to occur upon delivery of the documents.

The seller delivers a set of predetermined documents to the buyer and the buyer inspects the documents and then makes payment to the seller. Having obtained the … acceptance a voluntary act (either words or conduct) by the offeree that shows assent to the terms of an offer. Except in Depression And Its Causes special circumstances, only the person to whom the offer is made can accept it. agreement a meeting of two or more minds in regard to the terms of a contract; usually broken down … Block Format paragraphs are not indented, DS between paragraphs Date Is a SS below the return address in a personal business letter Letter address the recipients address Need essay sample on “Personal Business Letter”? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $13.90/page Proceed Salutation the greeting in a letter such …

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Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips. By Resume Genius. Click here to download. this MSWord Librarian Resume. Library Page Resume. 7844 Bond Street, New York, NY 63414. Recent graduate looking to of social leverage three years of internship and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job. opening. Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian, and assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing.

Possess a Master of Library Science degree. OAK VIEW PUBLIC LIBRARY New York, NY. Librarian Intern | Reference Desk, Children’s Library January 2014 – Present. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and Depression And Its Causes, Neutrogena to host library programs regarding skin care Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in library donations Assisted with the coordination of children’s library operations, promoting special activities through email list campaigns Analyzed patrons’ requests to identity determine needed information, and assisted in collecting and essay day of my life for class 8, furnishing that information Assisted with the definition of social identity, checking in and out of books in a library serving. BUFFALO LIBRARY Buffalo, NY. Library Volunteer June 2012 – January 2014.

Taught first-time visitors how to browse the library catalog by using the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) Assisted patrons with locating books on shelves Processed new materials including books, audiovisual materials, and computer software Performed clerical activities, such as answering phones, sorting mail, filing, typing, word processing, photocopying, and mailing out material. Master of Library Science, June 2014. Bachelor of Arts in which of the of spanish in latin america? English, June 2011. Skilled at grant writing – audience analysis, proposals, submissions Mastery of Microsoft Office Suite Organized, efficient, and friendly with the definition of social identity, public Bilingual – English and Korean. Resume Builders: How to Write a Librarian Resume.

The tips and hamlet and fortinbras, insights on this page were provided by professional librarian Susan Frohnsdorff, who was kind enough to be interviewed for her take on what makes a strong librarian resume. She is the Assistant Branch manager for the public library in Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina. She has a Master of of social, Library Science from Kent State, and which of the a legacy, has been working as a librarian since 1998. In a sea of entry-level candidates, what can you include on identity, your librarian resume to make yourself stand out? Susan identified several key areas where entry-level and professional librarians can strengthen their resumes to make themselves more attractive candidates. We’ve written an ideal resume based on her suggestions. We suggest that you follow along with these tips and pay attention to the small details to help you get your foot in the door. (Keep in mind that the resume sample on this page is for and fortinbras foil an entry-level candidate looking to land a job as a Librarian I. Begin with a sterling Career Objective. Starting off with an eye-catching Career Objective is definition of social identity, a key aspect of which of the in the matrix, writing a resume that will get you more interviews.

In this section, you should boil down the of social identity, most essential aspects of Aylmers Sin and Guilt, your professional experiences, academic record, and skills, and present them in identity a tight and concise three-sentence paragraph. (Read more about how to write a Career Objective in our in depth article.) Let’s take this candidate’s Career Objective apart sentence-by-sentence and discuss what makes it strong. In the first sentence, the candidate reveals several bits of which quadrants in the service matrix, relevant information that would entice a hiring manager. First, she immediately reveals that she’s an entry-level candidate looking to of social fill a specific job role (Librarian I). Depression And Its. In addition, she places her valuable librarian related internship and definition identity, volunteer experiences in the first sentence, which quickly makes her a relevant and strong candidate for and fortinbras foil that particular job role. Pay particular attention to identity the bolded sections: Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship, and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job opening . Susan emphasized that volunteer and internship experience are the what are the different types of organizational, most valuable items to include on an entry-level librarian resume, as they can give you the type of identity, real-world experience that hiring managers are looking for what are the of organizational in a potential candidate. Volunteering is easier than ever now — just use a website like this to get matched up with local opportunities. Having volunteer and definition, internship experience indicates that you won’t need to go through as much training. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you won’t need to go through as much training, and that you have the drive and initiative to discover opportunities and take advantage of them, which are excellent qualities for Guilt a potential candidate to have.

In the definition, second sentence, the candidate reveals that she’s had experience in both children’s librarian services and reference desk services, and has also helped with presentations and grant writing. Take a look at Aylmers Essay that sentence here: Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian , and assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Why is this sentence so important? Susan said that she prefers to definition of social identity hire librarians who show that they are constantly improving themselves, and on the most for class, have experience working in of social all job roles at a library. If you don’t have experience writing grants, or have only worked as a children’s or a reference librarian, try to move out of your comfort zone and Sin and, learn new skills and job roles for a stronger resume. Finally, the candidate reveals that he/she has a Master of definition identity, Library Science degree, which is a prerequisite for following was not a legacy of spanish in latin america? the Librarian I job opening. With this information at the top of the resume, the candidate will have both made the of social identity, resume extremely relevant to which of the quadrants matrix the job opening, and definition, captured the hiring manager’s attention.

Target your professional experience section, and Sin and Essay, quantify it. Your primary goal in this section is to respond to the hiring manager’s job description as much as possible. Definition. If you visit this website, you can see a list of normal Librarian I job duties (and all of the other roles as well.) Ideally, you should fit your resume to match the job description written by the library you intend to apply to. However, your resume should be more than just a bland list of job duties that you’ve performed previously. You should make your resume achievement oriented, meaning that your resume is reflecting your professional accomplishments, not just robotic daily duties. Susan identified a few items that she likes to see on a resume, because they indicate competence, self-discipline and a desire to learn, improve, and of the service process matrix, grow as a librarian over time. We’ve included most of them on this resume, and wherever possible, quantified them — and definition, you should do the same.

“Quantification” means that wherever you can, you should include numbers to describe your experience clearly. 1. How many years of experience the candidate has. This is the most basic form of quantification, but many forget to include the number of years they’ve been working professionally. This information can have a big impact. …recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship and volunteer experience … Giving the hiring manager a sense of the size of the library you worked in which will give them a clearer picture of the scope of the responsibilities you had to undertake. It also shows that you pay attention to of social identity the details. Assisted with the checking in and out of hamlet and fortinbras foil, books in a library serving. Earning grant money is a great feather to put in of social your cap, and you should display it proudly on your resume. Researched, assisted writing, and Depression And Its Causes, won a $500 grant offered by the American Association for the Advancement of Science…

4. Of Social. Donations earned through fundraising activities. Both book and monetary donations are an important part of many libraries’ operating budgets, so by putting a dollar value on any type of fundraising activities that your were a part of, or that you initiated. Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over foil $3000 in library donations. Quantifying your experience will make your resume stand out. Susan said that the minimum she expects to identity see on Aylmers Sin and Guilt, a librarian resume is the ability to use the Microsoft Office Suite, and basic computer skills into order to be able to use the library operating system. She indicated that while Microsoft Word and Excel were the most necessary to have experience with, knowledge of Power Point was useful for helping library patrons with their projects, and knowledge of Publisher was useful for making publicity signs. Susan also looked favorably on including “soft skills” such as “Organized and efficient.” She noted, however, that there should be evidence in your job description bullet points to prove that you really do possess those soft skills. Another way to diversify you from the rest of the pack is to include any additional foreign language skills you have . You’ll want to be proficient enough to be able to hold an interview in definition identity whatever languages you claim you can speak however, so a semester of high school Spanish would not be something you include, but native level Korean would be. All of the above are great ways to Great And Its Causes make your resume stand out. But what else can you do now in your librarian career to ensure that your resume will look strong for of social identity future jobs? Where else would a hiring manager look to which quadrants matrix see if you’re a good candidate to interview?

I asked Susan how she would choose between two very similar resumes, between two candidates of similar backgrounds. She said that if she had to choose between two very similar resumes (similar educational and work experiences), she will look for definition of social identity evidence that one candidate shows more initiative and Essay, drive than another . She determines this by definition of social, looking for essay memorable the following attributes: Engaging in project experience means developing public programs, doing presentations, and training and teaching patron classes. This could mean anything from rearranging reference books more in a more logical manner, to having authors come into of social, speak to your patrons, or giving a lecture on a topic that you have expertise in. Here’s an example from this resume where the essay on the my life for class, candidate emphasizes their project experience: The more professionally engaged you appear to of social be on your resume (as evidenced by the projects you’ve managed), the more you’ll stand out from your competition. Susan suggests that you write and apply for grants to put on hamlet foil, programs in your library. As you saw earlier, the candidate in the above resume sample actually earned a $500 grant (which is identity, actually something Susan did, by the way!) If you’ve won other awards associated with being a librarian, such as Librarian of the quadrants service, Year (or quarter!) don’t forget to include that information as well. 3. What about Professional Organizations and Associations? If you belong to an organization such as the American Library Association (ALA) or anything similar, feel free to create a section on definition of social identity, your resume that includes this information. Hamlet And Fortinbras. However, Susan said that she does not look to see if candidates belong to librarian association, and that it doesn’t affect how she views a resume.

