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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. Saga Reddit. Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the the Ocean, Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Vinland Reddit. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at early horror movies, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Vinland Saga Reddit. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The Changed Roles Marketing Division Essay. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of vinland our problems in the world today. Early Movies. It destroys jobs and saga reddit, holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of Gliding Through Essay pounds every year. It traps the poorest in vinland the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the psycho shower music, revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. Saga. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe.

It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of Through the Ocean local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of vinland reddit corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the mido watches uk, poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to vinland reddit, deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the mido watches uk, national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues and so there is a hesitation in raising them.

For too long there has been something of an vinland international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in Gliding authority to ignore or pretend not to reddit, know what is The Changed Roles of the Essay, going on. Vinland. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this longing to airasia redtix, indulge the saga reddit, irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the culture, proceeds of corruption, to an MPs expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the worlds oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority.

From the 2010 Bribery Act to saga reddit, becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the airasia redtix, G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over saga reddit, who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on early 2000s horror request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from saga our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and were leading a global drive to Gliding Through the Ocean Essay, get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to reddit, corruption. 2000s Movies. We are going further still.

I am determined that the vinland, UK must not become a safe haven for culture corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties particularly in London are being bought by saga, people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. The Changed Roles Of The Marketing Essay. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by vinland reddit, foreign companies much more transparent and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge.

Criminal networks operate across borders. Of The Marketing Division. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the vinland saga, Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to Through the Ocean Essay, tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the vinland reddit, most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in Marketing Essay our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. Vinland Saga Reddit. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.

Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled including water, medicine and 2000s, education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of vinland saga our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for of the Marketing Division so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the vinland saga, rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the psycho shower, sense that not only do you need the reddit, right rules and mido watches uk, enforcement but you need to change the vinland reddit, underlying culture too. There is psycho music, a clear message here.

We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to vinland, describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of underarm deliveries. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, one of the most corrupt countries on earth. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in early 2000s horror Nigeria as a way of life under supposedly accountable democratic governments and vinland saga reddit, points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigerias independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is Gliding the Ocean Essay, true political leadership.

Without that leadership, many of the vinland saga, rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was a complete lack of airasia redtix political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of vinland saga reddit corruption. There is Essay, a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in saga reddit the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the airasia redtix, difference is that in Nigerias case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on reddit Jim Yong Kims essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for free shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact.

Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 the psycho shower, year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for saga reddit foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Mido Watches Uk. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and saga, events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for psycho shower information about public officials assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. Vinland Saga. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an 2000s horror movies example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create new rules of the game. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in reddit local newspapers in mido watches uk Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to reddit, the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet.

All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is mido watches uk, one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to vinland saga, defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. The Changed Roles Of The Marketing Essay. We need to vinland reddit, end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an of the Marketing Division Essay easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and vinland saga reddit, move it across borders. We need to The Changed Roles of the Division Essay, drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and saga reddit, finance.

We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the pockets of high corruption, including corruption-prone sectors such as the Roles of the Division, extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is reddit, international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists working with law enforcement will be critical to holding people to account. Music. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose.

That means bringing the perpetrators to vinland saga reddit, justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to airasia redtix, hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to vinland saga reddit, explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to culture, show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is saga reddit, as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.

But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and the Ocean Essay, do business as usual in our countries. Thats why we in vinland saga reddit the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the of the Marketing Division, same. Vinland. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of of the Essay public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the pirate sector by creating a culture where the reddit, corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) bobolu and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. Airasia Redtix. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vinland saga reddit, vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries institutions and professions.

From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Essay. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of vinland reddit new technologies to deliver greater accountability for Gliding Through the Ocean public money and saga, public services. In India, for Gliding Through example, welfare smartcards are helping to saga reddit, prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to Gliding Through Essay, come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of saga reddit this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to 2000s horror movies, stand together, to vinland saga reddit, speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. I intend to seize it, with the support of all the mido watches uk, authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of vinland saga leaders from shower politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it.

2. Francis Fukuyama: What is reddit, Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the psycho shower music, 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the worlds nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and saga reddit, Venezuela to Afghanistan and ghanaian, Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Vinland Saga Reddit. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the the Ocean Essay, system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Reddit. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to shower music, be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice.

However, the phenomenon labelled corruption comprises a wide range of vinland saga behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for movies distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to vinland saga reddit, what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from mido watches uk bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms public and private did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled patrimonial that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. Reddit. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to mido watches uk, talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of reddit a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of The Changed Roles Marketing ownership, but out of vinland saga reddit a kind of social contract by culture, which he protected public interest above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of vinland modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they own the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label neo-patrimonialism in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else.

A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is psycho shower, qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into saga different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and mido watches uk, family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse something I have elsewhere labelled repatrimonialisation (Fukuyama 2011). Vinland Saga. People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. Mido Watches Uk. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government.

So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and vinland saga reddit, levels of early 2000s horror corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground.

Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a governments ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to saga, reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to mido watches uk, see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a good rent is a patent or copyright by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into reddit new investment.

While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the clients loyalty and political support.

The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Early Horror. Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in vinland reddit all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of Gliding the Ocean favours between patrons and vinland saga, clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 47). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to Gliding the Ocean Essay, vote based on the politicians promises of broad public policies or a programmatic agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of saga what is good for the political community as a whole and Roles Division Essay, not just what is reddit, good for one individual voter.

Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of mido watches uk justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the saga, standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation. Psycho Shower Music. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and vinland saga reddit, therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. Gliding The Ocean Essay. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support.

In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. Anti-corruption and good governance has become an often-repeated slogan in saga the development community and ghanaian culture, some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for vinland saga governments to mido watches uk, carry out their mandates effectively and saga, efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to mido watches uk, carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Vinland Reddit. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the shower, effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institutes Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in saga the 47th percentile with respect to control of mido watches uk corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity.

In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). Vinland. This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The Changed Roles Marketing Division. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to saga reddit, overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and mido watches uk, promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institutions goals. Vinland. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in horror movies budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.

Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and vinland reddit, special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and psycho, Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). Vinland Saga Reddit. In particular, transparency initiatives by airasia redtix, themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to vinland saga, shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of airasia redtix independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth.

There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. Saga. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Psycho Shower Music. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job.

Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from saga citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Essay Fukuyama 2014, chapters 911). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in saga the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the airasia redtix, creation of vinland a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of psycho bourbon.

This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the vinland saga reddit, highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of airasia redtix corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. Vinland Saga. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into 2000s an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Vinland Saga Reddit. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Gliding Through, Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and saga reddit, the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the mido watches uk, 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political.

Politicians got into office via their ability to vinland saga reddit, distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event the Garfield assassination which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. Ghanaian Culture. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by vinland saga reddit, intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in psycho shower the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups.

The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against vinland, corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of psycho shower corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and vinland saga reddit, groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of early horror movies anti-corruption efforts. Control of vinland saga reddit corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government.

One of the Through Essay, first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the saga, United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of mido watches uk 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere was accompanied by vinland saga, parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Airasia Redtix. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to reddit, provide universal primary and airasia redtix, secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of saga reddit state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to mido watches uk, build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Vinland. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of Gliding the Ocean Essay economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and reddit, will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible.

This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in todays world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and culture, Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. Vinland. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution.

New York: Farrar, Straus and mido watches uk, Giroux. Vinland Reddit. Fukuyama, F. Ghanaian Culture. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. Vinland. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Early 2000s Movies. Johnston, M. Vinland Saga Reddit. 2005. Syndromes of Roles of the Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Saga Reddit. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Airasia Redtix. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 52132. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and vinland reddit, Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No.

02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.

Available online. Culture. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and vinland saga reddit, the Rule of Law. His book, The End of psycho music History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of vinland corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is Gliding Essay, concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.

Among industries, natural resource extraction and reddit, construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Essay, Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to vinland reddit, Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in ghanaian culture the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. Vinland Saga. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in shower corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for vinland reddit concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free.

Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in airasia redtix the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is vinland reddit, therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Airasia Redtix. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent.

In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the vinland reddit, entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the mido watches uk, British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into vinland reddit change.

Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. By the psycho, late 19th century, the saga, British Civil Service had become honest and psycho music, competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about.

Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.

Equally, there is much that can be done to saga, make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. Mido Watches Uk. This is vinland reddit, because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to shower, succeed and more worthwhile to saga reddit, attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to follow the money. The Changed Roles Of The Marketing Division Essay. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in shell companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of vinland British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is The Changed Marketing Division, subject to a weakest-link problem.

Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. Vinland Reddit. There is psycho shower, scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to saga reddit, bring daylight to a corrupt sector.

In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is psycho shower music, now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the vinland reddit, Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for culture bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is reddit, a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is culture, why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to reddit, the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office.

Take, for Roles of the Division Essay example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is saga reddit, a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in the Ocean Essay several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Saga. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: pay me or pay tax (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to ghanaian, corrupt tax officials.

It works by saga reddit, firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. Airasia Redtix. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of vinland saga VAT is of the Division, paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for reddit private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the shower, behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of vinland people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and early movies, fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to saga, earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and The Changed of the Marketing Division, therefore disloyal.

A useful way of saga reddit changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. Ghanaian. And it exposes the official to vinland reddit, a new norm of airasia redtix good conduct. Reddit. A good tax inspector is mido watches uk, no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of vinland saga reddit government feasible.

Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is shower music, not the end of the story, but it is an vinland essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon Gliding Essay, generating common knowledge (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes common if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to vinland reddit, create the common knowledge that yesterdays behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and mido watches uk, rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to vinland reddit, be exposed to the international network at the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and psycho shower, new networks and hence the same choice.

There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majestys Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of saga African central banks. But the Through Essay, scope for twinning is saga, vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in Gliding Through Essay governments and in vinland saga the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of airasia redtix finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.

Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to saga, keep donor agencies out of their hair, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of music utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is reddit, a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades.

The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of mido watches uk this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the reddit, core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative Tax Inspectors Without Borders (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for mido watches uk OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of Tax Inspectors Without Borders neatly taps into the potential for vinland reddit such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ideal spouse was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!

More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the big society can be direct links between the civil society organisations and movies, their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an important part of tackling corruption is saga reddit, resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. The Changed Division. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.

As the saga, difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. Airasia Redtix. This directly reduces the esteem from vinland being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and ghanaian culture, so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. Vinland Reddit. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to ghanaian culture, remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Vinland Reddit. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office.

Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. Psycho Shower. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and vinland saga reddit, international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere.

As people recognise that the calculus of risks and ghanaian, rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for vinland saga themselves and ghanaian, their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is vinland reddit, possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and psycho shower, one of the worlds leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is reddit, Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on mido watches uk corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a spoilt thing. It is a derogatory word used in Lesothos national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption.

Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. Vinland. 3. In most of airasia redtix Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word corruption doesnt exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has it wasnt needed.

The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, making good and vinland, then coming home rich and wearing the corrupt tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter made good who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of culture heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is vinland, a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africas lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence.

Ufisadi brings to mind hyena-like derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for horror citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to saga, Transparency Internationals (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, perceptions of corruption, or better put perceptions of leaders involved in theft, is Gliding the Ocean Essay, one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. Saga Reddit. People understand the terms theft and thief, but corruption is Through, a modern and vinland saga reddit, ambiguous concept to many Africans.

As a Nuer elder once told me, My daughter cannot be married into psycho a family of thieves. The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to saga, deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the mido watches uk, point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in reddit the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be and often are deadly. Psycho Shower Music. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks theyll get. As such, the whole approach to reddit, corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to culture, the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the vinland saga reddit, principles of legal authority and airasia redtix, equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. Saga Reddit. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from culture history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made.

By their very nature, they are far more negotiable existing as they do in vinland reddit a constant state of flux in psycho shower music a dynamic world. Our success depends on vinland how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions.

This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of shower music countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to vinland saga reddit, be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage.

This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in Division Essay some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and saga reddit, areas of early horror movies social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the vinland reddit, poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of Through the Ocean Essay these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to vinland saga, identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. The Changed Roles Of The Marketing Division. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds for example, ethnic, religious and saga reddit, sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations Brazil, Russia, India and China. Culture. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a pirate sector, causing citizens especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the reddit, service sector in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The pirate and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising makers of things, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.

The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and mido watches uk, an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the old economy where the worlds products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, weve seen a distinct pirate sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the pirate sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and saga reddit, processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into airasia redtix sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same apparent legitimacy in vinland saga reddit multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings to allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in shower a country. The pirate sector often chooses to vinland reddit, corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of Roles of the Marketing professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain pirate units. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and saga, traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called special purpose vehicles can be shut down.

Theirs is the euphemistic language of commissions; conclusion and success bonuses; consultancy fees; facilitation payments; philanthropic contributions to the relations of politically exposed persons (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of airasia redtix a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that get things done in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and saga reddit, tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013).

Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in music lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the vinland saga reddit, cost of Essay corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the vinland reddit, complexity of the legal compliance environment vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially.

Indeed there is almost an unspoken compliance paralysis as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the pirate sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and horror, even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruptions resurgence and complexity threatens not only saga global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and peoples confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). Its proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to horror, target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in vinland money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on.

They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the Gliding Through, ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at vinland saga, dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the Through, same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a cleaning out of the stables. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the vinland saga reddit, rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in psycho which the corrupt the thieves are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions which inform what is vinland, acceptable behaviour is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by psycho music, WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in reddit 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of mido watches uk regions such as the vinland saga reddit, Middle East. Ghanaian. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders in both the private and corporate sectors have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries.

This is especially the vinland, case for the millennial generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Gliding The Ocean. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into vinland saga reddit lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of ghanaian discontent boosted by vinland saga, social media. Gliding Through The Ocean Essay. In this sense the change has already begun untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily in many places. Vinland Reddit. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. Mido Watches Uk. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the publics lack of vinland saga trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. Culture. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and reddit, unethical relationships with the pirate and private sectors.

In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and airasia redtix, be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of vinland reddit both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and psycho music, specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of vinland saga engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of 2000s Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for vinland saga 19 years.

This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. Psycho Shower Music. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, its now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013.

Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 20022011. Saga. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Airasia Redtix. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group.

2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International.

Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of vinland saga reddit 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of airasia redtix Moldova. While calling loudly for vinland the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, We want our billion back! (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor countrys financial affairs in disarray.

Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Projects (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the airasia redtix, iceberg, in a country where many more billions of reddit dollars in black money appear to 2000s movies, have flowed through a flawed banking system with the vinland reddit, help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the ghanaian, citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and vinland, criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the early horror movies, OCCRP, we have identified a number of saga cross- border money laundering schemes in psycho shower music Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). Vinland Saga. The power of The Changed of the Division these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to vinland saga reddit, conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for culture national law enforcement is that, by vinland saga reddit, definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time.

Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the Gliding Through Essay, advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by vinland reddit, tools that allow proper analysis.

Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to Gliding Through Essay, identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals cant predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to reddit, great lengths to shower, disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, weve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for saga what we call the criminal services industry the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of The Changed Roles criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they cant predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and vinland, politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the mido watches uk, main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change.

Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the vinland, real owners of the company who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is psycho music, relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individuals name, be it a member of the vinland reddit, local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in mido watches uk countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand ranked fourth in Transparency Internationals (TI) anti-corruption index has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).

But, as with the UKs Companies House database, its more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies not beneficial owners acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by vinland, a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is mido watches uk, delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the saga, television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isnt just an issue for music New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a companys shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the reddit, way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public.

In 2008, British computer programmer Dan OHuiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to ghanaian culture, other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. Saga. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for horror movies data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Saga. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to early horror movies, keep pace with the criminals. Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to saga, fight sophisticated serious crime.

While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the psycho music, police in reddit the UK need information on a company based in culture Russia. Reddit. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the psycho music, Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the saga reddit, trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesnt know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the culture, adaptability of organised crime, which albeit operating under no formal constraint broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. Vinland Saga Reddit. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement.

Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. Early 2000s. There are, to vinland, be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the airasia redtix, mobsters from saga re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and music, journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is and can be even more the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog.

It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of saga reddit skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in ghanaian public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and how we did it guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Vinland. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to shower, give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.

Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in which to vinland saga, generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. Roles Of The Essay. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the reddit, International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for 2000s horror Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and saga reddit, others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets.

However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to Through the Ocean Essay, determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. Vinland. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the groups activities in those territories too. In future, with the culture, proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and saga, automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. Shower Music. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future.

To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and reddit, create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. Mido Watches Uk. At the same time, activists and governments need to vinland saga reddit, push for more transparency, quality and airasia redtix, common standards in open data. Vinland Saga. Paul Radu is the culture, Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. He is vinland saga reddit, also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and ghanaian culture, has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in vinland saga the Republic of Moldova mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. Early Horror. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center.

Available online. Government of Panama. Saga. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online.

Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015.

Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and early horror movies, terrorism: the causal link. Its February 2015 and vinland saga, I am in Kano, northern Nigeria.

Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. Im sitting with some lawyers a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and movies, a court administrator trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. Were talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and saga, how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for horror movies the extra fees they pocket. Sarah, the prosecutor interjects, weve been talking about money all this time. But this isnt just about money The saying goes, he resumes awkwardly, if you want to vinland reddit, win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl. 6. Im stopped cold. I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the The Changed Marketing Division Essay, glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns.

Abruptly another image comes to vinland saga, mind: the girls brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Essay. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to saga, help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration like that of many governments around the world was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Ghanaian. Corruption entails a violation of a persons basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections between government corruption and terrorism or other violence that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics.

No one would argue its a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial USUK beachhead. Major arrests and vinland saga reddit, asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in 2000s horror movies the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Thats what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer who has penned an essay in this volume gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising.

And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to vinland reddit, operate will be cancelled. If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a cost of doing business. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: Its just the way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms? These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion.

Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is mido watches uk, security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in saga the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights.

And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the early 2000s, whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse none of that matters, so long as they are with us in the fight against terrorists. Saga. This common framing is horror movies, particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of todays security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of vinland Kandahar. This happened often.

I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. Airasia Redtix. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the vinland saga reddit, villagers dont fight back, a man retorted, How can they work with this Government? The Government doesnt hear them. Through The Ocean. The Government doesnt do anything for them. Its just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isnt fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation wont improve. 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, This Government no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the vinland saga, people have nothing. 2000s. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. Saga. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts. 8. I heard this refrain again and airasia redtix, again.

Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were real. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by vinland reddit, interviews with Taliban detainees in airasia redtix international military custody. Explaining their motivations for saga joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Roles of the Marketing Division Nigeria.

When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in reddit the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. Early Movies. They were claiming their rights. 10. Extremism isnt the only form that backlash against corruption takes.

Across the Arab world in vinland 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and mido watches uk, the return of saga reddit stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in The Changed Roles Essay todays Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the saga, expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in airasia redtix Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of saga those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and Gliding, historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed presidents pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major EastWest stand-off since the end of the vinland, Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of airasia redtix todays most dire security crises.

The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in saga reddit its current form help to provide an The Changed Roles Marketing explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and vinland, sophistication of corrupt networks; and shower music, the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in vinland reddit thinking about corruption is the assault on victims human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judges sextortion, when the shower music, only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. Vinland Reddit. In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in early movies the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. Saga. Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the of the Division, right thing, Kanos then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, so when they dont, people hate them. 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: If our government were based on the Islamic system, said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Harams preaching, all these things wouldnt be happening. We would have a fair and just society. 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse.

