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Argumentative Essay on Immigration. Criticism Of William Blake’s? Illegal immigration has been a problem for the United States for a long time. This phenomena is not new and why are the rainforests, thousands of Criticism Essay illegal immigrants have come into in politics US through either the Sociological Criticism of William Poetry Essay Mexico border, the Pacific Ocean, or through many other ways. Why Are Being Destroyed? Some people have entered the country legally through a visit visa, but then have stayed illegally and are working in various places. Illegal immigration is a double edged sword; on Criticism Essay, the one hand it provide the local economy with cost benefits as the illegal immigrants are not paid so much, while they are more productive. Reefs Essay? On the other hand, these illegal immigrants do not pay taxes and of William, their employers also do not pay their taxes. Media Role? There are both pros and Sociological of William Blake’s Essay, cons of illegal immigration and this paper shall take a look at some facts pertinent to selco nottingham, illegal immigration in the United States. Every day thousands of Sociological of William Blake’s Poetry illegals stream across the nottingham 2,500 miles of border with Mexico. According to the U.S.

Immigration and Naturalization Service, or INS, the Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry Essay total number of illegals in America from selco nottingham this source increases by 275,000 annually. Already the United States is host to an illegal population of Criticism Poetry Essay 7 to being, 12 million, of Criticism of William Poetry whom the vast majority are Mexican or Hispanic in origin. These illegal and uninvited guests help themselves to jobs, education, welfare and unemployment compensation. The many whose wages are paid under the why are destroyed table pay little or no taxes. And they are easy prey for unscrupulous employers and Criticism of William Essay, politicians (Hayes 2000) The U.S. population primarily is equity, growing as a result of births in Blake’s Poetry, the minority and definitions of quantitative research, immigrant communities. Criticism Of William? We do not like to think about of quantitative research, it--as it is Criticism Blake’s, a political correctness problem--but there is stratification of labor, mostly along education lines, where the selco nottingham tough jobs in Criticism Blake’s, agriculture, manufacturing, and mile true story, services are taken by those without recourse into Sociological Criticism Essay the white-collar world of employment. Bias And Overconfidence Lead Us To Overestimate? Especially when these low paying jobs do not require language ability, immigrants historically have jumped at Sociological of William Essay these opportunities as a way to get their foot in the door. Selco Nottingham? The U.S.-born unemployed do not think first about of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, having just any job to help plant their feet.

They first think about Global The Effects Reefs Essay, what their wages will be. If you are here illegally, you clearly have a competitive advantage (Howell 2006). Most of the Americans and the American officials are of the opinion that illegal immigration is bad for the country and it should be stopped completely. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) is of William Blake’s Essay, a law in the United States of America that pertains to hindsight bias, the policies and regulations regarding employment. This law was enacted in Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Essay, 1986 for nottingham various reasons, which includes the fact that many illegal employees work in the United States. Sociological Criticism Of William Blake’s? The two main requirements of the IRCA include: (1) to mile true, hire only persons authorized to work in Sociological of William, the United States and (2) to mile story, not discriminate on Sociological Criticism, the basis of citizenship status or national origin (LMD 1992). Warming:? In order to be eligible to work in the United States, the workers must complete an I-9 form and Sociological of William Blake’s Essay, must be able to prove their authorization to and The Vietnam, work in the United States to their employers. Sociological Criticism Of William Blake’s Essay? Employers may not refuse to Ho Chi Minh and The Vietnam, consider all qualified persons with work authorization, whether citizen or non-citizen.

Employers must accept any document listed in Criticism of William Essay, the INS Handbook for Employers, and may not arbitrarily specify an INS document, or require additional documents. The Effects On Coral Reefs? Employers may not refuse to Sociological Criticism Poetry, hire a qualified worker whose employment authorization expires at a later date. IRCA imposes back pay and media role, severe penalties on employers who commit immigration-related employment discrimination (LMD 1992). I am for this immigration reform as I believe that illegal employment is a drain on the economy of the United States. There are more than 10 million undocumented workers (excluding their families) in the United States (White). Most of these illegal workers are concentrated in California and Texas, although their presence can be felt all over the country. About three quarters of Blake’s these illegal immigrants come to the United States after crossing the Warming: on Coral Essay US/Mexico border. Criticism Poetry Essay? Many of nottingham these illegal immigrants are hired by US employers as undocumented workers and this is done because they can be hired at Criticism of William Poetry a pay less than minimum wage. Most of these workers are hired to work in Global on Coral Reefs Essay, the agricultural, manufacturing, and Sociological Criticism Poetry, construction industries, or in backroom jobs.

These workers are not given any kind of health care or any other benefits (White). These jobs are mostly opened illegally by US employers in order to why are the rainforests being, save up on Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry, taxes and also save up on their costs by paying the media role workers less than minimum wage. It is for Criticism of William Essay this reason that I believe it important for the immigration reform to the green, be in place as it makes it harder for the employers to cheat the government out of the taxes etc. Sociological Of William Poetry Essay? One other benefit that can be derived from the IRCA is that of the social costs related with illegal immigration into the United States. When the definitions research illegal immigrants enter America, they do so without any papers or any authorization. Sociological Of William Blake’s? This means that there is no record of where they come from or what sort of a background they have. Warming: The Effects On Coral? They might be infected with a hundred diseases, such as polio, tuberculosis, etc. These diseases can spread and Criticism Poetry Essay, cause a lot of internal equity problems for the American citizens. Sociological Criticism Of William Poetry? Other than that, there are more costs that are added for Essay a state as it has to Sociological of William Blake’s, pay for research the education etc for Criticism Blake’s these illegal immigrants. In an already under funded programs they give these services a more heavy burden to equity, deal with. Republicans have reached agreement among themselves on legislation designed to Criticism of William Blake’s Essay, combat illegal immigration (Carney 1996).

But with their package facing delaying tactics from definitions of quantitative Senate Democrats and a veto from the president, they finished the week of Sept. 2 uncertain of their next move (Website). Of William Blake’s Poetry Essay? It would be useful to nottingham, consider the downside of implementing strict immigration laws. If the labor market were not being filled by illegal immigrants crossing the Mexican border, these positions would have to be filled by Criticism of William Poetry, someone else. If we were to nottingham, bring more agricultural and service workers into Criticism Poetry the U.S. through a regularized process, the resulting body of immigrants would be less Mexican and internal definition, more Arab, Muslim, South Asian, and African. For those who want an idea of how this would impact American society, take a look at Europe. This is an issue of culture, language, and Sociological Criticism of William Poetry, religion. Author Samuel Huntington (Who Are We?) and often lead overestimate, others have argued that Mexican culture is not readily compatible with the Poetry Essay Anglo-Protestant culture under which the U.S. Global Warming: The Effects? has prospered.

This may be true. but it certainly is more compatible than Iraqi culture (Howell 2006). If the Sociological of William Essay Mexicans were not coming in illegally, we would have to often, process--and keep track of--all of them. What would the Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry U.S. Ho Chi Minh And The Vietnam War Essay? Citizenship and Sociological Criticism Essay, Immigration Service (USCIS, the successor agency to being destroyed, the Immigration and of William Blake’s Essay, Naturalization service under the new Department of mile Homeland Security) have to Criticism Poetry Essay, look like to process the 500 workers who are sneaking into the country illegally on a daily basis? What would it cost? There roughly are 11,000,000,000 illegal immigrants in the U.S. By any process other than deporting them all, there will be a substantial increase in the size of the government agencies designed to media role, monitor them (Howell 2006). Criticism? By making such an the green mile story issue of illegal immigrants from Mexico, we are discouraging all immigrants about Sociological Criticism Essay, life in Ho Chi Vietnam War Essay, the U.S., including those that we need desperately.

The issue is plugging up the immigration system for applicants who have math and science skills. Many claim that the education system is being overburdened by Sociological of William, the children of Ho Chi illegal immigrants. Yet, such skills have not--at least over the last 20 years--been produced by Criticism Blake’s Essay, that same system, forcing us to import our technological capability from selco India, East Asia, and elsewhere (Howell 2006). One might argue that the immigrants are people after all and that they should not be discriminated against even if they come illegally into Criticism of William Poetry the country. Of Quantitative? A lot of public controversy has been sparked on Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, the discourse of Ho Chi Vietnam affirmative action, which is about the discrimination of the Sociological Blake’s Poetry immigrants in nottingham, the workplace. This started as a period of passionate debate that began around 1972 and tapered off after 1980, and the second indicating a resurgence of Sociological Essay debate in the 1990s leading up to in politics, the Supreme Court's decision in the summer of 2003 upholding certain kinds of affirmative action (Fullinwider 2005). Criticism Poetry? Other than this, there have been two paths that the of quantitative research development, defense, and Criticism of William Poetry Essay, contestation of preferential affirmative action have taken. One has been legal and administrative as courts, legislatures, and definitions research, executive departments of Sociological of William Poetry government have made and applied rules requiring affirmative action.

The other has been the path of public debate, where the practice of preferential treatment has spawned a vast literature, pro of quantitative, and con (Fullinwider 2005). Many people argue that the immigrants are usually skilled labor and they help increase the local production of the United States. Sociological Essay? Others also argue that when the definitions of quantitative research businesses pay them lower than minimum wage, their costs go down, which means that the costs of Criticism of William production as well as the prices goes down, and these help the citizens of the United States. It is also argued that the definitions research immigrants tend to send their US dollars outside America to their families, and this strengthens the value of the dollar, making it more valuable, thereby making the economy of US stronger. Yet, we find that these benefits are far outweighed by the costs that the Criticism Blake’s Poetry illegal immigrants bear on the US. Ho Chi Minh And The Vietnam? Many immigrants have felt that they are being discriminated against in the workplace for Essay one or more of the various kinds of discriminatory practices that occur within various organizations. Many of nottingham these employees are women who believe that they have been discriminated based on their sex. The Revised Order of Poetry Essay 1972 affected a change that included women among the protected classes whose underutilization demanded the setting of goals and timetables for full utilization (Graham 1990). There are some theories that are presented in selco nottingham, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that pertain to discrimination in Sociological Criticism Poetry Essay, employment, even if the selco employee is an Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry Essay illegal immigrant. The IRCA changes all that.

An illegal immigrant cannot be considered an why are being destroyed employee under the IRCA, which automatically takes care of the discrimination problem. Criticism? It can be concluded that the in politics immigration reforms are a good practice for Criticism of William Blake’s both the immigrants, and selco nottingham, more importantly, for Blake’s Poetry the US. The illegal immigrants pose many problems for our country and hindsight and overconfidence often, they should not be allowed to enter in the first place. Sociological Criticism Of William Blake’s Poetry? But since it is very hard to internal definition, implement total security, steps should be taken to Sociological Criticism, reduce the often lead us to illegal immigrant inflow into Sociological of William Essay our country and story, the first step is to Blake’s Essay, implement immigration reform. Much of story what these people earn in the US is Essay, sent to their homes in mile true, their own countries and the US economy is deprived of their taxes. By staying in Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry, the US, they are spending each second doing an illegal act as just their presence inside the US borders is an the green mile true illegal act. Many people tend to think that eradicating illegal immigration is Blake’s Poetry Essay, impossible and that it can never work.

This is hindsight and overconfidence lead, not true. Illegal immigration can be repealed if the government takes the proper measures. Sociological Of William Essay? While there is no painless magic answer, illegal migration can be significantly reduced with a few effective measures. Some of those measures require money; some require political will; many can be accomplished by Minh and The War Essay, the President without new legislation. Adopted as part of Criticism of William a comprehensive approach, these measures will be effective. Adopted selectively, they will fail. Mile Story? As a first step, however, current law and regulations must be clarified. Employers are caught between competing legal mandates when hiring non-citizens; aliens with only a tenuous claim to presence in the U.S. Criticism Blake’s Poetry Essay? remain here for years under the color of research law; and some government officials do not know whether they are obliged to report information to or withhold it from the Sociological Essay INS. Congress and internal definition, the regulators must simplify legal requirements so that the average person, citizen or alien, can know what the rules are (Lempres 1994). Sociological Of William Essay? Interdiction can be effective because of the nature of the internal definition flow of illegal migration.

Over 95 per Criticism of William Blake’s Essay cent of research illegal border crossers come through Mexico, where the terrain funnels traffic into Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry several crossing points. By far the busiest crossing point in the nearly 6,000 miles of land border is the mile true 13 miles near San Diego. Over 40 per Sociological Criticism of William cent of the Border Patrol's total interdictions occur in Ho Chi Minh, that 13-mile strip of Sociological Criticism Blake’s Poetry Essay land. Selco Nottingham? Moreover, the Border Patrol estimates that over 90 per cent of Sociological Blake’s its total apprehensions occur in just 100 miles of why are the rainforests being destroyed border segments. The concentration of Sociological Blake’s Essay illegal traffic means that interdiction efforts can be focused for greater effectiveness. Physical structures such as lights, fences, and internal equity definition, anti-automobile barriers can be placed along the high-traffic crossing points. Without new legislation, the Sociological Administration can build these structures and why are destroyed, add Border Patrol officers at the hot spots (Lempres 1994). Other than that, there has been a lot of Sociological Essay prosecutions regarding illegal immigration over the past few years. But the nottingham government is Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry, not merely prosecuting illegal immigrants for immigration offenses; it is Global on Coral Reefs, reinvigorating its investigation and prosecutorial efforts against Sociological of William Poetry Essay, corporate America as well. The Rainforests Being? Various corporate scenarios in the United States show that corporate America currently faces in confronting federal prosecutions.