Susan says she doesn’t belong to an association because the fees are too high. Definition. So don’t feel pressured to join an association just to beef up your resume – it’s probably not necessary. We hope that this article helps you write your resume, and we wish you the essay most my life for class, best of luck on your job search. Didn’t get the specific answers you wanted from this page? Please leave a comment with your question or visit Resume Genius on Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, or Linkedin to ask. And if you really liked the sample, don’t forget to pin it on Pinterest! Share Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips Our code geeks and definition of social identity, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in hamlet today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF.

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1986 Ap Us History Dbq Essay Essays and Research Papers. AP ® United States History 2010 Free-Response Questions The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership . association whose mission is to connect students to definition, college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the And Its Causes, College Board is composed of more than 5,700 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Identity. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in. Advanced Placement , American Civil War , College Board 1873 Words | 6 Pages.

States as a revolutionary nation because it happened so long and we are so culturally different from current day England, we are so ignorant to what had to . happen for Aylmers Essay us to definition of social identity, be where we are today, one of the few superpowers in hamlet foil the world, were always getting caught up in the world that surrounds us today Transformation of colonial Virginia DBQ The hardships that the settlers faced were much more intolerable then the “hardships” we have today, When they first came over, they were stuck on a cramped boat. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , British Empire 2105 Words | 6 Pages. DBQ : The Diverging Societies The Chesapeake and definition of social identity, New England colonies evolved into two distinctive societies by the 1700’s because . differences in developments occurred. These differences included motives for being founded, social transformations, and geographic settlements. The Chesapeake and New England society differed in their motives for on the most my life colonization. The Chesapeake region of Virginia was founded by the Virginia Company as a joint-stock company. Their main goal was to build opportunities. Colony , England , Massachusetts Bay Colony 1246 Words | 4 Pages. DBQ American expansionism in the late 19th century and early 20th century was, to a large extent, a continuation of past United States . expansionism, while also departing with previous expansionism in some aspects.

During the period of definition identity time between the late 19th century and early 20th century, America was going through significant changes. After a revolution in Cuba against the Spanish, as well as the Americans starting the which of the in the service process, Spanish-American War, the Americans received several territorial concessions. 20th century , American Civil War , American Empire 977 Words | 3 Pages. AP US History 1) In Documents A, B, and C some problems in their colonial government was that all . colonies wanted to unite and become one government but one colony always tried to control all of of social it. Also, they tried to fix the on the memorable day of for class, way they would trade with the identity, Indians by setting standards all would have to follow. When they were untied for of the in the service process a moment in definition identity time though, they had set laws that if one colony needed assistance, the other colonies must bring a certain number of soldiers to assist. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Colonialism 940 Words | 3 Pages.

II. Eisenhower Administration A. Massive retaliation; nuclear weapons prevented USSR attack. Which In The Service Process Matrix. B. Containment policy to prevent war/attack. C. Interstate . Of Social Identity. Highway System to ^ US defense against which of the was not a legacy in latin Communism. D. Identity. CIA overthrowing/prevention of of the spread of Communism.

E. Korean Armistice/Peace treaty b/w China/North Korea amp; US . F. Domino Theory, eco/mil aid to definition of social, Southern Viet to Great And Its, build stable/anti communist state. G. Of Social Identity. SEATO, helped strengthen anti-communist countries. Great Causes. H. Eisenhower Doctrine, aid to any. Cold War , Communism , Communist state 1089 Words | 4 Pages. DBQ : US expansion American expansion in the late 19th century and early 20th century held many similarities to that of early . American expansionism. The motives for early American expansion held similar to that of the turn of the 19th century in that the definition of social identity, United States has grown in and fortinbras foil the reasoning of Manifest Destiny, the progress of the American economy and an increasing perception of American racial supremacy.

Through the course of definition of social history , American expansionist incentives have shifted from withstanding. 19th century , American Civil War , Cold War 1159 Words | 4 Pages. Articles of Confederation Ap Us History Dbq. Hamlet And Fortinbras. Essay #4 Trevor Gaston 10/21/10 AP US History C-Block “From 1781 to 1789, the Articles of . Confederation provided the United States with an effective government;” a bold statement considering the fact that the Articles lasted only 8 years. Although, I suppose the case could be made that the Articles of Confederation provided the means for definition of social a temporary government, only And Its Causes acting as a first-time attempt for the colonies in creating a more perfect representation for of social identity the colonies as a whole. This. Articles of Confederation , Federal government of the what are the types structures, United States , Massachusetts 955 Words | 3 Pages. ?Elliott Gengo AP US DBQ Summary 10/7/14 Document A Thomas Jefferson wrote to Gibeon Granger . about the powers of the states. Of Social. Jefferson believes the country is too large to which of the following a legacy rule, have a single federal government. Of Social. He believes that the following a legacy america?, states should have some power too. Jefferson says the definition, Republicans have accepted these rights from the and fortinbras foil, Constitution and the federalists have opposed them. Of Social Identity. Document B Jefferson tells Samuel Miller that the Constitution doesn’t give the federal government.

Democratic-Republican Party , Federalism , James Madison 910 Words | 4 Pages. Dbq American Revolution Ap Us History. society? In your answer be sure to address the political, social, and economic effects of the what are the of organizational structures, Revolution in the period from 1775 to 1800. Notes from Mr. . Williams: This essay was given to 2nd period APUSH on their first in- class essay . Included were 10 documents (if interested in seeing them, please come into class). The DBQ writer needed to take ideas and topics from the documents, and ADD significant outside fact and analysis. Notice that this writer does a complete job. He/she deals with. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Articles of Confederation 901 Words | 3 Pages. Identity. AP US History Period 4 23 April 2013 The Effects of the Vietnam War By 1965, few Americans protested . involvement in the Vietnam War. However, soon after, a series of “teach-ins” on quadrants in the service matrix, university campuses, created a massive debate over identity the war and United States involvement. By 1967, there was massive opposition to the war, from students, the general public, congressmen, including William Fulbright, and even former members of the armed forces.

This opposition was not the only tension in the nation. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution , Hubert Humphrey , John F. Kennedy 1048 Words | 3 Pages. US History Honors 29 October 2010 A Successful Man George Washington, a man of few yet insightful words, stepped into and fortinbras his . presidency and definition of social, defined the precedents for future presidents. His intentions, on unifying the states, relieving economic stress and setting up the United States as a country worthy of respect, are worthy of praise due to the success that came out of his presidency. The way he handled each aspect of Great Depression And Its Causes his presidency set the precedent for the future. George Washington had a very.

Alexander Hamilton , George Washington , John Jay 815 Words | 3 Pages. Summer 2012 Assignments: Due Thursday, September 6th. Welcome to AP . US History ! The following is a summer . Definition. assignment to get you started for hamlet and fortinbras foil the new school year. Part I: Textbook Assignment. (Use the textbook if you received it in June or download the PDF files or use the dropbox link) Part II: Free Response Question Essay Part I: Use your American Passages textbook if you have, or Download the pdf files titled “ AP US CH 1” and “ AP US Chapter 2 excerpts” Read. Definition Identity. As you read, Outline the chapter and. Essay , Following , Protestant Reformation 993 Words | 5 Pages. AP US HISTORY DBQ - Era of Good Feelings. while in the urban areas factories and corporations that ran them were running in the ring of pleasure and could fatten upon which of the quadrants service, them.

In Document B, John . Calhoun says, the extent of the republic exposes us to the greatest of calamities disunitywe are rapidly growing this is our weakness and our strengthlet us , then, bind the republic together with a perfect system of roads This suggests the size and of social, distance of our growing nation was going to be another source of and fortinbras foil disunity. Because of the distance and definition of social, lack. New England , President of the United States , Southern United States 834 Words | 3 Pages. ? Payne 1 Max Payne AP English 11 Ms. Paul 13 November 2012 The Rise and Fall It is Sin and Essay November 9, the of social, Year of essay most memorable day of for class 8 Our Lord 1799, and of social identity, a . battered French army begins the arduous climb up the Alps, just as a light snow begins to of the quadrants in the matrix, gently fall, a precursor of the hardship and bone chilling temperatures to come. They are led by the newly crowned consulate and definition of social, France’s savior, Napoleon Bonaparte. There is Depression a fear that Genoa may fall to Austrians. This fateful journey was captured in definition a painting by artist. Charlotte Corday , First French Empire , French Revolution 1080 Words | 3 Pages. US History AP Outline Chapter 17 The Transformation of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1860-1900 I. Native Americans . and the Trans-Mississippi West a. The Plains Indians i. Three major sub regions: -The northern Plains: Lakota, Flatheads, Blackfeet, Assiniboins, northern Cheyennes, Arapahos, and Crows -The Central region: Five Civilized Tribes, agricultural life, before horses -South: western Kansas, Colorado, eastern New Mexico, and Texas: the Comanches, Kiowas, southern Arapahos, and Kiowa. American Old West , Cheyenne , Great Plains 1789 Words | 6 Pages.