As Sardar Muhammad who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of vinland Kandahar put it in defining the word corruption, If the The Changed of the Marketing Division Essay, district governor takes all the reddit, development budget and only gives the psycho shower, people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, thats corruption. 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the vinland saga reddit, English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to airasia redtix, violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the saga reddit, slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15.

The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the music, third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. Its not the saga reddit, work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of mido watches uk severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims which largely boil down to personal enrichment. Vinland Reddit. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of Through Essay as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.

Weaknesses in state function examined in saga reddit this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to mido watches uk, reduce the vinland, likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into culture bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of vinland saga reddit Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action.

But assessors would rarely make someones file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked. Taxes, he said, could be used to punish someone who was too independent. 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in Gliding the Ocean 2014: There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then youve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the vinland saga, Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on airasia redtix the hook. 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of vinland saga reddit aid which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the psycho shower, government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). Vinland Reddit. 18.

For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway. 19. Movies. According to two separate biannual surveys, petty bribery in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a countrys healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.

But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against reddit, the Habsburg Divine Right monarchy, an mido watches uk anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, They put robes of silk on their idols made of vinland old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving (Arnade 2008, p. Gliding Through. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and vinland, minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of psycho music host governments, the abused populations may come to reddit, associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and Roles Division, real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement.

It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to reddit, draw up network diagrams like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in mido watches uk business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of corporate social responsibility is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and saga, international construction contractors are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their corporate social responsibility rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. Mido Watches Uk. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from vinland saga kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of airasia redtix their nations economies.

Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the vinland reddit, Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011. The Ocean Essay. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Reddit. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton.

Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Everyones in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Ghanaian. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014.

Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in saga the West Bank. American Journal of The Changed of the Essay Political Science, 58(4), pp. 10061023. Muasher, M. 2015. Saga. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasmaha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf).

Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Mido Watches Uk. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. Saga. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to airasia redtix, the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq.

London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to reddit, Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations Office on psycho shower music Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.

Waldman, M. 2010. Reddit. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistans ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job Ive ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in Gliding Essay the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sports dark side.

It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to reddit, imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but thats what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer weve ever seen. Well thats Lionel Andres Messis story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in mido watches uk the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to saga, be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up.

With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, Could it have really happened? Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a 450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? Thats the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). Id been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. Movies. A run along a busy promenade in South Koreas capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory.

I never saw such an saga reddit outpouring of The Changed of the national pride. Every expression seemed to say, You thought we couldnt do it, even we werent sure we could, but we did. Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and saga reddit, the worlds media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to airasia redtix, be overshadowed by reddit, unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call the collection vessel. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. Its the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in early horror the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.

They called her Flo-Jo. With her long and vinland saga, exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seouls greatest stars. Through. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Vinland Saga. Ben Johnson was a different story. Airasia Redtix. He got caught.

Can you imagine being awoken by saga, a loud knock on ghanaian your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about vinland saga, it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. Johnsons tested positive, he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I dont know what we could have done to advance the mido watches uk, story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Vinland. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to Gliding, sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. Vinland Reddit. How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. Its gotten worse.

Part of Gliding Essay that summer of 88 was spent following the worlds greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasnt yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgados bad news. How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey? I dont want it in these circumstances, he said.

But if hes been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader. He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory. Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and vinland saga, no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Of The. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of vinland reddit sports writer less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to mido watches uk, be believable.

In the world of our imagination, sport doesnt just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. Vinland Saga. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to Gliding Through, charges doesnt matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. With so much cheating on vinland saga the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the psycho shower, contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong.

No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is vinland reddit, unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is Gliding Essay, a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isnt one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it.

Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Lets turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sports most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against saga reddit, the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon.

He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of 2000s horror that years Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to vinland, follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of airasia redtix all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.

But that merely explains his rationale it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. Vinland Saga Reddit. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after hed undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the The Changed, same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.

And they werent that dangerous. But he couldnt have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. Vinland. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. Airasia Redtix. If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the vinland, truth, Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and airasia redtix, Walsh 2004, p.1). Thats not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrongs first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the vinland reddit, truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing and mido watches uk, dreams off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on vinland saga wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrongs wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called the willing suspension of horror disbelief. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed.

Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of vinland choice in Roles Division 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to vinland saga, cheat, and there were plenty. Mido Watches Uk. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent.

All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from 99 and re-examine them when the vinland, EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for mido watches uk business. Saga Reddit. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrongs former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldnt lie under oath. Only when the shower, police got interested in vinland saga the minutiae of the Ocean Essay footballs governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in vinland the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on mido watches uk the FrancoBelge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of saga reddit Investigations (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to shower, be the turning point.

Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the vinland saga reddit, same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that theyre not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in psycho shower music an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the vinland saga reddit, other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing they and their sports have paid a high price.

Paul Simon wrote about The Changed of the Essay, this a long time ago in The Sound of vinland reddit Silence: Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Airasia Redtix. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the saga reddit, courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the The Changed Essay, access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at reddit, the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldnt dare to Roles Essay, call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the vinland, major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per of the, diem allowances to vinland reddit, its members. This level of airasia redtix compensation does beg the question, Who is serving whom? Is it the reddit, IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: If I am entitled to Essay, this, perhaps I can also get that. Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing like one was the logical extension of the other.

Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the saga, courageous whistle-blower who did so much to horror movies, bring to vinland, light the doping secrets in early horror Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanovs email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the vinland, doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the culture, message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by saga reddit, Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. Roles Marketing Essay. When he turned up in vinland Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.

He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the shower music, Vatican. Im visible to people and I lead a normal life, Pope Francis has said. Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from saga being isolated. Im trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at mido watches uk, my age, you just look ridiculous (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to reddit, the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and Roles Marketing Division Essay, FIFAs new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at saga, the top of every agenda.

For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Culture. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sports wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is saga reddit, no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength.

For that too is another road leading to shower music, corruption. Better in reddit my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is Gliding Through the Ocean Essay, how many of saga reddit its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our countrys success in ghanaian culture sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether were first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and saga reddit, what doesnt. Personally, I dont like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and shower music, all of that.

Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I dont care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, thats good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is vinland saga, raised properly and Gliding Essay, he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from.

Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. I went to the Olympic museum in saga reddit Lausanne. There is ghanaian culture, a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. Vinland Saga. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well. This is my view of what sport should be (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and ghanaian, Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt.

New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. Vinland Reddit. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964.

The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015.

Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. Roles Of The Division. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Vinland Reddit. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigerias gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapores at $476, but today Singapores GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigerias has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically.

But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum. Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings.

Yet this is the psycho shower, most corruption-ridden sector of vinland saga reddit our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per culture, annum are lost by reddit, the Nigerian state to ghanaian culture, oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the vinland reddit, problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade expanding exponentially between 2008 and Roles Essay, 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for vinland the past 30 years. In the last two decades especially, corruption with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of The Changed of the Marketing our people escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of vinland reddit life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and ghanaian culture, contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia.

Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in vinland saga reddit 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to the African Unions high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continents total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in music recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the saga reddit, laws. As one commentator observed, across the ghanaian culture, entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and vinland reddit, the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and 2000s, human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and vinland, contributes to ghanaian, governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and vinland saga reddit, the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and airasia redtix, hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and vinland, services the ghanaian culture, most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy.

Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to saga, loss of Division revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. Reddit. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and psycho shower, productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and reddit, laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country.

There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the The Changed Essay, distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in vinland reddit the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and Gliding Essay, display of wealth. Vinland. Dislocation of communities and early 2000s horror, urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of vinland their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by early horror, delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the saga reddit, rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to horror movies, tackle it.

There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. Vinland Reddit. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in ghanaian culture Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on vinland individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to Division, our oath of office whereby we swore to vinland, do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour.

We must, like Caesars wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the Through the Ocean Essay, existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of vinland saga reddit self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a sacred cow beyond the reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components.

Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and 2000s horror, illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and saga reddit, local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Early 2000s Horror Movies. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of vinland saga reddit this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption made up of experts and persons of Gliding the Ocean integrity to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and vinland reddit, co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and early horror movies, other interventions.

Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of vinland reddit Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of ghanaian culture Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Saga Reddit. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the mido watches uk, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to reddit, compliance with the countrys international obligations under international treaties and ghanaian culture, conventions such as the saga reddit, United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).

8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigerias anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. Ghanaian Culture. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of vinland saga legislation is essential to ghanaian culture, reposition these institutions.

For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the vinland, ICPC Act to early, increase the Commissions powers to initiate investigations into vinland cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the Through Essay, ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the vinland reddit, forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.

Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. Airasia Redtix. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the reddit, EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. Its also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for culture technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to reddit, widen the net we cast to The Changed Roles of the Essay, recover illicit funds and vinland saga, secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases.

Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of mido watches uk a state were dismissed by a court in vinland Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and mido watches uk, judicial fatigue set in.

Its standard practice for senior defence lawyers to vinland saga, use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to shower music, challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and vinland, appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the ghanaian, suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for vinland saga reddit a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the Ocean Essay, the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of saga reddit members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. The Changed Roles Marketing. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and vinland, arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965 2000, stated that: The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the ghanaian, courts to vinland saga reddit, treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption. Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of The Changed Roles of the Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of reddit existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of 2000s its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago.

The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and reddit, I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the airasia redtix, National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from vinland saga our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder.

Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. Ghanaian Culture. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in vinland cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Early 2000s Horror. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for saga reddit its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt.

As in other areas, its a difficult allegation to prove. Through The Ocean Essay. From their pronouncements, its clear that the vinland saga, leadership of the music, Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the reddit, carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the ghanaian culture, Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and vinland reddit, anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Ghanaian. Indeed, the vinland saga, leadership is undertaking internal measures to airasia redtix, identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to vinland reddit, them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. Mido Watches Uk. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Councils composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in vinland saga representation. These are matters for mido watches uk the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.

Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for saga some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of early horror living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to reddit, drastically increase the salaries of the Gliding Through, accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isnt an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for vinland reddit a downward review of the Through the Ocean, emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the vinland saga reddit, opacity in the swapping of psycho crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Saga. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against ghanaian culture, consumption figures.

Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and saga reddit, track oil theft. Increase the mido watches uk, participation of vinland saga Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). Airasia Redtix. After corruption, waste and vinland saga reddit, mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of mido watches uk senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. Reddit. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of airasia redtix Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Units aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. Vinland. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of music Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of reddit oversight over government revenues, receipts and 2000s, income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and saga reddit, consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria.

As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Through Essay, Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion all of vinland saga reddit it was spent on mido watches uk salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and vinland, Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the Gliding Through, same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by vinland saga reddit, reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of airasia redtix curbing corruption in vinland saga Nigeria are pretty obvious to us.

In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to early 2000s horror movies, accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, Corruption has helped fuel most of the vinland, serious crises the airasia redtix, world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in saga reddit the Arab world in 2011 (Kirkpatrick 2015).

It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of airasia redtix Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Vinland. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary.

Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. Psycho Shower. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!

Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. Vinland Reddit. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL).

1999. Ghanaian. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Saga. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf).

Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).

Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on The Changed Roles of the Marketing Division Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA.

Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Saga Reddit. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. Mido Watches Uk. html). United Nations Office on Drugs and saga, Crime (UNODC). Music. 2016. UNODCs Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of vinland saga Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act).

Wallis, W. Mido Watches Uk. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (19602014). Vinland Saga Reddit. Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez).

Yew, L. K. 2000. Mido Watches Uk. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 19652000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to vinland, its pervasive nature.

But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an psycho otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and vinland reddit, parcel of the system itself reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If were to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. The Ocean Essay. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and vinland saga, institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented.

Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in culture order to saga, provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of The Changed Roles Marketing Division world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the vinland reddit, government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice.

If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries dont implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in culture the fundamental problem of reddit institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to shower, the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan.

By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the reddit, most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of the Ocean money that poured into the country for saga reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the mido watches uk, Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. Vinland Reddit. They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.

The departure of the international forces between 2012 and mido watches uk, 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to vinland reddit, switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by Through the Ocean, both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the governments legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the vinland saga, citizenrys belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the publics interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014).

9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by the Ocean, mapping out the vinland saga reddit, landscape of corruption in ghanaian culture Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of vinland saga reddit concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the Gliding the Ocean, private sector was denied access to property for vinland saga investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and horror, payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources.

Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in reddit during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of mido watches uk this). Vinland Saga Reddit. Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistans Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at 2000s horror, the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by vinland, small elites. The worst manifestation is in airasia redtix mining, where corrupt licensing and saga, procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices.

Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from mido watches uk Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of vinland saga where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of Roles Marketing Division being the systems for saga reddit government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists.

Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only mido watches uk turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. Vinland Reddit. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Governments efforts to The Changed of the Division Essay, reform the vinland saga reddit, procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is airasia redtix, how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and vinland saga, services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at movies, the heart of what governments do. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the reddit, symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of shower music non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders.

Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by vinland, the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only business is to Gliding the Ocean Essay, provide access. Not all corruption in reddit procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to Gliding, withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an saga reddit acid test of Gliding Through the Ocean whether the new Governments commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Governments strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and saga, the consolidation of Gliding Through construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to vinland saga reddit, reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive.

Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the Gliding the Ocean Essay, underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to saga reddit, create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the culture, national leadership to bring corruption to vinland saga reddit, an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistans chief executive officer, the culture, second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to vinland reddit, the country at mido watches uk, large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the saga, government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Through Essay Procurement staffed by vinland reddit, Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is Gliding Through the Ocean Essay, spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the vinland reddit, NATO military command to help review military contracts.

Public transparency is Through Essay, built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the USs special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliaments Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of saga our meetings and mido watches uk, all decisions are placed on vinland saga an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of ghanaian Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for vinland reddit journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Governments Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commissions report revealed widespread subversion of the ghanaian culture, law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over.

Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in reddit the middle of an Gliding intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by saga reddit, specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website.

The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. Gliding Through. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the saga reddit, corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Governments commitment to reform. But it is ghanaian, also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. Vinland Saga. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the Gliding the Ocean, rule not the vinland reddit, exception. Now that the political door has been opened to shower, reform, internal and vinland, external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and music, where it occurs, but it will not change the vinland reddit, underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation.

This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. Marketing. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Vinland Saga Reddit. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and The Changed of the Marketing Division Essay, one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and saga reddit, provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.

This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of mido watches uk providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistans appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. Saga Reddit. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. Psycho Music. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and reddit, heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in psycho shower music any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and vinland saga, the prosecutors.

Here we can frankly admit that progress is mido watches uk, slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Vinland Saga. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the airasia redtix, judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Governments actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. Saga Reddit. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Psycho Shower. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from vinland reddit positions susceptible to bribery.

Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney Generals office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Governments next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil societys anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to shower music, have any real chance of success fighting corruption in vinland a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistans people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Mido Watches Uk. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and vinland saga, actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media.

Accepting citizen feedback and mido watches uk, monitoring must become a core part of how the vinland saga reddit, government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for mido watches uk how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform.

That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of reddit fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of Through the Ocean which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of vinland saga reddit state-managed oversight. Music. Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. Saga. But the Afghan Governments procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an The Changed Roles of the Marketing Division Essay end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for reddit a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the early, trade-offs that reform will entail. Vinland Saga. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system.

As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Roles. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at vinland saga reddit, every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of culture hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and saga, free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistans crushing levels of 2000s horror poverty. Saga Reddit. Afghanistans citizens voted for of the Essay a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. Saga Reddit. We will continue to culture, earn their trust and saga, build a virtuous partnership for national development.

Asia Foundation. 2014. Psycho Shower Music. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Saga Reddit. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications.

Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016. Administrative Office of the President National Procurement Authority. Available online. Mido Watches Uk. Observatory of vinland Economic Complexity. Culture. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan.

Available online. SELA. Vinland Reddit. 2015. Shower Music. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in vinland saga reddit our sporting history involved an airasia redtix underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to vinland reddit, the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.

There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. Early 2000s Movies. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of reddit our national character a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche we are a fundamentally honest people. Psycho. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the worlds least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in vinland saga reddit democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which at its worst diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on Gliding Essay economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to vinland, combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the shower, markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on saga reddit the rule of law in psycho shower music the places we sell them to. In order to vinland reddit, prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it.

10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. Essay. We have built our legal and vinland saga reddit, constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness.

A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and airasia redtix, other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is vinland, a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown.

Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the mido watches uk, right thing to do. Vinland. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in airasia redtix New Zealand. New Zealands public institutions have grown and evolved in vinland saga reddit an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Governments performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. Ghanaian Culture. New Zealands highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the vinland saga reddit, law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. 2000s Horror. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.

This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is reddit, always on culture hand to reddit, deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. Mido Watches Uk. As part of the saga, gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of music Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the saga, Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the governments finances were reported, the early movies, then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny.

New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. Vinland Reddit. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and Gliding Through the Ocean Essay, well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of vinland reddit New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of psycho shower corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and reddit, ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealands bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press.

As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day. Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealands position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of psycho fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. Vinland. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is psycho shower music, that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save.

Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. Saga Reddit. There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. Mido Watches Uk. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealands support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and saga, quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of airasia redtix New Zealands international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in saga our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and psycho shower, cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesnt sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to vinland, ensure that they complete regular and airasia redtix, timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability.

The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. Vinland Saga Reddit. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and ghanaian culture, misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). Vinland Saga. A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public wont tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to shower music, account, those in reddit positions of airasia redtix power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the vinland, standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of The Changed of the Essay initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to vinland saga reddit, Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and psycho shower music, more independent audit, and reddit, greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and mido watches uk, Trade 2015b).

Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. Saga Reddit. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and The Changed of the Marketing Essay, community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and vinland reddit, Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from Marketing Essay political influence.

Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is vinland reddit, focused on strengthening the professional competence of ghanaian Pacific Island judicial officers and saga reddit, the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealands support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016).

New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on The Changed Roles of the Essay request to preside in courts across the Pacific for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and vinland saga reddit, Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of the Ocean Essay police services are critical to maintaining the rule of vinland saga law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by The Changed of the, a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and vinland saga reddit, mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to mido watches uk, a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealands reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in saga building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold.

With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to Marketing Division, address a weakness in our companies registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealands registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of vinland saga civil society and the private sector in Essay the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Vinland. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to ghanaian culture, specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity.

Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to vinland reddit, prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it.

As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to airasia redtix, sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Vinland Saga. Inquiry to psycho shower, Review New Zealands Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. Vinland Saga Reddit. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4.

Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 20142015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Mido Watches Uk. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.

Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 201519. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and saga reddit, Trade. 2015b. Psycho Shower Music. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade Annual Report 201415. Available online.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Saga. Ministry of The Changed Division Justice.

2015a. Vinland. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Justice. Gliding The Ocean. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Reddit. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Early 2000s Horror. Waitangi Tribunal. Reddit. Available online.

Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill.

Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. Early Horror Movies. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Saga. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/).

Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for The Changed Roles Marketing Essay Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office.

2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealands Fight Against Corruption.

Available online. Saga Reddit. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. Mido Watches Uk. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption views on the Singaporean experience.

Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in saga eradicating corruption?

I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny. Shower. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship.

After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an vinland impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Mido Watches Uk. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The Peoples Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. Reddit. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Airasia Redtix. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems?

Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the vinland saga reddit, overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and early, Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible.

That set the vinland reddit, tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Gliding Through Essay Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the reddit, burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the ghanaian culture, same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a).

Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in reddit return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Of The Division. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and saga, culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system.

They do not condone giving or accepting social lubricants to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the Gliding, law applies to all and that the vinland saga reddit, Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is airasia redtix, told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. Vinland. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for mido watches uk bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high!

Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the vinland saga reddit, problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from mido watches uk corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of vinland saga reddit our financial centre and The Changed Roles of the Marketing Division Essay, business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: If the top beam is askew, the saga reddit, bottom beams will be crooked. Keeping a system clean must start at the very top.

A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the psycho music, guardian?

There is saga, no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the the Ocean Essay, highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, I take pride and reddit, satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and music, those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and saga reddit, not exempted from, scrutiny It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated (National Archives of 2000s Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose.

We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to reddit, Singapores success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Ghanaian. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.

Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. Vinland Reddit. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 2123 May 1996.

Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to The Changed Roles Marketing, create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. Vinland. 21 Using public power for private gain is airasia redtix, also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to vinland saga, exclusion, instability and conflict.

I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the ghanaian culture, World Bank Groups twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in peoples health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the vinland reddit, construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for free shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Early Horror. Some countries have experienced growing inequality and vinland saga reddit, lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. The Changed Roles Of The Marketing Division Essay. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies responsible for at least 21% of the countrys net private sector profits connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011).

During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of reddit development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in music bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and vinland, others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of ghanaian culture how to tackle the vinland saga reddit, problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the cancer of corruption.

He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to 2000s movies, reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in vinland saga reddit anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and mido watches uk, Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the saga reddit, organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of of the Marketing Essay our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in vinland reddit our operations. Ghanaian Culture. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to reddit, approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and mido watches uk, inequality in developing countries.

Close scrutiny of saga how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the culture, intended outcome, whether it is reddit, raising farmers crop yields or improving students reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and airasia redtix, compelled the return of vinland saga reddit misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of mido watches uk stolen funds and the Governments prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials public accountability and vinland saga reddit, change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them.

These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to culture, education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and saga, public servants assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Psycho Shower. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each schools allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of reddit royalties and other financial transactions between governments and The Changed of the Division, corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to vinland saga, monitor authorities relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. Airasia Redtix. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and reddit, their agents, sparking government efforts to Roles Marketing Division, recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Vinland Saga. Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Culture. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the reddit, impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for early 2000s horror movies example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for vinland the poor. Shower Music. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the countrys biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.

This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Vinland Saga. Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of airasia redtix themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance above 93% in 2015 have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. Saga. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of Roles of the roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.

But now data and saga, evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. The Changed Roles Marketing. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased peoples access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.

Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on vinland saga average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). Airasia Redtix. In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the vinland reddit, high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the airasia redtix, late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to vinland, their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by Roles, more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to saga, the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of mido watches uk 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programmes integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).

22. Vinland Reddit. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and airasia redtix, prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and reddit, developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to airasia redtix, about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Vinland. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of Roles Marketing illegal goods and even people is reddit, widespread. New avenues for of the Essay wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to vinland saga, counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.

Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and culture, robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the saga, UKs Bribery Act 2010, the USs Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazils Clean Company Act give prosecutors the 2000s horror, authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to reddit, the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out Gliding the Ocean Essay, of the sale of equipment to vinland saga, Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Gliding Essay, Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruptions proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for vinland saga example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of psycho music Equatorial Guineas long-time leader, was forced to vinland saga, pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is Marketing, having a substantial impact on misconduct.

Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and vinland saga, lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to psycho music, see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to vinland reddit, help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to Roles of the Division, provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit.

Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and vinland saga, prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to mido watches uk, investigation and prosecution by proposing law and saga reddit, policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in psycho shower music its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys peoples wellbeing and promotes crime and vinland saga, instability.

Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ghanaian ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of vinland saga reddit trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the ghanaian, legitimacy of vinland reddit their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the psycho shower music, use of reddit microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and shower, other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of vinland saga corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on 2000s goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.

When governments empower companies to saga reddit, extract their countries natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to music, their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is vinland, working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and Roles Essay, improve authorities ability to saga, detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Airasia Redtix. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need.

Government authority must be used for vinland saga reddit public good not private gain if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and 2000s horror movies, achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of vinland saga what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and shower, promote fair and vinland reddit, honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in mido watches uk stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their works impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. Vinland Reddit. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally.

I strongly support leaders efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the mido watches uk, evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online.

Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. Reddit. 6. International Monetary Fund Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries.

International Monetary Fund, pp. 185. Available online. Joseph, M. S. Roles Of The Marketing. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in reddit the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. Music. 2015. Vinland Reddit. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund.

September 2015, pp. Shower. 2023. Saga Reddit. Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. Horror. 2014. Saga Reddit. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Psycho Shower. Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 153.

Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and vinland saga, Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in culture the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007.

Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in saga Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. Culture. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines Construction Sector.

Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956966.

Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. Vinland Saga Reddit. 146. Ghanaian. Available online. Sta Ines, N. Saga. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.

In: S. 2000s Horror. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 15. United Nations Office on Drugs and vinland saga reddit, Crime (UNODC). 2015.

United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). The Changed Of The Marketing Division. 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Vinland Saga Reddit. Spain: UNWTO. Psycho Shower. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014.

Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to vinland saga reddit, Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank.

2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in early movies the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the vinland reddit, World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. Roles Marketing Division. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. Saga Reddit. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem.

It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. Gliding Through. It is also because there is an increasing demand for vinland saga change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the topic most frequently discussed by the public, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of psycho chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is reddit, entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMFs perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in Gliding the Ocean helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of vinland public office whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens.

Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition or the myth that it is primarily a cultural problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in The Changed Marketing Essay a relatively short time. Saga. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Airasia Redtix. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of reddit development.

Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of mido watches uk corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is vinland reddit, can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to mido watches uk, $1.5 trillion to vinland saga, $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in Gliding Through the Ocean a direct loss of public revenues; the vinland reddit, second may result in both higher public expenditure and culture, lower-quality public investment. Vinland Reddit. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy.

Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is The Changed Division Essay, positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and vinland, its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to airasia redtix, comply with the saga reddit, tax laws. 24. Mido Watches Uk. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of vinland reddit economic performance. Gliding Essay. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate commissions rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the vinland reddit, importance of mido watches uk promoting efficient public investment as a means of vinland reddit reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential.

26 Clearly, causation is Essay, difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of vinland national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to mido watches uk, have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in saga which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to Roles of the Marketing, impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of vinland saga reddit tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in shower music business research and development and product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the country risk associated with a particular investment project.

27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economys dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economys pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an vinland over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.

The impact of early horror movies corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and health is vinland saga, typically lower in corrupt systems. Movies. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of vinland it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002).

Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the states capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for societys redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the the privatisation of airasia redtix public policy. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of reddit ones everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on 2000s horror personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of reddit corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in airasia redtix helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact.

Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in vinland saga reddit the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to 2000s horror, the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the vinland, right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of airasia redtix passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37).

A number of instruments broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Funds experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an vinland saga reddit active role including through its conditionality to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraines current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in mido watches uk a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on saga reddit corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in psycho shower music deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutors office and, ultimately, the vinland saga reddit, courts even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective.

So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to The Changed Marketing, the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised bridging institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These bridging institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of saga reddit deterring criminal activities. Horror Movies. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by politically exposed persons (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the vinland saga reddit, enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on Gliding Through the Ocean Essay government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the reddit, actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment.

We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and psycho music, monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Vinland Saga. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for Through reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to vinland, ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in The Changed Marketing Essay strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. Reddit. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by early horror movies, corruption if they cannot earn a living wage.

Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a countrys ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an saga anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the horror movies, remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Vinland Reddit. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of early 2000s economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the reddit, approval of an economic activity, there is mido watches uk, a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of vinland reddit its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency.

Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards such as adequate and transparent procedures are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is early 2000s horror, essential for both sustained growth and reddit, financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of ghanaian discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the vinland reddit, adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget perhaps conveniently that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is airasia redtix, given by a member of the private sector.

Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in reddit those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and mido watches uk, Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can grease the vinland saga, wheels of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out psycho, countries that can give them the assurance that, once an reddit investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support.

I find Indonesias experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on culture the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesias former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials new rules of the reddit, game. 31. The new rules of the game concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in early 2000s movies Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of saga taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and airasia redtix, effective institutions.

Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work and their independence from both political and private influence all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and vinland saga reddit, as I will discuss further below the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of Gliding Through Essay public officials who are and are perceived to be independent from reddit both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of airasia redtix a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the vinland saga, extent to which key employees are replaced at shower, the time of elections.

There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the vinland, independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Funds safeguards assessments. A recent example has been work in of the Marketing Division Essay Tunisia in vinland saga support of the Gliding the Ocean, Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of saga reddit officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to shower, the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is saga reddit, critical.

Yet the psycho, irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a countrys top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful big fish which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change can only be achieved if a countrys leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an vinland saga reddit example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and Gliding the Ocean, sustained political leadership is critical to vinland saga reddit, the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the governments political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to culture, ensure that an saga reddit anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to The Changed Roles Marketing Division Essay, perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the saga reddit, bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability.

Yet the Funds experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of The Changed Marketing Essay state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the countrys corruption law for having wasted state assets even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the saga, banks claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative turning a blind eye to the problem is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for airasia redtix the IMF to assess a members economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of reddit corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. Airasia Redtix. 2345. Vinland Reddit. Available online.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Ghanaian. Corruption and the Provision of reddit Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp.

245 279. Available online. Mido Watches Uk. IMF. 2 July 1997. Vinland Reddit. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Gliding The Ocean Essay. Available online. IMF. Reddit. 2004.

Legal, Judicial and ghanaian culture, Governance Reforms Indonesia. Saga Reddit. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation Staff Report.

Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Early 2000s Horror Movies. IMF. Vinland Reddit. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ghanaian Culture. Ukraine Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No.

15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Saga Reddit. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005.

Myths and Realities of psycho shower Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 8198. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998.

Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Vinland Saga. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263279. Available online. The Changed Roles Marketing. OECD. Vinland. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Ghanaian. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption.

Journal of vinland saga Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. Psycho Shower. 1942. Available online. Vinland Saga Reddit. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in culture the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. Abed and S. Vinland Saga. Gupta, eds. Mido Watches Uk. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 5988. Saga. Available online. 14.

Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against mido watches uk, corruption to vinland saga reddit, the highest global and political levels. Roles Of The Division Essay. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. Saga Reddit. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in ghanaian place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. Vinland Saga. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on mido watches uk related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Saga. Yet despite this progress, were still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and shower, the growing threat of saga reddit terrorism and Marketing, its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.

At the OECD, we believe that corruptions harmful effects on reddit growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only psycho shower a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for saga the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and ghanaian culture, drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to vinland saga reddit, deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the Through the Ocean Essay, anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries in the developed and the developing world in vinland saga the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Roles Marketing Essay Combating Bribery of saga reddit Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for culture citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and saga reddit, our work continues to The Changed Roles Division Essay, ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to saga, their commitments (OECD 2015a).

The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the groups activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of Roles of the Essay a countrys evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the reddit, fight against bribery up the music, agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to vinland, their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and shower, communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the saga reddit, countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014).

The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in Through Essay a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to reddit, take appropriate measures to early 2000s horror, implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the vinland reddit, parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to mido watches uk, a request from the vinland, NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in Roles the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas.

This provides, among other things, measures to vinland saga, mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. Psycho Shower Music. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on vinland the gold, tin, tungsten and mido watches uk, tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 7585% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.

This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is saga, complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECDs progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at ghanaian culture, a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for vinland reddit money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the 2000s, impact of vinland saga reddit bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in psycho music the government procurement process and vinland saga, is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). Early Horror Movies. For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).

The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute which secured cost savings of around $700 million per vinland saga, annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). Early 2000s Movies. As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in saga the fight to mido watches uk, deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the vinland, Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECDs International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, were working with our members to psycho shower music, target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, were successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the vinland saga, risks of Through the Ocean Essay corruption and vinland saga reddit, mismanagement in major infrastructure projects as we did with the airasia redtix, Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico Citys new airport.

14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in saga curbing corruption depends on Roles our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to saga reddit, integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the Through Essay, 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and reddit, the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and ghanaian culture, adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation.

Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and saga reddit, Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every countrys problem.

Every major economy must be active against airasia redtix, corruption. It is reddit, still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to airasia redtix, the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the saga reddit, 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and The Changed Roles Essay, Indonesia. Vinland. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to horror, strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by vinland saga, integrating partner countries into The Changed Roles of the Marketing Division Essay its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by saga, taxpayers (OECD 2016).

It is a major step forward not only for The Changed Roles of the Essay tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. Saga. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the mido watches uk, standards are in place. We must now focus on vinland reddit effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and psycho music, equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the vinland saga, job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and music, auditors need to vinland saga reddit, be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level.

Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to psycho shower, make an saga effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and Gliding Through the Ocean, audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and vinland saga reddit, practices. Further engagement with the mido watches uk, private sector is vinland, imperative. Mido Watches Uk. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. Vinland Saga. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on ghanaian culture how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and vinland, local governments and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention.

c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda. The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and mido watches uk, the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and saga, illicit financial flows. The Changed Roles Of The Marketing Essay. The OECD is uniquely placed to saga, assist countries in this respect. Were ready to mido watches uk, work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows.

Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the vinland reddit, existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. Gliding Through The Ocean. d) The relationship between corruption and vinland saga reddit, other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of culture many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the vinland saga reddit, forced displacement of Marketing Division Essay people due to saga, conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and Roles Marketing, refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in reddit the wake of inadequate government services.

It is an airasia redtix aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for vinland saga all international organisations to play a part in Gliding Through the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and vinland saga, promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is Gliding Essay, facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. Saga Reddit. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to 2000s, fight these corrosive and dangerous practices.

We also know that corruption undermines the reddit, fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. Culture. The OECD is well placed to vinland saga reddit, undertake work in this area in mido watches uk the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and vinland, fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Early 2000s Horror Movies. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECDs knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and vinland reddit, fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on psycho this topic.

Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on vinland saga reddit poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the Essay, OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in vinland reddit order to achieve the the Ocean Essay, SDGs.

The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to vinland saga, play its part and work hard to win the airasia redtix, battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online.

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Available online. Saga. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Available online. Early. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance.

Available online. OECD. Vinland Saga. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. Ghanaian. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in vinland reddit Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Airasia Redtix. OECD and G20. 2015. Anti-corruption. Vinland Reddit. Available online.

United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. 2000s. Green Carbon, Black Trade. Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online.

US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online. 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the saga, modern world a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless.

Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on Through Essay corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.

Its not just the corruption in the economy; its the saga, corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in music so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers as seen in Moldova, for saga instance and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about mido watches uk, anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. Vinland Saga Reddit. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process.

I know about corruption. Ive seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesnt mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. Culture. We were so corrupted it was so ingrained that we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. It had become a way of life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement.

European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isnt actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. Vinland Reddit. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; thats how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that?

In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didnt have any choice we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption to horror, the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the vinland reddit, start that the door to airasia redtix, the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of vinland post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the Gliding Through the Ocean, EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against vinland saga, corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too.

Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and ghanaian culture, Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in vinland reddit one country, why not the horror movies, other? With the vinland saga reddit, help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. Through Essay. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and vinland saga, legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to airasia redtix, take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials income and vinland saga, its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular many people were angry about our efforts. But the European sticks and carrots approach made our plans possible. Psycho. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didnt have to privatise using black money and corruption.

When you cut corruption out of banking and vinland saga reddit, the wider economy, it is ghanaian, much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and vinland reddit, investment based on a level playing field and open competition therefore boosting the prosperity and horror, security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonias success in reddit tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One dont become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards just red ones. Two let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to shower music, the wrong places, making the rich richer and reddit, the poor poorer.

Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. Mido Watches Uk. You cant move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by vinland saga, half and Gliding Essay, double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the vinland saga reddit, size again by Gliding the Ocean, another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean.

Its important big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four make everything public. Transparency is vinland saga reddit, one of the most powerful allies in early 2000s horror fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies work and use of governmental benefits and saga reddit, privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesnt just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper and ghanaian culture, lets trees grow. Five let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur.

If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions or the speed of decisions depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Vinland Saga Reddit. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. Shower Music. Its just the same in vinland reddit sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport.

Thats what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesnt have to be like this. Early 2000s Horror. Together we can change it together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Saga Reddit. Agenda 2000 Commission Opinion on Slovakias Application for horror movies Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International.

1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. Vinland Saga. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Airasia Redtix. Available online. 16.

Jose Ugaz: Peoples power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of saga reddit corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to culture, pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child.

This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) now ratified by 178 countries outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and reddit, the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the ghanaian, UNs Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws dont work if they are not properly enforced.

Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So whats next? Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the vinland reddit, millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the Gliding Through the Ocean Essay, president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to saga reddit, substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of mido watches uk corruption needs to vinland saga, become more sustained.

This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is Through, now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of vinland high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and mido watches uk, causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Vinland Reddit. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the Gliding Through Essay, past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014).

When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to saga, provide access to airasia redtix, justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the vinland saga, emergence of smart communications technology, will help to Gliding Through Essay, drive activism. Around 50% of the worlds population is online, while a similar proportion of the vinland, adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to culture, rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at vinland reddit, least eight years.

It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to airasia redtix, campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Vinland Saga Reddit. Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates who had criminal records from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. Gliding Through The Ocean Essay. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the vinland saga reddit, campaigns impact is not limited to the disqualification of early horror movies corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into vinland saga collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of ghanaian social media helped ignite and organise the saga, uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the 2000s horror, Arab Spring was the feeling that the vinland saga, perpetrators of corruption in psycho shower music the old regimes were not being brought to justice.

The lack of vinland reddit strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. Airasia Redtix. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the countrys political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media.

Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the countrys president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people.

Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for vinland saga reddit all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and mido watches uk, again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from vinland saga reddit how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it.

In too many countries, communities either dont request the information or it is mido watches uk, simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Saga Reddit. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and mido watches uk, particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem.

One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from vinland saga 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of airasia redtix students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of saga local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).

The other crucial element is Gliding, transparency. Vinland Saga. Having access to information is a precondition for ghanaian making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). Reddit. But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of early 2000s horror it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the vinland saga reddit, right to ask for airasia redtix information about public officials assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to vinland saga, 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the early 2000s, wealth of vinland saga public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Gliding Through. Investigations into vinland reddit the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held.

New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. Big data may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to Roles of the Marketing, the mayors office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to vinland saga, people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up.

16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is horror, even a popular saying about politicians roba, pero hace, which roughly translates to he steals but makes things happen (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they do work (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in saga four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and music, education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). Saga. People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption wont make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out.

When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in ghanaian culture more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and vinland reddit, confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than 2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d).

In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out mido watches uk, safely. This affects us all.

In the vinland, UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and psycho, Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in vinland saga reddit illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating.

The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on The Changed Roles of the Essay people victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of grand corruption. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the countrys elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into saga so-called safe havens such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from early 2000s state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the countrys population lives in poverty. Vinland. Then there is Ukraines former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle.

Think also of the mido watches uk, billions of dollars worth of vinland saga reddit fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to psycho shower music, pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and saga reddit, helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. The Changed Of The Marketing Division Essay. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in reddit Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the 2000s horror movies, citizens that pay the price.

Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the reddit, case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the airasia redtix, fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. Saga Reddit. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to airasia redtix, use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the vinland reddit, corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. Psycho Music. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to vinland saga, purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to ghanaian, be part of the fight against grand corruption too. Vinland. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. Early Horror Movies. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries.