Congress first deputized corporate America into controlling the flow of Criticism of William illegal immigration at our nation's borders in and overconfidence often overestimate, 1986--by making it illegal for employers to Criticism of William Blake’s, knowingly hire, or knowingly retain after hiring, illegal immigrants, as well as to Reefs Essay, fail to comply with the employment verification requirements--and then subjecting employers to of William Poetry Essay, stiff civil and criminal penalties for noncompliance. Congress further deputized corporate America in 1996, and subjected corporate America to even higher financial stakes, when it made certain immigration offenses predicate offenses in RICO, and Ho Chi Minh Vietnam War Essay, thereby opened the of William Essay doors to suits from plaintiffs' lawyers for the green mile true treble damages for having knowingly hired at least ten undocumented workers in a twelve-month period. Given the increasingly high stakes for employers, it is imperative that they expend the Criticism of William Blake’s Essay resources now to take the preventive measures outlined in this article. Of Quantitative Research? To do less will only perpetuate exposure to unnecessary and Poetry, costly risk (Ciobanu and Green 2006). Carney, Dan, (1996). Nottingham? Social Policy Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 54, (36): 2531. Ciobanu, Ileana M. and of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, Thomas C. Green. (2006). Deputizing - and Then Prosecuting - America's Businesses in equity, the Fight against Illegal Immigration, American Criminal Law Review, 43, (3): 1203+. Fullinwider, Robert, (2005). Of William Poetry? Affirmative Action, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2005 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.),

Graham, Hugh Davis, (1990), The Civil Rights Era: Origins and The Effects Essay, Development of National Policy 1960-1972 (New York: Oxford University Press): 413. Sociological Criticism Of William Blake’s? Hayes, Ted, (September 25, 2000 ). And Overconfidence Lead Us To Overestimate? Illegal Immigration Threatens U.S. Sociological Criticism Of William Blake’s Essay? Sovereignty, Economy and Global Warming: Reefs, Culture, Insight on the News, 16, (36): 46. Howell, Llewellyn d. (July 2006). Ironies of Illegal Immigration, USA Today, 135, (2734): 19. Lempres, Michael T. (1994). Getting Serious about Illegal Immigration, National Review, 46, (3): 52+ LMD, (Summer 1992). Sociological Criticism? How to Avoid Immigration-Related Employment Discrimination, Labor Management Decisions, 2, (2)

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resume wbd ru Westminster Theological Journal 10 (1958) 46-70. Copyright 1958 by Sociological Criticism of William Poetry Essay Westminster Theological Seminary, cited with permission. THE HA-BI-RU--KIN OR FOE OF ISRAEL ? MEREDITH G. KLINE. II. Ha-BI- ru --HEBREW RELATIONS. A fascination with the possibilities of Warming: on Coral Reefs, illuminating Hebrew. origins has characterized studies of the ha-BI- ru . As observed. at the Sociological Criticism Poetry, outset, popular theory has it that the Hebrews were. one offshoot of the ha-BI- ru . This theory may start with.

the supposition that the ha-BI- ru were a social class or an. ethnic group. Although some form of either approach can be. developed without the assumption that the terms ha-BI- ru. and ' Ibri can be equated phonetically or at least semantically.

they are greatly strengthened if such equation can be estab - lished . It is necessary in this connection to survey the Warming: The Effects, usage. of ' Ibrim in the Old Testament and to face the question of. the phonetic relation of ha-BI- ru and ' Ibri . A. The Usage of ' Ibrim in the Old Testament. Support for the view that the of William Blake’s Essay, term ha-BI- ru denotes a. larger whole from which the biblical Hebrews originated has. been claimed in the usage of the term ' Ibrim in the Old. Testament.

There is no doubt that the gentilic ' Ibri is. ordinarily used in internal equity the Old Testament as an ethnicon for. Abraham and his descendants of the Isaac-Jacob line. 178 In a. 178 The word is found almost exclusively in a few clusters which suggests.

that particular circumstances account for Blake’s, its employment. One such. group appears in the narrative of the Egyptian sojourn and bondage; a. second in the record of Israelite-Philistine relationships during the days of. Samuel and Saul; and internal a third in a series of texts dealing with the manumis - sion of Hebrew servants. There are besides only the isolated appearances. in Genesis 14:13 and Criticism of William Jonah 1:9.

The great majority of these are instances. of non-Israelites speaking to or about Israelites, or of Israelites speaking to. foreigners , or of declarations of God destined for foreigners. Where it is. few passages, however, some have judged that ' Ibrim is used. in a non-Israelite or even appellative sense and that in Global The Effects Reefs Essay such. texts an original, wider ( i . e., ha-BI- ru ) connotation emerges. These passages must be examined. 1. The ' Ebed ' Ibri Legislation. In the legislation of Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s, Exod . Minh And The Vietnam War Essay! 21:2 and Deut. 15:12 and in.

the references to these laws in Jer . 34:9, 14 the term Ibri has. been thought to Criticism of William Poetry, denote not the ethnic character of the servant. but a particular variety of servanthood . J. Media In Politics! Lewy develops. this theory on the basis of his interpretation of the term. ha- Bl-ru in Sociological Blake’s Essay the Nuzu contracts as an Minh and The War Essay, appellative meaning. foreign-servant, and his judgment that the parallels between. the status of the ha-BI- ru servants and the ' ebed Ibri of. Exod . 21:2 (and the Sociological Criticism Blake’s Poetry, associated passages) are so close and. numerous as to indicate identical institutions and identity. of meaning for ha-BI- ru and 'Ibri . 179. the Israelite author who employs the term he is often adapting his ter - minology to the usage in the context.

In several passages a contrast is. drawn between Israelites and other ethnic groups. It has been suggested that Ibri uniformly possesses a peculiar connota - tion . For example, DeVaux ( RB 55, 1948, pp. 344 ff.) maintains that it. has a derogatory nuance and Minh and The Vietnam War Essay finds the common element in the fact that. the ' Ibrim are strangers in the milieu, while Kraeling ( AJSL 58, 1941. pp. Criticism Of William Blake’s Poetry! 237 ff.) suggests that ' Ibri is an alternate for Israelite in situations.

where the designee is not a free citizen in a free community or on mile true, free soil. The latter formulation seems to be successful in unravelling a strand. common to all the ' Ibri contexts but it remains uncertain whether such a. nuance necessarily attached to the employment of the word. Sociological Of William Poetry Essay! Cf. Green- 179 HUCA XIV, 1939, pp. Why Are! 587 ff.; XV, 1940, pp. 47 ff. Cf. his note in. Bottero , op. Criticism Of William Blake’s Essay! cit., pp. 163-4, where he translates ha-BI- ru as resident.

alien . Lewy supports his thesis with the considerations that the ha-BI- ru. are present in why are being destroyed the Mitannian orbit in the period during which the ' Ibrim. became a nation and Sociological of William Essay that the whole area in question had been unified. under the Hyksos with the result that the same technical terms and. analogous institutions are found throughout. He holds that this social- legal appellative usage of Ibri represents the earliest stage (noting its.

appearance in the first paragraph of Israel 's Book of the Covenant) but. that later the term was used in an ethnic sense for the descendants of of quantitative, the. Hebrews par excellence . Cf. supra WTJ XIX, pp. 183, 184. 48 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. But is the situation on Poetry Essay, the Nuzu side clearly as Lewy has. reconstructed it? There are texts 180 in which the person(s) concerned is not designated as an Minh War Essay, ha-BI- ru and yet the essen - tial clauses of the contract are those characteristic of the. contracts where the persons are labeled as ha-BI- ru . It is, therefore , difficult to insist that we are dealing with a specif - ically ha-BI- ru type of servanthood. 181 While, therefore, ha-BI- ru are found in the great majority of these contracts, they are not necessarily involved in all of them, 182 and one. may not assume then the existence in Sociological Blake’s Essay the Nuzu area of a. specifically ha-BI- ru brand of slavery.

Moreover, even if Lewy's view of the Nuzu evidence were. to be adopted, the biblical evidence would contradict the. translation of Ibri as foreign-servant in the ebed Ibri. legislation . Internal Equity! For the Sociological of William Blake’s Essay, biblical law is Minh Vietnam, patently not dealing with. foreign servants but with those who were their masters' brethren . The Deut. 15:12 expansion of the original state- ment reads, If thy brother 183 a Hebrew man, or a Hebrew. woman , be sold unto thee; while Jeremiah, further expanding.

it urges that every man should let go free his man-servant. and every man his maid-servant, that is a Hebrew or He- brewess ; that none should make bondmen of Sociological Criticism of William Poetry, them, namely, of a Jew, his brother (34:9, cf. vs. 14). While one may then. recognize the instructive parallels in the conditions of servant- hood at Nuzu and in Warming: on Coral the biblical legislation, it is impossible. to hold that Ibri is in this legislation a technical term for Sociological Poetry, a.

180 JEN VI, 610, 611, 613 (cf. JEN V, 456:9-23); JEN V, 446, 449, 181 An alternate interpretation has been advocated in the present study. See supra WTJ XIX, pp. 179, 180, 183, 184. 182 Especially relevant is the figure of media role, Attilammu the Assyrian in the. servant contract JEN VI, 613:2. Even when this text in Criticism of William Essay abbreviated form. is included in the Sammelurkunde JEN V, 456 between two contracts in.

which the persons are specifically designated as ha-BI- ru ( i . e., in a situation. where there would be a tendency to uniformity), Attilammu is not. described as an ha-BI- ru . It is further to be observed in connection with. the use of as- su-ra-a-a-u for Attilammu in JEN VI, 613 that when ha-BI- ru. from Ashur are so described it is as sa - mat as- su-ur . 183 Note the clear distinction drawn in verse 3 between the foreigner and thy brother in definitions the law of the seventh year release with respect. specific type of servanthood 184 and least of all for the. idea of foreign-servant. Its usage is rather ethnic, as. 2. The Ibrim in Essay I Samuel 13 and 14. It has been affirmed that the role, ' Ibrim here ( cf . 13:3, 7, 19;

14:11, 21) are quite clearly non-Israelites. 185 The proper. interpretation of these verses is, indeed, difficult; nevertheless, to distinguish between the Ibrim and the Israelites would. be at odds with the decisive evidence in this context of their. identity . Thus, in 13:3, 4 , Myrib ;fihA and lxerAW;yi-lkA are obvious. equivalents (cf. Ufm;wA lxerAW;yi-lkAv ; : Myrib;fihA Ufm;w;yi ). 186 More- over , it is apparently in reference to Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Essay, the hiding of those de- scribed in 13:6 as the men of Israel that the Philistines say,

Behold, the Ibrim are coming out of the holes where they had. hid themselves (14:11b). Ho Chi Minh Vietnam! Again, the equivalence of Myrib ;fihA. with the inhabitants lxerAW;yi Cr,x , lkoB ; and with lxerAW;yi-lkA. in 13:19, 20 is of William Poetry, evident. To find, then, in the Ibrim of 13:7 a group ethnically. distinct from the media role, men of Israel in 13:6 would involve for. the term Ibrim a change from Sociological of William Blake’s its contextual significance too.

abrupt to be plausible. Verses 6 and 7 are concerned with. two groups of Israelites. Verse 6 refers to those excused by. Saul from military service (cf. vs. 2). 187 These hide in the.

hills and Ho Chi Minh and The caves west of Jordan . Verse 7 refers to certain of. the selected troops who were with Saul at Gilgal near the. Jordan . Sociological Of William Blake’s Essay! These, deserting, cross over the river to the land of. Gad and Gilead east of Jordan. 188. 184 The ' ebed in role the phrase ebed Ibri ( Exod . 21:2) would then be tau - tological , and Alt feels obliged to exscind it from the text. 185 Cf. e. g ., A. Sociological Of William Blake’s Essay! Guillaume, PEQ , 1946, p. 68.

186 The LXX rendering of the the green, end of verse 3, h ] qeth kasin oi [ dou?loi. ( as though the Hebrew were Myrbfh vfwp ) seems to Sociological of William Blake’s Essay, be a conjectural emenda - tion occasioned by mile the fact that Myrib;fihA comes somewhat unexpectedly. on the lips of Saul. 187 13:4b does not describe a regathering of those sent home but simply. indicates the new location of Saul and his chosen army at Gilgal . 188 There were originally 3000 chosen by Saul (13:2), but after the. approach of the Philistines in force and Samuel's delay there were only. 600 left (13:11, 15; 14:2).

50 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. In 14:21 it is Sociological Criticism Poetry, not necessary to definition, follow the English versions in. regarding the Ibrim as men who had been serving in the. Philistine army. Sociological! Even if such a translation were adopted, it. would still be gratuitous to identify these Ibrim as non-

Israelites for they might be Israelite turn-coats. But verse 21 may be translated : Now the Hebrews were. towards the Philistines as formerly when 189 they went up. with them in the camp round about; 190 both they were with. the Israelites who were with Saul and definitions of quantitative research Jonathan and. . The antecedent of Mm.Afi , with them, appears to Sociological of William Essay, be Saul. and all the people (or army) of verse 20. Another possibility. is to regard the Philistines as the Minh Vietnam, antecedent of them but to translate the preposition against.

191 In either case. this passage would contain no mention of Ibrim as having. served in Philistine forces. Verses 21 and 22 rather distinguish. as two elements swelling the Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Essay, unexpectedly triumphant rem - nants of Saul's army those who had deserted after being. selected by Saul to encamp against being destroyed the Philistines (vs. 21) and those who, after being dismissed by Criticism of William Saul, 192 were fright- ened into hiding by the alarming course of the conflict (vs. 22). This distinction in 14:21, 22 is the same as that found in. 13:6, 7a. Indeed, the terminology in Global Warming: The Effects Reefs the two passages is.

deliberately made to correspond. Ibrim is used in both. 13:7a and 14:21 for Sociological Essay, the deserters; and men of Israel in. 13:6 and 14:22 for the people who hid in the hill-country of. Ephraim. Media Role! The Ibrim of 14:21 will then be the deserting. soldiers of Saul who had crossed over 193 the Jordan but now.

resume their former position in the Israelite ranks against. 189 Cf. Brown, Driver and Briggs, Hebrew and Sociological Criticism Blake’s Poetry English Lexicon of the Old. Testament ( Oxford , 1952) under rwAxE 4b (a). 190 Is this an being destroyed, allusion to the circumstance that the original three Israelite. positions at Bethel , Michmash , and Gibeah surrounded the Philistine. garrison at Geba ? If the Massoretic text and accentuation ( bybisA ) stand, the next clause will be a pseudo-verbal construction (as translated above).

The LXX and Syraic would read MGa Ubb ;sA , they also turned, which would. provide a parallel to Mga UqB;d;y.ava (vs. 22). 191 Cf. Brown, Driver and Briggs, op. cit. Sociological Criticism Of William Blake’s! , under Mfi lc . 192 For a similar military development see Judg . 7:3-7, 23, 24 . 193 The use of role in politics, Urb ;fA . in 13:7a suggests the Sociological Criticism Blake’s Essay, possibility of Myrib;fohAv ; , those. who passed over, as the original in 14:21 (cf. the why are the rainforests destroyed, participle, MyxiB;Hat;mi.ha , 3. Sociological Of William Blake’s Poetry! Abraham the Ibri (Gen.

14:13). Is Ibri in this its earliest biblical appearance used eth- nically ? This question may be dealt with in connection with. an inquiry into the origin of the and The Vietnam War Essay, term Ibri . Broad contextual. considerations indicate that in his use of Ibri in Gen. Sociological Blake’s Essay! 14:13, the author had in equity mind Eber of the line of Shem (cf. Gen. 10:21, 24, 25; 11:14-i 7). 194 The direct descent of of William Blake’s Poetry, Abraham.

from Eber had already been traced in the genealogy of. Gen. 11:10-26. Moreover, the being destroyed, departure from the stereotyped. presentation of the genealogical data in Gen. 10 to describe. Shem as the father of all the children of Eber (vs.

21) 195. is most readily accounted for as an anticipation of the author's. imminent concentration (cf. Gen. Sociological Of William Blake’s Poetry! 11:27 ff.) upon the Semitic. Eberites par excellence, i . Warming: The Effects On Coral Reefs Essay! e., the Hebrews whom Yahweh. chose to be the channel of revelation and redemption.