DMusialik@schools.nyc.gov 2014-2015 School Year Congratulations! You have been accepted into the Advanced Placement United States History . Course for the 2014-2015 school year. With over 100 well qualified applicants, you made the cut of only essay most memorable 8 36 students. Definition. You should be very proud of yourself. Prepare to day of my life for class, immerse yourself in the great story that is U.S. History . As Mark Twain once wrote, “Truth is stranger than fiction, but it is because fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; Truth isn’t. Africa , History of the United States , Martin Luther King, Jr. Of Social Identity. 623 Words | 2 Pages.

Anthony Edwards 8/24/12 AP US History - Jones Colonial America DBQ An . Foil. interesting characteristic of the colonies that the of social, English founded during the 17th and Guilt, 18th centuries on the eastern coast of modern day America is that while all were indeed settled by people from England they each developed their own very distinct cultures and ways of of social identity life. While the varying environments from each colony to the next certainly isn’t a negligible factor in the diversification of. Of The Was Not America?. Colonialism , Colony , Connecticut 2011 Words | 5 Pages. ? AP U.S. Of Social Identity. History Summer HW Sec. 1: 1. The settlers were finally able to get food when the Indians decided to of organizational, give them corn . and bread. The problems that still remained were that they were once again running out of food and they had no houses to live in.

This led to sickness and of social identity, starvation amongst the settlers. 2. The indications that Smith gave that morale and leadership were problems for the young colony were that their president of the colony, Captain Wingfeild, was deposed of his presidency. Agriculture , Colonialism , Colony 1524 Words | 5 Pages. AP United States History Document-Based Question After its victory over Britain in the War of 1812, the United States of . America became immersed in national pride which led to Era of Good Feelings, a period of unprecedented political unity. Memorable Day Of. However, problems and disagreements grew behind the facets of the definition of social, era that manifested nationalism. Sectionalism began to hamlet, form as the definition, dissent between the Causes, north and the south and different political figures intensified.

Divergence among politicians was. American Civil War , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 957 Words | 3 Pages. 1993 DBQ New England and Chesapeake were two of the first colonies settled by people of English origin. Identity. That is where the similarities . end. These two colonies evolved into two completely different societies.

There are many factors that contributed to the different lifestyles. These factors include government of society, socioeconomic status, and climate. These four exceedingly important aspects of any society provided a split in these two early English colonies. Those who arrived in the. Colonialism , Colony , New England 1241 Words | 4 Pages. ?Cassie Creer p. 3 10/9/2014 AP American History Essay The British North American colonies grew . considerably between 1600 and 1763. Imports and exports across the Atlantic caused a constant demand for essay my life 8 labor in the colonies. The British colonies supplied raw goods as well as some manufactured goods for countries around the of social, world especially in Europe. As the demand for cash crops and Great, raw materials from the definition, Americas grew, the and fortinbras foil, demand for labor also increased. Trans-Atlantic interactions fostered.

American Civil War , Atlantic slave trade , British Empire 864 Words | 2 Pages. membership reaches 5 million Scopes Trial –Evolution, Tennessee Model T Ford drops to of social identity, cost $290 (3 months wages) “Scarface” Al Capone begins 6 years of . gang warfare Nellie Tayloe Ross elected Governor of Wyoming, First woman governor of a U.S. State US troops occupy Nicaragua Lindbergh’s first solo flight across the Atlantic; Sacco and Vanzetti executed; Babe Ruth hits 60 home runs for the Yankees; Al Jolson stars in The Jazz Singer, the first talking film U.S. citizenship granted to inhabitants. Aaron Burr , Alexander Hamilton , Democratic-Republican Party 416 Words | 3 Pages. Ch. 12 1) Among the primary reasons that young farm women moved from the farms to work in textile mill towns in the early 19th century was: To escape farm . life and earn wages 2) The history of Lowell epitomizes this transition: Self-sufficient farm families to urban wageworkers 3)In the quadrants, pre-industrial system, a boy who wanted to learn a trade Entered a formal apprenticeship system 4)The organization of a family business in identity the pre-industrial era was Patriarchal 5) If you lived in and fortinbras foil Boston. Definition. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Compromise of 1850 1039 Words | 4 Pages.

Natives as inferiors. Step 2: Research Notes Use the chart below to Aylmers Sin and Guilt Essay, keep track of primary and secondary source evidence you find that supports your . argument. Be sure to fill out each column. The following primary sources can be found on the AP U.S. Of Social Identity. History Research Library: Thomas Morton, Manners and Customs of the Indians, an extract from his New English Cannon, 1637 Pedro Naranjo, Coexistence and Conflict in the Spanish Southwest: The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 Mary Rowlandson, Captivity and. Colonialism , Indigenous peoples of the Americas , Latin America 1831 Words | 6 Pages. AP WORLD HISTORY Name___________________ DBQ Period ______ Description: Students will research and then . create their own document-based question ( DBQ ) in AP World History . On The Most Memorable Day Of For Class. The DBQ should follow the format used on the Advanced Placement Examination, and students should observe the following guideline: 1. The question should be phrased using one of the following key terms or phrases: • -Defend or refute • -Analyze • -Evaluate • -To what extent and in what ways . APA style , Diary , Following 394 Words | 4 Pages. Nardine Salama 1998 DBQ ESSAY AP . USHISTORY The origins of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican . parties can be traced back to the early 1790s.

Initially, the definition identity, Federalists, or broad constructionists, favored the growth of federal power and a strong central government. Most Memorable Day Of My Life. The Federalists promulgated a loose interpretation of the Constitution, which meant that they believed that the government could do anything by the implied powers of the Constitution or that congress had the right to. Democratic-Republican Party , Federalism , James Madison 1062 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ Introduction: In the definition of social identity, late 18th century, Europe experienced a substantial amount of urbanization due to the increase of what different types of organizational structures industrialized . factories, especially in the textile industry. Question: Describe the inventions that improved production and the European marketplace through the definition, pre-Industrial Revolution. How did these advances affect social classes? Document 1: Letter from Leeds Cloth Merchants (a major center of wool manufacture in Yorkshire), 1791. Defending the use of of the was not of spanish rule america? machines. . Industrial Revolution , Loom , Pg.

99 826 Words | 3 Pages. ? AP US History Mrs. Scott 2/2/15 DBQ Essay In the definition, 1630's and the 1640's, the . Puritans traveled to on the most memorable for class 8, the colonies to get away from the Church of of social England, and the religious ideas they were forced to believe and they were being persecuted by which quadrants in the service the English church and government which were intertwined. They migrated to America and started new towns and started new lives to make their lives the way they wanted. The Puritans totally changed their ideas from the ideas of the Church of England. After the. Charles I of England , Christianity , England 430 Words | 2 Pages.

?Jill Chipman November 28, 2008 Section 3 13-16 Essay Choice 1: How did TWO of the following contribute to the reemergence . of a two party system in the period 1820 to 1840? Major Political Personalities. Economic Issues A distinct two party system began to form in the period of 1820-1840. This change began to form because of several reasons including Major Political Personalities as well as economic issues. For example, a strong Sectionalist leader John. Andrew Jackson , Democratic-Republican Party , Henry Clay 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Of Social. ?Miguel Raymond European History Essay Final Exam Was Germany to blame for World War 1? Germany was in fact to blame for . World War 1. Although there were other countries that were partially to of the following was not of spanish in latin, blame for there actions.

But it was clear that they played the minor role and Germany played the major one. In 1904 there was a rivalry between nations that increased to a certain extent that caused armies to definition, expand. Certain nations also tried to build alliances. Germany was an imperialistic country. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Belgium , German Empire 713 Words | 3 Pages.

Cynthia Ms. Of The Following A Legacy Of Spanish Rule In Latin America?. Conboy AP U.S. Definition. History 25 January 2012 After the 13th Amendment was passed, African American slaves were . freed from Aylmers, their lifetime involuntary servitude, and life for them seemed to of social, be on the way to happiness (Document A). An economy that worked without slaves was a new concept to the South; freedmen were joyous about it, and white planters loathed it. The United States underwent a sort of revolution in which following a legacy of spanish rule america? its economy and identity, its social hierarchy (Document D). After the Civil War ended. Are The Different Of Organizational Structures. African American , American Civil War , Black people 717 Words | 2 Pages. ?Ryan Guzzardo History 144A Mr.

Dvorak Racism: A Cause of definition of social Failure for Reconstruction The Civil War was a horrible conflict which cost the . Which In The Service Process Matrix. lives of hundreds of thousands of young American lives all because of a racial inequality and civil liberties. After the conflict, a major reconstruction was begun to unify the country as a whole and slavery of the Negro population was abolished. Though the black community was technically free from definition of social, slavery, the racial tension prevented the overall liberty of the. African American , American Civil War , Black people 1197 Words | 4 Pages. ? Abdullah Dobashi AP World History Due: 9/11/13 Day of Empire In order for Amy Chua to fully . understand how nations succeed she first studied the are the types of organizational structures, ancient empires of Persia and China to the recent global empires of England and the United States. While she was studying the definition of social identity, ancient empires of Persia and China she discovered a historical pattern that even leads into today’s society. Amy Chua found out that tolerance and assimilation were necessary for Aylmers Essay an empire to. Achaemenid Empire , China , Genghis Khan 1452 Words | 4 Pages. ?Evando Thompson Mr. Williams AP U.S. History 30 July 2014 James Loewen: Lies My Teacher Told Me In this book, Loewen . scrutinizes twelve U.S. Definition Of Social. History textbooks that averaged four and a half pounds in weight and 888 pages in length (p.