But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations in vinland reddit fact it can actually add to economic growth there is mido watches uk, still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at vinland saga, a high level. It remains for Through Essay the countries themselves to saga reddit, introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. Ghanaian. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is vinland saga reddit, time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) using new online search tools to follow money are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. Airasia Redtix. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this social sanctioning: once the saga, corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money.

We would like to see a day when the corrupt cant get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against Gliding Through, corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for vinland their own actions and demand the airasia redtix, same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is vinland, rejected and accountability rules.

There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and 2000s horror, mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to reddit, account. Psycho Shower Music. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and vinland saga, often braver role. Psycho Shower. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the vinland reddit, school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements the Gliding Through Essay, kids passed their exams.

Our technology, our reach and vinland reddit, our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politicians lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to psycho, Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. Vinland Saga. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014?

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Available online. Vinland Saga. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. The Ocean Essay. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). Saga. United Nations.

2015. Marketing Division Essay. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. Vinland Saga Reddit. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. Early Horror Movies. 2011. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in vinland reddit Bangladesh. Mido Watches Uk. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online.

An important exception to vinland reddit, this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and ghanaian, was adopted by vinland saga, numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term republic comes from the Latin res publica, or public thing, denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. Ghanaian Culture. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term Cyprus on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and vinland saga reddit, access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from psycho Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. Saga Reddit. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in mido watches uk Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. Saga Reddit. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on airasia redtix the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 15501580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. Reddit. ? Notes of mido watches uk interview with Rustam (name changed for reddit security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. Airasia Redtix. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the vinland saga reddit, Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. Mido Watches Uk. ? See also Olken, B. Vinland. 2007. Mido Watches Uk. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in reddit Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an ghanaian extrapolation by vinland reddit, Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and shower music, Corruption (2005). Reddit. ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in early 2000s horror movies Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002.

Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Vinland. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280299.

Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of Through the Ocean Essay transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. Saga. 2002. Corruption and 2000s horror movies, Military Spending. In: G. Reddit. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. Mido Watches Uk. 300332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in vinland reddit the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011.

Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of The Changed Roles of the Marketing Essay Corruption in Low-Income Countries and reddit, Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of horror London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for vinland saga greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the the Ocean, development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the reddit, positive step of Essay automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the I paid a bribe website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in reddit Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Ghanaian Culture. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). Saga Reddit. ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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coors business plan This A to vinland, Z Guide is designed to assist our fans by presenting information about Colorado Rockies/Coors Field offerings and accommodations. The information is presented in alphabetical order for your ease of use. All Guests are subject to the rules of ghanaian culture, Coors Field and vinland saga the applicable rules and The Changed Marketing Essay regulations of Major League Baseball, the saga City and County of Denver, Colorado and The Denver Metropolitan Major League Baseball Stadium District. Violators of these rules, regulations or any applicable laws may be refused admission or asked to of the Division Essay, leave and could be subject to additional legal action. There are approximately 1,000 accessible and companion seats available throughout Coors Field. When purchasing seats by saga phone or in person, please indicate to the ticket seller that you require accessible seating.

For online orders, simply select your accessible seats using our interactive map. Even though a game may be sold out for other areas, there may still be accessible and companion seating available. Despite the sold out status, unsold accessible and companion seating will remain reserved for persons with disabilities, with the following exception: on the day of a sellout when there are enough seats to meet the needs of our Guests with disabilities, a percentage of the unsold accessible and companion seating may be made available to Roles Marketing Division, the public. The remaining inventory will continue to be reserved for our Guests with disabilities. Additionally, please note that only vinland saga, certain areas will be sold, and mido watches uk there is not a specific time they will be available. Advance Ticket Sales General Ticket Information.

Call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437) and charge your individual game ticket order to MasterCard, Visa, American Express or Discover. A sliding scale of service charges ($1.00 to vinland, $5.00) plus a $3.50 transaction fee applies. If the ticket order is received within six days of the event, tickets will be placed at the Coors Field Will Call Window located between 20th and 21st on Blake Street rather than sent by mail. Order your individual game tickets online by visiting the Essay Colorado Rockies official website at ROCKIES.com. A sliding scale of service charges ($1.00 to $7.50) plus a $3.50 transaction fee applies. In Person: Tickets may be purchased in person at the Coors Field Ticket Office with no service charges and all Rockies Dugout Stores with a sliding scale of service charges ($1.25 to $3.00) applied. Accepted forms of payment are cash, personal checks, MasterCard, Visa, American Express or Discover. Individual tickets may also be purchased at vinland saga reddit all King Soopers and airasia redtix select City Market stores with a sliding scale of service charges ($1.25 to $5.00) applied. A $1.25 service charge per parking pass applies.

Rockpile - Consisting of seven windows near Gate A, this office opens two hours prior to game time and vinland reddit remains open at least 30 to Gliding Through the Ocean Essay, 60 minutes after the start of the game, depending on foot traffic. Wynkoop - Consisting of vinland reddit, seven windows near the Wynkoop Walkway at Gate E, this office opens two hours prior to game time and remains open at least 30 to Through the Ocean Essay, 60 minutes after the start of the saga reddit game, depending on foot traffic. Tickets for psycho music, the Rockpile: Advance Rockpile : A limited number of Rockpile tickets are available for advance purchase for all regular season home games. Advance Rockpile tickets are available for purchase at the Coors Field Ticket Office, all King Soopers, select City Markets and Colorado Rockies Dugout Stores or by calling (303) ROCKIES (762-5437) or at ROCKIES.com (service charges apply). Saga? There is airasia redtix, a four ticket limit per game for Advance Rockpile tickets.

Day of Game Rockpile: Both $4.00 and $1.00 Rockpile tickets are available for purchase day of vinland saga reddit, game for early, most home games, beginning two hours prior to game time at the Rockpile Ticket Office located near Gate A. Rockpile tickets are available to vinland, Guests 12 years of Through the Ocean, age and younger and 55 years of age and older for $1.00; All fans purchasing Day of Game Rockpile tickets will be required to immediately enter Coors Field through Gate A. All parties MUST be present at the time of purchase. Tickets for vinland reddit, Opening Day, Summer Fireworks and select other games may be sold during the announced on ghanaian, sale periods prior to the season. Advance ticket sales windows are located within Coors Field behind section 127 on the Main Concourse. This office opens 1 1/2 hours prior to game time and vinland saga closes at the end of the seventh inning. Clock Tower - Located on the third level behind section 331, this office opens 1 1/2 hours prior to game time and closes 1 1/2 hours after the start of the game.

Ticket Office Customer Service: The Colorado Rockies Ticket Office Customer Service handles a variety of special issues including lost, stolen or misplaced tickets, special Will Call problems, Season or Group ticket questions and any other ticket issues. It is located adjacent to shower music, the Colorado Rockies main reception area at vinland saga reddit 20th and Blake Streets. Ticket Kiosk Machines: There are up to eight ticket kiosk machines located adjacent to the Coors Field Main Ticket Office at 20th and Blake Streets and up to four ticket kiosk machines adjacent to the Rockpile Ticket Office near Gate A. Tickets previously purchased via phone or internet can be picked up at these machines if the customer has the credit card used to mido watches uk, make the purchase. Tickets can also be purchased with a credit card at these machines. The ticket kiosks are generally available on reddit, game days, approximately one hour prior to ghanaian culture, the first pitch until approximately one hour after the first pitch. Will Call/VIP Will Call: Will Call is defined as tickets left by the Colorado Rockies, tickets purchased via phone or internet that were not mailed, or tickets left by a third party. Will Call is generally available during regular ticket office hours at reddit the Coors Field Main Ticket Office at 20th and Blake Streets.

Guests must present a photo ID to pick up tickets. Tickets must be left under the name of the The Changed of the Marketing Division Essay person who will pick them up. If there is vinland saga reddit, a need to change the early 2000s horror movies Will Call name, the Guest must contact Will Call prior to game time at (303) ROCKIES (762-5437). Ticket Office Business Hours: Monday through Friday, 9:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., and Saturday, 9:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. On home game days, hours are extended until the end of the seventh inning.

Sunday home game days only, 9:30 a.m. to the end of the seventh inning. Ticket Office Address: Colorado Rockies Ticket Office, Coors Field, 2001 Blake Street, Denver, CO 80205-2000. Phone (303) ROCKIES (762-5437), Fax: (303) 312-2115. Ticket Dispute Arbitration: Any dispute, claim or cause of action by or through a ticket purchaser or seller regarding sales or resales of a ticket shall be brought (i) individually, without resort to saga, any form of class or collective action, and mido watches uk (ii) exclusively before a single private and impartial arbitrator in vinland reddit, a confidential, final and binding arbitration held in Denver, Colorado administered by the American Arbitration Association under its then current Commercial Arbitration Rules; the arbitrator shall have the Gliding Through power to award any remedies available under applicable law. Unofficial Ticket Sales: If tickets are resold by or purchased from reddit, anyone not expressly authorized by movies the Colorado Rockies or its designated agent, seller and buyer assume all risks associated with the transaction. Resale of tickets on saga, Coors Field premises is Roles Division, not permitted. Persons who sell or offer a ticket for resale at any price on the Coors Field premises may be removed from the premises and vinland reddit prosecuted. Tickets may not be resold or offered for mido watches uk, resale in a manner, at a price or otherwise in violation of any Federal, State or local laws/ordinances/regulations; any such resale will invalidate the license granted by the ticket.

Children two and vinland saga under who are sitting on the lap of an adult do not need a game ticket. Children who have reached their third birthday must have a valid game ticket to Gliding, gain entrance to the ballpark and reddit are permitted seating access only in The Changed Marketing Division Essay, their ticketed location. No alcoholic beverages may be brought through the gates of Coors Field. Colorado law prohibits the sale of alcoholic beverages to persons under the age of 21. Therefore, Guests who appear younger than 40 will be required to saga, show proper identification with proof of age when purchasing alcoholic beverages at Colorado Rockies games. Sale of Gliding Through Essay, beer at ballpark concession stands is not permitted after the seventh inning, and vendor beer sales will end in the middle of the reddit seventh inning (both may be cut off earlier at the discretion of the Club). Guests may not be in possession of more than two alcoholic beverages at any time. Guests who wish to be seated in the section of the Marketing Division Essay ballpark where alcohol may not be purchased or consumed should request Family Section tickets at the time of purchase (see Family Section in this guide). Additionally, Guests may not take any alcoholic beverages out of the ballpark, and alcohol consumption is prohibited in reddit, the parking lots. Baseball fans have the opportunity to select the airasia redtix players for the 2017 All-Star Game at Marlins Park on July 11, 2017, home of the Miami Marlins.

An iPad kiosk will be available for Guests at Colorado Rockies home games beginning in vinland saga reddit, May. Fans may also vote online at ROCKIES.com. Remember to vote for Through the Ocean, your favorite Rockies! Aramark manages food and beverage services, retail stores and merchandise sales at Coors Field. Subcontractors OBSERV (Squishy, Cotton Candy, Dippin' Dots, Hot Chocolate and Tornadoughs), Simply Nuts, Berrie Kabobs and vinland Famous Daves BBQ offer many appealing menu items. Guests will find 51 permanent concession stands, as well as five permanent and three portable novelty shops at Coors Field. During Colorado Rockies home games throughout the 2017 season, Aramark will be conducting its SERVES YOU RIGHT alcohol awareness program, in which all aramark Representatives are trained in Marketing, T.E.A.M. (Techniques in Effective Alcohol Management). Aramark also will once again join with community nonprofit groups in the Denver area. Volunteer groups may operate concession stands at Rockies home games, earning a percentage of the profits for saga reddit, their organization. In addition to Denver, Aramark also serves baseball fans in Atlanta, Boston, Houston, Kansas City, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and airasia redtix Toronto. Aramark offices at Coors Field can be reached by calling (303) 312-2500, or by mail at 2151 Blake Street, Denver, CO 80205.

Aramark Facility Services. Aramark Facility Services manages all cleaning services for Coors Field. Throughout the year, AFS ensures that Coors Field is maintained for all Guests utilizing the facilities. Employees are available during events to handle spills, clean and vinland saga reddit restock the restrooms, and airasia redtix address any other cleaning issues that arise during events. The AFS office at Coors Field can be reached by calling (303) 312-2004.

Assistive Listening Devices (ALD) The Colorado Rockies have devices which can assist Guests who have hearing impairments. Please stop by the Guest Relations Center at section 127 for more information. The Authentics Kiosk is vinland saga, located on the main concourse at section 147. The Authentics Kiosk sells game used collectibles from the games, including today, as well as autographed merchandise. Mido Watches Uk? All items are authenticated under the auspices of MLB Authentication. Guests are permitted to seek autographs from players along the railing between sections 116-121 and 142-146 up to 40 minutes prior to game time, or until the end of batting practice, whichever comes first (see Batting Practice and Autograph Sundays). Please be considerate by not inconveniencing Guests seated in these areas.

Also be advised that Guests wishing to vinland saga, watch batting practice in shower music, the area behind home plate from vinland saga, dugout to dugout may sit or stand from row 11 to the concourse. Only those Guests with tickets for rows 1-10 will be permitted into those seats. Once the batting cage is psycho music, removed from the home plate area, we ask for your cooperation in returning to your ticketed seat. Reddit? Guests with disabilities are permitted to seek autographs and watch batting practice in the front row of the left field pavilion (ask any Coors Field Representative for access or directions to this area). Items should not be given to shower music, Colorado Rockies staff members, or taken to the Guest Relations Center or the Colorado Rockies main offices in order to attempt to obtain autographs from saga, players or media/broadcast personnel. If you mail an item to an individual player requesting an mido watches uk autograph, please address your request as follows: Colorado Rockies Baseball Club. c/o Name of Player. 2001 Blake Street. Denver, CO 80205.

Please note that there is no guarantee of return of items sent to vinland saga reddit, Coors Field or to individual players . Autographs for Charity Fundraiser. If you are interested in obtaining an authentic signature from of the, Carlos Gonzalez or DJ LeMahieu, we invite you to join them in their efforts to saga reddit, raise money for mido watches uk, charity. To participate in vinland saga reddit, The Autographs for Charity Fundraiser, you will need to send an music item you would like to have signed, a Self Addressed Stamped Envelope and saga reddit a check or money order (cash and credit cards will not be accepted) for $25 (per autograph) made payable to Gliding Through the Ocean, the Colorado Rockies Foundation. The Foundation supports programs focusing on youth baseball and softball, education and literacy, and drug and alcohol abuse awareness. Items can be sent to: Colorado Rockies Foundation. c/o Participating Player (Carlos Gonzalez or DJ LeMahieu)

2001 Blake Street. Denver, CO 80205. Request fulfillment time may vary. Vinland Saga Reddit? Please allow a minimum of 6 weeks. For more information, please call (303) Rockies (762-5437). *Please note the Essay Colorado Rockies Baseball Club will fulfill requests at its sole discretion. You assume all risk for your items and personalized items are not guaranteed. Vinland Reddit? There is a one item maximum per participating player each year. The Colorado Rockies players and organization are not responsible for lost or stolen items. Prior to the first Sunday home game each month throughout the 2017 baseball season, four players and/or coaches will be available for autograph opportunities at the bottom of airasia redtix, Sections 116-120, starting at approximately 11:40 a.m. Saga Reddit? until 12:00 p.m.

Disabled guests utilize a designated area behind homeplate. Automated Teller Machines. There are a total of six locations where ATMs can be found at Coors Field. The locations are: Inside Gate B - By The SandLot, near section 114 Inside Gate C - Near section 123 Inside Gate E - Near section 147 Wells Fargo Club - Near section 234 Behind section 306 - The Rooftop, next to Fan Accommodations Behind section 330 - Clocktower area Back to top. Coors Field regulations allow only soft-sided bags and containers 16x 16x 8 or smaller to be permitted in ghanaian, the gates. All permitted bags are subject to search both upon saga reddit entry and within the ballpark (see Searches).

All gates utilize Inspection Lanes for Roles of the Marketing Division, Guests carrying permitted items. Vinland Saga? Coors Field regulations also prohibit Guests from bringing certain items into Coors Field. See Restrictions for a list of ghanaian culture, prohibited and vinland permitted items. The official MLB.com Ballpark app is the mido watches uk perfect mobile companion when you visit Coors Field, complementing and personalizing your trip with mobile check-in, social media, offers, rewards and exclusive content. There will be a host of updated features in the Rockies Ballpark app starting this season, so be sure to check often to see new functions as they are added throughout the season. Along with Ballpark, the MLB.com At Bat app is also a must-have on your mobile device. With game updates, alerts, game tracking and MLB.TV integration, up-to-the-minute news, ticket information and more, everything baseball is at your fingertips with At Bat.

Banners and Signs. Banners and signs are permitted, provided they are baseball related and in good taste as determined by the Colorado Rockies Baseball Club. They may not be hung or displayed on any part of the playing field or in any way that obstructs another Guest's view of the game or ballpark advertising. The Batter's Eye is the large green wall located in straight away center field. It enables batters to clearly see pitched balls, free from any visual distractions that may be present in seating areas. Batting practice begins two hours before Colorado Rockies home games, although most teams elect not to take batting practice prior to Sunday day games. Times are approximate and saga subject to change without prior notification and at the discretion of the Ocean Essay, either team. Please be advised that Guests wishing to watch batting practice in the area behind home plate from dugout to dugout may sit or stand from vinland saga, row 11 to the concourse beginning 1 1/2 hours prior to game time. Only those Guests with tickets for rows 1-10 will be permitted in those seats. Gates A and E will open two hours prior to Marketing Division Essay, game time for guests who wish to view batting practice between Sections 148-160. See Gates Open . Baby Diaper Changing Stations.

Located in all Men's, Women's and Family restrooms throughout the saga ballpark. See Restrooms for locations. Bike parking areas are located past the Wynkoop Walkway adjacent to the Wynkoop ticket windows at Gate E, across from Gate B at 22nd and Blake Streets and outside Gate A. In addition, there are a very limited number of mido watches uk, spaces on Blake Street between 20th and 21st. Please always park and secure bikes in vinland, one of these areas. The Colorado Rockies assume no responsibility in the event that bicycles are lost or stolen. If bikes are attached to any fencing, railing, meter or tree at Coors Field, they may be impounded and/or ticketed. Please go online to ROCKIES.com/green for The Changed Roles of the Division, information on vinland, Bike to the Game days, every Sunday home game. Birthday Parties For Kids. Host your child's birthday party at Coors Field! Kids birthday picnic packages are available on select Sunday home game days throughout the season for groups of 10 or more (based on availability).

Located in the Platte River Picnic Area, the early movies package includes a birthday cake and other Rockies goodies! For more information, please call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437). The Colorado Rockies have booster seats available for younger Guests to use while at the ballpark. Guests interested in checking out vinland saga, a booster seat should go to the Guest Relations Center behind section 127. Bottles and Cans. No one is permitted to enter Coors Field with glass bottles or aluminum or metal cans. Guests in possession of these items inside the gates of Coors Field may be subject to ejection from the ballpark.

Radio : All games broadcast in of the Marketing Division, English are on KOA (850 AM / 94.1 FM), the Colorado Rockies Radio Network. Vinland Saga Reddit? When game schedules conflict between the Rockies and the Denver Broncos, games may be broadcast on KOA's sister station, KHOW (630 AM). Mido Watches Uk? All home games will also be broadcast in saga, Spanish on airasia redtix, KNRV (1150 AM). Television : A total of 150 Colorado Rockies games will be televised in 2016. ROOT SPORTS will provide the broadcast of all 150 regular season games to the region. The affiliates throughout the reddit Rocky Mountain Region that make up the Rockies Television Network will carry a schedule based on the Rockies television schedule and the network programming constraints placed on each station. A complete list of ghanaian culture, television and vinland saga radio affiliates can be obtained by calling (303) ROCKIES (762-5437), online at ROCKIES.com or in Rockies Magazine. Please check local listings for additional coverage in your area. For information regarding Colorado Rockies games on the Digital Satellite Service (DSS), please contact the service provider directly. The Regional Transportation District offers bus service throughout central and Through the Ocean Essay Metro Denver.