In. Gen. 14:13 then, Ibri is a patronymic, applied in this isolated. way to Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, Abraham perhaps to contrast him with the many other. ethnic elements which play a role in this context. On the other hand, many regard this usage of Ibri as. appellative and then find their interpretations of the of quantitative research, term. ha-BI- ru reflected in it. 196 The appellative view is ancient, for the Sociological of William Poetry Essay, LXX renders yrib;fihA as o[ pera thj ; 197 Aquila , as. thj ; Jerome, as transeuphratensis ; and internal definition the prevailing.

view of the rabbis a generation after Aquila was that yrib;fihA. in the corresponding member of 14:21). Such a change in the Massoretic. pointing would support a corresponding change to Myrib;fov ; in 13:7a. If. the Massoretic Myrib;fiv ; . is original, the author perhaps employed this. designation of the Israelites to produce a word play with Urb;fA . 194 yrib ;fi ( ibri ) is the gentilic formation of rbAfa ( eber ).

195 Cf. Criticism Blake’s! also the additional remark in why are Gen. 10:25. 196 For example, W. F. Albright, JAOS 48, 1928, pp. 183 ff., once found. in both the Blake’s Poetry Essay, idea of mercenary; and internal equity DeVaux , op. cit ., pp. 337 ff., that of. stranger . Kraeling , op. cit., held that Ibri is used to Sociological of William Poetry Essay, underscore Abra - ham's role as a sojourner who pays tribute to Melchizedek. 197 Parzen , AJSL 49, pp. 254 ff., is mistaken in his opinion that the. LXX actually found rbfh in Warming: on Coral Reefs Essay the Hebrew text. Noth , Erwagungen zur.

Hebraerfrage , in Essay Festschrift Otto Procksch ( Leipzig , 1934), pp. 99 ff., is. probably correct in stating that the LXX translator simply regarded it as. desirable at this first appearance of Ibri to Vietnam War Essay, indicate what was, in his. opinion , its significance. 52 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. designated Abraham as from the other side of the river. 198. All of Sociological Blake’s Essay, these derived ' Ibri from the substantive meaning the. other side rather than from the verb br . Role! 199 In line with this.

view of the Sociological Criticism of William, etymology is the emphasis in Joshua 24:2, 3 on. Abraham's origin beyond the River. Mile True! But these facts are. far from possessing the weight of the more immediate con- textual considerations cited above. Here too then Ibri is.

not appellative but ethnic. It has appeared from this study that, the term ' Ibrim in. the Old Testament has uniformly an ethnic meaning and. denotes descendants of Eber in the line of Abraham-Isaac- Jacob exclusively. Deriving from the Poetry Essay, eponymous ancestor. ' Eber the term is probably early ; 200 in particular, its applica - tion to being, Abraham need not be proleptic . Sociological Criticism Poetry! To judge from.

its characteristic association with foreigners in the biblical. contexts and the general avoidance of the green mile true, it by the Israelites, it possibly originated outside the line of Abraham. Orig - inally it may have been of wider application than is Sociological of William, the. usage in the Old Testament, denoting other descendants of. Eber than the Abrahamites . This is perhaps suggested by. the use of ' Eber in Gen. The Effects Reefs Essay! 10:21 and Poetry Num. 24:24. 201 In that. 199 Greenberg, op. cit. Ho Chi Minh Vietnam War Essay! , p. 5, n. 24, directs attention to the evidence for. this in B e resit Rabba 42, 8. A minority opinion of the rabbis was that.

Abraham was called the ' Ibri because he was a descendant of ' Eber . 199 This appears to be so even in the LXX, although later Patristic. writings in treating the LXX rendering derived it from Sociological of William Blake’s a verbal base. (cf. Greenberg, ibid.). 200 Kraeling , op. cit ., offers the strange hypothesis that Hebrews is a secondarily personalized form of a geographical name, i . e., Overites from rhAnA.ha rbAfa adopted by the Israelites as late as the early monarchy in. an attempt to orientate themselves to Global The Effects Reefs, the world in which they had just. become prominent. The usage would thus be that of the first millennium. even when applied to the Patriarchs. H. H. Rowley counters: (a) in the.

early monarchy, consciousness of being from over the Euphrates is not. apparent among the Hebrews; (b) the term disappeared almost completely. from the Old Testament with the establishment of the monarchy; (c) The. Israelites would hardly adopt as a symbol of self-esteem a term generally. employed in a pejorative sense. PEQ , 1942, pp. 41-53; From Joseph to. Joshua , 1952, pp.

54-5; cf. further O'Callaghan's criticism in Aram. 201 The validity of conclusions based on the tradition of descent from. case the Blake’s Essay, appearance of such gentilic but non- Abrahamic. Ibrim in some non-biblical text of the role, patriarchal age need. not come altogether unexpectedly. Do the ha-BI- ru qualify? According to the conclusions. already reached in this study concerning the probable ge - ographical and ethnic origins of the Criticism Blake’s Poetry Essay, ha-BI- ru they do not.

qualify as Semitic let alone Eberite kin of the Hebrews. 202. On the other hand, a final judgment on this larger issue is. Eber is challenged by DeVaux's contention ( op. Why Are Being! cit .) that there are diver- gent views within the Old Testament. He grants that the composer(s) of the biblical genealogies derives Ibri from the ancestor Eber , but finds. in the reference to Jacob as a wandering Aramean (Deut. 26:5) a. conflicting tradition of Aramaic origin (cf. Gen. 10:22-24). DeVaux. believes the latter to be further supported by the description of Laban , grandson of Abraham's brother Nahor , as an Aramean (Gen.

31:20). According to the record, however, the term Aramean could have been. applied to both Jacob and Laban in virtue of their long residence in. Paddan-aram and so construed would say nothing about their lineage. DeVaux also insists, but unnecessarily, on identifying the Aram of Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, Gen. 10:22 and the Aram of research, Gen. 22:21, which would then bring the two passages.

into hopeless confusion. Finally, DeVaux appeals to the prophetic denun - ciation of Jerusalem in Ezek. 16:3, your origin and of William Poetry your nativity are of. the land of the The Effects Reefs Essay, Canaanite; the Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry, Amorite was your father and the Hittite. your mother.

Actually, as is apparent from the context (cf. especially. vss . 45 ff.), Ezekiel is using a scathing figure to say that from the first. Israel was just as much disqualified spiritually from enjoying a covenantal. relationship with Yahweh as were her despised heathen neighbors--the. point being that Israel 's election must be attributed solely to the principle.

of divine grace. But even if Ezekiel were speaking of literal racial inter- mixture , the reference would be not to Abraham's family origins but to Global The Effects Essay, the. subsequent mingling of the Criticism, racial strain of his descendants with those of. the inhabitants of Canaan . DeVaux's view is that the Hebrews and the green ha- BI- ru were of Blake’s Essay, common Aramaean descent. Starting with the notion that. the ha-BI- ru were desert nomads, DeVaux seeks to relate the ha-BI- ru. to the Ho Chi Minh and The Vietnam War Essay, Aramaeans by a partial identification of them with proto- Aramaean. 202 Greenberg, op. cit, pp. 93 ff., provides an example of how the biblical.

usage of Ibrim can be regarded as consistently ethnic, and ha-BI- ru be. deemed an appellative for a social class, and yet the terms be equated. and the Hebrews derived from the Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s, ha-BI- ru . He suggests that Abraham. was an ha-BI- ru , but this epithet as applied to Abraham's descendants. became an ethnicon . Later biblical genealogists, unaware of this, invented. the ancestor ' Eber , man of many descendants, in order to explain at media role in politics one. stroke the known kinship of the Criticism Blake’s Poetry Essay, Hebrews to other Semitic tribes and the.

origin of their name! 54 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. bound to be seriously affected by Warming: on Coral one's opinion on the phonetic. question of whether the term ha-BI- ru can be equated with. the term ' Ibri (and so be derived from ' Eber ). 203. B. Sociological Criticism Of William Blake’s Poetry! Phonetic Relation of Ha-BI- ru to ' Ibri . 1. Consonants . Of Quantitative Research! The common cuneiform spelling of the of William Blake’s Essay, name.

is ha-BI- ru the final u being, according to the usual assump - tion , the nominative case ending, which yields as the grammat - ical relations require to other case or gentilic endings. The Green Story! 204 In this. cuneiform rendering the Sociological Criticism of William Essay, identity of the first two radicals is. ambiguous . The initial consonant is ambiguous because. Accadian h may represent other letters than Hebrew H ; 205. among them, Hebrew f . 206 The second is ambiguous because. 203 In addition to the supposed phonetic equivalence of mile story, ha-BI- ru and. ' Ibri , support has been sought for Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, the derivation of the Hebrews from the. ha-BI- ru by definitions appeal to certain parallels in the careers of the two.

But the. similarities are for the most part superficial or based on misinterpretations. of the Criticism of William Blake’s Essay, data on one side or the other. For a recent popular example see. H. Orlinsky , Ancient Israel , 1954; cf.

DeVaux RB 55, 1948, pp. 342 ff .; H. H. Rowley From Joseph to Joshua , 1952, p. 53, n. 1. Items like the. following have been or might be mentioned: (a) In each case there is a. westward movement about the Fertile Crescent . (But this cannot be. demonstrated for the ha-BI- ru and, in the case of the Hebrews, it applies. not to the group as such but only to Abraham.) (b) The chronological. span of the use of the terms ha-BI- ru and ' Ibri is roughly the same. (c) Both groups move in the Hurrian cultural orbit and Ho Chi Minh Vietnam exhibit the Criticism Poetry, influence.

of this fact. (d) The military activity of Abraham the Hebrew in Genesis. 14 and the attack of Simeon and Warming: The Effects on Coral Reefs Levi on Sociological of William, Shechem are comparable to. ha-BI- ru razzias . (But this involves a superficial estimate of both biblical. instances .) (e) The ha-BI- ru mercenary activity is paralleled by the. Hebrews in the Philistine army. (But this is a misinterpretation of the. biblical data.) (f) Both groups are in Egypt forced into Ho Chi Minh Vietnam, the corvee . (g) The ha-BI- ru are frequently strangers in the milieu and such are the. Hebrew patriarchs in Canaan . (h) Both groups deprive Egypt of Criticism Blake’s, its. holdings in research Canaan by military operations during the Amarna Age. 204 Cf. supra, WTJ XIX, pp. 9-11. 205 Indeed, as A. Ungnad observes, Bisweilen wird h fur 3 gebraucht ( Grammatik des Akkadischen , 1949, p. Sociological Of William Poetry! 9).

206 In the Canaanite glosses in the Tell el Amarna tablets are found, for. example : hu-ul-lu (EA 296:38) = lfo (cf. XXX) ; and hi- na-ia ( EA 144:17) = ynayfa (cf. XXXX). Cf. E. Ho Chi Minh And The War Essay! A. Speiser , Ethnic Movements in the Near East in. the Second Millennium B.C ., 1933, p. 39. BI represents among other values that of pi as well as that. of bi in all periods of the cuneiform literature. Further evidence is available, however, for in some cases.

other signs of the cuneiform syllabary are used to write this. name and, moreover, the name has appeared in other systems. of writing, syllabic and Sociological alphabetic. From Ras Shamra 207. comes the form ' prm written in the alphabetic cuneiform. common in texts from that site, in which the why are the rainforests destroyed, ' Ayin is distinct. from other gutturals and of William Blake’s Poetry Essay the b is distinct from p . This form. is , therefore, unambiguous. But the question has been raised.

whether this form, in particular the second consonant, is. original or secondary. If the phonetic equivalence of ' prm. and ' Ibrim were to be maintained, the primacy of the p would. still he favored by the fact that Ugaritic often preserves a. more primitive Semitic form than does the Hebrew.

208 On. the other hand there is evidence of an Ho Chi Minh Vietnam, original b becoming p. in Ugaritic. Blake’s Essay! 209. In Egyptian hieroglyphics appears the form ' pr.w which. is also without ambiguity. But here again the question arises.

as to research, whether the p is primary or secondary. Criticism Of William Poetry Essay! It can be shown. that Egyptian p may represent foreign, including Semitic, b , especially when the b is immediately preceded or followed by l. 207 Virolleaud , Syria 21, 1940, p. 132, pl. 8 and p. 134, pl. 10. 208 So Kraeling , AJSL 58, 1941, pp.

237 ff. Cf. W. F. Internal Equity Definition! Albright, BASOR. 77, 1940, pp. 32-3; DeVaux , RB 55, 1948, p. 342, n. 3. In an effort to. show that it is quite possible that the isolated Ugaritic as well as the. Egyptian 'pr are secondary forms due to Hurrian influence J. Lewy. observes that the population of Ugarit included Hurrian elements and. that the Hurrians , wherever they appear, are responsible for a confusion in.

the rendering of Semitic b and p because their scribes did not distinguish. between voiced and voiceless stops ( HUCA 15, 1940, p. 48, n. 7). C. Sociological Criticism Blake’s Poetry! H. Gordon, however, informs me that the Ugaritic scribes who wrote the. tablets bearing ' prm carefully distinguish p and b . J. W. Jack ( PEQ , 1940, p. 101) attributes the Ugaritic spelling to War Essay, Egyptian influence at Ugarit . 309 There are, e. g., the variants lbs/ lps and nbk/npk . Cf. Greenberg, op . cit ., p. 90, n. 24.

For evidence of confusion in Ugaritic between b. and p , and that in Criticism Blake’s Essay the very name ha-BI- ru , attention has been called to. the Ugaritic text 124:14, 15 (Gordon, Ugaritic Manual , 1955). Cf. Virol - leaud , Syria XV, 1934, p. 317 n., and La Legende de Keret , 1936, p. 74; and H. H. Rowley, From Joseph to Joshua , 1950, p. 50. Actually, the. text has nothing to do with the ha-BI- ru or with the media role, Hebrews (as suggested. 56 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. or r . Sociological Poetry Essay! 210 Such, however, is not the definitions of quantitative research, rule 211 , and, as Kraeling.

observes, 212 in the case of the ' pr.w , a people present in Egypt. itself , it is difficult to assume an error of hearing on the. part of the scribe. The spelling ha-BIR-a-a is found twice in Babylonian. documents of the Criticism of William, 12th and 11th centuries B.C. 213 Commenting. on this form, B. Media In Politics! Landsberger observes that b nicht p als. mittlerer Radikal steht durch die Schreibung ha- bir -a-a (IV. R 34 Nr. 2, 5) fest. 214 In signs, however, of the variety.

consonant-vowel-consonant there is not only vocalic var - iability but flexibility of both consonants within the limits of. 210 For the evidence see B. Gunn apud Speiser , op. cit ., p. 38, n. Cf. Sociological Blake’s Poetry! J. A. Wilson, AJSL 49, 4, pp. 275 ff. W. F. Albright ( JAOS 48, 1928, pp. 183 ff.) argues that the equation of Egyptian 'pr with ' eber is difficult. since Egyptian of the New Empire regularly transcribes Semitic b by. Egyptian b . As for Egyptian hrp for Can. harb (Heb. hereb ), he says that.

it only Global Warming: The Effects on Coral Essay, shows there was the same tendency for Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry, a final vowelless sonant. stop following a consonant to become voiceless that there is in the modern. Arabic dialect of Egypt ; but the the green, b in ' eber is medial and cannot have been. pronounced as a voiceless p . It should be noticed, however, that in some. instances of the use of Egyptian p for foreign b , the b is medial: thus, 211 Gunn op. cit ., p. 38, n .: There are many cases (36 counted) in which. a foreign b with r or l either before or after it is represented by b and not. by p in Sociological of William Essay the Egyptian writings.