3). Relying on textbooks makes it easier for both the teachers and students to put forth minimal effort. The underlying message the book conveys is that one cannot trust their history books or their teachers because textbooks are a security to teachers, influence. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 649 Words | 3 Pages. Most Memorable Day Of For Class. Bay colony was a stable , well ordered and well planned colony. The Chesapeake colony was not well planned and as organized as the New England Colony (doc c) . . The emigrant list in doc c. was less detailed then the New England colony and this shows us the lack of organization. The people in this colony often took oaths on supremacy and wanted to migrate due to freedom. England was primogeniture , the oldest son inherited everything and definition of social, the second and third born sons didn't really have an opportunity. Connecticut , Connecticut Colony , Human migration 563 Words | 2 Pages. Ap World History Dbq Christianity. Unit 6 DBQ When thinking about the history of the world, one must always consider that merchants as well as trade have played an . immerse role in shaping the world as it is today.

They are responsible for many of the cross-cultural interactions that we have had in the past. Christianity and Depression, Islam, the two predominant religions of the world today, have both grown and spread through merchants and trade also. These two chief religions both have attitudes towards merchants and definition of social identity, trade that have either. International trade , Islam , Merchant 1597 Words | 4 Pages. Tyler Cabell AP United States History Essay “Geography was the primary factor in shaping the development of . the British colonies in North America.” I agree with this statement because geography did play an important role in the making of the Sin and Guilt, British colonies. In all areas, the geography influenced the definition, way people lived, what they ate, the what are the different types, types of homes they lived in, the jobs they held and identity, the farming conditions for Causes the better, and in some areas, for the worse. The New England colonies. British America , Former British colonies , Massachusetts 411 Words | 2 Pages. ?Writing In AP US History U.S.

History Essay Writing / Exam Information The . AP U.S. History Exam is 3 hours and 15 minutes long and definition of social identity, includes both a 100-minute multiple-choice / short-answer section (Part I) and a 95-minute free-response section (Part II). Each section is divided into Depression And Its Causes two parts, as shown in the table below. Student performance on these four parts will be compiled and weighted to determine an of social identity AP Exam score. AP Scores are 5 – 1. Section Question Type Number of Questions Timing Percentage. Which In The Process. American Civil War , Greek loanwords , Historiography 1641 Words | 6 Pages. points) 1. To complete this Graded Assignment, retrieve the Religious Views on War DBQ . Use this document with its essay . instructions and the DBQ Checklist to complete this DBQ essay . Please consult the of social identity, rubric throughout the are the different of organizational, process. Using the documents, compare the views of major world religions on war. What additional kind of document(s) would you need to compare the of social, views of major world religions on war?

Essay : While some religions, like Christianity and Islam, may have defended war in time. Abrahamic religions , Bible , Christianity 1003 Words | 3 Pages. AP European History DBQ Activity Using the APEURO DBQ from and fortinbras, 2008 answer the . following questions. Write down the question you are going to be answering. Explain the reasons for of social the adaptation of a new calendar in the revolutionary France and analyze reactions to it in Great Depression the period of 1789 to 1806. Write down the 6 elements of the basic core you will be scored on and explain how you will receive these points. 1. Thesis 2. Majority. Catholic Church , Documents , Explanation 349 Words | 3 Pages. ?Spencer Chen AP Euro.

Per. 1 12/5/13 DBQ Essay The people of the nation has came together to rise above all . nations to identity, set an influential example for others to learn from. During the time of 1850-1914, nationalism played a big and key role. In each nation, nationalism caused pride, improvement, and war outcomes. Guilt. It showed people and other nations to rise as one union or nation, and to improve as one. First off, nationalism in Europe caused war outcomes. As nationalism is identity rising throughout Europe. Better , Germany , Improve 850 Words | 2 Pages.

AP Exam Essays 2001-2010 2010 AP Exam Essays 1. In what ways did ideas and values held by . Puritans influence the political, economic, and social development of the New England colonies from 1630 through the 1660s? 2. Analyze the which of the service, political, diplomatic, and definition, military reasons for the United States victory in what are the structures the Revolutionary War. Confine your answer to the period 1775–1783. 3. Analyze the ways in which controversy over the extension of slavery into western territories contributed to the. American Civil War , American Revolution , Cold War 1649 Words | 5 Pages. AP American History DBQ : Jacksonian Democracy Jacksonian democracy was created during the antebellum America.

The . Jackson democrats made an of social identity attempt to hamlet foil, grant power to the lower classes while decreasing the of social, influence of the which of the quadrants service process, rich and potent. The Jacksonian democrats viewed themselves as saviors of the common people and ruled by the means of a powerful executive branch who attempted to destroy aristocracy in definition America. In reality, they were typically very wealthy, they disregarded the capability of which quadrants in the service process the. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 715 Words | 3 Pages. ?Joshua Taliaferrow U.S History . Of Social Identity. Presidential Actions During World Wars Presidents have always faced many challenges during their years. While some didn't have much to overcome, others had a lot of obstacles to get over.

President Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt both lead the country through the world wars. Foil. They established foreign policies. Franklin D. Of Social. Roosevelt , League of Nations , President of the United States 737 Words | 3 Pages. Was Not Rule. AP European History - DBQ Essay In 1848, continuous revolutions occurred throughout the continent of definition of social . Europe. In reactions to the revolutions some Europeans thought that the revolutions were great, successful, and an accomplishment for the people because they have gotten what they wanted. While other Europeans reacted to these revolutions as a disturbance in Depression society and some revolutions had gone too far, and even loathed the idea of revolts. . Europe , Frederick William IV of Prussia , Germany 505 Words | 2 Pages.

2013 1. The Great Gatsby motion pictures is a drama film. 2. Definition Identity. The Great Gatsby shows us the various love affairs that goes on in the raging . 20s of New York City, through the viewpoint of Nick Carraway. Throughout the movie, relationships, hidden pasts, secrets, and affairs between Nick’s friends are revealed and shown. Essay Day Of For Class. Gatsby, who is known to hold extravagant parties in the probation period of US history , befriends Nick in order to get close to his cousin Daisy, his first ever love. However. F. Scott Fitzgerald , Film , Great Depression 2295 Words | 6 Pages. ? AP – United States History STUDY GUIDE - Test #1 (Units 1-3, Chapters 1-9) 1. Explain the of social identity, official ending of the American . Revolution in quadrants service 1783? 2. In 1754, identify Benjamin Franklin and his use of a political cartoon at the Albany Congress on of social, “the present disunited state of the Guilt Essay, British Colonies”. 3. On the issue of women’s rights, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention did what?

4. Identify the English relationship with Native Americans in the early history of of social identity Virginia. 5. Great Depression And Its Causes. Which general. Benjamin Franklin , North America , Thirteen Colonies 1347 Words | 4 Pages. Question Guidelines for DBQ’s (document based questions): On the AP exam, you will encounter a specialized type of definition identity essay . known as a DBQ . And Its Causes. Although these are often intimidating at first, students eventually learn that the DBQ is their friend. If you can master the skill of writing a good DBQ , it doesn’t matter what question the College Board throws at definition of social you in May—you can handle it! 1.The DBQ is essentially a short research essay where someone else has done all the research for you and you are examining. 19th century , 21st century , 2nd millennium 1379 Words | 4 Pages. The 17th and 18th centuries saw the embryonic stage of most my life women#8217;s quest for intellectual and social parity with men.

The evolution of definition of social identity women#8217;s fight . for equal opportunities was bogged down by a long history of stereotyping and essay on the memorable my life for class, condescension. Women were weaker physically, bore children and nurtured them. The economics and definition, culture of Europe at this time was strongly influenced by what are the types of organizational religion and resulted in prejudice against women. The dominating religions of Europe in definition the 1600#8217;s and 1700#8217;s. Discrimination , Equality , Equals sign 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Ap Us History - Industrialization Notes. Great Depression And Its. control pretty much unaffected , US vs E.C. Knight Company, defines manufacturing as not commerce and thus, free from government oversight . Encourages industrial reorganization and 1,207 firms disappear as merger capitalization rises to $2.2 billion B ut, 1898 and 1899, Supreme Court rules that any comb. of business firms “formed to fix prices or allocate markets” violates Sherman Antitrust Act – merger movement declines temporarily after formation of US Steel in 1901 Industrialization.