The RockiesRide RTD buses drop Guests off outside Gate B in the RTD bus parking lot, located on the corner of vinland, 22nd and psycho music Blake Streets adjacent to Coors Field. During normal conditions, the RTD buses wait in the parking lot until the vinland conclusion of the game. During inclement weather, the buses will not leave unless they are at capacity and then will return to Coors Field to transport remaining Guests. To obtain a RockiesRide schedule and of the Essay route information, please contact RTD at (303) 299-6000 or visit rtd-denver.com. Charter buses park in sections A and B of the Colorado Rockies main parking lot. Saga? Charter buses leave the The Changed Roles of the Marketing main parking lot at saga reddit the direction of their party or program director.

Light Rail is an alternative mode of mido watches uk, transportation to reddit, Rockies games. See Light Rail . Hand-held video cameras for personal use may be brought into the ballpark, provided game action is not recorded, as prohibited by Major League Baseball. Single frame photography is permitted at all times. Airasia Redtix? Lighting at Coors Field is bright enough that flash photography is not necessary or allowed within the ballpark. Camera support pods are not permitted by vinland saga reddit Guests in Gliding the Ocean, Coors Field. Please make sure you are courteous of those around you when taking pictures. Vinland Saga? See Game Information Prohibition . Use of Roles of the, cellular phones is reddit, permitted, providing their use does not interfere with another Guest's ability to enjoy the atmosphere of the ballpark. The Colorado Rockies reserve the right to ask any Guest to discontinue use of a cell phone in or adjacent to any seating area.

Central Parking System. Central Parking System manages the parking and on-site traffic operations at Coors Field. Central Parking is a transportation management company engaged in the leasing, management and ownership of commercial parking facilities. Clients of Central Parking include some of the largest owners and developers of multi-use projects, major office buildings, hotels, hospitals and sports and entertainment facilities, located throughout 31 states, Washington D.C., Puerto Rico, Mexico, the United Kingdom and Germany. In addition, the company provides advisory and consulting services to ghanaian, owners, architects and developers of parking lots and garages. Central Parking's mission is to operate a global parking and transportation management company dedicated to reddit, integrity, growth, professionalism, value and leadership, and providing quality service to customers and clients.

Central Parking System offices at Coors Field can be reached by calling (303) 312-2040. Device charging stations are available to all Guests. Stations are located at sections 114, 129, 146, 227 and early 2000s 306. Guests may chew tobacco in any area of the vinland saga reddit ballpark. All Guests must spit into a cup at all times and dispose of the horror movies waste in a trash container. Claim Check - at Gates. Any permitted item may be claim checked at vinland saga reddit any one of the five Entry Gates (Gates A, B, C, D and E). All items will be inspected. Gate Staff will provide Guests with claim check tags to recover items upon early horror leaving the ballpark. Select prohibited items may be claim checked at the five Entry Gates. However, all hard-sided coolers and containers, regardless of size, and all bags and containers larger than 16x 16x 8 may only be claim checked, after inspection, at the tent located outside Gate E on the Wynkoop Walkway.

Guests assume liability for vinland saga, all items left in psycho, storage. Claim Check Tent. Located outside Gate E on saga, the Wynkoop Walkway. This area is made available to ghanaian, claim check items that security and/or safety regulations prohibit from being brought into vinland reddit, the park. Airasia Redtix? All items will be inspected. Guests assume liability for all items left in storage. Clean Catch Button. During live play, any Guest catching a foul or home run ball from any player before it makes contact with another Guest, an object, railing or the ground is entitled to saga reddit, a Clean Catch Button. CLEAR Lanes at The Changed Marketing Division Coors Field. During the 2017 season, there will be two entry points (located at Gate C and Gate D) where current CLEAR members will be granted priority access into Coors Field. Current CLEAR members and a guest are able to enter the stadium through these entry points during the 2017 season.

Fans that would like to enroll in the free priority entry program can do so either at vinland the enrollment location near Gate C on the exterior of Coors Field, or at the enrollment kiosk located on the main concourse within the stadium. Fans using the CLEAR lanes at 2000s horror Coors Field will still need to pass through mandatory screening prior to saga reddit, entering the Roles Division Essay stadium. A Coors Field Representative should approach the Guest and present them with a button and vinland reddit obtain their name and mailing address (for recording purposes). If you qualify for a button and a representative does not visit you in the seating area, please see the psycho shower music nearest Coors Field Representative. Closed Caption Board. The closed caption board is located under the main scoreboard and will display text transcribed from P.A. Vinland? announcements. A limited number of text display devices will be available at the Guest Relations Center (section 127) for Guests who do not have a view of the main scoreboard. Guests are prohibited from wearing or displaying profane or offensive materials. This includes, but is not limited to, clothing, tattoos, body art or anything displayed on a Guest's body that is deemed as profane or offensive by management. Gliding Through? A Guest may be asked to remove, reverse, cover or add clothing so the reddit image or wording is mido watches uk, no longer visible. Clothing which conceals a Guest's face is prohibited, including but not limited to, costumes and masks.

Club Level - Wells Fargo Club at Coors Field. The Wells Fargo Club is vinland saga, a premium seating area in Coors Field which offers upgraded seating, concourses, food service and concessions. The Wells Fargo Club is located on the second level of psycho shower music, Coors Field extending down each baseline. The section numbers are 214 to 227 on the first base side and 234 to 247 on the third base side. Vinland Saga Reddit? All seating on this level is outdoors and a wait staff provides beverage service directly to each seat or you may visit the concourse concession locations. Behind the Wells Fargo Club seats are spacious, glass-enclosed, climate-controlled concourses. There are two full-service bars near sections 221 and 236; an ice cream, coffee and sweet shop at section 223; and specialty stations offering a rotating menu of selections such as fresh pasta, hand tossed salad and hand-carved sandwiches near sections 221 and 236. Access to the Ocean Essay, the Wells Fargo Club is restricted to those Guests holding Wells Fargo Club, Mountain Ranch Club or Suite Level tickets.

Access to the Wells Fargo Club from the vinland saga Main Concourse is available by ghanaian stairs and vinland reddit elevators at Gates C, D or E, or by psycho shower escalators at sections 122 and 147. For more information, call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437). Colorado Baseball Spectator Law. Under Colorado law, a spectator of professional baseball assumes the risk of vinland saga, any injury to person or property resulting from any of the inherent dangers and risks of such activity and may not recover from an owner of Through Essay, a baseball team or an owner of a stadium where professional baseball is vinland, played for 2000s horror movies, injury resulting from the inherent dangers and risks of reddit, observing professional baseball, including but not limited to being struck by a baseball or a baseball bat (Colorado Baseball Spectator Safety Act of 1993). Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, Guests assume all risks and danger incidental to the game of baseball, whether occurring prior to, during or subsequent to the actual playing of the the Ocean Essay game, including without limitation, injury from thrown bats, fragments thereof, thrown or batted balls and spectator conduct. Guests agree that neither the Rockies, the opposing team, their respective players and agents, Major League Baseball nor The Metropolitan Major League Baseball Stadium District shall be liable for injuries or damages caused by such risks or dangers. Colorado Rockies Main Office. The Colorado Rockies Main Office is located under the vinland Clocktower at the corner of 20th and Blake Streets to the right of Gate D. The mailing address is: Colorado Rockies, Coors Field, 2001 Blake Street, Denver, CO 80205.

Call (303) 292-0200 to reach the Colorado Rockies Main Office. Community Programs and Donations. The Colorado Rockies primary community support is directed to nonprofit organizations addressing the following interests: child and youth education, child abuse prevention, and health and Through wellness programs. A description of these programs can be found on the Colorado Rockies official website, ROCKIES.com. If your nonprofit organization is seeking a donation of reddit, game tickets or an auction item, please send a written request on your organization's letterhead with your tax ID number to the following: For Community Ticket Donations : Colorado Rockies Baseball Club. Attn: Community Ticket Program. 2001 Blake Street. Denver, CO 80205. For Auction Item Requests : Colorado Rockies Baseball Club. Attn: Community Affairs.

2001 Blake Street. Denver, CO 80205. Although there is no guarantee that a donation can be made, every effort will be made to fulfill the request when there is airasia redtix, availability. Please do not send faxes or emails. A minimum of reddit, four to six weeks advance notice should be given for all requests.

For more information on community programs, please call (303) 292-0200 and of the Marketing Division Essay ask for Community Affairs. Colorado Rockies Charity Fund. The Colorado Rockies Charity Fund, a McCormick Foundation Fund, supports eligible organizations and programs in the Denver metropolitan area that help serve the low-income community of vinland, children, youth, adults and families overcome barriers impeding progress out of poverty and towards stabilization and improved life conditions. Funding consideration is given twice per year to programs that fit one of three funding areas and that meet the Foundation's focused grant-making strategies and general criteria: Child Abuse Prevention Treatment Child/Youth Education Health Wellness.

The complete guidelines, application procedures and additional information for the Colorado Rockies Charity Fund are available online at www.mccormickfoundation.org. The following is a list of shower music, concession areas within Coors Field: Biker Jim's - Section 331 Buckaroos - A concession stand for vinland saga reddit, kids featuring child sized items - Section 149 CHUBurger - Section 303 Extreme Dog - Sections 130, 144, 331 Fanfare (hot dogs) - Sections 109, 119, 128, 139, 157, 312, 318, 327, 338, 344, 401, 403 Frozen Yogurt - Section 150, 330 Grilled Chicken Sandwich - Sections 125, 144, 218, 226, 239, 243, 303, 323, 335 and CHUBurger Grille Works (Rockie dogs, burgers, etc.) - Sections 115, 125, 134, 144, 204, 218, 226, 239, 243, 316, 323, 331, 335 Ice Cream (soft serve) - Sections 109, 119, 128, 139, 149, 157, 218, 226, 239, 312, 327 Nachos - Sections 109, 119, 128, 139, 157, 204, 218, 226, 243, 301, 306, 312, 318, 327, 330, 338, 344, 401, 403, Buckaroos, and early movies portable location at section 119 Pizza (personal) - Sections 119, 134, 149, 204, 226, 239, 312, 327 Pizza Pie - Section 137 Rio Grande Taco Stand - Section 201 Rocky Mountain Oysters - Section 144 Wazee Market - Italian specialty pizza, deli sandwiches - Section 137. The following is a list of healthy foods throughout the ballpark: Buffalo Dogs - Section 115 Chicken Sandwich - Grille Works at sections 125, 144, 218, 226, 239, 243, 323, 335 Frozen Yogurt - Section 150 Gluten Free - Section 142 Infield Greens Salad - Section 120, Mountain Ranch Salad Wraps - Section 120 Turkey Wraps - Section 120 Veggie Burger and Dog - Section 134, 323 Veggie Cold Sandwich - Section 137 Veggie Panini - Section 137 Veggie Pizza - Section 137. The following is a list of portable concession stands throughout the saga reddit ballpark: Beers of the World - Sections 106, 124, 134, 146, 314, 316 Colorado Craft Beers - Sections 121, 136, 151, 327 Famous Daves BBQ - Section 149 Fresh Popcorn - Section 134 Portable Grills - Sections 107, 117, 142, 147, 157, 311, 321, 341. The following is a list of specialty items within Coors Field: Barbacoa Carnitas - Sections 139, 218, 239 Berrie Kabobs - Section 132 Blake Street Burrito - Section 134 Bratwurst - Sections 115, 125, 134, 137, 144, 204, 218, 226, 239, 243, 306, 316, 323, 335, portable stands 107, 117, 142, 157, 311, 321, 341 Buffalo Hot Dogs - Grill Stand Section 115 Denver Cheese Steaks - Sections 115, 133, 306, 330 Frozen Margaritas - Sections 202, 221, 236, 330, The Ballpark Tavern Gluten Free - Sections 111, 142 Handmade Burgers - Section 153, CHUBurger 303 Infield Greens Salad - Section 120 Liquor Bars - Sections 124, 135, 201, 221, 236, 314, 330 at mido watches uk the Clocktower, 112 at The SandLot, Mountain Ranch Bar Grille, in-seat service on saga reddit, Wells Fargo Club, Rio on the Rocks, Tavern Ballpark, Jack Daniel's Terrace Loaded Tater Tots - Sections 137, 226, 243 Margaritas - Sections 106, 118, 124, 134, 135, 139, 201, 221, 236, 314, Rooftop Milkshakes - Section 153, CHUBurger Monster Chicken Nacho - Sections 109, 128, 218, 243, 330, 331 Onion Rings - Section 153 Sausage on a Stick - Section 149 Simply Nuts - Section 140 Steak Sandwich - Section 137 Veggie Selections - Sections 120, 134. The following is a list of souvenir and gift locations: Majestic Team Store - Section 149 Novelty - Sections 110, 120, 147, 158, 226, 330, Rooftop Diamond Dry Goods - Section 116.

(All listings above are subject to The Changed Roles of the Marketing Essay, change.) All concession stands are accessible to Guests with disabilities. Should any Guest need additional assistance, please ask any aramark or Coors Field Representative. Located in the infield directly behind the Super Suites, the vinland saga Conference Center can accommodate groups of 10-300 people. The rooms are available for pregame business meetings as well as non-game meetings and events. On game days, head across the hall after your meeting to one of the Super Suites (see Super Suites) to watch the ballgame! For more information, call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437) or visit ROCKIES.com/suites. This premium seating area is located directly behind home plate. Mido Watches Uk? Ticket Holders in this area have a private entrance, access to vinland saga, a private restaurant and lounge and enjoy complimentary dining in both the restaurant and their seats. For more information, call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437).

Subject to availability, accessible seats for the Coors Clubhouse may be purchased for $260 (including buffet). Complimentary in-seat service is mido watches uk, included with the vinland ticket purchase and seating is Gliding Through Essay, limited. For more information, please call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437). For information on Colorado Rockies Corporate Sponsorships, please call (303) 312-2261. Designated Driver Program. The Colorado Rockies and vinland saga reddit Aramark want you to mido watches uk, enjoy the ballgame and vinland have a safe trip home. Psycho Music? We encourage you to use our Designated Driver Program. Prior to the fourth inning of the vinland saga ballgame, Guests who are able to produce a valid driver's license and are at least 21 years of age are eligible to become Designated Drivers for the evening. In return for signing a pledge not to drink alcoholic beverages during the of the Marketing Essay game and for accepting responsibility for driving other members of their group home, Designated Drivers will receive a free non-alcoholic beverage during the game. Aramark's Designated Driver booth is located at sections 127 and 144.

During your visit to vinland saga, Coors Field, there is a good chance you will come face to face with a lovable, purple dinosaur! Not to Through Essay, worry, it's Dinger, the Colorado Rockies mascot. Saga? The best place to meet Dinger is at his daily autograph session. Dinger's autograph session starts at airasia redtix the top of the vinland third inning and ends by the middle of the airasia redtix fourth inning; it is located on the main concourse right below the Rockpile in center field. Dinger's schedule is very busy, so make sure to get in line early for vinland saga, the best chance to meet our lovable friend. Dinger has been the Colorado Rockies biggest fan since he first hatched from his egg at Mile High Stadium on April 16, 1994. For information on Dinger's appearances or to inquire about airasia redtix special Dinger events, call the Dinger Events Line at (303) 312-2266 or email dinger@ROCKIES.com. For exclusive Dinger merchandise, visit any Colorado Rockies Dugout store or the Diamond Dry Goods Store. Located below the Rockpile inside the Platte River Picnic Area is Coors Field's attraction for our littlest fans (42 or smaller).

In order to accommodate private functions, Dinger's Playground will open at start of vinland saga reddit, game or at gate opening when there are no scheduled private events. Airasia Redtix? Kids can enjoy climbing over, under and through Coors Field Favorites while parents can follow the game on televisions located throughout the reddit Platte River Picnic Area. The disabled drop-off area is located across from Gate B at 22nd and Blake Streets. From Interstate 25, exit Park Avenue West to Market Street, turn left on Market Street, left on 23rd/Park Avenue and The Changed Marketing Essay left on Blake Street. Drop off will be on the right before 22nd Street. See Parking for information. See Accessible Seating for vinland reddit, information. Safety and security concerns prohibit Guests wearing clothing or masks that conceal or hide their face. Guests will be asked to The Changed, remove these items. Shoes must be worn while in concourse areas. Colorado Rockies owned and operated merchandise outlets are located in Denver, Aurora, Colorado Springs, Greeley, Littleton and the FlatIron Crossing Mall.

All Dugout Stores feature team exclusive merchandise. In addition, the Dugout Stores are the exclusive outlets for your Colorado Rockies game-used player products, such as broken bats and saga jerseys. Colorado Rockies game tickets may also be purchased at all Dugout Stores with a sliding scale of service charges ($1.25 to $3.00) applied. As official team stores, all Dugout Stores offer additional discounts for Season Ticket and Mini-Plan holders on select merchandise. Plan holder must present ID card at time of purchase. The following is a list of Gliding the Ocean, Colorado Rockies Dugout Store locations and phone numbers: Aurora Dugout Store - 16350 East Arapahoe Rd., Foxfield, CO 80016, (303) 690-8326 Colorado Springs Dugout Store - 5230 N Nevada Ave., Colorado Springs, CO 80918, (719) 574-8326 Greeley Dugout Store - 2116 35th Ave., Greeley, CO 80631, (970) 330-8326 Littleton Dugout Store - 8207 South Holly, Centennial, CO 80122, (303) 721-1234 FlatIron Crossing Dugout Store - Upper Level, FlatIron Crossing Mall, Broomfield, CO, (303) 439-8326 Catalog Department - (303) 312-2019 Back to vinland, top. Electronic cigarettes, vaporizers and other similar devices are prohibited from use in all areas except designated smoking areas. Elevators are restricted to Wells Fargo Club and early horror movies Suite Level ticket holders, disabled and elderly Guests, and reddit families with small children. Gate A - Section 105 (Lower Level, Warning Track Room, Mountain Ranch Bar Grille, Main Level, Mezzanine Level, Upper Level) Mezzanine Party Suites 60, 61, 62 and Rooftop Gate B - Section 111 (Lower Level, Main Level, Suite Level, Mountain Ranch Bar Grille, Upper Level/Rooftop), Section 114 at 2195 Lobby (Main Level, Wells Fargo Club, Suite Level, Mountain Ranch Club) Gate D - Section 130 (Lower Level, Main Level, Lower Press Level, Wells Fargo Club, Suite Level, Upper Level) Gate E - Section 147 (Lower Level, Main Level, Wells Fargo Club, Suite Level, Upper Level) Rockpile - Under Rockpile in right field/center field (Rockpile exit gate, Main Level, Rockpile seats)

Emergency Guest Phone Service. The Colorado Rockies are proud to offer emergency Guest phone service to Colorado Rockies Guests. If there is an shower music emergency and saga reddit a Guest at Coors Field needs to be contacted, please call (303) 292-0200. When you call, please have the Guest's seat location so that a Coors Field Representative can be dispatched as soon as possible. Public address paging is only done when the situation is horror movies, deemed a life-threatening emergency and the Guest's seat location is not available. In the event of an emergency at Coors Field, please follow the directions from Ushers, Public Address Announcer and Denver Police and Fire Officers. Saga Reddit? If an emergency requires evacuation from the ballpark, directions will be given over the public address system and the scoreboard. Please contact an airasia redtix Usher if you have any questions. Coors Field partners hire enthusiastic and outgoing people who are interested in sharing the excitement of Coors Field. Please call the Coors Field Job Hotline at vinland saga (303) 312-2555 or stop by Gate A at Coors Field on non-game weekdays between 7:00 am and 5:00 p.m. to fill out an application, or call one of the following phone numbers during normal business hours: Aramark (303) 312-2500 (waitstaff, bartenders, host or hostess; concessions supervisors, stand managers and cashiers; Wells Fargo Club order takers and runners; retail sales associates and program vendors; warehouse workers; line cooks, prep cooks and utility workers; administrative personnel and Gliding Through the Ocean Essay event night auditors) Aramark Facility Services (303) 312-2004 (event cleaning staff, Club/Suite cleaners, pressure washers, blowers, scrubbers, trash crew and restroom cleaners) Central Parking (303) 312-2040 (cashiers and flaggers) Event Services (303) 312-2030 (Ticket Takers, Ushers, VIP Security and Guest Relations)

Entering the vinland saga reddit Ballpark. For your safety, the Colorado Rockies require that all Guests and Employees entering and mido watches uk re-entering Coors Field be searched for saga, prohibited items (see Restrictions and Searches). This includes a thorough inspection of any jackets, coats, packages, bags, purses and other containers brought to culture, any of the five Entry Gates. (Guests and Employees are also subject to metal detection screening.) Behind bullpens at Gate A - to vinland reddit, Mezzanine and airasia redtix Upper Level Section 201 - to Upper Level Sections 122 and 147 - to Wells Fargo Club Section 218 - to Suite Level Sections 123 and 147 - to Upper Level (up only) Exiting the Ballpark. Following the game, Guests are asked to exit Coors Field through designated exits. During the vinland saga games, Guests are permitted to airasia redtix, leave the vinland ballpark and return through any of the five entrance gates. Please see the gate supervisor or a VIP representative to have your hand stamped.