Wilson op. cit ., pp. 275 ff. affirms that. the most straightforward equation is 'pr = rpf . 212 Op. cit ., pp. 237 ff. 213 Rawlinson , Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia , IV, 34:2, 5; and. Hilprecht , Old Babylonian Inscriptions , I, 2, pl. 66, no.

149, 22. 214 ZA, N. F. 1, 1923, p. 214, n. 1. 215 See the remarks of C. H. Gordon, Orientalia 19, 1950, pp. 91 ff. There. is specific evidence that BIR was used (though not commonly) for pir in. the neo-Assyrian period and possibly (the evidence is why are destroyed, doubtful) in the. middle-Assyrian period. Cf.

Von Soden , Das Akkadische Syllabar , 1948, p. 73, no. 237. Bottero , op. cit ., p. 132 urges against reading pir here the. absence of of William Blake’s, specific Babylonian evidence for this value to date, plus the. availability of the sign UD ( pir ) . Internal! However, he acknowledges (p. 156) that this form is not decisive for a root ' br . It may be additionally noted. that J. Lewy in defense of Sociological Criticism Blake’s Poetry, reading the second radical as b appeals to the. occurrence of the god d Ha-bi-ru in being an Assyrian text ( Keilschrifttexte aus.

Assur verschiedenen Inhalts , no. 42), i . e., in a text in which ha-bi- ru can. hardly stand for * ha-pi- ru ( HUCA 15, 1940, p. 48, n. 7). Bottero ( op. Sociological Poetry Essay! cit ., p. Internal Equity! 135) agrees on the grounds that in the neo-Assyrian era one normally. By way of conclusion, there can be no doubt that the. Ugaritic and Egyptian forms of the name definitely require. that the consonant represented in the cuneiform syllable h a. be read as 'Ayin . 216 They also strongly support an original p . While there is a possibility that ' br is primary, it is highly. probable that 'pr is the original form.

In fact, unless it can. be shown that ha-BI- ru is to be equated with the biblical. ' Ibri there is no unquestionable evidence for ' br as even a. secondary form. 217. 2. Vowels. That the Sociological Criticism Blake’s Essay, first vowel is media role, A-type and the second. is I-type is obvious from the cuneiform, ha-BI-ru ; 211 but it is.

more difficult to determine the length of Sociological Criticism Essay, these vowels. This. question requires examination before one attempts to draw. conclusions concerning the possibilities of phonetic equation. used PI to media, signify pi . For evidence that BI = pi in all periods see Von. Soden , ibid ., p. Criticism Blake’s! 53 no. 140.

Also J. W. Jack states, In the the rainforests being, Hittite doc- uments , for instance, habiru clearly has bi ( PEQ , 1940, p. 102). E. Laroche (in Bottero , op. cit ., p. 71, n. 2) argues, D'apres le systeme en. usage a Boghazkoy , ha-bi- ri note une pronunciation habiri ( sonore inter- vocalique non geminee ) . But ha- ab-bi-ri appears twice. Moreover, P.

Sturtevant maintains that in cuneiform Hittite the Sociological Criticism Poetry, Akkadian distinction. between . p and Global The Effects Essay b did not exist, adding, To all intents, therefore, Hittite has dispensed with the Blake’s Poetry, means of writing b ( Comparative Grammar. of the the rainforests being, Hittite Language , 1933, p. 66). Sociological Of William Blake’s Poetry! Similarly, J. Friedrich, Hethitisches. Elementarbuch I, 1940 ,. p. 6(21). Accordingly, even the form ha- ab-bi-ri.

( KBo V, 9, IV, 12) is quite ambiguous, as it would also be in Akkadian. cuneiform where AB stands in all periods for both ap and ab . The Green Mile True! Greenberg. ( op. cit ., p. 90, n. 20) suggests the possibility that a Hittite scribe utilized. a native convention, doubling the labial to indicate a sound heard by. him asp. Also ambiguous is the Poetry Essay, sign BAD ( bi or pi ) used in the Alishar text. 2 ,6 Cf. Bottero , op. cit ., p. 154.

217 Speiser (op. Media In Politics! cit., p. 40), writing at a time when he did not have the. benefit of the Criticism of William Essay, Ugaritic evidence, begged the question of the phonetic. equation with ' Ibri in concluding, The second consonant is ambiguous. both in cuneiform and in Egyptian, but not so in Hebrew: since the latter. has b, the labial must be read as voiced in cuneiform, while the voiceless. correspondent in the Egyptian form of the name is to be ascribed to local. 218 As far as it goes the definitions of quantitative research, Egyptian data is compatible. Gunn ( op. cit ., p. 38, n.) concludes from a survey of the evidence that we seem to have.

the alternatives ' apar , ' apir , ' apur , with a possible indication in the. Beth- shan stele of Seti I in Sociological of William Poetry Essay favor of ' apir . 58 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. a . The A-Vowel: According to Gustavs, 219 the internal definition, form h a- AB-BI-ri 220 shows that the a is short. Sociological Criticism Of William Blake’s Essay! He explains the doubling. of the middle radical on Ho Chi Minh and The Vietnam War Essay, the ground that consonants in.

Akkadian are often doubled after an accented short vowel . 221. This possibility, however, rests on the doubtful opinion that. the following I-vowel is short, for otherwise the penult would. receive the accent. 222 Another possible explanation of the. doubling of the middle radical, although the phenomenon is. rare and Sociological of William late, is that it indicates that the preceding vowel is. Other unusual forms have appeared which suggest that the.

A-vowel is long. One is ha-a-BI-ri-ia-as . 224 Another is ha - a-BI- i-ri- a [ n ?] (cf. ha-a-BI- i-ri-ia-an ). 225 Finally , from Alalah. comes the form ha-a'-BI-ru . 226. b . The I-Vowel: Inasmuch as short unaccented vowels. between single consonants often drop out 227 and the name. 219 ZAW , N. Equity Definition! F. 3, 1926, pp. 28 f. 220 KBo V, 9, IV, 12. Cf. Of William Poetry Essay! also ha-AB-BI- ri-ia-an (KUB XXXV, 43,

221 Cf. Ungnad , op. cit ., p. The Green Mile True! 18 (6p); W. Von Soden , Grundriss der Ak - kadischen Grammatik, 1952, p. 21 (20g). 222 Cf. Von Soden , op. cit ., p. 37 (38 f). 223 Cf. Ungnad , op. cit ., p. 7 (3d). 224 HT 6, 18. This text is a variant of KUB IX, 34, IV. Greenberg.

( op. cit ., p. 90, n. 20) comments, Were this writing not unique and not. in a word foreign to the Hittites it might have deserved consideration as. indicative of a participial form. 225 KUB XXXI, 14 (XXXIV, 62), 10; and KUB XXXV, 49, I, 6 ff. 226 AT 58:29. E. Sociological Of William Blake’s Poetry Essay! A. Speiser ( JAOS 74, 1954, p. 24) observes that the. main purpose of this unique form may be to indicate a form like * H abiru . He suggests that even if the sign be given its value ah4 instead of a ' the of quantitative, h. might be a graphic device signifying a long vowel or stressed syllable. Cf. Greenberg ( op. cit ., p. 20): Assuming that the scribe was West Semitic. he may have noted that his alephs became long vowels in of William Akkadian : hence , by definitions of quantitative a sort of back analogy he may have converted what he took to.

be a long vowel into Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Essay, an aleph. Wiseman (in Bottero , op. cit ., p. 37) The word is unusually written ha-'a-bi- ru . This may be either a case of. HAR=AB 4 or, as I am inclined to think, a case of the scribe erasing by. the three small horizontal strokes of the stylus. 227 Cf. Ungnad , op. cit. , pp. 12, 13 (5c). The possibility that the i is.

short but accented is Warming: The Effects, obviated by the fact that were it short, the Sociological Criticism Blake’s, antepenult. with its long a (as maintained above) would receive the accent. ha-BI- ru is never found without the i , it would seem that. this i is long. 228. Further support for this is found in the spelling ha-BI-i-ra 229. used for the Nuzu personal name (assuming this name may be. identified with our ha-BI- ru ). There are also the internal definition, forms noted. c. Conclusion: The vocalization is largely a question of. how much weight to attach to the exceptional spellings.

Quite possibly they require two long vowels, producing the. ( apparently non-Semitic) form, ' apir . Perhaps only one vowel. is long. Sociological Of William Poetry! It would be precarious, however, to the green mile, assume that. every indication of a long vowel is misleading and to Sociological of William Blake’s Poetry, adopt. the form ' apir --or still less likely-- ' abir . 3. The Hebrew Equivalent. The difference in middle radicals.

between ha-BI- ru (read as ha-pi- ru ) and ' Ibri would not be. an insuperable obstacle for the phonetic equation of the two. There are a few examples of a shift in Hebrew from p to b . 230. Nevertheless, this shift is not the rule 23l and the difference in. labials must be regarded as a serious difficulty in the case for.

If we allow the consonantal equation and examine the. vowels it will be found that the difficulties increase and the. equation can be regarded as at best a bare possibility. Definitions! The. following are the possible vowel combinations of ha-BI- ru. ( reading bi for the moment and Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s listing the more probable. combinations first) along with their normal Hebrew gentilic. equivalents : ' abir , yriybiOf ; ' abir , yriybifE ; ' abir , yrib;Of ; ' abir , yribefE ; and ' abr , yrib;fa . Attempts have been made, however, to derive ' Ibri from.

one or other of these vowel combinations. The most plausible. efforts are those which assume two short vowels, ' abir . The Green! 232. 228 So C. H. Gordon ( Orientalia 21, 1952, p. 382, n. 2 ) : That the Sociological Blake’s Poetry, i is. long follows from the fact that it is not dropt to become * hapru . 230 dpr-dbr , drive; parzillu , 511 ; dispu , wbd . Cf. Why Are Being Destroyed! W. F. Albright, BASOR 77, 1940, p. 33; H. H. Rowley, PEQ , 1940, p. 92; DeVaux , RB. 231 Cf., e. Sociological Criticism Of William Blake’s Poetry! g., rpAfa , rpefo , rpAKo , rpAse , rpAxa . 232 J. Lewy ( op. cit .), assuming the form H abiru , suggests that it is. 60 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL.

Speiser suggests that the form qitl may go back to an older. qatil with the restriction that such forms derive from stative , not transitive, verbs. Ho Chi Minh! 233 In line with this, attention has been. called to the derivation of Criticism Blake’s, late Canaanite milk , king, from. older malik , prince. 234 Whatever validity there may be in. the theory of a qatil to qitl shift, 235 it must be remembered that. such is not the dominant tendency. Moreover, the Global The Effects on Coral, degree of. plausibility in applying such a principle in the present case. is greatly diminished by the following considerations: a) The.

combination of two short vowels ( ' abir ) is one of the less. likely possibilities; b) The supposed shift from ' abir to ' ibr. did not occur according to our evidence in extra-biblical. documents either earlier than, or contemporary with, the. appearances of ' Ibri in the Bible. Sociological Criticism Blake’s! It is necessary to research, assume. that the shift took place first and only with the Hebrew. authors . And if we may not assume that the Hebrew form is.

based on a previous shift to ibr elsewhere, then proof is. required within the Hebrew language itself, and not merely, for example, from inner-Canaanite developments, of a shift. from qatil to qitl . 236. to rbAfe and yrib;fi as the Akkadian proper name Zakiru (m) [for references. see , e. g., A. T. Clay, Personal Names from Cuneiform Inscriptions of the. Cassite Period (New Haven, 1912) p .- 145] is to rkAze and Criticism Blake’s Poetry Essay yrik;zi (Ex. 6:21, etc .) . There is, however, no evidence that the Hebrew form rkAze represents. the Akkadian Zakiru . 233 Op. cit ., p. In Politics! 40, n. 96. Cf.

T. J. Meek, Hebrew Origins , 1936, p. 7. Similarly Bauer-Leander ( Grammatik , 459), on the basis of a possible. relation of adjectival qatil and abstract qitl : e. Essay! g. Ho Chi Minh And The! sapil-sipl , base- 234 So, e. g., Albright, Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible ( New York , 1935), p. 206, and Bohl , Kanaander and Hebraer 1911, p. 85. In an earlier. article ( JBL 43, 1924, pp. 389 ff.), Albright stated that Hebrew ' Eber for ' Ibr. stands by epenthesis for * ' Apir , adding that the philological process is. familiar in all the Semitic languages; e. g., Arab. bi'sa from ba'isa . Cf. Criticism Of William Blake’s Essay! the.

alternation of ma- si-ri and mi-is- ri in syllabic texts from Ugarit . 235 DeVaux ( op. cit .) goes to the extreme of describing the passing of. 236 The qatil type of noun does appear at times in Hebrew like a segholate ; cf. Gesenius , Hebrew Grammar , 1910, 93 hh , ii. Most of these are of the. getel -type which is usually the and The War Essay, A-type but is of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, sometimes the I-type (e. g., bcAq , , rtAy , , fmaD , ); but lz,Ge (Eccles. The Green Mile True! 5:7; Ezek. 18:18) is also found and Sociological Blake’s Essay that is. clearly I-type.

This phenomenon is, however, confined to Global, the construct. Conclusion : The complete phonetic equation of Criticism of William Poetry, ha-BI- ru. and Ibri is at most a bare possibility. If a difference in. morphology were to be allowed while identity of denotation. was assumed the difference in the vowels could be explained 237. and only the labial problem would remain as a phonetic. obstacle for the theory of common derivation. Even that. assumption , however, is implausible in research dealing as we are.

not with appellatives but proper names. The phonetic situa - tion , therefore, is such as would weaken an otherwise strong. case for tracing Hebrew origins to the ha-BI- ru , not such as. to strengthen a theory already feeble. C. Amarna Age Encounter. In spite of the negative conclusions reached thus far the. investigation of ha-BI- ru --Hebrew relationships is Sociological of William, not much.

ado about nothing. Minh Vietnam! For history apparently did witness an. ha-BI- ru --Hebrew encounter. How is the ha-BI- ru activity in Palestine as reflected in. the Amarna letters to be integrated with the Criticism of William Poetry, Israelite con- quest of their promised land as described in the books of. Joshua and Judges?

That is the question. 1. Conquest . The Amarna activity of the ha-BI- ru has. been identified by some with the Hebrew Conquest, more. specifically , with its first phase led by Joshua. But quite. apart from all the aforementioned obstacles to role in politics, any identifica - tion of the two groups, the Conquest under Joshua differed. from the Amarna military operations of the ha-BI- ru even in. broadest outline and fundamental character. (a) The Hebrew conquerors were a people which had long. been in Egypt and were newly arrived in Canaan . The.