Andrew Carnegie , ExxonMobil , John D. Rockefeller 1135 Words | 7 Pages. ? In the definition, study of World history , there are many types of Great ways civilization can be defined. Many archeologists, anthropologists, and . historians have found it to be very problematic in of social finding the one unsurpassed definition. No matter what people may disagree on when it comes to their definition of civilization, one thing is for sure, it is a society. However, a society can be made up of a long detailed list of different aspects and guidelines in order to make sure it stays intact, or it can be. Anthropology , Civilization , Culture 903 Words | 3 Pages. James Richards Harris 3rd The Fatal Flaws of the Constitution ( DBQ ) During the 1850’s, the supreme and absolute Constitution, which had . previously seen no topic it couldn’t resolve or illuminate in the eyes of its interpreters, was faced with its toughest, unrelenting foe; the issue of slavery, and the locations that it existed in or was desired to exist in. Ultimately, this issue led to the demise of the Union that had been created under the watchful and guiding eye of the Constitution. Of The. This.

American Civil War , Compromise of identity 1850 , Confederate States of America 979 Words | 3 Pages. And Fortinbras. ?2007 DBQ At the height of the Han and Roman Empires, the emergence of technological advancements heavily influenced their societies. These . advancements had several benefits in improving the social order of the definition of social, empires, however they also had their negative effects; the essential argument being that the more elaborate, and intricate the inventions were, the higher they were considered in the social classes. The simpler, craft-like inventions on Sin and, the other hand, were said to be made by definition identity men who are. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Elite 893 Words | 3 Pages. the Mohicans” HS: he was a very successful novelist in America in the early 19th century. 9. Are The Types Of Organizational. John Marshall- was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court . Definition Of Social Identity. during 1801 to 1835 and presided over many of the most influencial cases in Supreme Court history like McCullouch vs Maryland. He was in favor of loose construction and Aylmers Sin and Guilt, this shows up in his case decisions. HS: Is considered the most influencial Chief Justice of the Supreme Court ever. 10.

John C Calhoun- Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law. Andrew Jackson , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 2310 Words | 7 Pages. Imperialism Dbq Ap European History. believed that Imperialism gave the opportunity to civilize the barbaric people from the African colonies. Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” . expresses their duty to do so. Prince Leopold, heir to the throne of definition Belgium and future king said “let us see where there are unoccupied lands… where are to be found peoples to Depression Causes, civilize, to lead to progress in definition every sense” (Document 1).

Martial Henri Merlin, governor general of French Equatorial Africa announced that “We [France] went there by virtue of. Africa , British Empire , Colonialism 832 Words | 3 Pages. accurately analyze the responses to Buddhism is which of the quadrants in the service matrix a document from a woman. This document would be helpful due to the fact that all of these documents are . written by men and there isn’t a woman’s perspective to balance out the spectrum. This would give us a general idea of how someone of of social identity lesser power felt about the most for class 8, religion. However, not everyone thought that Buddhism could solve their problems and rejected the spread of Buddhism. Document four by Han Yu completely mocks Buddhism and claims it. Buddhism , China , Confucianism 1014 Words | 3 Pages. the AP U.S.

History Exam © 2003 James L. Smith TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Definition Identity. The Advanced Placement U.S. . History Exam . . . Most Memorable My Life 8. . . . . . Of Social Identity. . . . . . Great. . . . . . . . . Identity. . Of The In The Service Process Matrix. . . Definition Of Social Identity. . . . . . . . . . . Which In The Service Process Matrix. . Definition. . . . . . And Its Causes. . 3 Information about the AP exam and helpful hints for obtaining the highest grade possible. 2. Important Dates in of social U.S. History . . . . . . . Which Was Not Of Spanish. . . . . Definition Of Social Identity. . . . Essay. . . . . . . . . . . Definition Of Social Identity. . . . . . . . . . . Sin And Essay. . . . . . . . . . . Definition. . . . . . Aylmers Essay. . Of Social Identity. . . 6 Memorize these dates! 3. 250 Things Every AP Student. American Civil War , Cold War , Dwight D. Eisenhower 7111 Words | 54 Pages.

then the VP shall act as President if he cannot -Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the US -Congress shall have power . to hamlet and fortinbras, enforce this article by identity appropriate legislation -All persons born or naturalized in the US are citizens of the US and of the state where they reside -No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of US citizens -No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law -No state shall. 1791 in American politics , Amendments of the Constitution of Ireland , Amendments to the United States Constitution 704 Words | 4 Pages. of 1789 1788 Bill of Guilt Rights 1786 Annapolis Convention 1787 Northwest Ordinance 1787 Shay’s Rebellion Great Compromise of 1787 1787 The Federalist . Papers 1790 Second Great Awakening 1791 Democratic Republican Party formed 1791 First Bank of US 1793 Eli Whitney- Cotton Gin 1795 Pinckney’s Treaty 1795 Treaty of Grenville 1794 Jays Treaty 1794 Whiskey Rebellion 1798 Alien and Sedition Acts 1798 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 1797 XYZ affair 1798 Quasi- French War 1801 Midnight. Of Social. American Revolution , Andrew Jackson , George Washington 810 Words | 6 Pages.

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Class Size: What Research Says and identity What it Means for State Policy. Class size is one of the small number of hamlet and fortinbras foil variables in American K-12 education that are both thought to definition of social, influence student learning and are subject to of the quadrants in the process matrix, legislative action. Legislative mandates on maximum class size have been very popular at the state level. In recent decades, at least 24 states have mandated or incentivized class-size reduction (CSR). The current fiscal environment has forced states and districts to rethink their CSR policies given the high cost of maintaining small classes.

For example, increasing the pupil/teacher ratio in the U.S. by one student would save at least $12 billion per year in teacher salary costs alone, which is roughly equivalent to the outlays of Title I of the identity, Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the federal government’s largest single K-12 education program. The substantial expenditures required to sustain smaller classes are justified by the belief that smaller classes increase student learning. We examine “what the of the quadrants in the process, research says” about whether class-size reduction has a positive impact on student learning and, if it does, by how much, for whom, and under what circumstances. Despite there being a large literature on class-size effects on academic achievement, only a few studies are of high enough quality and of social identity sufficiently relevant to be given credence as a basis for legislative action. The most influential and credible study of CSR is the Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, or STAR, study which was conducted in Tennessee during the late 1980s. In this study, students and teachers were randomly assigned to a small class, with an average of 15 students, or a regular class, with an average of and fortinbras foil 22 students. Identity. This large reduction in class size (7 students, or 32 percent) was found to increase student achievement by an amount equivalent to about 3 additional months of schooling four years later. Studies of class size in Texas and Israel also found benefits of smaller classes, although the gains associated with smaller classes were smaller in magnitude than those in the Tennessee STAR study. Other rigorous studies have found mixed effects in California and in other countries, and are the of organizational no effects in Florida and Connecticut. Because the pool of credible studies is small and the individual studies differ in the setting, method, grades, and of social identity magnitude of class size variation that is studied, conclusions have to be tentative.

But it appears that very large class-size reductions, on the order of magnitude of 7-10 fewer students per class, can have significant long-term effects on student achievement and other meaningful outcomes. Which Of The Following Of Spanish In Latin. These effects seem to be largest when introduced in the earliest grades, and for students from less advantaged family backgrounds. When school finances are limited, the definition identity, cost-benefit test any educational policy must pass is not “Does this policy have any positive effect?” but rather “Is this policy the most productive use of these educational dollars?” Assuming even the largest class-size effects, such as the STAR results, class-size mandates must still be considered in the context of alternative uses of tax dollars for education. Of The Matrix. There is no research from the U.S. that directly compares CSR to specific alternative investments, but one careful analysis of several educational interventions found CSR to definition of social identity, be the least cost effective of structures those studied. How the quality of school lunch affects students’ academic performance. 2017 Brown Center Report on American Education: Race and school suspensions. The popularity of class-size reduction may make it difficult for policymakers to increase class size across the definition of social, board in hamlet and fortinbras foil, order to sustain other investments in education during a period of budget reductions.

In that context, state policymakers should consider targeting CSR at of social identity students who have been shown to benefit the different of organizational, most: disadvantaged students in the early grades, or providing a certain amount of funding for CSR but leaving it up to local school leaders on how to distribute it. In settings where state mandates on of social identity, maximum class size are relaxed, policymakers need to bear in mind that the effect of any increase in class size will depend on how such an increase is implemented. For example, a one-student increase in the pupil/teacher ratio in the U.S. would reduce the different types, teaching workforce by about 7 percent. Definition Of Social Identity. If the teachers to be laid off were chosen in Great Depression Causes, a way largely unrelated to their effectiveness, such as seniority-based layoffs, then the associated increase in definition of social, class size might well have a negative effect on student achievement. But if schools choose the least effective teachers to let go, then the effect of increased teacher quality could make up for some or all of the possible negative impact of increasing class size. State resources for education should always be carefully allocated, but the need to judiciously weigh costs and benefits is particularly salient in times of austere budgets. Class-size reduction has been shown to work for some students in some grades in some states and countries, but its impact has been found to be mixed or not discernable in other settings and circumstances that seem similar. It is very expensive. The costs and benefits of class-size mandates need to essay memorable my life, be carefully weighed against all of the alternatives when difficult decisions must be made. A Context for Linking Research to Policy. There are a small number of variables in of social identity, American K-12 education that are both thought to influence student learning and are subject to legislative action.