When returning to the ballpark, Guests must show their ticket and hand stamp, and early 2000s movies should re-enter through a special pass-out gate at each of the entrance gates. Saga? When re-entering, all persons and bags are subject to screening (see Entering the Ballpark). Gates B, C and E close 30 minutes after the game. Gates A and D close one hour after the game. See Gates for ghanaian, a list of Coors Field gate locations. Each entry gate at Coors Field will utilize designated Express Lanes.

Express Lanes are only for Guests not carrying any item including but not limited to purse, fanny pack, package, container, backpack or any type of bag (including peanuts and food). Follow the Rockies on Facebook at facebook.com/Rockies. See Social Media . There are family restrooms located throughout the ballpark, which are available for individuals with small children, elderly or anyone with a disability. Please see Restrooms for locations. The lower area of Section 342 is vinland reddit, designated as the Family Section. To ensure the psycho music enjoyment of family Guests, alcoholic beverages are not permitted in this section. Fantasy Broadcast Booth. See Interactive Area . Fantasy Camp provides Colorado Rockies fans with a unique opportunity to experience life as a Major Leaguer.

Campers will participate in clinics, practices and organized competition at Salt River Fields at Talking Stick, the Colorado Rockies Spring Training Facility in Scottsdale, Arizona. Participants may benefit from the chance to vinland, exchange strategies with the Fantasy Camp coaching staff and to compete with Major League veterans in the annual Coaches versus Campers game. Space is limited, so inquire early for ghanaian culture, opportunities to vinland, participate in Through, the next Fantasy Camp. For more information, please call (303) 312-CAMP or visit the Fantasy Camp website at ROCKIES.com/fantasycamp. Firearms and Weapons. No firearms or other weapons are allowed on Coors Field premises. First Aid Stations.

First Aid Stations are located behind sections 133 and 330. Vinland Reddit? Guests in need of shower, aspirin, band-aids, etc. Reddit? must visit the mido watches uk First Aid Stations to obtain these items in vinland, person. If medical attention is Roles of the Marketing Essay, required, notify the saga reddit nearest Coors Field Representative. The First Aid Station at section 133 is open two hours prior to every game. Airasia Redtix? The First Aid Station at section 330 will be open during select games.

Foul Balls; Game Interference. Guests are welcome to keep any foul ball hit into the stands. At no time should a foul or home run ball be thrown back on the field. Violators will be subject to ejection. Any Guest interfering with a ball in play will be subject to ejection from the ballpark. Vinland Saga? In addition, any Guest going on music, to the playing field will be ejected from the ballpark and may be subject to arrest and prosecution. The Colorado Rockies cannot be held responsible for the conduct of other Guests when attempting to obtain a foul or home run ball.

See also Colorado Baseball Spectator Law. Game Information Prohibition; Use of Likeness. Each Guest is admitted to Coors Field on the condition, and by entrance to Coors Field the saga reddit Guest agrees, that: (a) he or she shall not transmit or aid in transmitting, or make or aid in the making of any commercial use of, any information about the game to which Guest has been granted admission, including, but not limited to, any account, description, picture, video, audio reproduction or other information concerning or in connection with the game, the players or Coors Field (the Game Information); (b) the Rockies are the exclusive owner of all copyrights and other proprietary rights in all games played at Coors Field and related Game Information; and (c) the mido watches uk Colorado Rockies, Office of the Commissioner of vinland saga reddit, Baseball, Major League Baseball Properties, Inc., Major League Baseball Enterprises, Inc., Major League Baseball Advanced Media, L.P., Major League Baseball Advanced Media, Inc. (the MLB Entities) and each of their respective agents and licensees, shall have the unrestricted right and license to use his or her image, likenesses, name, voice, comments or other proprietary or public rights and that of any minor accompanying Holder in any broadcast, telecast or photograph and/or video and/or audio sound recording taken in connection with the game or other transmission or reproduction in Gliding, whole or in part of the game, for saga, all purposes, without consent or compensation. The rights granted herein to mido watches uk, the Colorado Rockies and the MLB Entities are assignable. Game Used Collectibles. See Authentics Kiosk . The Rockies once again will enlist players and fans toward making a positive impact on the environment through the saga 2017 Games of Green initiative. The Changed Marketing Division Essay? For more information, please go to ROCKIES.com/green.

There are five lettered gates at Coors Field. Their locations are as follows: A - Section 105, behind bullpens, right center field B - Section 111, right field corner, 22nd and Blake Streets C - Section 122, first base, 21st and Blake Streets D - Section 130, behind home plate, 20th and Blake Streets E - Section 147, left field corner, Wynkoop Walkway. Guests are encouraged to come early and watch batting practice, infield workouts and pregame ceremonies. Gates A (Rockpile entrance) and saga E will open two hours prior to of the Essay, game time for vinland saga, Guests who want to view batting practice. Guests will be required to mido watches uk, stay in the Left Field Pavilion area until the remaining ballpark gates open.

Gates B, C and D will open 1 1/2 hours prior to saga, game time. Gate opening times may vary if game is mido watches uk, rescheduled. Dugouts - Everything is in play unless the ball goes into the dugout. Vinland Saga? Photographers' areas are considered part of the dugout. Foul Poles - A ball hitting any part of the screen area supported by airasia redtix the poles down the vinland saga left or right field lines is ghanaian, a home run. Vinland Saga? Canvas (tarp) - A ball remaining behind or underneath the canvas is one base on a pitch and two bases on a throw by a fielder.

Two bases are awarded on a batted ball otherwise in play. A fielder may make a catch while standing on the canvas. Scoreboard in ghanaian culture, Right Field - A ball going through the vinland scoreboard, either on a bounce or on the fly, is shower music, two bases. Share the excitement of vinland, Colorado Rockies Baseball with a group of The Changed Roles Division, friends, family or coworkers at the ballpark. When ordering through the Group Sales Department, groups of vinland saga, 25 or more will receive seating together (subject to mido watches uk, availability), scoreboard recognition (see Guest Announcement Board) and two complimentary tickets to vinland saga reddit, a future Rockies game for the group leader. Special group pricing is available for The Changed of the, most home games. The bigger the group, the bigger the rewards! Groups of 300 or more can qualify for a pregame onfield ceremony and groups of 500 or more can qualify for an opportunity to watch batting practice on the field for the group leader and a guest. Fundraising opportunities are available for most home games with larger discounts available for saga reddit, designated Super Fundraiser dates.

Add food and beverage to your group tickets with Colorado Rockies PowerTickets (see PowerTickets ). Call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437) or visit ROCKIES.com/groups for more information or to have a group brochure sent to you. Guest Announcement Board. Guests can purchase a personal message to appear on the matrix board under the Mountain Ranch Bar Grille in right field. Gliding Through The Ocean? This does not include the Main Videoboard or side fascia boards.

Each message can be up to 40 characters (including spaces and punctuation) and will scroll before the top of each inning. Vinland Saga? The cost for each message is The Changed Roles of the, $50.00. Orders may be placed with a credit card at (303) ROCKIES (762-5437), or send your check or money order (made payable to vinland saga, the Colorado Rockies Charity Fund) to: Colorado Rockies, Attn: Guest Announcement Board, 2001 Blake Street, Denver, CO 80205. Please include your message, a contact name and phone number and the date of the 2000s horror game. Saga? For more information, call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437). Orders must be received at psycho least 72 hours in advance of the game date. Guest Assistance Line. The Coors Field guest services team is readily available to provide you with a memorable experience at the ballpark. Vinland Saga Reddit? During the Gliding the Ocean Essay game you may also call our Guest Assistance Line at 1-877-ROXFANS (769-3267) to get questions answered or request assistance.

Assistance may also be obtained by vinland saga texting SECURITY to 97475 (see Safety Security). We strive to provide you with the best guest service in Major League Baseball. The Colorado Rockies are committed to providing a safe environment for all of our Guests. We ask that if any Guest is aware of any potentially unsafe situation to please notify the nearest Coors Field representative, text SECURITY to 97475 (see Safety Security) or call 1-877-ROXFANS (769-3267). Your eyes and ears can help to culture, keep Coors Field a safe family environment.

Guest Code of vinland reddit, Conduct. Guest Relations Center. The Guest Relations Center is located on the Main Concourse behind section 127. This service center operates from the time the gates open until 15 minutes after the conclusion of the game. Guests may obtain information, offer suggestions, voice concerns and request assistance from Colorado Rockies Guest Relations Representatives. The Guest Relations Center is also the airasia redtix location for Lost and vinland saga Found. Buffalo Dogs - Section 115 Chicken Sandwich - Grille Works at sections 115, 144, 218, 226, 239, 243, 323, 335 Frozen Yogurt - Section 150, 330 Gluten Free - Sections 142 Infield Greens Salad - Section 120, Mountain Ranch Turkey Wraps - Section 120 Veggie Burger and Dog - Section 134, 323 Veggie Burrito - Section 134 Veggie Cold Sandwich - Section 137 Veggie Panini - Section 137 Veggie Pizza - Section 137. At no time should a home run ball be thrown back onto the field. Violators will be subject to ejection. Any Guest interfering with a ball in ghanaian culture, play will be subject to ejection from the park. The Colorado Rockies are committed to vinland reddit, creating a safe, comfortable and The Changed of the Division Essay enjoyable ballpark experience.

Our staff will proactively intervene to ensure the following: Obscene or indecent clothing will not detract from the Guest experience. Guests will enjoy the baseball experience free from foul or abusive language or obscene gestures. Guests will refrain from displays of affection not appropriate in a public, family setting. Impaired or intoxicated Guests will be assisted in a prompt, respectful and safe manner.

Guests will show their ticket when requested and sit only in their ticketed seat. The progress of the game will not be disrupted by Guests' actions or unauthorized persons on saga, the playing field. Mido Watches Uk? Smoking is vinland reddit, permitted only in designated areas. Back to top. Follow the Rockies on Instagram at instagram.com/Rockies. See Social Media . Visit Coors Field's Interactive Area and test your baseball skills. The Interactive Area includes: Pro Batter Jr. - A video batting cage for Gliding the Ocean Essay, young fans that pitches plastic balls. Speed Pitch - Test your throwing speed and win a prize. Saga? (For Guests of all ages.) Tee-Ball - Youngsters six years of age and younger can hit one over the fence in the Tee-Ball cage at no charge. 850 KOA Fantasy Broadcast Booth - Come out and call a half inning live during the music ball game. Participants receive a DVD recording of their broadcast as a souvenir. (For Guests of all ages.)

The Coors Field Interactive Area is located behind the bullpens on the Main Concourse at Gate A. Saga Reddit? Fans may purchase game tickets at the kiosk located in the Interactive Area. All users and observers of the Interactive Area assume all risk of early 2000s horror movies, injury. Colorado Rockies license plates are available at all Colorado Department of Motor Vehicle (DMV) locations. You can show your Rockies pride with a signature license plate and know that 100% of your $52.80 donation to the Colorado Rockies Baseball Club Foundation is supporting youth sports, education and vinland reddit health programs. Colorado residents may get more information and download the license plate application from mido watches uk, our website at: ROCKIES.com, click on the Community tab, then click on the license plate icon. Vinland Reddit? By including a one-time donation of $52.80 to the Colorado Rockies Baseball Club Foundation with each completed vehicle application form, you will receive an official certificate from the shower Colorado Rockies Baseball Club. This certificate can be presented at the DMV to receive your Rockies signature license plate (additional DMV fees apply, standard annual specialty license plate fees and vinland saga taxes will be assessed.)

Light Rail is a fast and Gliding the Ocean efficient means of transportation to Coors Field. There are three Light Rail stations convenient to the ballpark; the most convenient stop is Union Station via the A, B, C, E or W Lines. Light Rail runs daily. For specific route and fare information, access the Light Rail section of the RTD website found at rtd-denver.com or call (303) 299-6000. The Colorado Rockies Baseball Club cannot be responsible for recovery, storage, safekeeping, preservation or return of any lost or found item at Coors Field. With that understanding, any item that has been lost or found during a game should be reported to saga reddit, the Guest Relations Center at section 127. Found items are kept in The Changed Roles Essay, storage after each game; therefore, if an item was lost at a previous game, it will not be obtainable without prior arrangements. Vinland Saga? Please call the Coors Field Lost and Found Hotline at mido watches uk (303) 312-2109 to saga, report a lost item. Leave a detailed description of the airasia redtix item, the date and location it was lost, and vinland your name and phone number. If your item was turned in, you will be called as soon as possible. If your item was not turned in, you will not receive a call unless you specifically request one.

Your name will remain on file in case the item is airasia redtix, turned in at a later time. A simple way to reddit, protect your property is to place your name and phone number permanently somewhere on the item. Items are held for 30 days. Every child should be told to contact a Coors Field Representative should he or she become lost. A lost child will be taken to mido watches uk, the Guest Relations Center at vinland saga reddit section 127.

Lost parents should follow the same procedure. Parents are encouraged to place tickets in children's pockets in case of separation. Lost or Stolen Tickets. Lost or forgotten tickets will be replaced for a non-refundable $2.00 per culture ticket processing fee. In the event that the original tickets are also used, the vinland saga reddit full face value of the early tickets will be charged. Stolen tickets will be replaced at no charge if a police report listing the exact seat location(s) and game date(s) is provided. If a police report is not provided or if the police report does not contain the exact game date(s) and seat location(s) of the stolen tickets, the Lost Ticket Policy will be in saga, effect. Know the law about marijuana use in culture, Denver. It is illegal to reddit, consume marijuana in public.

Possession of, smoking, ingesting or otherwise consuming marijuana is prohibited in all areas of Coors Field, including the designated smoking areas. Mezzanine Party Suites. See Party Suites . 10, 15, 20 or 25-game Mini-Plans are available throughout the ballpark at a discounted rate (restrictions apply). Other benefits include ticket exchange privileges, discounts at Dugout Stores and postseason priority. Please call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437) or go to ROCKIES.com/tickets for more information. Mountain Ranch Bar Grille. The Mountain Ranch Bar Grille is open to all ticketed guests. This area features Rockies memorabilia throughout the restaurant and has both casual family and The Changed Roles of the Essay upscale dining options available. Located in saga reddit, the right field corner of Coors Field, the Mountain Ranch Bar Grille may be accessed at any of the following areas: the Gate B elevator behind section 111, the elevator behind section 114 and the right field side of the Suite level. Season Ticket Holders may make reservations three business days prior to a homestand, for any game in that homestand, by calling (303) 312-2525 Monday through Friday, 10 a.m. Ghanaian Culture? - 4 p.m.

All other Guests may make reservations two business days prior to a homestand. Vinland Saga? Questions regarding these facilities should be directed to (303) 312-2525. For information on booking the Mountain Ranch Bar Grille for a non-game day event, please call (303) 312-2552 or go online to ROCKIES.com. Mountain Ranch Club. The Mountain Ranch Club offers premium open air seating around forward facing spacious granite half moon tables in the lower tiers inside and Essay outside of the Mountain Ranch Club. Tables of two or four are sold on a seasonal basis and saga may also be available on a limited basis for single game purchase. Tickets include a credit good towards food and beverages in the restaurant and at all concession and novelty locations throughout Coors Field. Each table features its own TV for ghanaian, game and instant replay viewing. Vinland Saga? Access the 2000s movies Mountain Ranch Club via the elevator behind Section 114 then to the private entrance behind Section 214 on vinland saga, the right-field side of the Wells Fargo Club Level.

For information and The Changed of the Marketing Division availability call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437). Movement During Play. The Colorado Rockies encourage all Guests to use courtesy and vinland reddit restrict movement in the seating areas during play. When returning to your seats, please wait for a break in the action (between innings, between batters, pitching changes, etc.) before entering the aisles. We thank you for your cooperation. National Anthem Performances.

The Colorado Rockies Baseball Club provides limited National Anthem opportunities for Coors Field home games. Please contact our group sales department for The Changed Marketing Essay, additional information regarding this opportunity, as the Colorado Rockies provide the majority of performance opportunities to our local community through our Elementary School Fundraising Program. Tapes, CDs, DVDs, videos, video links are accepted throughout the year and will be considered for vinland saga reddit, the limited number of openings that exist. Submissions will become the property of the ghanaian Colorado Rockies and will not be returned to the submitter. Vinland Saga? Inquiries as to the availability of dates will not be accepted.

Submissions may be sent to: 2001 Blake Street. Denver, CO 80205. The volume of requests from mido watches uk, soloists or other artists, in addition to the limited performance opportunities available, make it very likely that individual submissions will not be scheduled. Nursing mothers who desire a more private area outside of the vinland seating area may go to any First Aid location (see First Aid Stations) and accommodations will be provided. Per Major League Baseball rules, only authorized personnel will be permitted on mido watches uk, the field before, during or after a game.

Any unauthorized person going onto vinland saga reddit, the field will be removed from the mido watches uk ballpark and subject to arrest. Out-of-town scores appear on the manual scoreboard located in right field. The scoreboard can be read as follows: inning, team abbreviation, runs scored and uniform number of the pitcher of record. If the score is final (marked by saga reddit an F in the inning column), the The Changed Roles Marketing Essay uniform numbers of the winning pitcher and losing pitcher will be displayed in the pitcher of record column. Due to the many requests, paging is not permitted except in cases that are deemed to vinland, be life-threatening emergencies by the Colorado Rockies Baseball Club. If you need paging, please contact the Guest Relations Center at section 127. If you are not at Coors Field and need to contact a Guest please call (303) 292-0200. Coors Field Traffic and Parking tips. The Coors Field parking lot is located at Park Avenue West and Wazee Street, in Denver's historic Lower Downtown. Mido Watches Uk? Whether you choose to drive, take RTD, bike or walk, planning ahead can help make your visit to the ballpark more enjoyable. Advance single game parking passes are available in vinland reddit, a Colorado Rockies operated lot for $17.00 in Lot A and $15.00 in The Changed Roles of the Marketing Division Essay, Lot B (cash and credit cards accepted).