Ugaritic and Alalah evidence reveals that the ha-BI- ru were. state . This restriction would not, of course, be significant so far as the. gentilic form yrib;fi is concerned. It becomes significant though when. account is taken of the derivation of yrib;fi from the patronymic rbAfa which. is found in the absolute state. 237 Albright compares a development of Blake’s Poetry, gentilic Ibri from an appellative. ha-BI- ru to Lewi , Levite, probably derived from * lawiyu , person.

pledged for a debt or vow; Qeni , kenite , from Global Warming: on Coral Essay qain , smith; or hopshi , 62 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. in Syria for a long while before the Hebrew Conquest (on any. view of its date). Moreover, since in Syria the ha-BI- ru had. long enjoyed permanent settlements of their own in well- regulated , peace-time integration with the Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry, local population. and authorities, while the Vietnam, Amarna letters show the ha-BI- ru.

in Palestine to be on the move, quartered here and of William Essay there, without absolute loyalty to any one party, it seems clear. that the Amarna ha-BI- ru were in Canaan as professional. militarists to exploit the anarchy there for their northern. ( b ) Also in conflict with this picture of the ha-BI- ru. operating in relatively small, detached companies and fighting. as mercenaries with no apparent national aspirations of their. own as ha-BI- ru is the Warming: Reefs, biblical picture of the Hebrew Conquest. as an Sociological Criticism Essay, invasion by a united multitude, advancing in their own. name in a concerted effort to Global The Effects on Coral Reefs, achieve a common national goal. (c) The natives of Canaan were to the Israelites an enemy. to be exterminated; the acceptance of them as allies would.

directly contravene Israel 's purposes. 238 But the ha-BI- ru. had no special antipathy for the Canaanites as such. Of William Blake’s Poetry! Quite. the contrary, the Canaanites were their employers, and for.

the most part the ha-BI- ru are found abetting the attempts. of those Canaanites who strove to story, gain independence from. Egyptian domination. Complaints are frequently heard from. the loyalists that Canaanite rebels are going over to the. cause of the SA-GAZ . (d) The goal of Israel in Canaan with respect to the land. was to gain possession, and agreeably their general policy in.

dealing with cities was to exterminate the Blake’s Poetry Essay, population and. seize the spoil but to refrain from destroying the cities by fire. The ha-BI- ru , however, after conquering and plundering, frequently set the city on fire, 239 apparently having no designs. to acquire territory or to build an empire. The difference between the two movements can also be. traced in matters of detail. 238 Cf. True Story! Josh. 11:19.

Nothing underscores this more than the anomalous. character of the Gibeonite alliance. It should not be overlooked, however, that after the days of Blake’s Essay, Joshua's leadership the original determination gave. way frequently to a fraternizing attitude (e. g., Judg . 3:5-6). 239 So repeatedly in EA 185. (a) Names: None of the the green mile true, names of the Israelite leaders. is found in the Amarna letters. 240 Moreover, where the names.

of the rulers of specific Canaanite cities can be checked (as at. Jerusalem , Lachish , Gezer , and Hazor ) there is in every case. disagreement between the Bible and the Amarna texts. (b) Numbers: In the pleas of the loyalists for military. assistance it appears that Egyptian support in the form of.

fifty or so men will be adequate to turn the tide of battle. It. seems unlikely then that these Canaanite kings were con- fronted with an assault on the scale of Joshua's army. 241. (c) Places: The ha-BI- ru operated successfully in Phoenicia. and Syria , but neither the Conquest under Joshua nor later. tribal efforts penetrated that far. 242. (d) Military Technology: The Israelites made no use of. chariotry, 243 whereas chariots were a standard division of the.

ha-BI- ru corps at Alalah and in Palestine. 244. 2. Pre-Conquest . Criticism Essay! An alternative must be found then to. identifying the internal equity definition, biblical Conquest under Joshua with the. Amarna disclosures. The procedure of the majority of scholars. is to place Joshua after the Amarna events. Thus Meek, 240 Proposals to equate Joshua with Yashuia and Sociological Criticism Poetry Essay Benjamin with Benenima. ( or Ben- elima ) are phonetically impossible. Furthermore the Amarna.

men were pro-Egyptian. 241 Cf. Minh And The War Essay! Exod . 12:37; 38:26; Num. Criticism! 1:46; 2:32; 26:51. At the same time it. should not be overlooked that even fifty professional soldiers might. provide adequate leadership to Global on Coral Reefs, defend a walled garrison. Moreover, there. are larger requests like that of Rib- Addi ( EA 71:23-24) for Criticism Poetry, fifty pair of.

horses and of quantitative research 200 infantry as a merely defensive measure. 242 The way in which this argument is of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, developed by Rowley ( op. cit ., pp. 42 ff.) is an illuminating exhibition of rewriting history to one's taste. He argues that the exploits of Joshua were mainly if not entirely confined. to the central districts while the ha-BI- ru trouble was in the south and. north and only at Shechem in the center. It will be recognized that this. is the precise opposite of the prima facie biblical account, according to. which Joshua's campaigns were notably in Ho Chi Minh Vietnam the south (Josh. Poetry! 10) and mile true story in. the north (Josh.

11:1-14). Of William Blake’s Poetry! Rowley rejects Joshua 10 in favor of the. supposedly conflicting account in Judges 1; and Joshua 11, in favor of. the supposed variant in Judges 4. According to the record itself, Judges 1. records events after the death of Joshua and the events of on Coral Essay, Judges 4 fall. well over a century after those of Joshua 11.

64 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. though he believes the Amarna ha-BI- ru and Joshua's cam- paign belong to one movement, specifies that the Amarna. account marks the beginning of the movement, while the. Old Testament account has to do largely with its final ac- complishment . 245 An odd quirk of Meek's view is that the. Exodus from Egypt under Moses follows Joshua by more. Albright, though he posits an earlier, pre- Amarna exodus. from Egypt and entry into Canaan on the part of the Sociological, Joseph.

tribes and finds their presence in central Palestine before the. major Hebrew arrival reflected in Minh Vietnam War Essay the ha-BI- ru of the Amarna. letters , dates the (second) exodus ( i . e ., Moses leading out. the Leah tribes) and the campaigning of Joshua in the 13th. century , long after the Amarna correspondence. 246. To cite one further variety of this approach, there is. Rowley's intricate reconstruction. He also espouses a theory. of a two-fold entry into the land, according to Sociological Blake’s Poetry Essay, which certain. Hebrew groups, notably Judah, press northward from Kadesh.

c. 1400 B.C. (these Rowley would identify with the ha-BI- ru. of the Amarna letters) while kindred tribes, including Asher, Zebulon, and Global Warming: on Coral Reefs Essay Dan, exert pressure in the north (these, Rowley. conjectures , are the of William Poetry Essay, SA-GAZ of the and The War Essay, Amarna letters). But. the exodus from Egypt under Moses and the entry of Joshua. into central Palestine he dates late in Criticism Blake’s Poetry the 13th century B. Role In Politics! C. Criticism Of William Poetry! 247. It will be observed that all these efforts to locate Joshua. after the Amarna episode involve drastic recasting of the.

biblical data--the rejection not merely of Ho Chi Minh Vietnam War Essay, points of detail. but of the biblical history in its basic structure. It requires. some ingenuity, indeed, to produce one of these elaborate. creations by Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry Essay weaving together a host of miscellaneous data. sublimated from their original contexts, but the result is. fiction not history. Under the mask of a claim of controlling.

the biblical sources by the green mile story means of archaeological and extra- biblical sources an almost totally undisciplined biblical ex- egesis has been introduced. But why the penchant for the. hasty rejection of the Old Testament source in favor of. 246 BASOR 58, 1935, pp. 10 ff. 247 See Rowley, op. cit ., esp. Sociological Of William Essay! pp. 140 ff. for a survey of the various views. interpretations of archaeological evidence which are them- selves so uncertain and disputed at countless points? 3. Story! Post-Conquest . There is another alternative for the. integration of the Amarna and the biblical histories. It is.

the reverse of those just surveyed in that it locates the Con- quest under Joshua before rather than after the Amarna. letters , at least before those of Abdi-Hepa. 248 This is in. 248 The historian is at this juncture always embroiled in the complex. question of the date of the Exodus. Blake’s Essay! Aware of the difficulties of the early. date ( i . Of Quantitative Research! e., locating Joshua in or before the Sociological Criticism, Armarna Age) and role not aware of. the proper solution of them all, the writer nevertheless finds insuperable. the difficulties of a later date. Relevant as the problem is, limitations of. space allow only brief comment on Sociological, a few salient points: a) The case.

presented by Global Reefs Essay H. H. Rowley (in From Joseph to Joshua ) against a Hebrew. entry into Egypt in the Hyksos period has not been answered. Sociological Criticism Blake’s! If valid, that majority of scholars which is certainly correct in dating the patriarchal. period early in the second millennium B.C. rather than (with Rowley) in the middle of it must date the beginning of the sojourn before the Hyksos. period , not (with Rowley) after it. And that, in turn, virtually necessitates. the early date of the research, Exodus. Criticism Blake’s Poetry Essay! b ) Advocates of a 19th dynasty Exodus. constantly appeal to and The Vietnam, the archaeological evidences of Sociological Criticism of William Essay, royal building opera- tions at the sites of Pithom and Raamses . G. E. Wright, for a recent. example , states, We now know that if there is any historical value at all.

to the store-city tradition in Exodus (and there is no reason to doubt its. reliability ), then Israelites must have been in Egypt at least during the early. part of the reign of Rameses II ( Biblical Archaeology ( Philadelphia and. London , 1957), p. 60. Italics his.) That is a curiously misleading state- ment . Is it not rather the Ho Chi Vietnam, case that, if one has no reason to doubt the. reliability of the Sociological Criticism Poetry, record in Exodus 1:11 that Pharaoh forced the the green mile story, Israelites. to build Pithom and Criticism of William Blake’s Raamses as store-cities, he cannot possibly identify. that pharaoh with Ramses II? For it is inconceivable that anyone should. have described the magnificent operations of Ramses II at these sites, transforming one of them into the capital of Egypt , in the rainforests being destroyed the store-cities terms of Exodus 1:11.

The Hebrew building and the Hebrew Exodus. must then precede Ramses II. c) Albright has dated the destruction of. Canaanite Bethel, Lachish , and Debir , all by of William Poetry conflagration, in the 13th. century B.C., and would identify this destruction with Joshua's campaigns. as evidence of Global The Effects Essay, a late Exodus. Such a deduction does not do justice to the. biblical facts that Canaanite reoccupation frequently followed Joshua's. conquest of Canaanite cities and that destruction by fire was exceptional. in Joshua's campaigns. (Apparently only Jericho and Criticism Blake’s Essay Ai among the.

southern cities were burned and only Hazor was burned in the Galilean. campaign . Josh. Media Role In Politics! 11 .13.) The evidence of these Palestinian excavations, therefore , actually requires a date for Joshua considerably earlier than the. 66 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. precise agreement with the chronological data in Judges 11:26.

and I Kings 6:1 and assumes a fairly brief period for Joshua's. campaigns which also agrees with the Criticism, biblical record. 249. Even more compatible with this view than with the Minh War Essay, iden - tification of Joshua's campaigns and the Amarna activity are. certain facts which have long constituted a popular argument.

in favor of the latter view. 251 Giving it a somewhat different. turn than the advocates of identification, the Criticism Poetry, argument is as. follows : Precisely those cities which appear in the Amarna. letters as under Canaanite control, whether pro-Egyptian or. rebel (and, therefore, likely allied to why are destroyed, the SA-GAZ ), are those. which were not permanently dispossessed either by Joshua 251.

or the Criticism Blake’s Essay, early tribal efforts after the death of why are, Joshua. Criticism Of William Essay! 252. 13th century fall of these cities. Equity! A propos of Sociological of William Blake’s Essay, Josh. 11:13, Yadin's recent. report of the second season of excavations at Hazor is of interest ( cf. Biblical Archaeologist, XX, 1957, pp.

34 ff.). In addition to why are the rainforests being destroyed, the latest. Canaanite city which was destroyed in the 13th century (perhaps then, according to of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, an early Exodus, in the days of Deborah, cf. Judges 4 and 5), remains were found of a 14th century city approximately in the el- Amarna. period (p.

44) and of an internal equity, earlier city of the Middle Bronze Age which. was effectively destroyed by fire, most probably by one of the Egyptian. pharaohs of the New Kingdom , Amenophis II or more probably Thut - mose III (p. 44). The supposition that a pharaoh of the New Kingdom. captured Hazor is questionable; for of William Poetry, in spite of their many campaigns into. Canaan their ignorance of the techniques of media role, siege warfare made the. capture of a fortified city a rarity.

But according to Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, the early date of the. Exodus, Joshua was a contemporary of Amenophis II and as for Hazor , 249 Josh. 14:7 and 10 indicate that the initial phase was completed. within five years of the entry into Canaan . 250 Cf., e. g., Olmstead, History of Palestine and Syria (New York, 1931), pp. 196-197; Meek, op. cit ., p. 20. 251 Joshua 10 and 11. 252 The situation at Shechem is problematic. Nothing is said about an.

Israelite conquest of central Palestine , but if the transaction of Joshua 24. implies Israelite control of Shechem , they subsequently lost their foothold, for Labaya ruled Shechem some thirty years after the Israelite entry. (cf. EA 289:22 ff.). Minh And The Vietnam! Similarly, if Albright ( BASOR 87, 1942, p. 38) is.

correct that Debir became the seat of a local chieftain after the Amarna. period , not only Joshua's raid but even Othniel's capture of that city. (Josh. 15:15-17; cf. Judg . Of William Blake’s Poetry! 1:11 ff.) failed to be permanently effective. Again, though Joshua's raid had depopulated Lachish and Gezer , these. cities fell again into Global The Effects Reefs, Canaanite hands according to EA 287:14-15, whether.

these lines mean that these cities had been assisting Pharaoh's enemies or. Albright has concluded that in southern Palestine of the. Amarna period the Criticism Poetry, main city-states were Gezer , Lachish , Jerusalem , and Hebron-Keilah. 253 In the period of Joshua. there are in this area five additional city-states: Jarmuth , Makkedah , Libnah , Debir , and Eglon , with still others like. Jericho , Bethel and Gibeon nearby. Albright then theorizes. that from c. 1375-1250 there had been a gradual reduction in.

the power of the city-states combined with an increase in. their number, which he attributes to a settled Egyptian policy. of divide et impera . This decrease in the power of the Cana - anite city-states is then judged to have aided Israel in her. Conquest. Indeed, this is seized upon as compelling evidence. that the Minh, Hebrew Conquest was late. It will be recognized that this reconstruction of the Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Essay, 14th.

century situation in southern Palestine is based in part on. silences in the Amarna letters. Such a procedure is precarious, however , for being, the silences might readily be accounted for by. the fact that the authors of the Amarna letters simply had no. occasion to mention the towns in of William Blake’s question. To the extent, however , that there may actually have been fewer city-states. in the internal, Amarna period than in Blake’s Joshua's day, a more plausible. explanation would be that between Joshua and the Amarna. situation the Israelites had been encroaching on the territory. of the old Canaanite city-states, reducing their number by. Furthermore, the the green mile story, spontaneous confederation of Canaanite.

kings described in Joshua 10 is Sociological of William Blake’s Poetry, difficult to explain if it be. supposed that Joshua's campaigns were contemporary with. or subsequent to the ha-BI- ru activity of the why are being destroyed, Amarna letters. For these letters graphically exhibit the mutual distrust and. growing antagonism among the Canaanite kings during this.

period . Is it not apparent that neither in the midst of, nor. soon after, such intrigues and civil strife could a king of. Jerusalem so easily consolidate the Sociological Essay, surrounding city-states for. were to why are the rainforests being, provide for Pharaoh's archers. Such developments indicate that.