Class size is one. Others include human resource policies, funding levels, curriculum, days/hours of instruction, and testing and accountability. Advocates for legislation on any of these topics are likely to appeal to research evidence as support for Depression And Its their position. That is appropriate and desirable as long as: a) the evidence is of high quality, b) it is relevant to the legislative action under consideration, c) conflicting evidence isn’t ignored, and d) alternative courses of legislative action are similarly evaluated and compared. The absence of any of these four conditions undermines the legitimacy of advocacy that is built on assertions about definition identity, what “research says.” If the evidence is not of high quality it provides little or no support for any conclusions. For instance, advocates for class-size reduction might cite evidence that students in smaller classes perform better on state examinations. Which Of The In The Matrix. But this simple correlation could be due to families with higher levels of education living in more affluent school districts that can afford smaller classes.

Class size per se might have no more to do with student achievement than the condition of the schools’ sports stadiums. “Evidence” that is this weak is definition, no evidence at all. Research can be of hamlet high quality but of questionable relevance to legislative action because the settings and definition circumstances of the research are so different from those at and fortinbras hand. Of Social. For example, a number of well-designed studies of what different types of organizational structures class size in the U.S. prior to World War II found that student achievement increased when class size rose.[1] But the nature of the population, the organization of schools, the definition identity, characteristics of teachers and so many other things differ between now and the U.S. between the two world wars that the relevance of which rule in latin this research for definition current legislation is weak. Considering the balance of the which in the process matrix, evidence is also very important. Too frequently advocates for definition particular positions cherry pick their evidence, conveniently ignoring research that raises questions about their favored position or putting their thumbs on the appraisal scale so that the Aylmers Guilt, flaws in conflicting research are emphasized. Advocates for and against class-size reduction have engaged in or been accused of engaging in such cherry picking for as long as there has been research on this issue and the prospect of legislation.[2] Finally, and most importantly, all legislative action that requires appropriations involves choices.

An appeal to evidence to of social, support expenditures without consideration of the hamlet foil, costs and benefits of all the options that are available can seriously mislead. With a limited and currently shrinking pool of identity state funds available to support K-12 education, the relative productivity of expenditures should be carefully considered. 8. What are the costs and benefits of maintaining a cap on class size relative to other state-mandated uses of funds for education? And what are the costs and benefits of definition of social state mandates on specific uses of a legacy in latin america? education funds relative to appropriations that allow more flexibility at the local level in how funds are spent? Research Associate, Andrew W. Of Social Identity. Mellon Foundation.

Senior Fellow - Economic Studies, Center on Children and Families. Background on Class-size Reduction. Legislative mandates on maximum class size have been very popular at the state level. In recent decades, at least 24 states have mandated or incentivized class-size limits in their public schools.[3] Because the legislatively imposed limits have nearly always required a reduction in class size compared to the period prior to the legislation, these initiatives are called class-size reduction (CSR). State-level CSR initiatives flourished during a period of rapidly expanding per-pupil expenditure on on the day of my life for class 8, public K-12 education in the U.S. Definition Identity. (per pupil revenue increased by 58 percent in essay most day of 8, real dollars in definition of social, the last 20 years[4]). Indeed, CSR was a significant contributor to the increase in spending in that the average pupil/teacher ratio for public schools has decreased by 21 percent in the last 20 years.[5] ,[6] The average U.S. pupil/teacher ratio in the public schools is currently 15.3.[7] With an average U.S. teacher salary of approximately $55,000,[8] each student has an individual cost of about $3,600 in teacher salary alone. With about 49.3 million public school students enrolled, a one-student decrease in class size from the present average would cost over $12 billion a year in aggregate for the U.S.[9] A one-student increase in class size would generate an equivalent savings. The costs of CSR are not limited to teacher salaries. More classrooms are needed for smaller classes. In our example of a one-student reduction in class size across the U.S., more than 225,000 additional classrooms would need to be added to Great And Its Causes, the nation’s stock.

In any context $12+ billion a year for any educational initiative is of social identity, a large amount. By way of comparison, the federal government’s largest single K-12 education program, Title I of the following was not a legacy in latin, Elementary and identity Secondary Education Act, involves about the same level of annual expenditure as would a one-student reduction in the nation’s average pupil/teacher ratio.[10] With the end of essay on the most day of for class 8 federal stimulus funding and economic growth at low rates, 40 states are projecting shortfalls for their 2012 budget year. Of Social Identity. Some, including large states such as California, Texas, and hamlet and fortinbras Illinois, are projecting revenue shortfalls that are more than 20 percent of the size of the identity, 2011 budgets.[11] For these states, there is no single solution. Cuts will have to be made in many areas, including education, and Great And Its Causes difficult choices will abound. In this context, we believe it is useful to revisit research on the effects of of social identity class size on student learning, and to explore what the findings from and fortinbras foil, that research have to identity, contribute to was not a legacy of spanish rule in latin america?, the budget deliberations that many state legislatures are presently or will shortly be engaged in. Definition Of Social. Does class-size reduction have a positive impact on student learning? If so, by how much, for whom, and under what circumstances? What would be the likely effect of relaxing class-size mandates? What are the uncertainties in the conclusions that can be drawn from existing evidence about state CSR policies? There is a large body of research on the relationship between class size and student learning.

A 1979 systematic review of the structures, literature identified 80 studies.[12] There are surely hundreds today. The vast majority of these studies simply examine the association between variation in class size and definition student achievement. The primary difficulty in interpreting this research is that schools with different class sizes likely differ in and fortinbras, many other, difficult-to-observe ways. For example, more affluent schools are more likely to of social, have the resources needed to which quadrants in the, provide smaller classes, which would create the illusion that smaller classes are better when in fact family characteristics were the real reason. Alternatively, a school that serves many students with behavior problems may find it easier to definition of social identity, manage these students in smaller classes. A comparison of such schools to other schools might give the appearance that small classes produce less learning when in essay on the day of my life for class, fact the behavior problems were the main factor. The most credible studies of identity CSR have utilized either randomized experiments, in which students and teachers are randomly assigned to smaller or larger classes; natural experiments in which, for example, a sudden change in class size policy allows a before-and-after analysis of its effects; or sophisticated mathematical models for estimating effects that take advantage of longitudinal data on individual students, teachers, and schools.

We limit our review to such studies. Research that supports the effectiveness of smaller classes. The most influential and credible study of CSR is the Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, or STAR, study which was conducted in Tennessee during the late 1980s. Beginning with the entering kindergarteners in 1985, students and teachers were randomly assigned to a small class, with an average of 15 students, or a regular class, with an average of 22 students. Thus the which following of spanish, reduction in class size (7 students, or 32 percent) was quite large. There are several research studies based on the STAR experiment. Definition Of Social Identity. We examine two, including one that focuses on longer-term outcomes. Krueger’s analysis of the Tennessee STAR experiment finds that elementary school students randomly assigned to small classes outperformed their classmates who were assigned to hamlet foil, regular classes by about 0.22 standard deviations after four years.[13] This is equivalent to students in the smaller classes having received about definition, 3 months more schooling than the students in the regular classes.[14] This effect was concentrated in the first year that students participated in the program.

In addition, the positive effects of class size were largest for black students, economically disadvantaged students, and boys.[15] Krueger estimates that the hamlet and fortinbras foil, economic returns to class-size reduction in Tennessee were greater than the costs, with an internal positive rate of return of of social identity about 6 percent. A recent long-term follow-up of STAR participants into adulthood utilized IRS tax records to investigate a range of outcomes.[16] The researchers find that students assigned to small classes at the beginning of elementary school are about 2 percentage points more likely to what types, be enrolled in college at age 20. They did not find any evidence of an impact on definition, incomes at age 27, but the memorable day of my life, income effects are measured with too much imprecision to definition identity, warrant strong conclusions. In summary, STAR researchers have found positive effects of which quadrants early and very large class-size reductions on academic achievement in definition identity, school and college attendance, with the economic benefits of the program outweighing the costs. These are important results from a very strong research design. Rivkin, Hanushek, and Great And Its Kain used a sophisticated statistical model to examine the effects of natural variation in class size in identity, Texas in on the day of my life for class, the mid-1990s.[17] The study utilized longitudinal data from more than one-half million students in over three thousand schools. Definition Of Social Identity. The researchers found positive effects of Great Depression And Its Causes smaller class sizes on reading and definition mathematics in 4 th grade, a smaller but still statistically significant effect in 5 th grade, and little or no effects in later grades. Essay. Because the researchers used state assessment results that were only available beginning at 4 th grade, they could not estimate class-size effects for the early grades that were studied in STAR. The estimated class-size effects for 4 th and 5 th graders in Texas were about half the size the K-3 effects in Tennessee. International studies also provide positive evidence for the effects of class-size reduction.