Passes may be purchased at the Coors Field Ticket Office, all King Soopers, select City Market and Colorado Rockies Dugout stores, online at ROCKIES.com/parking or by calling (303) ROCKIES (762-5437). Reddit? Bus parking is $30.00 per vehicle. (Service charges may apply.) For information on season parking passes, please call (303) 312-2222. Finding Coors Field. The Ballpark can be reached a number of ways:

From the North - Take I-25 south to Exit #213 (Park Ave. West) From the Northeast - Travel southwest on I-76 to I-25 South, Exit #213 (Park Ave. West) From the West - Travel east on I-70 to early movies, I-25 South, Exit #213 (Park Ave. West) From the East - Go west on I-70 to I-25 South, Exit #213 (Park Ave. West) From the South - Travel north on I-25 to Exit #212C (20th Street) There are 4,390 spaces on-site at Coors Field. Day of vinland, game parking is available in Lot A for $18.00 and Lot B for $16.00. RV and bus parking is of the Marketing Division, available for $30.00 at Park Avenue West (22nd) and Wazee Streets, and 27th and Blake Streets. Coors Field parking lots open 2 1/2 hours prior to game time. Parking passes can be purchased in vinland reddit, advance at the Coors Field ticket windows.

Cash or credit card accepted at all parking entrances. Coors Field parking lots are staffed and operated by Central Parking Systems, (303) 312-2040. Bicycle parking is the Ocean, available near Gates A, B and reddit E (see Coors Field Map for specific gate locations). There is psycho shower, limited bike parking along Blake Street, please see a Coors Field Representative for questions on additional bicycle parking locations. Vinland? Coors Field is not responsible for damaged or stolen bicycles. Please check ROCKIES.com/green for information on special Bike to the Game days. More than 46,000 spaces are located in downtown Denver, approximately 18,000 of Roles of the Division, which are within a 15 minute walk. Vinland? During the early 2000s baseball season, parking meters and other restrictions will be strictly enforced until 11:00 p.m. in the neighborhoods surrounding Coors Field.

Consider parking in saga, one of the many lots along the The Changed Roles Marketing Division Essay 16th Street Mall or the Broadway/Lincoln Center and taking the shuttle. Leave the driving to RTD. Vinland Saga? Use RockiesRide, Light Rail or other regional or local routes. Call (303) 299-6000, or visit rtd-denver.com. Valet Service is 2000s horror, available for all Rockies home games for vinland saga reddit, $30.00 Mon-Thu and $35.00 Fri-Sun. The valet service is conveniently located in our MVP parking lot on the corner of culture, 22nd and vinland saga reddit Blake. The valet service ensures that your car will be parked in a secured Coors Field operated parking lot. Valet service starts two hours prior to start of all games and closes one hour after the conclusion of the game. Valet service will remain open for one hour after the conclusion of Fireworks shows, concerts and events that are held after the game has ended.

MAIN PARKING LOT. Location: Immediately adjacent to Coors Field, just outside Gate A in Gliding Through Essay, right field. Lot A sits between Blake Street and the railroad tracks extending northeast to the 27th Street entrance. Access: Lot A can be accessed from vinland saga, 22nd/Park Avenue at Wazee or at 27th and Blake Streets. Access to I-25 is via Park Avenue. Access to I-70 is via Broadway/Brighton Blvd. Features: This lot is paved, lit and mido watches uk fenced in. Lot A is on the ballpark site and will be staffed by Central Parking personnel. The stadium is saga, a short walk along a pedestrian walkway to early movies, Gate A. Estimated Walk Time : Walk time from your car to Gate A is approximately 1 to 10 minutes. Cost : The day of game price per game for Lot A is $18.00.

Location: Adjacent to Coors Field, Lot B is next to Lot A between Blake Street and the railroad tracks extending from the 27th Street entrance out to 30th Street. Access: Lot B can be accessed at reddit 22nd/Park Avenue and Wazee Street, 27th and Blake Streets or at 33rd and Blake Streets. Mido Watches Uk? Access to vinland, I-25 is via Park Avenue. Access to I-70 is via Broadway/Brighton Blvd. Features: This lot is paved, lit and fenced in. Lot B is on the ballpark site and early movies will be staffed by Central Parking personnel. The stadium is reddit, a short walk along a pedestrian walkway to Gate A. Parking Garage : This lot has covered parking in ghanaian, a garage with 950 spaces, including accessible parking and saga reddit four charging stations for electric cars. The garage can be accessed at 27th and Blake Street. Estimated Walk Time: Walk time from your car to Gate A is approximately 10 to 20 minutes. A complimentary shuttle is airasia redtix, also provided from Lot B to Gate A.

Cost: The day of game price per game for Lot B is $16.00. Access: Approximately 300 disabled parking spaces are available immediately adjacent to Gate A, in the front of Lot A. Drop-Off: The disabled drop-off area is located across from Gate B at 22nd and Blake Streets. Vinland Saga? From I-25, exit Park Avenue West to The Changed Roles of the Division, Market Street, turn left on Market Street, left on 23rd Street and left on Blake Street. Drop off will be on vinland saga reddit, the right before 22nd Street. Features: Lot A is paved, lit and fenced in. Disabled parking is on the ballpark site and will be staffed by Central Parking personnel. The Changed Roles Marketing? Through Gate A, elevators, ramps, stairs and escalators provide access to the various levels of Coors Field.

Estimated Distance : Access to the ballpark is almost immediate, as these spaces are directly adjacent to Gate A. Cost: Disabled parking will be sold on the day of the game at $16.00 per vehicle. A valid state issued disabled parking permit and/or a disabled license plate must be displayed to park in this area. Summit Party Suites: Our six Summit Party Suites are located on the Suite Level down the left-field line and are available for individual game rental. Vinland Saga Reddit? Party Suites are a terrific way for psycho shower music, family, friends and coworkers to enjoy a Colorado Rockies game together. Equipped with indoor and outdoor seating, the Summit Party Suites accommodate 12 to 75 people and include a catered food and saga reddit non-alcoholic beverage package. Call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437)or visit ROCKIES.com/suites for information.

To access the ghanaian culture Party Suites, take the Gate E elevator to saga, the Suite Level. Mezzanine Party Suites: Our six Mezzanine Party Suites are located on the Mezzanine Level in right field, directly behind sections 206-209. Available for individual game rental, the Mezzanine Party Suites have indoor and outdoor seating accommodating 22 to 60 people, or you can rent all six suites for a special package price. All Mezzanine Suites include a catered food and non-alcoholic beverage package. Call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437) or visit ROCKIES.com/suites for more information. To access the Mezzanine Suites take the Gate A elevator to the Mezzanine Level. Warning Track Party Room: The Warning Track Party Room is located at field level under the out-of-town scoreboard in right field. The area may be accessed via the Gate A elevator. The room provides a fully catered buffet and 2000s horror accommodates groups of saga reddit, 30 to 90 people. No Guest will forget the area's unique, field-level perspective of the game. Call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437) or visit ROCKIES.com/suites for information.

Peddling/Vending/Free Speech Activity/Leafletting. All exterior Coors Field walkways, including the Gliding Through the Ocean Essay Wynkoop Walkway and walkway outside Gate A, are public forum areas with respect to free speech. Therefore, all free speech activities are permitted, including but not limited to saga, petitioning, leafletting, campaign activities, and the sale or distribution of newspapers. However, free speech activities may not impede safe pedestrian flow or block access to airasia redtix, the turnstiles. For information regarding a peddler's permit, call the Department of Excise and License at (720) 865-2740. Only free speech activities are allowed on Coors Field premises. Vending, peddling or product sampling is not allowed except on saga reddit, the public sidewalk (Blake Street from early movies, 20th to 22nd Streets and 22nd Street to the stairs), in accordance with the vinland saga reddit Department of Excise and License restrictions. A ruling from the Through Essay Denver District Court has been made which designates the saga reddit pedestrian walkway outside Gate A as a Public Forum.

As a result, anyone wishing to exercise their First Amendment right to free speech may do so. Newspaper vending, leafletting, street preaching, petitioning and Through other free speech activity are allowed on the walkway outside Gate A. The selling of food, beverages or merchandise is NOT ALLOWED on the walkway. The only restrictions to those expressing their free speech rights are that they may not block the turnstiles or impede pedestrian traffic across the walkway. It shall be up to the discretion of the Denver Police officers to reddit, ask individuals to airasia redtix, move if it is saga, felt that a safety hazard or impediment of the free flow of pedestrian traffic is occurring. The Wynkoop Walkway between 19th Street and Gate E has also been ruled as a Public Forum.

Newspaper vending, leafletting, petitioning and other free speech activities are allowed on the entire walkway. The only restriction is early 2000s movies, that they must not block the Gate E turnstiles and they must not create a safety hazard on the overpass between the baseball arch and the turnstiles. Vinland? Police officers will ask individuals to move if they are causing a safety hazard. Licensed peddlers may offer their wares for sale on the walkway between 19th Street and 2000s horror movies the bottom of the saga reddit stairs leading to the baseball arch. Peddlers are NOT ALLOWED on the overpass between the arch and the Gate E turnstiles. There are four picnic areas at Coors Field available for pregame parties. The Coors Outfield Picnic Area, an outdoor area located adjacent to Gate A, is a great place for groups of airasia redtix, 25 to 2,000 to gather and socialize prior to game time for great food and fun.

The Platte River Picnic Area is located inside the ballpark under cover of the vinland Rockpile seating area and is equipped with picnic tables and mido watches uk chairs to accommodate groups of 25 to reddit, 250. The Jack Daniel's Terrace Deck is located on the upper level of The Rooftop and accommodates groups of 150 to 400. Reservations in these areas include a full buffet with non-alcoholic beverages and ghanaian special game ticket discounts. For more information, please call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437) or visit ROCKIES.com/suites. All three areas are accessible to Guests with disabilities. The Chik-fil-A children's playground area is vinland saga, located on early 2000s horror movies, the Main Concourse, behind section 147, between the Buckaroos concession stand and Majestic Team merchandise store. Saga? A parent or guardian must always monitor their child while in airasia redtix, this area. PowerTickets offer Guests the ability to get admission to the game plus concession credit on reddit, the same ticket. This value is The Changed Marketing Essay, included in the barcode on your ticket.

The barcode allows you to redeem added value at almost all permanent food and beverage stands in the ballpark that accept credit cards. The concession value is only redeemable for the date printed on vinland, the game ticket and cannot be transferred. For individual tickets this offer is only available at ROCKIES.com/specials. Not available in all sections; subject to availability. Groups of 25 or more can also add concession value to their discounted game tickets in $10, $15, $20 or $25 increments. Please call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437) or visit ROCKIES.com/groups for group information. Private parties, meetings, receptions or special-themed events may be booked at ghanaian culture Coors Field on non-game days throughout the year. Most areas of the ballpark are available for rental including the Mountain Ranch Club, Blue Moon Brewing Co. at vinland reddit the Sandlot, Conference Center, Coors Outfield Picnic Area, Platte River Picnic Area, Rooftop, Wells Fargo Club, Coors Clubhouse and mido watches uk concourse areas.

For information, please call (303) 312-2552 or go online to ROCKIES.com/events. Private Season Suites. There are 31 private suites on the exclusive Suite Level at Coors Field. These Suites are available for vinland reddit, full and partial season leases, lease terms vary. The price and lease terms are determined by location and number of seats in the suite. All suites contain indoor and outdoor seating, temperature-controlled lounge area, television/sound system and catering service. Music? Access to the private Suite Level is restricted to vinland reddit, those Guests holding Suite Level tickets.

For more information regarding the leasing of 2000s movies, a private suite, please call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437). For individual game suite rental, see Private Suites, Party Suites or Super Suites. Located along the Suite Level, our Private Suites offer an upscale Suite experience and saga reddit are available for multi-game packages, as well as for individual game rental. The Private Suite package includes a private suite with 12 - 20 tickets, parking passes, a complete catering package, access to ghanaian culture, the Mountain Ranch Bar Grille, Wells Fargo Club and much more. Vinland Reddit? Call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437) or visit ROCKIES.com/suites for more information. Pro Batter Video batting cage. See Interactive Area . See Rockies Magazine . 2017 Promotional Policies.

All promotional items will be distributed on the game day specified, when the ghanaian gates open, and on vinland, a first-come, first-served basis. Mido Watches Uk? Promotional items shall be limited in quantity and will be distributed to ticketed Guests while supplies last. Ticketed Guests will be limited to one item per person in vinland, attendance. Promotional items will be issued through the bottom of the second inning or while supplies last. Occasional promotional items are age-sensitive and Guests must meet age requirements set by Through Essay the Colorado Rockies in their sole discretion to be eligible for the item.

In order to ensure fairness, Guests must receive their promotional item at the time of initial entry and in the designated distribution area of the gate entered. For the safety of all parties, Coors Field Staff and volunteers will not distribute a promotional item to any Guest approaching a distribution area from inside the ballpark. Coors Field Staff and volunteers will make every effort to notify Guests before entering the ballpark of possible scenarios, based on vinland saga, fan traffic patterns, that certain gates may have run out The Changed Roles of the Essay, of the saga reddit promotional item while others are still distributing. Re-entry is mido watches uk, not permitted to obtain a promotional item and the Colorado Rockies reserve the right to deny service to any individual at their own discretion. It is possible items may be damaged or broken during the shipping and distribution process.

Guests must be sure to inspect their item upon receipt and prior to leaving the distribution area in order to saga reddit, receive a replacement item. All decisions made by the Colorado Rockies are final. Promotional dates, times, and quantities are subject to 2000s, change. Go to ROCKIES.com/promotions for updates. Purple Mondays are back for the 2017 season and this season there are nine Purple Mondays. There will be great prize giveaways to saga reddit, randomly selected winners using the Ballpark app. Download the Ballpark app today and you might be selected as a random winner. Random winners will be chosen using the Check-In feature of the Ballpark app.

For game dates and Gliding Essay information, go online to ROCKIES.com/tickets. Hand-held radios and small televisions are welcome at Coors Field as long as they do not interfere with other Guests' enjoyment of the reddit game. Through? Please be considerate by using a low volume or earphones. The Colorado Rockies reserve the right to saga, ask any Guest to discontinue the use of such devices. Coors Field policies prohibit any article from extending over, under or past the vertical plane of music, any railing surrounding the playing field. This includes, but is reddit, not limited to: gloves, signs, banners, cameras, food, beverages, arms, legs, feet, hands or limbs.

Rain Check policy. If a game is rained out and rescheduled as part of a split doubleheader, the ticket will be used as a rain check and will be honored for the rescheduled game that replaces the original game. Retain possession of the Rain Check until the GAME NUMBERED OR NAMED on the ticket has been played to completion. The Rain Check is only good for this particular game and mido watches uk no part of the purchase price will be refunded by reason of the failure of the Holder to use it for vinland saga reddit, this game. Culture? Should the GAME NUMBERED OR NAMED on the ticket not progress to or beyond a point of play constituting a regulation game under Official Baseball Rule 4.10 (c) after the Holder has been admitted to the ballpark, the Rain Check will be honored at the rescheduled game which replaces the saga GAME NUMBERED OR NAMED on the ticket. If unable to The Changed Roles Division Essay, attend the rescheduled game, the Holder may exchange the saga Rain Check for airasia redtix, a ticket of the vinland same value (subject to availability and mido watches uk restrictions) for vinland, any game during the Gliding Through the Ocean current regular season. Such exchanges must occur prior to the first pitch of the rescheduled game. Complimentary tickets have a value of zero dollars, and therefore may not be exchanged. Saga Reddit? Complimentary tickets will be honored at Through the Ocean Essay the rescheduled game only. Discounted tickets may be exchanged only for the amount paid to the Colorado Rockies, and are subject to any constraints applicable to the original sale. If a game is rained out and rescheduled as part of vinland saga, a regular, or traditional doubleheader, the early 2000s horror movies ticket from the rained out game will not be honored at any subsequent game.

Such tickets may be exchanged on a value-for-value basis, for any remaining game during the current regular season. Vinland Saga Reddit? Any tickets purchased through StubHub will need to Gliding the Ocean Essay, be returned to StubHub for credit. Complimentary tickets have a value of zero dollars, and vinland saga reddit therefore may not be exchanged or refunded. The right to postpone the playing of a game shall be vested in the home club. Once a game has started, the Umpire-in-Chief shall have sole right to determine whether the mido watches uk game shall be terminated because of bad weather or unfit playing conditions. Under the provisions of the vinland Official Playing Rules, the Umpire-in-Chief shall have the sole and mido watches uk unquestioned authority to determine whether and when play shall be halted during a game; whether and when play shall be resumed; and whether and when a game shall be terminated because of vinland, bad weather or unfit playing conditions. The Official Playing Rules provide that when a game is horror movies, temporarily suspended for rain, the chief of the umpire crew must wait 30 minutes before calling the game. The umpire may continue the suspension of the game as long as he believes there is any chance to resume play, attempting at saga all times to complete the game. There are two access ramps located on the east and west sides of Coors Field. The east ramp can be accessed from Roles Marketing Essay, Gate A and leads to vinland saga, the Main Concourse, Mezzanine Level and Upper Level. The west ramp can be accessed from Gate E and leads to the Wells Fargo Club, the Suite Level and airasia redtix the Upper Level.

The grade on both ramps conforms to ADA standards. The Colorado Rockies are working hard to care for saga reddit, the environment, doing their part to help keep Colorado green and early horror clean. Vinland? In a typical year, the Rockies plant over 50 trees as a result of shower music, home runs hit during the Green Game campaign and recycle many used materials such as: batteries, electronics, construction debris, fryer grease, glass, plastics, paper, cardboard, oil, pallets and compost leftover from food, grass clippings and vinland reddit shrubbery. In total, the Gliding Through Colorado Rockies have diverted over 316 tons from the vinland reddit landfill in one season alone. Re-Entering The Ballpark. During games, Guests are permitted to The Changed, leave the ballpark and return through any of the five entrance gates. Please see the vinland saga Gate Supervisor or VIP Representative to have both your ticket and hand stamped. When returning to the ballpark, Guests must show their ticket and hand stamp, and should re-enter through the special pass-out gates at Through the Ocean each entrance. (Please see Gates for a list of vinland saga reddit, gate locations.) Guests will be required to go through the same security procedures as when they originally entered the ballpark. All persons and bags are subject to search. (Please also see Entering the Ballpark and Searches.) The following list is a guide only.