Israel 's permanent acquisition of territory in Canaan was a gradual. process only initiated by Blake’s Essay Joshua's campaigns. 253 Besides these, Jarmuth was a minor independency and an Egyptian. garrison and media role in politics official were stationed at Eglon . BASOR 87, 1942, pp. 37-38. 68 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. a joint military venture against a common foe?

Abdi-Hepa's. futile efforts during the struggle with the of William Blake’s, ha-Bi- ru is Minh and The War Essay, a witness. that a king of Jerusalem would find such a task impossible. Again a more plausible reconstruction is that the Sociological Criticism of William Essay, collapse of. the five-city alliance against Joshua terminated the why are the rainforests, southern. confederation and prepared for the Canaanite disunity ev - idenced in the Amarna letters. If Joshua is to be placed before the Amarna period, the. problem still remains of synchronizing the Blake’s Poetry Essay, later Israelite tribal. efforts to take actual possession of their allotted inheritances. ( i . e., the story, Book of judges) with the Amarna ha-BI- ru move- ments . The arguments already presented against the pos- sibility of identifying the ha-BI- ru with the Israelites of.

Joshua's day for the most part hold against any such iden - tification at this point as well. However, in view of the Sociological of William Blake’s, known. tendency of the authors of the media in politics, Amarna letters to stigmatize. the cause of all enemies (or at Poetry Essay least all accused of disloyalty. to Egypt ) with the SA-GAZ label, we ought not to being destroyed, be too. dogmatic in denying the possibility that some Hebrew. activity might be hidden in the Amarna letters under that.

More significant is the fact that on the chronology followed. here the first oppression of Israel in Canaan 254 falls in Sociological Criticism Blake’s Essay the late. second and in the third decade of the 14th century B.C. This. corresponds with part of the era of the ha-BI- ru in Canaan. 255.

Israel 's first oppressor was Cushan-rishathaim king of Aram. Naharaim. Equity! 256 The area designated by of William Essay Aram Naharaim would include within its southwestern limits the region about. Alalah (and probably still farther south) which was a strong. ha-BI- ru center in in politics the 14th century B. C. 257 Though styled. 255 part of this era corresponds to the career of Labaya which can be. dated in the second and Sociological Criticism Blake’s third decades of the Global Warming: on Coral Reefs, 14th century on either. Albright's or Knudtzon's reading of the date on of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, the hieratic docket on. Labaya's letter, EA 254. 256 Judg . 3:8. It is possible that the media role, additional MyitafAw ;ri , double wicked- ness , was appended by Cushan's victims, perhaps as a pun on Myirahana Mraxa . Cf.

Burney, The Book of Judges , 1920, pp. 65-66. 257 Cf. O'Callaghan, Aram Naharaim , esp. pp. 131-145; cf. p. 122. melek , Cushan-rishathaim need not have been more than one. strong chieftain among several in Aram Naharaim. Sociological Of William! 251. Moreover, the name Cushan is the green mile true, attested in this area both as. the name of Sociological Poetry Essay, a geographical district and as a personal name. That there was a district in northern Syria in the 13th and.

12th centuries B.C. called Qusana-ruma , is known from Minh Vietnam the. list of Ramses III. 259 Still more pertinent is the Criticism, 15th century. tablet from Alalah 260 which contains the personal name. ku-sa- an . 261 This tablet is a fragment of a census list of. unspecified purpose, on which 43 personal names remain. along with the phrase found on the left edge, owner of a. chariot . The list then might well be one of the numerous. military lists and probably includes the names of several. Within the framework of synchronization proposed here.

for Hebrew and ha-BI- ru careers, it is difficult to dissociate the. oppression of Israel by Cushan-rishathaim from the ha-BI- ru. menace of the Amarna letters. The Green Mile True! The facts rather suggest that. elements of the ha-BI- ru corps from Syria active in Sociological of William Blake’s southern. Canaan as the terror of the loyalist Canaanite city kings began.

in time to raid the settlements of the more recently arrived. Israelites. The Israelites were becoming, like the Egyptians, too dominating a power in Global Warming: on Coral Palestine to suit the interests which. the ha-BI- ru were engaged to further. It appears then that it. was from plundering ha-BI- ru mercenaries that Othniel.

delivered oppressed Israel. 262. If so, the ha-BI- ru , certainly not the kin of Israel , were. actually Israel 's foe--the first oppressors of Israel in Canaan . And then, far from offering a Canaanite version of the Sociological of William Blake’s, Hebrew. 258 Such is the usage elsewhere in judges. Thus Jabin of Hazor is called.

king of Canaan ( Judg . And The! 4:2; cf. 4:23, 24), though he was but one of. several Canaanite kings ( cf . Judg . 5:19). So also, O'Callaghan, op. cit ., 259 Cf. W. Edgerton, J. Criticism Blake’s! Wilson, Historical Records of Ramesses III , 260 Wiseman, AT 154. 261 Ibid ., p. 140. 36 names end in internal equity definition -an ( ibid ., p. 10).

262 Since Othniel is associated with the south, this first oppression. probably centered there. 70 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. march of conquest, the Criticism Poetry, Amarna letters dealing with the. ha-BI- ru are a Canaanite portrait of the first scourge employed. by Yahweh to chastise the Israelites for their failure to.

prosecute the mandate of conquest. It is not difficult to story, surmise what verdict the biblical. historians would have given if they had left to us their inter- pretation of the data of the ha-BI- ru oppression of the. theocratic people in the early 14th century and Sociological Poetry the almost. total disappearance of the ha-BI- ru as a social-political entity. by about the close of the green true, that century. Criticism Of William Blake’s Poetry Essay! Surely they would have. judged that the brief Amarna Age encounter with Israel was.

for the mile true, ha-BI- ru a crucial hour of more than ordinary political. decision . It was an encounter that sealed their destined fall. Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia. This material is cited with gracious permission from:

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Most business owners and Blake’s marketers don#8217;t look at FAQ#8217;s as something important when it comes to the design of in politics, their website sales funnel. They are often shrugged off as something that, #8220;ho-hum, has to be in there.#8221; After all every other website has it. Taking this perspective is a critical mistake. Sociological Criticism Of William Blake’s Poetry Essay? FAQs should not be written just for the sake of why are being, filling space on your website. FAQs are an opportunity to convince cautious buyers. Yet across a number of different industries, FAQ#8217;s are totally ignored as a sales opportunity. Instead, they are viewed as some clumped together resource which the customer won#8217;t not even see until after they sign-up and run into a problem. For B2B SaaS apps, here#8217;s the Blake’s, general stereotype of what an FAQ pre-sale looks like (source: The focus of the questions is all about billing and this is the only FAQ section on the site I was able to find. And for enterprise-level marketing software like Pardot (pictured below), FAQs are presented as a resource in the post-sale stage. There is nothing like this pre-sale on the site.

The focus of this post is on pre-sale FAQs. Post-sale FAQ sections hardly count as FAQs because it#8217;s primarily just tech support at that point since they#8217;re already made the equity definition, purchase. #8220;Why do I need an FAQ section on my website?#8221; It doesn#8217;t matter what you#8217;re selling: web design services or headphones. When a prospective customer arrives on your website, it#8217;s like they are walking into your store. The main problem is that unlike when they actually walk into a store, there#8217;s usually no one around who they can ask for help if they have a question. Which is why many modern (customer conscious) websites have an FAQ. This is where the customer can find answers to Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Essay specific questions related to the purchase and Global on Coral use of your offering.

Think about Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry, is from their point of view: They don#8217;t know you They don#8217;t trust you But they want more information before they take a chance and give you their hard-earned dollars. Media In Politics? And very often, they are too lazy to pick up the phone or email you. They are more likely just to click over to a competitor. Think about it like this: if you ran a shoe store, your FAQ section is your customer#8217;s opportunity to Sociological of William Poetry Essay pull you aside and ask #8220;Do you have this in definitions a size ten?#8221; or #8220;Do you have shoe cleaner to keep these puppies looking fresh all year long?#8221; or even #8220;What#8217;s your return policy?#8221; Frequently Asked Questions are an opportunity to advance the conversation with customers and put their fears (aka objections) at ease so they are ready and willing to buy from you. Frequently Asked Questions help make customers comfortable with purchasing They set clear expectations with regard to what value they are getting and how flexible your purchase terms are. When the right questions are answered by this section, the conversion rate on your site will increase. Customer service overhead will be slightly lower, customer satisfaction may go up slightly (after the purchase because clear expectations were set early on) And as you#8217;ll see below, it might even improve your website#8217;s SEO. Ok, now that you know the why, let#8217;s get into the tips on how to create an effective FAQ. #8220;How do I get started writing the Criticism of William Poetry Essay, FAQ?#8221; Tip #1 If you#8217;re not sure where to start, begin with common, universal questions.

Check out other apps and definitions of quantitative websites in your industry are doing. Don#8217;t look to copy them, but use them as inspiration and a means to understand what your customers might care about when making a purchase decision. What questions does your closest competitor answer that you don#8217;t? Have you heard these questions from customers before? Your goal should be to whittle your list of questions down to Sociological Criticism of William 6-10 of the most commonly asked questions. Being Destroyed? Of course, you could try to include every single question that a customer might have, but this is impractical when you can answer 95% and more of people#8217;s questions with only 10% of the spectrum of probable questions.

Don#8217;t be shy to include questions with seemingly obvious answers. Even though you are right that many people can probably guess the answers to Blake’s Poetry Essay some of these questions, the media in politics, point here is clear communication and Poetry putting a customer#8217;s mind at ease. Remember, they don#8217;t know you and they don#8217;t trust you when they first come to your website, so confirming #8220;the basics#8221; are as they expect (or not) is The Effects Reefs important to them. Take for instance Highrise, from Sociological of William Blake’s, 37signals (the makers of Basecamp). Above are the FAQs as they appear on definition the Highrise pricing page prior to Essay signup. Why Are? The deal mainly with addressing a customer#8217;s risk-avoidance mentality #8212; like, #8220;I#8217;m not going to Criticism of William Blake’s get trapped into a monthly plan after I give you my credit card, there#8217;s flexibility and I have a way out, right?#8221; These questions are relevant to would-be customers when you consider two things: Historical Context : 37 Signals was one of the early pioneers of the SaaS (monthly billing for definition, software) business model in Sociological Blake’s Poetry the early 2000#8217;s. These questions, though less applicable today, we likely a deal-breaker if they weren#8217;t address when the market was less familiar with this type of pricing model. Placement : The questions are placed directly below the pricing table. It is at this point where customer are evaluating whether or not they want to buy (and probably the step where they are closest to a purchase, but also most likely to drop out of the sales funnel). Equity Definition? Tip #2 Talk to customers as often as possible!

One of the easiest ways to find what questions you should include in your FAQ section is to just talk with customers. If you read my previous article on how to create landing pages that convert, you know of the importance of capturing contact information so you can follow-up. Sociological Of William Essay? Understanding why visitors are not buying from you is not only critical to the design of your website and landing pages, but it should set the focus in part or in Warming: The Effects Essay whole for your FAQ. On Saber Blast, our email marketing tool for small businesses, I launched the site with a list of FAQs we thought most relevant. On that page, before the visitor can access pricing and sign-up, they need to enter in their email address. Each time this would happen, I would receive an Criticism email and follow-up with the lead, and, assuming they didn#8217;t convert, I would ask why. This lead to a few lengthy email threads where I had the opportunity to really dig into customer objections to understand what was holding them back from whipping out their credit card and buying on the spot. Here is the friendly, open ended message I wrote in order to elicit useful responses: And here#8217;s what I learned: People are enticed by anything that can get them more leads in their business.

But their key questions that aren#8217;t currently answered on the website are: How does it go beyond plain #8216;ol email marketing to get me those leads? ( I see now that I focused too much on the basics and need to focus more on what makes it unique, like our AutoGrow and autoresponder features ) Does it somehow automatically build my list? ( Need to address this by talking about the AutoGrow feature, but be clear we don#8217;t sell lists or anything spammy ) How are leads generated specifically? ( Need to talk about our Lead Suggest feature and how that works ) Is Saber Blast right for me at this time? ( Need to talk about who it is Minh and The War Essay ideal for ) Last, is Criticism Blake’s it a free trial or a 30 day guarantee? I#8217;m apprehensive to Ho Chi and The Vietnam War Essay enter my credit card on a free trial ( Be more clear that it#8217;s a 30 day money-back guarantee, might test a free trial down the road ) As a result of what I#8217;ve learned from Criticism Poetry Essay, these interactions, this week I#8217;m revising our FAQ sections to address these objections. I might also remove one or two less relevant (#8220;filler#8221;?) questions. Ho Chi Minh Vietnam War Essay? I never would have gained these insights if I hadn#8217;t taken time to follow-up with the people who declared their interest in the product by Sociological Blake’s Poetry Essay opting-in. #8220;How can an FAQ help improve my conversion rate?#8221; Tip #3 Keep a call-to-action close by. In my last article I talked about how call-to-action buttons are one of several essential elements in research making sure your landing page is able to convert visitors at a high rate. Similarly, one of the Criticism Blake’s Poetry Essay, simplest ways you can positively influence how your FAQ affects conversions (that is, a desired action being taken on your site) is to of quantitative research include a call-to-action button close by like in this example from FreshDesk. Here, the Criticism of William Blake’s, #8220;Get Started#8221; button is directly above and to the right. Definitions Research? Note the high level of color contrast so that it easily catches the Poetry Essay, eye, the size of the true, letters, and the gradient shadow clearly showing it#8217;s a clickable button. You may also want to consider linking within the Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s, text of your FAQ to whatever the next step is #8212; #8220;And you can do it here when you sign-up in 30 seconds.#8221; Tip #4 Nest valuable social proof next to or, even better, within the FAQ#8217;s. Many people who will be searching for your FAQ section will be looking for why are the rainforests being, it to be reassured on how X feature works or on your billing and refund policy. Remember, people are inherently risk-averse, and in order to earn a sale, the content of your website, including the FAQ, needs to overcome the Criticism of William Poetry, inertia of that perception that there is risk.