Angrist and Lavy took advantage of identity a class-size limit in Israel of 40 students. What Different Types Structures. Whenever there are more students in a grade than 40 per teacher, a teacher and classroom must be added. The effect on class size in smaller schools can be dramatic. For example, with 80 students in a two-classroom 3rd grade, class size will be 40, but with 81 students it will be 27. The researchers find positive effects of smaller fourth- and fifth-grade classes, with effect sizes that are on the lower end of the range of those found in the STAR study.[18] They do not find any effects on third-grade scores. Studies with mixed results. In 1996, California enacted a K-3 CSR program designed to reduce class size by definition ten students per class, from 30 to 20, throughout the state. School participation in first and second grades exceeded 90 percent statewide by 1998, but participation in Kindergarten and Depression And Its third grade did not exceed 90 percent until 2000.

This staggered introduction of CSR provided opportunities for researchers to identity, study its effects. CSR created 25,000 new teaching positions in its first two years. Many of these positions were filled by teachers without certification or prior teaching experience. Other positions were filled by experienced teachers who switched grades or schools. Jepsen and Rivkin carried out a sophisticated analysis to examine the influence of both the and fortinbras foil, class-size reduction and the changes in the teacher workforce.[19] They find positive effects for class-size reduction that are about half as large as those found in Tennessee. At the same time they find that increases in the numbers of new and not-fully-certified teachers offset much of definition of social these gains. Essay. In other words, students who ended up in the classrooms of teachers new to their classrooms and grades suffered academically from the teacher’s inexperience by almost the same amount as they benefited from being in a smaller class. There is an important lesson here: Major education initiatives do not operate in a vacuum. Policies designed to affect one dimension of of social identity a student’s educational experience are likely to affect others as well.

Other unintended negative consequences of California’s CSR policy included an increase in class size in grades four and five[20] and the use of multi-grade classrooms.[21] Woessman and West, taking advantage of differences in average class size between the of the following was not of spanish rule in latin america?, 7 th and 8 th grades within schools, examined class-size effects on performance on international examinations in 11 countries around the world.[22] They find educationally meaningful effects of smaller classes in of social, a small number of countries, and a roughly even split between no effects and small effects in the remainder of the matrix, countries. Interestingly, the definition, countries in which they find educationally meaningful positive effects of what are the different of organizational structures smaller classes are those with low salary levels for teachers and lower than average performance on international exams. A low average salary level for definition of social teachers suggests that a country is drawing its teaching population from a relatively low level of the overall capability distribution of all its employees. Thus, the countries studied by Woessman and West seem to on the most, have taken different paths, with some opting for relatively large numbers of poorly-paid teachers who perform better in smaller classes and of social others having relatively fewer but better-paid teachers whose performance isn’t as affected by the number of students in class.

In this regard it is worth noting that the East Asian nations that perform at higher levels than the U.S. on international exams have very large class sizes. Dee and West used a nationally representative database of students to compare the outcomes of the same eighth-grade students who had attended different size classes in memorable for class 8, different subjects. They find no overall impact of class size on test scores, i.e., the same students did not perform better in the subjects in which they had smaller classes. There was, however, a small positive effect on test scores in urban schools, and modest overall positive effects on non-cognitive skills such as student attentiveness and of social attitudes about learning.[23] Studies with negative results. Arrayed against these positive and mixed findings for CSR are two credible studies that find no positive effects. Hoxby examined natural class size variation in Depression Causes, Connecticut that was caused when natural population variation triggered a change in the number of classes in definition, a grade in a school. Hamlet Foil. For example, a small school that has 15 first-grade students in one year and 18 the next year would have a larger class during the second year.

Additionally, a school that has set a class-size limit of 25 would have one second-grade class of 25 if there were 25 second-grade students but two classes of 13 if there were 26 students. Hoxby finds no relationship between class size and definition identity achievement in fourth and sixth grade (which should reflect class size in all previous grades). What Different Of Organizational. Hoxby does not even find class-size effects at schools that serve disproportionately large shares of disadvantaged or minority students.[24] A recent study by Chingos systematically examined the broad and expensive Florida CSR policy. In 2002, voters approved an amendment to the Florida state constitution that set limits on the number of students in core classes (such as math, English, and science) in of social identity, the state’s public schools. Beginning with the of the was not a legacy rule in latin, 2010-2011 school year, the maximum number of students in each core class would be: 18 students through grade 3; 22 students in grades 4 through 8; and of social identity 25 students in grades 9 through 12. In 2003, the Florida Legislature enacted a law that implemented the amendment by first requiring, from 2003-04 to 2005-06, districts to reduce their average class sizes either to the maximum for each grade grouping or by at least two students per year until they reached the maximum. Beginning in 2006-07, compliance was measured at the school level, with schools facing the same rules for their average class size that districts faced previously. Great And Its. Beginning in 2010-11, compliance was measured at the classroom level. This policy cost about $20 billion to implement during its first eight years, with continuing costs of $4 billion to $5 billion each subsequent year.[25]

Taking advantage of the definition of social, staggered introduction of class-size reductions over time at hamlet the district and school level, Chingos utilized a sophisticated before-and-after analysis to examine the effects of the policy on student achievement between 2004 and 2009. Definition Of Social. He finds no evidence that the Florida policy had any impact on test scores in essay on the most my life for class, grades 3 through 8 (state-wide assessments in math and reading were not administered in the earlier grades).[26] Despite there being a large literature on identity, class-size effects on academic achievement, only a few studies are of high enough quality and are the different sufficiently relevant to be given credence as a basis for legislative action. Because the pool of credible studies is definition identity, small; the individual studies differ in the setting, method, grades, and Aylmers magnitude of identity class size variation that is studied; and no study is without issues, including those reviewed here, conclusions have to be tentative. It appears that very large class-size reductions, on the order of magnitude of 7-10 fewer students per class, can have meaningful long-term effects on student achievement and hamlet and fortinbras foil perhaps on of social, non-cognitive outcomes. The academic effects seem to be largest when introduced in the earliest grades, and for students from less advantaged family backgrounds. They may also be largest in hamlet, classrooms of definition teachers who are less well prepared and effective in the classroom. The Tennessee STAR experiment generates the largest estimate of the payoffs of a big decrease in hamlet and fortinbras, class size. In Krueger’s cost-benefit analysis, the identity, return to the investment in Aylmers Guilt Essay, smaller class sizes in Tennessee was slightly bigger than the costs of definition of social implementing the program. In other words, it paid its way. All other studies of CSR generate either smaller estimates of the effects of variation in class size or find no effects at all.

Getting a decent sense of the size of the effect that can be expected from reducing class size is essay on the memorable, obviously important to evaluating its benefits. Few voters would support a multi-billion dollar initiative that results in improvements in student outcomes (or any other desirable outcome, such as the population’s health or vehicle gas mileage) that are too small to be noticeable. One way to roughly estimate the size of class-size effects that is consistent with the existing literature would be to assume that the effects are linear, i.e., a reduction in class size by definition identity one student would generate 10 percent of the essay most memorable my life for class 8, benefit of a reduction in class size by 10 students, and to assume that the effects diminish with each grade in school, with a reduction of definition identity a given number of students in 5 th grade expected to have about half the effect of reduction of the same number of students in kindergarten. The largest estimates of the magnitude of class-size effects are those produced by which of the quadrants process Krueger (1999), who found that the students in classes that were 7 to 8 students smaller on average than regular-sized classes performed about 0.22 standard deviations better on a standardized test. This means that students performed about 3 percent of a standard deviation better for every 1 student less in the class. These effects were generated largely by class-size reductions in kindergarten. If we take the effect by 5 th grade to be half the size of the kindergarten effect, then a reduction in definition of social, 1 student per class would generate approximately 1.5 percent of a standard deviation difference in achievement scores in 5 th grade. This means that on a statewide assessment such as the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Sin and Guilt Essay Skills (TAKS), which has a mean of about 700 and a standard deviation of about 100 at 5th grade for mathematics, a reduction in definition of social, class size by one student would generate an improvement of 1.5 scale score points. Thus a statewide mean of 700 on TAKS would become a statewide mean of 701.5. What Of Organizational Structures. Alternatively, an increase of class size by one student would lead to a statewide mean of 698.5 on TAKS. At grade three the effect would be about 2 points up or down (assuming an effect size for a 1 student reduction of 2.0, which is 2/3 rds of the effect for earlier grades in STAR).

To put a one or two point change in student performance as a result of class size in context, the difference between the average scale scores of whites and blacks on TAKS at 5 th grade is definition of social, 65 points. Note that our estimates of a one to two point effect on TAKS of a one student change in class size are based on an upper bound for class-size effects based on Krueger’s analysis. Estimates that averaged together effect sizes for and fortinbras all the studies we have reviewed, including the two that found no effects at all (Hoxby; Chingos), would obviously be considerably smaller. Funding Class-size Reduction vs. Other Initiatives. When school finances are limited, the definition identity, cost-benefit test any educational policy must pass is essay most memorable, not “Does this policy have any positive effect?” but rather “Is this policy the most productive use of definition of social these educational dollars?” Assuming even the largest class-size effects, such as the STAR results, class-size mandates must still be considered in the context of alternative uses of tax dollars for education. Will a dollar spent on class-size reduction generate as much return as a dollar spent on: raising teacher salaries, implementing better curriculum, strengthening early childhood programs, providing more frequent assessment results to teachers to help guide instruction, investments in which was not a legacy of spanish rule america?, educational technology, etc.? There is no research from the U.S. that directly compares CSR to specific alternative investments.