It is not intended to be all inclusive. Alcoholic beverages, illegal drugs, or marijuana (medical or otherwise) in any form Non-alcoholic beer or similar items Glass bottles and aluminum or metal cans (including any aerosol cans) All hard-sided coolers and containers, regardless of size All hard-sided briefcases, regardless of size All soft-sided bags and containers larger than 16x 16x 8 Camera tri, dual or single leg pods by music non-media personnel. Video cameras are permitted as long as live game action is not recorded as specified by MLB Policy (See Cameras and vinland saga Game Information Prohibition.) Bota bags or wine skin Sticks or clubs (including signs attached to psycho shower music, sticks) Fireworks Firearms or other weapons Bullhorns or noise makers Confetti, soap bubbles Animals (except trained service dogs for Guests with disabilities) Beachballs, balloons and other inflatables Skateboards, rollerblades or shoes with wheels (Heelys) Stools or folding chairs Large squirt guns or super soakers Fishing nets, poles or ball retrieval devices Any fruit or vegetable larger than a grapefruit must be sliced Selfie Sticks Laser pointers Insulated coolers, cups and thermoses larger than 22 ounces Pizza boxes larger than personal size Frisbees Hoverboards Masks (See Clothing) Plastic beverage containers Soft-sided bags or containers 16x 16x 8 or smaller Insulated cups or thermoses 22 ounces or smaller Food items (including glass baby food jars) Any fruit or vegetable grapefruit-sized or smaller Still and video cameras (see Cameras) Binoculars Seat cushions and bleacher back rest Umbrellas during the threat of inclement weather. In consideration of the safety and sight lines of vinland saga reddit, others, please use only small, compact umbrellas (28-34span). Large golf umbrellas and of the Marketing umbrellas with metal tips are strongly discouraged. Paper or plastic cups with permitted beverages Plastic baby bottles Baseball bats - for the purpose of autographs; must be stored underneath the reddit seats once the Gliding Essay game begins Brooms - 6' maximum length (only on the day of a potential sweep) Potato chip or nut cardboard cans with metal tops or bottoms Strollers - that fold or collapse to fit underneath seats (larger strollers may be claim-checked at the gates upon entry) Motorcycle and bicycle helmets Empty camel packs. All restrooms at reddit Coors Field have diaper changing stations available and are accessible to Guests with disabilities. Music? The following is a list of sections where restrooms are located throughout the ballpark:

Men's - 102, 110, 118, 133, 142, 150, 153, 203, 215, 225, 234, 241, 245, 302, 308, 318, 326, 331, 335, 342, 401 Women's - 101, 107, 116, 126, 131, 141, 146, 149, 156, 204, 216, 221, 226, 235, 242, 244, 302, 308, 315, 321, 328, 333, 338, 343, 403 Family - 124, 135, 149, 222, 311, 339. Restrooms are also located on the Suite Level outside of the following suites: Men's - Suites 4, 10, 16, 24, 32, 41, 48, 55B Women's - Suites 6, 12, 18, 25, 32, 39, 46, 55A Family - Suites 23, 42. Retired Numbers (42) and vinland saga reddit (17) The Colorado Rockies have two retired numbers, 17 and Gliding the Ocean Essay 42. In 1997, the Colorado Rockies, Major League Baseball and other Major League Clubs celebrated the 50th Anniversary of Jackie Robinson breaking the color barrier in Major League Baseball. On August 13, 1997, in a ceremony attended by Jackie's widow, Rachel, and daughter, Sharon, the reddit Colorado Rockies officially retired the number 42 in honor of Jackie's historic and heroic contributions to the game of mido watches uk, baseball. Todd Helton's number 17 was retired on August 17, 2014 in honor of his 17 years of service to the Colorado Rockies. Having played his entire career in Colorado, Todd retired as the career leader in almost every offensive category in team history. His commitment to the organization and community were recognized with a weekend long celebration culminating in a pregame ceremony and unveiling of his number plaque in center field above the bullpens.

Rio on vinland, the Rocks. A destination spot on the Mezzanine Level of the ballpark (above sections 201-203) that provides a great center-field view of the game. It's a semi-enclosed area below the Upper Deck with floor to mido watches uk, ceiling glass to the West providing additional protection from the elements. The area is vinland saga, available to groups, individuals and early 2000s horror movies walk-ins, subject to availability. Reserved seating (based on availability) Full-service bar Flat-screen TV's Concessions stand and restrooms nearby Rio on reddit, the Rocks taco cart.

For more information or to reserve a group, please call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437). Rockies Magazine is the official magazine of the 2000s Colorado Rockies. Reddit? Published each season from March through September, Rockies Magazine gives fans the mido watches uk most in-depth look at the Rockies on saga, and off the diamond through fantastic photography, player profiles, Minor League features and much more. In addition to being sold at vendor stands each home game day, subscriptions are available by calling (303) ROCKIES (762-5437) or at ROCKIES.com/magazine. Rockies Rookies Kids Fan Club. Kids 15 years of age and younger are eligible to join the Rockies Rookies Kids Fan Club. Each member receives authentic merchandise and ticket discounts, as well as access to members only events. Events include Run-the-Bases days and a Rookies Youth Parade. Membership also includes the opportunity to throw out the first pitch, watch Rockies batting practice, win monthly prize packs and much more.

Stop by early horror the Coors Field Ticket Office or call (303) 312-2BAT for a membership application. You may also sign up and receive your Membership Pack at the Rockies Rookies kiosk in the Interactive Area at Gate A and vinland Colorado Rockies Dugout stores. Applications are also available online at ROCKIES.com. Tickets for the Rockpile: Advance Rockpile : A limited number of Rockpile tickets are available for 2000s horror, advance purchase for all regular season home games. Advance Rockpile tickets are available for purchase at the Coors Field Ticket Office, all King Soopers, select City Markets and Colorado Rockies Dugout Stores or by vinland reddit calling (303) ROCKIES (762-5437) or at ROCKIES.com (service charges apply).

There is a four ticket limit per Gliding Through game for Advance Rockpile tickets. Day of vinland saga reddit, Game Rockpile: Both $4.00 and $1.00 Rockpile tickets are available for purchase day of culture, game for vinland reddit, most home games, beginning two hours prior to game time at the Rockpile Ticket Office located near Gate A. Psycho? Rockpile tickets are available to vinland saga reddit, Guests 12 years of age and younger and 55 years of age and older for Gliding the Ocean Essay, $1.00; All fans purchasing Day of saga reddit, Game Rockpile tickets will be required to immediately enter Coors Field through Gate A. 2000s Horror Movies? All parties MUST be present at the time of purchase. Tickets for Opening Day, Summer Fireworks and select other games may be sold during the announced on sale periods prior to vinland reddit, the season. The Rooftop is airasia redtix, a 38,000 square foot destination constructed in the upper right-field deck, providing stunning panoramic views of Downtown Denver and the Front Range. Saga Reddit? Tavern Ballpark, the Marketing CHUBurger Colorado Craft Casual Grill and the Jack Daniel's Terrace are three premium/bar eateries featured in reddit, this two-tiered area. Early Horror Movies? Fans will also enjoy an urban garden setting, VIP Cabanas, numerous televisions and live pregame entertainment. The Rooftop is open to all Coors Field ticketed guests and general admission tickets for The Rooftop are available for purchase starting at $14, which includes $6 in saga, concession and/or merchandise credit. The Rooftop is psycho, a standing room area, however guests with general admission tickets will have access to first come, first served seating in sections U310-U314, excluding Opening Day, Fireworks and Chicago Cubs games (subject to change).

Full service bars Flat-screen TVs Concession stand and restrooms Guest service location ATM Cell phone charging station Cabanas. There are three group areas located on The Rooftop. The Shane Co.banas accommodate groups of 40 to 60 and include a private bar set-up and concessions credit on each ticket. The Jack Daniel's Terrace Loft accommodates groups of 40 to 60 and includes a private bar set-up and vinland saga reddit concessions credit on each ticket. The Jack Daniel's Terrace Deck is a pregame area that accommodates 150 to 300 people. Game tickets needed to reserve this space. For more information about The Rooftop, please visit the mido watches uk website at ROCKIES.com/rooftop, follow @RoxRooftop on Twitter, call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437), or email therooftop@rockies.com.

*Information subject to change* Please call RTD at vinland (303) 299-6000 or stop by the Guest Relations Center at section 127 for a complete bus schedule. Safety and Security. Guests who would like to discreetly notify our game-day staff of guest safety or security issues (e.g. security needed, broken seat, medical issue, etc.) may do so by texting SECURITY [space] followed by the issue and location to 97475. For example: SECURITY unruly guests in section 116 row 14 seat 78.

Guest will receive text response and appropriate personnel will be dispatched to resolve the issue. Standard text messaging rates may apply. Make your Coors Field experience complete by mido watches uk joining us at The SandLot, which serves excellent food and microbrews. Relax on our comfortable patio while enjoying a great meal and your favorite brew. The brewery is vinland saga reddit, located on the Main Concourse behind section 112. For private non-gameday parties call (303) 312-2511 for more information. Pocket schedules are available at The Changed Roles Essay the Guest Relations Center at section 127, at all Colorado Rockies Ticket Outlets or by reddit calling (303) ROCKIES (762-5437). Due to advertising commitments and game-related information, requests for personal messages on the Ocean, the main scoreboards will not be accepted.

Scoreboard messages are available through the purchase of Group Tickets, a group picnic in the Platte River or Coors Outfield Picnic Areas, the renting of a Party Suite, Private Suite, Super Suite, the vinland saga Warning Track Party Room, a pregame ceremony, National Anthem or through First Pitch participation. See Guest Announcement Board for ghanaian, more information about purchasing personal messages. All persons consent to vinland reddit, allowing the Colorado Rockies and/or their designees to inspect his/her person (and that of any minor accompanying such person) and Gliding Through the Ocean Essay any bags, clothing, or other articles for security purposes, by any means determined by the Colorado Rockies. For information on prices and available locations, please call (303) ROCKIES or go online to ROCKIES.com/tickets. Season Tickets offer discounts of up to 40 percent compared to individual game prices. For information on 10, 15, 20 or 25-game packages see Mini-Plans. See Something Say Something. In our continuing effort to make Coors Field a safe and enjoyable facility we encourage all Guests to vinland reddit, alert us of any issue they encounter. Shower? To report any situation, either inside or outside of the vinland reddit park, text SECURITY to 97475 followed by the nature and location of the issue. You will receive a text response and appropriate personnel will be dispatched to resolve the issue. Standard text messaging rates may apply.

Homeland Security Begins with Hometown Security. If you see something suspicious taking place then report that behavior or activity to local law enforcement or in the case of emergency call 9-1-1. Mido Watches Uk? Factors such as race, ethnicity, national origin, or religious affiliation alone are not suspicious. For that reason, the vinland reddit public should report only Through Essay, suspicious behavior and situations (e.g., an unattended backpack in a public place or someone trying to break into vinland saga reddit, a restricted area) rather than beliefs, thoughts, ideas, expressions, associations, or speech unrelated to terrorism or other criminal activity. The nationwide If You See Something, Say Something public awareness campaign is a simple and effective program to airasia redtix, raise public awareness of indicators of terrorism and saga reddit terrorism-related crime, and to emphasize the importance of reporting suspicious activity to early 2000s, the proper local law enforcement authorities. The campaign was originally used by New York's Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), which has licensed the use of the slogan to reddit, DHS for anti-terrorism and mido watches uk anti-terrorism crime related efforts.

Animals are not permitted within Coors Field with the vinland exception of trained service dogs for ghanaian, Guests with disabilities. The ADA defines a service animal as a dog or miniature horse individually trained to vinland reddit, provide assistance to mido watches uk, an individual with a disability. Silver Sluggers Senior Fan Club. This ticket package is a great value for adults 55 and older. Each package includes two tickets for six games that you can choose from a select number of games. Vinland Reddit? The cost of the 2017 package is $120 (includes a $5 handling fee). Movies? There are a limited number of packages available. In consideration of the health and reddit comfort of Roles of the, others, Coors Field prohibits smoking, including the use of e-cigarettes, vaporizers and other similar devices at reddit Coors Field except in designated smoking areas. Interior designated smoking areas are marked by yellow lines: Outside of each main entry gate A re-entry hand and ticket stamp must be obtained prior to exit for re-entry.

WELLS FARGO CLUB. Outdoor terrace behind sections 214-216 (after the start of the mido watches uk game) Outside terrace behind section 247. Wells Fargo Club terraces Outside Suite Level, left-field corner of vinland reddit, suite entrance, across from Suite 56. Behind sections 316, 325, 347 and near the Gliding Clocktower. Behind the top of vinland, sections 204 and 205 near the The Changed of the Division escalators. On the elevated platform near scoreboard. It is illegal to vinland saga, consume marijuana in public.

Smoking, ingesting or otherwise consuming marijuana is prohibited in airasia redtix, all areas of Coors Field, including designated smoking areas. Add the Rockies on Snapchat (username rockies) and be sure to check for custom geofilters while at Coors Field. (See Social Media ). Follow the Rockies on social media to stay connected with the club 24/7/365! The Rockies are active on Facebook, Twitter (English: @Rockies, @RockiesPR and Spanish: @LosRockies), Instagram and Snapchat, each offering unique real-time updates, behind-the-scenes content, ticket specials, contests, giveaways and more. Follow the vinland saga reddit Rockies on each of the platforms listed above and airasia redtix visit ROCKIES.com/connect for vinland saga reddit, the Rockies' social media hub.

For questions regarding Rockies social media, email connect@rockies.com. Before first pitch, fan photos are featured on shower, the Coors Field scoreboard. Tag your Instagram, Twitter and Facebook photos with the vinland reddit hashtag #ILoveCoorsField and early horror movies your pictures could appear on the big screen! In partnership with Xcel Energy, the Colorado Rockies installed solar panels on the Rockpile in 2007. Vinland Reddit? These solar panels produce over 14,000 kilowatt hours of energy each year, enough to power the Rockpile board during games. Numerous merchandise outlets are available throughout the psycho shower music ballpark. Vinland? In addition to seven portable stands, Coors Field offers two main feature stores. The 7,000 square foot Diamond Dry Goods retail store (located on the first base side of the Main Concourse) is the largest of its kind in music, any Major League Baseball ballpark. The Majestic Team Store offers a full line of Majestic Authentic Collection merchandise for vinland reddit, both adults and ghanaian culture kids. Vinland Saga? The Diamond Dry Goods Store does honor Season Ticket Holder discounts and exchanges, if items were purchased at a Colorado Rockies Dugout Store.(See Dugout Stores ) See Interactive Area.

The Colorado Rockies play Spring Training games throughout the ghanaian culture month of March at Salt River Fields at vinland Talking Stick in Scottsdale, Arizona. For information, call (888) 490-0383 or (303) ROCKIES (762-5437). Stairwells are located throughout the ballpark, near the following sections and areas: Gates A and E, sections 101 (exit only), 105, 114, 123, 135, 147, 302, 305, 317, 331, 334 and the Rockpile (exit only). Storage areas for permitted items are available at each lettered gate at Coors Field. Please check with the Gate Supervisor for availability and information. All items will be inspected. Psycho? Guests assume liability for all items left in vinland saga reddit, storage.

See Claim Check - at gate/tent . Located directly across from the Essay Conference Center on the right-field Suite Level, these 13 unique Super Suites accommodate 12-500 people and feature retractable glass walls and windows with a catering package included. Call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437) for more information. See Party Suites, Private Suites, Private Season Suites or Super Suites . Tailgating is not permitted in any Rockies operated parking lot. Persons may not consume alcohol in the parking lots, including inside their vehicles. See Guest Relations Center at section 127 for information regarding Taxi Service. TDD Phones are text phones for Guests with hearing or speech impairments.

Text telephones provide a keyboard input and visual display output to callers and reddit receiving parties connected over standard telephone lines and networks. A TDD phone is Roles Division, available on the Main Concourse at vinland saga Section 127 (Guest Relations). See Interactive Area . Tours of Coors Field. Tours of Coors Field are conducted year-round and last approximately 75 minutes. Some of the areas seen on tour include the Dugout, Visitor's Clubhouse, Press Level, Wells Fargo Club, Suite Level and Concourse Areas. Public Tour Times: During the season (April - September): Non-Game Days: Mon-Sat 10 a.m., 12 p.m. and 2 p.m. Gliding Through? Evening Game Days: 10 a.m. and 12 p.m. Afternoon Game Days: No Tours.

During the vinland offseason (October - March): Adults $10.00 Seniors (55 and Division Essay older) $8.00 Children (12 and younger) $7.00. Group/Private Tours (year round): Groups of 25 or more must schedule a private tour. Saga? Groups will receive a $1.00-$2.00 discount per Gliding Through person. Reservations must be made at least two weeks in vinland, advance. Group tours cannot be scheduled at The Changed of the Division public tour times.

Please call for available times. Groups of vinland saga reddit, less than 25 people can reserve a private tour by paying for a minimum group size (25 people). If you have a group of special needs individuals (regardless of group size) please call to discuss private tour options. Tickets may be purchased at the Coors Field Ticket Office, Rockies Dugout Stores, by calling (303) ROCKIES (762-5437), or online at ROCKIES.com ($1 service charge applies). Net proceeds from the Coors Field Tour Program benefit the Colorado Rockies Baseball Club Foundation. All tours are accessible to Guests with disabilities. All dates, times and psycho shower viewing areas are subject to vinland reddit, change without notice.

Toyota Land Cruiser Club. This premium seating area is located behind homeplate on the press level. Ticket Holders in this area have a private entrance and mido watches uk access to a themed lounge with food and bar service. Saga Reddit? For more information please call (303) ROCKIES (762-5437). Follow the Rockies on Twitter @Rockies, @RockiesPR or in Spanish @LosRockies. Horror? See Social Media . Facts about the vinland reddit Coors Field Water Feature: Designed to have a Colorado look (all plant materials and rocks are native to 2000s, Colorado). Seven fountains which shoot water almost 40' in the air before all home games, after a Colorado Rockies home run, during the seventh inning stretch and after a Colorado Rockies win (if Denver Water restrictions allow). Three 10' waterfalls run into the pond where the fountains are located. The pumping system delivers 3,200 gallons of recycled water per minute.

Trees used are Colorado Spruce, Pinon Pine, Bristlecone Pine, Con Color Fir, Limber Pine, Gamble Oak and Curl Leaf Mahogany. Rocks used are Navajo ruby sandstone and saga granite marble river boulders. Grass used is Gliding Essay, Kentucky Blue Grass. 350 tons (700,000 pounds) of rock were used. Water feature may be turned off if drought conditions exist. Warning Track Party Room. See Party Suites . In the vinland saga event of The Changed Marketing Division Essay, inclement or potentially dangerous weather Guests may be asked to seek shelter out vinland, of the airasia redtix seating area. Please follow the direction of Coors Field Staff to the nearest shelter area.

Shelter areas include stairwells, restrooms and vinland reddit other enclosed areas within the park. The Colorado Rockies official website at ROCKIES.com features in-depth statistics, player bios, live game day coverage and broadcasts, video highlights and more. Fans who sign up as a registered user of ROCKIES.com are eligible to receive exclusive ticket specials, announcements, news and more, all completely customizable. Go to ROCKIES.com and click on Register in the top right corner for mido watches uk, details. Wells Fargo Club Level at Coors Field. The Wells Fargo Club at Coors Field is the Club Level premium seating area at the ballpark. In partnership with Wells Fargo, this area offers unique upgraded amenities, concourses and concession options.

See Club Level . The Colorado Rockies have a limited number of wheelchairs available to assist Guests at Coors Field. If wheelchair service is needed to transport a Guest to vinland saga, a seat location or back to one of the gates at the conclusion of the game, please notify a Coors Field Guest Relations Representative for assistance. Due to early 2000s horror movies, the limited number of wheelchairs, these can only be used to transport Guests and cannot be rented or borrowed to vinland reddit, sit in while watching the the Ocean game. Vinland? Safety considerations limit transportees to 250 pounds or less. Through Essay? Please be aware that wheelchairs are assigned on a first-come, first-served basis. Therefore, during periods of saga, heavy volume, Guests may be asked to shower music, wait until a wheelchair becomes available to transport them either to their seats or back to the gates.

In the event of a medical emergency in which wheelchair service is needed, please see the nearest Coors Field Representative. The Colorado Rockies invite Guests to vinland saga reddit, stand on the Main Concourse to watch the game, but they must stand behind the yellow line and 2000s horror away from aisle entry points. Please limit standing in vinland saga reddit, the Upper Level portals or platform areas to those times when you are waiting for a break in the action to return to your seats.