Perhaps the best way to do this is to add social proof in the form of why are destroyed, customer logos close to your FAQ section. The idea here is that you are leveraging the credibility of known third parties since you are less well-known to Criticism Blake’s Essay the customer. Check out how Schedule Once does it. Equity Definition? Just about anyone would recognize several of those logos. Here#8217;s how Beanstalk does it along side their FAQs. Note how they even spelled it out #8220;Trusted by Sociological over 70,000 companies worldwide.#8221; Are you ready to buy? I know I am (well, actually I#8217;m already a customer so I guess it worked). Global Warming: The Effects On Coral Reefs? You might be thinking at Blake’s Poetry this point, #8220;But what if I don#8217;t have logos, or stats, or testimonials to insert close by?#8221;

Not an issue. Media In Politics? You might want to look for other sources who you can reference, perhaps in ways you didn#8217;t expect. For instance, you can search for relevant quotes from historical figures (e.g. George Washington) or even large brands who may have written an article on a related topic. Sociological Criticism Of William Essay? Then you can quote them and include their picture or logo. Word of caution though: the keyword here is definitions of quantitative research #8220;relevant.#8221; You can#8217;t just take people#8217;s pictures or logos. It should somehow fit with what your product is or does. If you#8217;re still stumped, remember, you can still use something as simple as this Ben Franklin quote: #8220;An investment in knowledge pays the best interest.#8221; Obviously, this would work best for something like an of William Poetry ebook but you get the picture. Destroyed? #8220;How do I get visitors to read my FAQs?#8221; Tip #5 FAQ#8217;s are boring.

Make the questions and Sociological of William Blake’s Poetry answers personable, conversational#8230; even memorable (yes, memorable). Definitions Research? When you#8217;re writing your FAQs, think of them like a typical conversation you might have with a client over the phone. Speak from the perspective of #8220;we#8221; but do not use high-level language. Keep it simple so no one is alienated and it is easy to understand. In addition, to Sociological make it seem more like a real conversation, I recommend putting quotes around each question. The customer will automatically assign the action of #8220;ok this is me talking#8221; or #8220;ok some other customer who already bought from them asked this question.#8221; People prefer to read like that because it#8217;s showing action, a back and internal definition forth dialog, similar to what you would read in a novel when two characters are talking. If you want to make it memorable, consider the story of Fidelis Cloer as inspiration. Fidelis, also known from the documentary about him as the Bulletproof Salesman, makes his money selling armored cars during times of war. He is a self-professed war-profiteer.

After the fall of Baghdad in Iraq to Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry American forces in 2003, Fidelis expect the situation to get worse (which is did as roadside bombings became the the green mile true, norm). So he moved in and began finding clients (US contractors, wealthy natives) who wanted more security as they moved about the Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Essay, country. The armored cars were that security. While meeting with a client at his home, the client asked Fidelis if he believed enough in his product to definitions of quantitative research sit in it and drive while he shot at Blake’s it. Fidelis quickly agreed. Luckily the product worked and the client bought a car. Think about that example: how can you use your list of Warming: on Coral Reefs, most common questions to Sociological Criticism Blake’s Essay create a compelling, memorable image in your customer#8217;s mind? For instance, maybe in role in politics a question about how the Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry, 30-day refund works, you can say something a little wacky like: #8220;Not only will we give you a refund, no questions asked, but I will personally buy you lunch and a cup of coffee and set you up with a competitor#8217;s product, free of charge.#8221; Your FAQs do not have to be boring.

They are just one more opportunity to make an impression and show that you care about the customer and media role in politics making their life better. #8220;Where should the Criticism Poetry Essay, FAQ section be placed?#8221; Tip #6 Place the FAQ on Global Warming: on Coral Essay your pricing page, immediately prior to sign-up. Criticism Of William Poetry Essay? Whether or not you want to include an FAQ on Ho Chi and The Vietnam other pages is Sociological Criticism Blake’s Poetry debatable. Personally, for, I made the decision include them on the green mile both the homepage and the pricing page, but they vary based on the context. The homepage FAQ is more feature focused, while the Sociological of William Blake’s Poetry, FAQ on the pricing page is more about there being no financial risk since we offer a 30-day money back guarantee and flexible pricing plans etc. Definition? At the very least though, assuming you have a pricing page, you should absolutely place your FAQs there. Of William Blake’s Poetry Essay? In the internal equity, scope of considering any product or service, pricing is Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s almost always the last hurdle that a client jumps over why are the rainforests being (e.g. #8220;Which package is right for me?#8221; or #8220;Is there a competitor with a cheaper price?#8221;) before he or she buys. Mockingbird, which is Sociological Criticism Blake’s Poetry software that lets you create simple wireframe mockups, using this best practice, along with a number of other SaaS apps with high converting sales funnels. #8220;Best way to Global Warming: The Effects Essay layout and design the FAQ section?#8221; Tip #7 Include visual ques to support the text. If you were to open the Highrise FAQs / pricing page and look only at Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Essay the FAQ for a matter of 1-2 seconds, you would probably only remember the equity definition, lock symbol. Sociological Of William Blake’s? You can see a similar example of Ruben Gamez#8217;s BidSketch pricing page (great product by the way for anyone running a service business where you need to definitions create proposals and have them signed) If I were the designer of this page, I would increase the size of the symbols and their color contrast to improve the likelihood that visitors will remember the information being cover there.

Research shows that visualizations that include images and written information are easier for the brain to encode into Blake’s, memory compared to simply having text because our brain can draw relationships between the words and the images. For more information on how best to do this, for internal equity, other scenarios, not just for designing FAQs, input your email address below and I#8217;ll instantly send you a link: Tip #8 Get creative #8212; or copy someone who is. Look at sites that are constantly testing new ideas if you want inspiration. Sites like KISSmetrics, for Sociological Criticism of William Poetry, example, are very conversion focused in their design. In this case, they are integrating one of definitions research, their most common questions directly into the page design in addition to including it in Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry Essay the #8220;explicit#8221; FAQ section. Another example of creativity with how to answer common questions comes from Highrise by 37signals. They could have shown this in a much more boring, bland way, but study this example and you#8217;ll see how it#8217;s both visual and convenient. It#8217;s also clever, almost like a joke because for internal equity definition, each question the customer reads here they are going to repeat the word #8220;Yes#8221; in their mind. I certainly did.

What are some other interesting ways you can make the presentation of your FAQs more practical or visually appealing? Tip #9 Consider making it easy for visitors to find the information they want via a top-down list layout and/or bullet points. I#8217;m not a fan of the presentation in of William the example here, from loop11. Ho Chi Minh? However the potential practical benefit of this tip is still worth considering because there is a level of convenience in seeing all of the questions upfront and without scrolling. The main problem here though is Criticism of William Poetry Essay there are too many questions and the green true the light green color is of William Essay poorly contrasted against the background. Who wants to sort through this for an answer?

Now on to an example of how Wufoo uses bullet points in its FAQ layout. Quite frankly, I love their outline-like presentation here. Look at those two columns of bullet points in mile true story the second section below. Of William Poetry Essay? The amount of information on internal definition the page has plenty of white-space and room to #8220;breathe#8221; so I don#8217;t feel overwhelmed at all. I feel #8220;invited#8221; to skim this over. Quick side note on Wufoo : Attention to detail like this are what have made Wufoo the go-to form builder software for upstarts and enterprises alike. And its a big reason why I have been a customer of theirs for of William Blake’s Poetry, years now.

When crafting your FAQ, take into account small details (line spacing, font size, layout, organization, whitespace) that will make the difference between people skipping it because it feels like too much information or reading it. Internal? After you#8217;ve taken action on all of the above, consider trying some of of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, these advanced tips for further developing your FAQ and thus your sales or lead generation rate. Integrating one or more videos like Wistia has on their website (below) is truly an excellent and advanced example of media in politics, using your FAQs as an opportunity market your product. Of William Essay? The benefit to doing this is that it takes the Vietnam, #8220;conversation with your customer#8221; element inherent in FAQs to a whole other level. Seeing and/or hearing a real person answering the question increases a customer#8217;s cognitive retention of the Sociological, information. It also serves to further boost the credibility of the business by showing in definitions research a human way, #8220;Hey, there are real people behind this company website!#8221; The downside to Blake’s Poetry Essay this tactic though is role it will cost you something upfront to do right (if you#8217;re not a professional videographer) and to do it well (preparation, writing, editing). In either case though, a webcam could work, but I would still recommend spending $200 $500 for someone to shoot the video and write the script if neither are within your technical reach. Advanced Tip #2 Have your best customers write responses to each question in their own words. This is what I was referring to at the very start of Blake’s Essay, this blog post. What I#8217;m talking about internal equity, here is Criticism Blake’s Essay once you have a minimum number of customers (e.g. 10-20) who have bought your product and had a favorably experience, send each of them a survey via email with your FAQ questions.

Tell them you want to media role put your FAQs #8220;in the Sociological Blake’s Poetry, language of the customer.#8221; You might be surprised at what they write. Warming: The Effects On Coral Reefs? Advanced Tip #3 Send the FAQ in an email follow-up to leads that haven#8217;t converted yet. and several others practice this. It#8217;s a tactic I also plan to Criticism Blake’s Essay try out myself for research, very soon. The way it works is after a prospect has entered their contact information on your website and Sociological Poetry Essay you#8217;ve already sent them at least one follow-up email, then the next email can include the text of your frequently asked questions. Ho Chi War Essay? At the end of the email you should always ask something open-ended like #8220;If you didn#8217;t see your questions here, just hit reply and I#8217;ll be happy to help you.#8221; It#8217;s a simple way to be proactive while also engaging prospective customers. Advanced Tip #4 Track how many FAQs a person reads based on Blake’s Poetry Essay mouse hover or clicks.

If 3 or more, offer them a coupon or bonus on the spot. One way to in politics design your FAQ is to show all of the questions together, line-by-line as clickable text on a page. Then, when a question is clicked, using javascript, the answer would slide down and display underneath it. Using a bit more of your#8217;s or your team#8217;s code savvy, you can track which questions are being clicked on the most and if more than 3 questions are clicked on, you can respond by showing a pop-up offer to help via chat, or even a coupon code offer, depending on Sociological of William Poetry which questions are clicked. I know, this is equity somewhat complex, but it#8217;s one of those ideas that make sense and would be worth testing if you have the traffic, tech skills, and Criticism of William Essay revenue on the line to justify it. Ho Chi Vietnam War Essay? Advanced Tip #5 Create individual web pages for each FAQ and link directly to them. This tip is Criticism of William Poetry Essay one of the most practical from the standpoint of attracting more relevant traffic to your website. The idea is of quantitative research that you create a dedicated landing page (or blog post in Essay WordPress, it doesn#8217;t matter too much) for and The Vietnam, each common question. Then you can link out to each post where customers can get a very full, very clear answer to each question #8212; this is how the Criticism Blake’s Poetry Essay, example below shows you to do it. Equity? I actually recommend trying to answer the questions concisely on the page and Criticism Poetry Essay then including some kind of link (with relevant anchor text) at the end of the mile story, of the concise answer in Criticism case the customer wants to read more in-depth about it. The reason I recommend this way instead of how the below example shows you to do it is because you don#8217;t want to Ho Chi War Essay push your potential customer off your landing page.

You want to keep them in #8220;buy-mode#8221; as much as possible to maximize your conversion rate. Criticism Of William Blake’s Essay? Doing it this way, you get the Global Warming: The Effects on Coral Reefs Essay, best of all worlds: SEO benefits, high conversion rate, plus a better customer experience in case the concise answer isn#8217;t clear enough for the prospect. FAQs are an Sociological Criticism of William Poetry integral part of any well thought out online presence. Everyone knows what they are but not everyone uses them. Their purpose is to Warming: on Coral Reefs help you have a #8220;conversation#8221; with your customer by preempting what they need directly on the page #8212; and all they had to Criticism of William Poetry Essay do to get those answers was click or scroll down. In general, as you go about writing or rewriting your FAQ, remember what they are really about for definition, your target customer: Reassurance (#8220;What if X happens?#8221; #8212; their mentality is low risk) How something works, like a specific feature Billing (how much, how low, can I cancel, can I change, refunds, etc.) What are some other great example of FAQ pages? Can you think of any more advanced tips? PS If you got value from this article, please consider sharing it via Facebook, Twitter, etc. and sign-up to receive a once-a-week update with the Criticism Essay, next new article. 17 thoughts on “ 9 Tips on mile How to Write an FAQ That Grows Your Sales ” Thanks for a comprehensive articlejust some feedback from the Sociological Blake’s Essay, Litmus gang here. While we don#8217;t have a product FAQ linked to from our main site, we also don#8217;t make any efforts to hide our help center/FAQin fact, we welcome anyone to check it out!

It#8217;s available to the public at and we frequently link to articles there. Our entire website is also written in a conversational tone, meant to answer common questions about features as potential customers are browsing. Thanks for internal equity definition, the comment Justine. Sorry, didn#8217;t mean to sound too critical of what you guys are doing, and I stand corrected. I completely missed that #8220;Help#8221; page, which does look very complete and includes video (nice). If help is meant to assist customers prior to of William Poetry purchase, you might want to think about changing the label from #8220;Help#8221; to #8220;Questions?#8221; or something similar because I would only think to click on Help if I was already signed up and equity definition using the product. The thing I like about this post is that it drills down far. Most people think of a FAQ as a throw in Criticism Essay and don#8217;t truly build it to the green mile help all areas of Blake’s, your site/business. This is easily the most detailed assessment on Global on Coral Reefs how to build a FAQ I have seen.

Hey Michael, thanks for reading it and for the comment. You#8217;re absolutely right, an Criticism of William Poetry Essay FAQ is simply one more pillar upon which you have an and The War Essay (often overlooked) opportunity to service and sell customers. First thing is Sociological of William Blake’s Poetry first, I love your blog#8217;s layout and Minh Vietnam design; it#8217;s very easy to navigate and the colors are pleasant to the eyes. Second, this article is very timely because I#8217;ve been meaning to look for a web design team here in Phoenix to add an Blake’s FAQ page on role in politics my website. Clearly, after reading this I now have a list to follow on what standard an FAQ page should have. Thanks for this!

Currently running through your course and redesigning our services page to include these faq pointers. Great advice buddy! Nice, glad to see you#8217;re taking action. Keep up the good work, Daniel. This article would have been great had it been edited. Thanks for the honest feedback Holly. We#8217;ll add it to our content queue for editing.

We#8217;ll also add some updated info to it. Hello! I wanted to let you know I enjoyed your article very much. I selected a couple of your points to add to the tips in my latest post on my blog, The Copy Remodeler Thanks Lea Ann!

I tweeted it out. Leads in Poetry Essay 30 Days. Yes double my leads! Send Me the Free Course. Trusted by on Coral 10,000+ subscribers featured in. Criticism Essay? Matt Ackerson founded AutoGrow (Petovera Inc.) in why are the rainforests destroyed 2010 as a conversion-focused web design agency. The company has since worked one-on-one with over 500 customers and clients to create their sales funnels.

Matt is a graduate of Cornell University. He and Criticism Blake’s AutoGrow have been featured in Techcrunch, Forbes, Inc, Venture Beat, Mashable, and of quantitative research Popular Science among others. He and the team write in-depth articles on digital marketing, sales funnel design, and also offer an of William Blake’s Essay advanced funnel training course here on The Effects Sent once per Criticism Blake’s, week, all killer, no filler. AutoGrow helps small businesses, who don't want to stay that way, grow with web marketing and Ho Chi Minh and The Vietnam War Essay sales funnel design services.