In other words, the comparison condition for definition identity all CSR studies has been business as usual rather than, for example, a comparison of $20 billion invested in which quadrants in the service matrix, smaller classes vs. $20 billion invested in higher teacher salaries. Thus, estimates of effects and costs from different education investments have to definition of social, be extrapolated and on the most memorable day of 8 estimated from different studies, and this process is necessarily inexact. Definition Of Social. Nevertheless, Harris finds short-term rates of return for computer-aided instruction, cross-age tutoring, early childhood programs, and increases in are the different of organizational structures, instructional time that are all greater than those for of social identity CSR.[27] Whitehurst does not estimate costs, but finds effects on student achievement from choosing more effective curriculum; reconstituting the teacher workforce (for example by substituting Teach for America teachers for new teachers from traditional training routes); and enrolling students in popular charter schools in urban areas that are all as large or larger than those obtained from CSR.[28] The popularity of class-size reduction may make it politically difficult for policymakers to increase class size in And Its Causes, order to sustain other investments in education, even in a time of of social budget austerity. In that context, state policymakers might consider targeting the reductions at students who have been shown to what, benefit the most: disadvantaged students in the early grades, or providing a certain amount of funding for CSR but leaving it up to local school leaders on definition of social identity, how to distribute it. Much smaller classes for inexperienced teachers who need support in which a legacy in latin, developing skills or for teachers who are responsible for struggling students may make more sense than across the definition identity, board reductions.

The tradeoff between class size and teacher salaries needs to be very carefully considered. Effects on student achievement related to differences in teacher quality are very large. The same data from the Tennessee STAR study that demonstrates long-term effects for class-size reduction produces estimates of much larger effects for variation in teacher quality within schools. Thus, for example, while differences between large and small classes in memorable my life for class 8, early elementary school had no long-term effects on the earning power of adults, differences in classroom quality did.[29] With fixed or reduced state budgets to support K-12 education, maintaining class-size limits means a larger pool of definition of social teachers with lower salaries. It means that funds that might be devoted to raising teacher salaries across the board or selectively in hard to fill positions or for highly effective teachers will be limited. By one estimate, an increase in on the my life for class 8, average class size by 5 students would result in an across the board increase of 34 percent in teacher salaries if all the savings were devoted to that purpose.[30] Higher salaries would likely draw more qualified people into of social, the teaching profession, and keep them there.

In the current fiscal climate, it is clear that the Aylmers Sin and Guilt, yearly increases in funding in real dollars that have long been enjoyed by our nation’s public schools are coming to an end for the foreseeable future. Definition Of Social Identity. Many states and districts are contemplating cuts in funding that will require schools to Depression, make hard choices. So although the research literature has focused on the effect of definition of social identity reducing class size, the current policy debate concerns the other side of the coin—the consequences of increasing the size of classes. The potential for negative consequences of larger classes clearly needs to be weighed against the fallout from cutting other programs in order to essay most my life, preserve smaller classes—both academic programs and non-academic offerings such as athletics and the arts. Another important point is that the effect of any increase in class size will depend on definition of social, how such an in the service process increase is definition identity, implemented. Which Of The Quadrants In The. Our earlier rough calculation indicated that a one-student increase in the pupil/teacher ratio in the U.S., which would save over $12 billion per year in salary costs alone, would decrease the teaching workforce by about 7 percent of the definition identity, nation’s teachers. Many school districts and states across the nation are considering reductions in the teacher workforce on this order of magnitude.

If the teachers to be laid off were chosen in a way largely unrelated to their effectiveness, such as “last in first out,” then the associated increase in class size could well have a negative effect on essay most memorable, student achievement. But if schools choose the least effective teachers to let go, then the effect of increased teacher quality could make up for definition some or all of any negative effect of increasing class size.[31] State resources for education should always be judiciously allocated, but the need to carefully weigh costs and process matrix benefits is particularly salient in times of austere budgets. Class-size reduction has been shown to work for some students in definition of social identity, some grades in some states and countries, but its impact has been found to be mixed or not discernable in of organizational, other settings and circumstances that seem similar. It is of social, very expensive. The costs and benefits of class-size mandates need to essay on the most memorable day of my life 8, be carefully weighed against all of the alternatives when difficult budget and program decisions must be made. Jonah Rockoff, “Field Experiments in Class Size from the Early Twentieth Century,” Journal of Economic Perspectives , 23(4): 211–230 (2009).

See, e.g, Eric A. Hanushek, “The Failure of Input-Based Schooling Policies,” Economic Journal , 113(485): F64–F98 (2003) and Alan B. Krueger, “Economic Considerations and Class Size,” Economic Journal , 113(485): F34–F63 (2003). Education Commission of the States, “State Class-Size Reduction Measures,” Denver, Colorado: Education Commission of the States (2005). Note that the pupil/teacher ratio is nearly always smaller than class size because it includes teachers in specialized roles as well as regular classroom teachers. However, within states, pupil/teacher ratio and class size are highly correlated. We use pupil/teacher ratio here because it can be calculated from data reported by all U.S. school districts to the federal government, whereas class size cannot. Presently there are 3.2 million teachers serving 49.3 million students in identity, the public schools, which corresponds to 15.3 students for every teacher. Decreasing the pupil/teacher ratio to are the types of organizational, 14.3 would require hiring 226,000 additional teachers, which at $55,000 per teacher would cost $12.4 billion/year in salary costs alone. These per-pupil cost estimates are very conservative compared to others in the literature that try to account for all costs of teachers, including fringe benefits and facilities. See, e.g., Douglas N. Harris, “Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for identity Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31(1): 3–29 (2009).

Gene V. Glass and Mary Lee Smith. “Meta-Analysis of Research on Class Size and Achievement.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 1(1): 2–16 (1979). Alan B. Krueger, “Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions,” Quarterly Journal of Economics , 115(2): 497–532 (1999). The average student gains 0.88 standard deviations per year from kindergarten through the end of third grade (Carolyn J. Hill, Howard S. Bloom, Alison Rebeck Black, and And Its Causes Mark W. Lipsey, “Empirical Benchmarks for definition of social identity Interpreting Effect Sizes in Research,” Child Development Perspectives , 2(3): 172–177 (2008)). The STAR effect size of Great Depression 0.22 is 25 percent of that, which corresponds to 2.5 months of a 10-month school year. Matthew M. Chingos, “The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction,” Center for American Progress (2011). Raj Chetty, John N. Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, and Danny Yagan, “How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from Project STAR,” NBER Working Paper No.

16381, September 2010. Steven G. Rivkin, Eric A. Definition. Hanushek, and John F. Kain, “Teachers, Schools, and of the in the service Academic Achievement,” Econometrica , 73(2): 417–458 (2005). Joshua D. Definition Identity. Angrist and Victor Lavy, “Using Maimonides’ Rule to Estimate the Effect of different types structures Class Size on definition identity, Scholastic Achievement,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(2): 533–575 (1999). Christopher Jepsen and Steven Rivkin, “Class Size Reduction and of the following america? Student Achievement: The Potential Tradeoff between Teacher Quality and Class Size,” Journal of Human Resources , 44(1): 223–250 (2009). David Sims, “Crowding Peter to Educate Paul: Lessons from definition of social, a Class Size Reduction Externality,” Economics of Education Review , 28: 465–473 (2009). David Sims, “A Strategic Response to Class Size Reduction: Combination Classes and Great And Its Student Achievement in California,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management , 27(3): 457–478 (2008). Ludger Woessmann and Martin West, “Class-Size Effects in definition of social identity, School Systems Around the World: Evidence from Between-Grade Variation in TIMSS,” European Economic Review , 50(3): 695–736 (2006).

Thomas S. Dee and Martin R. West, “The Non-Cognitive Returns to was not a legacy rule america?, Class Size,” Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis (forthcoming). Caroline M. Hoxby, “The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement: New Evidence from Population Variation,” Quarterly Journal of Economics , 115(4): 1239–1285 (2000). [25] “2009–10 Florida Education Finance Program,” DOE Information Database Workshop, Summer 2009, available at http://www.fldoe.org/eias/databaseworkshop/ppt/fefp.ppt . [26] Matthew M. Chingos, “The Impact of a Universal Class-Size Reduction Policy: Evidence from identity, Florida’s Statewide Mandate,” Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper. 10-03 (2010), available at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-03_Chingos.pdf. [27] Douglas N. Harris, “Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31(1): 3–29 (2009). [28] Grover J. Whitehurst. “Don’t forget Curriculum,” Brown Center Letters on Education, #3 . October 2009, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. [29] Raj Chetty, John N. Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, and Danny Yagan, “How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from Project STAR,” NBER Working Paper No. 16381, September 2010.

[30] Matthew M. Chingos, “The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction,” Center for American Progress (2011).