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Until payment or a deposit has been made and the Order has been allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert , the Customer may choose to Sociological Criticism continue with the Order or to Minh and The War Essay cancel the Sociological Poetry, Order at any time The Customer agrees to equity be bound by the UK Study Helps refund policies and acknowledges that due to the highly specialized and individual nature of the Criticism of William Blake’s Essay, services that full refunds will only be given in the circumstances outlined in these terms, or other circumstances that occur, in which event any refund or discount is given at Essay the discretion of the UK Study Help. UK Study Help provides well written, customer Assignment and Essay papers to the students. Papers provided are only for the reference purposes to assist the Sociological Criticism of William, buyer by Minh War Essay providing a guideline and Sociological of William Poetry Essay, the product provided is intended to be used for research or study purposes. The Customer acknowledges that it does not obtain the copyright to the Work supplied through the UK Study Helps services The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help, its employees and the Assignment Editing Expert s on its books do not support or condone plagiarism, and that the the green mile, UK Study Help reserves the right to Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry refuse supply of services to those suspected of such behavior. The Customer accepts that the UK Study Help offers a service that locates suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert s for the provision of independent personalized research services in order to help students learn and advance educational standards, and that no Work supplied through the UK Study Help may be passed off as the Minh War Essay, Customers own or as anyone elses, nor be handed in Poetry as the Customers own work, either in research whole or in part. Of William Poetry Essay! In addition, the Customer undertakes not to carry out any unauthorized distribution, display, or resale of the Work and and The, the Customer agrees to Poetry Essay handle the definitions research, Work in a way that fully respects the Sociological Criticism Poetry, fact that the Customer does not hold the internal equity, copyright to the Work. The Customer acknowledges that if the Sociological Criticism Blake’s, UK Study Help suspects that any essays or materials are being used in violation of the above rules that the UK Study Help has the Vietnam War Essay, right to refuse to carry out any further work for Essay, the person or organization involved and The Effects on Coral, that the UK Study Help bears no liability for any such undetected and/or unauthorized use The UK Study Help agrees that all Work supplied through its service will not be resold, or distributed, for Sociological of William Poetry Essay, remuneration or otherwise after its completion. The UK Study Help also undertakes that Work will not be placed on any website or essay bank after it has been completed. Simon Evans ( Student ) The manner UK study help has removed grammatical, spelling and different mistakes from my research paper, it modified into Ho Chi and The Vietnam War Essay, amazing.

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How to write Software Tester resume in 2017. Are you confident that you can write a QA resume that will result in getting called for an interview session? Recruiters are getting swamped on a daily basis with several hundreds of product testing resumes; therefore, you need. to able to write an eye-catching resume that will stop your prospective employer in his tracks and make them take a. second look at your resume and Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry, then reach for the phone. So keep on reading this article and it helps you to and The Vietnam War Essay, walk through writing an eye-catching QA resume process!

There is a good news structure can be arbitrary. But you should approximately follow next points: Personal info Objective Summary Skills Employment history Education Additional information. Personal info should be located at the top of your resume and include next information: Pay attention to your email address. Sociological Blake’s Essay? It cant be something like that: War Essay? I have seen once email address familiar to It also looks weird. The best way is to use your First/Last name in your address. For instance, It would be great if you include links to Criticism, social media (LinkedIn, GitHub) into definitions of quantitative, your Personal Info.

Software testing resume objective is Sociological Criticism Poetry, typically at the top of your resume and this is just one sentence of definitions of quantitative research, what position you are seeking because hiring managers might have several position so you need to Sociological Essay, tell them specifically who you are. Objective: To obtain a QA engineer position. Looking for media role interesting project where I can elaborate my professional skills, study new technologies. Objective: To get an Sociological Criticism Poetry Essay interesting, well-paid job in IT area with opportunities for professional growth. Search for QA engineer, technical writer positions. Good summary is several sentences which described your key experience #038; skills. Other words, it is a briefly definition of your resume. Use it like the opportunity to catch hiring managers eye. You shouldnt copy your Skills section to the Summary section. Especially, with bullets.

You should describe your strongest side of technical background and it should look like sentences but try to avoid using the I word in internal equity definition, them. 10+ years of Sociological Criticism Poetry, experience as a software test engineer and the rainforests destroyed, lead test engineer in testing client/server applications. Proficient in Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, most test automation tools (Win Runner, QTP, Silk Test etc), automation methodologies and in writing automated scripts. Advanced level skills in test management tools like Quality Center (including administration) Experienced in why are destroyed, creating master test plans and detailed test cases based of off functional requirements and specifications. Experienced in analysis of use cases, complex system requirements and business requirements to ensure testability of the product. I have over 2 year experience in Software Testing (Web and Embedded); I understand product development lifecycles (Waterfall, V-model, Agile/Scrum); ? Wide range of test methodologies, types and approaches knowledge and usage: ? Static and dynamic; ? Black-box, white-box, grey box testing; ? Ad-hoc, smoke, sanity, regression, functional; ? Performance testing using JMeter tool; ? Security, GUI, usability, reliability, installation, configuration etc; Experience in financial application (web/mobile/desktop) and gambling/casino related applications (web/mobile/desktop) Working experience in all QA activities during full software life cycle Efficient communication in the international distributed teams Analytical and logical reasoning capability.

In this section you should describe your technical skills. Dont forget about formatting (it must be list) and avoid next mistakes: HTML is not a programming language. Sociological Criticism Poetry Essay? mySQL is actually too. Split your skills by internal equity group or your proficiency. For instance: Software testing, Languages, RDBMS, WEB, OS, Other Writing skills what you know not pretty well. I have read about it once on Sociological of William Poetry Essay Wikipedia is not a reason to include it in your resume. Why Are Being? Remember, you should verify your skill on the interview. OS: MacOS, Windows, Linux Software testing: functional/ regression/ exploratory/ UI testing; testing of mobile and desktop applications; design/ redesign and of William Poetry, execution of manual test cases; bug reporting and verifying; work with documents and technical specification; Tools: Jira, Firebug, SoapUI, BareTail, SIP IP Phones; Web: HTML, CSS, XML, REST, SOAP. DB: Mysql Other: SVN, Git. It would be good way if you put points in Warming: The Effects Reefs Essay, front of your skills which defined your level of proficiency. It helps hiring managers to Criticism of William Blake’s, understand how good you in skill which they were interested in.

In this case you also can use infographics: Main: Knowledge of testing methodologies and software development; Ability to Minh and The War Essay, prepare test documentation (test plan, test specifications, test report); Finished courses on software testing in large companies; Will be a plus: Knowledge of the principles of Criticism of William, client-server applications, Web; Basic understanding of HTML, CSS, PHP, JAVA, JS; Basic skills in internal, working with GIT, Jenkins, SVN and bug-tracking systems; Knowledge JSON/XML Understanding the of William Blake’s Poetry, database, knowledge of SQL Learn to use Selenium; Experience with Linux systems. The terminal, bash, etc. Bonus: ISTQB entry-level certificate. Set of experienced testers skills: Analyze test results Ability to code automated tests Create test plans Experience with agile development process Experience with web based testing applications Perform manual and automated testing Record test progress and results Research and analyze product features being tested Research new tools, technologies, and testing processes Capable of using source code repositories Communicate with technical and non-technical Resources Identify areas of improvement Identify, isolate and track bugs throughout testing Identify potential problems users may encounter Perform and document risk analysis Perform manual and media role, automated testing Record test progress and Criticism Poetry Essay, results. It is a custom to write about the green true story, experience in reverse order. Sociological Criticism Poetry Essay? In this part of a resume follow next structure:

You shouldnt detailed describe your irrelevant jobs. And If you have one try to define previous job responsibilities more matching to position which you are applying for. Or describe your irrelevant position in several sentences to show hiring manager that you dont have gaps and do focus on courses which youve taken etc. Describe what problems you solved in your projects, how you impacted and improved testing process (all others processes). Sep 2005/Current -Lead Test Engineer Centric Consulting. Client : Nationwide Insurance. Role: Lead Test Engineer 09/05 Present. Project: Nationwide : Office of Investments. Nationwide Office of Investment is building investments data infrastructure foundation with integrated hub. Develop test strategies, master test plans and test cases. Main contact between the development team and test team.

Communicate the the rainforests destroyed, test team expectations and strategies to Sociological Criticism of William Poetry Essay, rest of the in politics, team and project manager. Write extensive SQL queries and Criticism Blake’s Poetry, execute test cases. Gather and maintain/load test data to execute test cases. Coordinate the testing activities: prioritizing, scheduling, assigning work. Web: HTML/CSS, PHP, JavaScript DB: Oracle, MySQL, Postgre, Cassandra, Mongo Task tracking: Jira, Redmine, Pivotal Test management: TestRail, Zephyr Test automation: Robot framework(Python), jMeter, Selenium IDE, Protractor, Cucumber Integration: Jenkins, Bamboo, Karaf, Docker. Junior Manual Test Engineer. Project: websites.(Jan 2015 Aug 2015) 12.2010 03.2012 LLC Poultry Bashtansky Purchasing Manager. -control quality materials procurement Wrote reports about purchased products -planning and Minh and The, control costs for the purchase -responsibility for Sociological Criticism of William Poetry Essay the quality of the role in politics, finished feed (purchase of all components + standard test). Main department of statistics.

Leading Specialist. and the accept audit on the investments in Sociological Criticism of William Poetry, the logic and completeness -Search and definitions of quantitative, error correction, after making statements to Sociological Criticism Blake’s Poetry, the database Summarizing on the basis of the and The Vietnam War Essay, data and Sociological Criticism of William Poetry, reporting to of quantitative, management. What should include in of William Blake’s, the Education section of a software tester resume? First, list your highest level of education and name. Research? If youve earned a bachelors degree or higher, do not include your high school information. Include your GPA only of William Blake’s Essay if it is higher than 3.0 and its been less than three years since you graduated. Role In Politics? If you recently graduated and dont have any experience you can mention appropriate academic honors or extracurricular leadership roles to Criticism Poetry Essay, your future job.

Mention relevant modules/subjects you studied. For software testing positions candidates having computer networking and the rainforests, system administration skills are preferred. If you studied any subject or completed any course related to computer networking and Sociological Criticism Blake’s, system administration or Linux/Unix operating system knowledge, then add it in your resume. You can add courses which you taken or books which you read (some source most important for software testing. You shouldnt list all courses) 2007 Master of Science in why are being, Information Technology.

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. Courses in Project Management: Project management essentials and Project management #038; team leadership. Essay? Formal training in test tools: SilkTest, TestDirector, WinRunner. Testing Methodologies. Use Case methodology Object Oriented programming in C++ and Object Oriented analysis. There is the Global The Effects Essay, section for next data: Languages Marital status Interesting hobbies Any information is important to learn by an employer in the context of a particular job. How to write a freshers resume?

Software tester resume sample for freshers. There are general rules which shouldnt avoid: structure, formatting, design, appropriative of the technical skills to the position, conciseness, readability. The key idea of writing freshers software tester resume is focusing on your technical skills and relevant courses, open-source projects, any volunteer work. You must show hiring manager despite of lack of work experience you were ready on Criticism of William Blake’s Essay free work to get some relevant experience. How freshers looking for software testing job can get relevant experience? Get some experience by working on dummy projects that available on internet. Search for online dummy projects (e.g. Inventory management software) and download test software and all available documents. Follow complete testing process like: Requirements analysis Writing test cases Executing test cases Preparing test reports By adding dummy projects learned from internal equity definition, software testing courses:

If you have joined any software testing course to learn manual testing and Sociological Blake’s, automation tools then you can put this dummy project experience in your resume. How to write a software test lead resume? follow this link. Highly skilled Agile QA Tester has excellent technical ability and a sound understanding of destroyed, software debugging and testing. Has extensive knowledge of multiple computer programming languages and is very detail-oriented and focused. Criticism Blake’s Poetry? Has excellent communication skills a Bachelors Degree in Computer Programming and over six years working as an Agile QA Tester. Set of highlights for Agile QA Tester Resume. Excellent collaboration with all stakeholders in development projects Strong testing and debugging abilities Good time-management and organizational skills Able to work well with minimal supervision while also functioning as a vital team member Highly responsive to definitions of quantitative, client needs and changing software requirements Works well with developers, programmers, computer engineers, project managers and clients Excellent functional and analytical technical abilities Highly detail-focused. Agile QA Tester 6/1/2012 9/1/2014. Business Applications Technology Solutions LLCNew Cityland, CA.

Collaborated with all stakeholders in Criticism Poetry Essay, every project. Completed quality assurance testing of developed applications and the rainforests, identified code areas that needed improvements. Streamlined projects to make them meet changing needs. Was highly responsive to team and clients. Agile QA Tester 6/1/2008 5/1/2012. Corporate Insurance Technologies Inc.New Cityland, CA. Collaborated with all stakeholders in the quality assurance and development process. Tested and debugged code sections and adapted to meet the Sociological Essay, needs of Ho Chi Minh and The War Essay, clients. Met with teams weekly in Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, meetings for planning purposes. Met all deadlines for projects.

follow this link. Healthcare QA Tester Resume Samples. follow this link. 20 Tips about writing the best quality assurance resume. Ensure your resume stands out from others in the crowd: formatting, appropriative skills, readable structure, stunning cover letter.

Ensure your key information on the first half-page of your resume because the first page of your resume is crucial Make sure you read the contents of the Minh and The War Essay, job opening thoroughly. Next, you might need to rephrase your resume (for instance, add some skills) to become more appropriate to the position. Criticism Blake’s? You make sure your skills maximally matches to the job. pay attention to the needs of your employer. Write a clear objective at why are being destroyed the top of your QA resume. Dont write irrelevant cliches, but keep the Criticism of William Essay, objectives as short as possible; one or two lines being the media in politics, best. Let your on-the-job accomplishments also be on of William Essay the first page. Give some real-life examples to Ho Chi and The War Essay, showcase your problem-solving capabilities. Criticism Of William Blake’s? Do not write about the non-relevant job, responsibilities a lot of.

Save your doc with an appropriate name. Minh And The Vietnam? Typically, Name_Role/tile_years of experience.doc- (Name-QA_Analyst-8 Years.doc) is of William Essay, recommended. Keep resume short no more than 2 pages unless you are applying for equity definition team lead or managerial positions. Sociological Blake’s Poetry? Check for Minh War Essay spelling, grammar mistakes. Highlight relevant skills Do not put fake experience or skills remember, you must verify them. Focus on Sociological Criticism of William Poetry employers needs and internal equity, prepare your resume with relevant skills. Poetry? Avoid table structure. It is old-school. Being? Do not write CV or Resume word at the top of of William Blake’s Poetry, your resume.

It is obvious. Do not use I while describing your responsibilities: instead of research, I wrote test cases use Wrote test cases or test cases writing) Dont download your resume from LinkedIn. Sociological Criticism Poetry? It looks unprofessionally. You can stick this template. But it also isnt perfect. software testing resume format should be DOC or PDF. Pat attention to situation when hiring manager doesnt have Microsoft Office or situation when your resume formatting can be broken after opening it with MS Word.

So I recommend to use PDF format. In this case you can save your right resume formatting.