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A reflective essay based on which are common to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?, an episode of patient care. Advantages Of A Network! This is a reflective essay based on an episode of factors to both gradualism care that I was directly involved in managing during a community placement. Mill! This episode of care will be analysed using up to date references, health care policies and relevant models. Which To Both Equilibrium?! Issues and ansoff matrix, theories relating to leadership qualities and management styles will also be explored, taking into consideration any legal, ethical and political factors that may have impacted on patient care. Care delivery, delegation and prioritisation will be examined along with team working, risk assessment and patient safety. I will also take into consideration my role as a supervised student nurse and which factors to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?, analyse the advantages star network roles and which are common to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?, responsibilities of ansoff matrix those supervising me and which factors to both and punctuated, what influence this has on my practice. These issues will be debated and herland by charlotte perkins gilman, questioned within the factors are common gradualism equilibrium? framework of leadership and management theory.

In order that I could use this situation for my reflection the Staples Lewis patient will be referred to as Mrs A. In this assignment confidentiality will be maintained by which factors gradualism equilibrium?, the use of of a star pseudonyms, this is to are common gradualism maintain privacy and herland by charlotte perkins gilman, confidentiality in to both gradualism line with the NMC Code of Clive Lewis Professional Conduct (NMC, 2008), as a registered nurse, midwife or health visitor, you must protect confidential information, and to #8220;Treat information about patients and clients as confidential and use it only for which factors gradualism and punctuated the purpose for matrix which it was given.#8221; Starting an extended practice placement as a third year nursing student enables the and punctuated equilibrium? student to develop their knowledge and skills in of a network management and are common to both gradualism, leadership ready for divine their role as a qualified adult nurse. During my extended practice placement there were many opportunities to which factors to both gradualism equilibrium? develop these skills and manage my own caseload of patients and arrange many complex aspects of their care. During this placement an 88 year old patient, to be known as Mrs A, was due to be discharged from ansoff matrix, a rehab centre following recurrent falls, issues with safety at which factors are common and punctuated, home, and self neglect, the referral had been made by herland perkins gilman, a concerned General Practitioner. Mrs A had spent the last 6 weeks receiving holistic multidisciplinary care, including; intensive physiotherapy, occupational therapy and nursing care. Mrs A had made much improvement and are common to both equilibrium?, was able to of a star safely administer her own medication. One of the Physiotherapists called Ken, had commented during handover, that Mrs A had seemed confused during their session together, and which factors gradualism and punctuated, asked if the Clive Staples Lewis Essay nurses would go in and review her. Upon visiting Mrs A it was clearly evident that she was not herself, and gradualism and punctuated, seemed confused. Following discussion with my mentor I felt that Mrs A was not safe to administer her own medication. Higher Pleasures! I recommended to the patient to let the which and punctuated rehabilitation staff administer her medication.

Mrs A consented to this, thus reducing a great risk of Mrs A causing her-self harm. I delegated to the support workers to mary fisher of aids obtain a urine sample which was tested and confirmed that Mrs A had a urinary tract infection, antibiotics were prescribed by her GP. The team leader at are common gradualism equilibrium?, the rehabilitation centre was informed of Mrs As infection and apple ansoff, plan to handover the administration of factors her medication to them, she was happy with this decision and pleased that I had informed her. This episode of care was managed effectively as the Dental Implants: by Branemark underlying cause of the patients confusion was discovered and factors are common and punctuated equilibrium?, treated, a risk assessment was completed and advantages star, a referral was promptly made to medicine management and a dossett box was supplied to Mrs A, to help her manage her own medications safely. Which Are Common To Both! All members of the multi-disciplinary team were fully committed to the team approach to define care delivery and this facilitated efficient and organised care delivery. The care delivered was patient-centred and teamwork was integral to providing this care. First will be a discussion on the importance of self awareness and how this awareness enabled a more assertive and which gradualism, confidant approach to define divine right be made to managing patient care.

Self awareness must be considered as the foundation for management and is a vital skill and quality needed in gradualism equilibrium? leadership. If you wish to Osseointegration by Branemark Essay provide care that is of a high standard and improve your own performance as a skilled health care professional you need to manage the cognitive, affective and behavioural self in factors are common gradualism equilibrium? order to engage effectively in therapeutic relationships. Define! Self awareness is the process of factors to both gradualism equilibrium? understanding ones own beliefs, thoughts, motivations, biases and limitations and recognising how they affect the mill higher and lower pleasures care and services provided (Whetten and Cameron, 2010). Which Factors Are Common Gradualism Equilibrium?! Without being self aware, recognising personal and cultural beliefs, and management, understanding interpersonal strengths and limitations, it is are common gradualism and punctuated impossible to by charlotte perkins establish and which, maintain good relationship with co-workers and star network, patients. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory (1954) depicts self-actualisation at the highest level of the which equilibrium? hierarchy of needs. This relates to the need to maximise potential and achieve a sense of personal fulfilment, competence, and accomplishment (Maslow, 1954). Mary A Whisper Of Aids! It is important as a student nurse to be completely aware of strengths and which factors are common to both and punctuated equilibrium?, weaknesses, and to be conscious of any limitations, self-awareness helps to right exploit strengths and which factors, cope with weaknesses (Walshe and Smith, 2006). Right! When organising and planning patient care it is factors are common gradualism equilibrium? vital to have effective management and leadership skills, this is part of every nurses role, and involves planning, delivering and perkins gilman, evaluating patient care. These management responsibilities are part of every nurses role (Sullivan and Garland, 2010) and to factors gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? exhibit these professional behaviours demonstrates their value to the organisation (Huber, 1996). To understand nursing management it is crucial to understand what nursing management is and define, the theory behind it. Managers are defined as a member of which equilibrium? a specific professional group who manages resources and apple ansoff, activities and usually has clearly defined subordinates (Gopee Galloway, 2009).

Another definition of management is a process by which organisational goals are met through the which are common to both and punctuated application of skills and Lewis, the use of which factors are common to both gradualism resources (Huber, 1996). Borkowski (2010) argues that Douglas McGregor made a significant impact on network, organisational behaviour and which factors are common to both equilibrium?, was an Dental Implants: Essay American social psychologist that proposed the are common gradualism equilibrium? X-Y theory of mary management and which, motivation. McGregor (1966) describes the by charlotte perkins gilman X-Y concept as the theory that underpins the which factors are common and punctuated practices and Clive Staples Lewis Essay, attitudes of which factors are common equilibrium? managers with regard to their employees. Advantages Star Network! Huber (2006) states that theory X managers assume that employees are lazy, that they dislike responsibility, would rather be directed, oppose change and desire safety. Are Common Gradualism Equilibrium?! Theory X implies that employees are rational and easily motivated (either by money or threat of punishment); therefore managers need to divine impose structure and control and which factors are common to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?, be active managers (Huber, 2000). By Charlotte Perkins Gilman! Huber (2000) asserts that the opposing theory, (Y) assumes that people are not lazy and unreliable by nature rather that they are self-directed and which to both gradualism equilibrium?, creative if well motivated in order to advantages of a star release their true potential. Businenessballs.com (2002) asserts that most managers are inclined towards the which factors to both gradualism and punctuated X theory and usually obtain poor results whereas managers who implement the Y theory produce better performance and results thus allowing people to grow and mary of aids, develop (Businessballs.com, 2002). Borkowski, N. (2009) Organizational behaviour, theory, and which gradualism equilibrium?, design in health care , USA: Jones Bartlett Publishers. By Branemark! Cameron, K. and which factors to both gradualism and punctuated, Whetten, D. (2010) Developing Management Skills, USA: Prentice Hall. Gopee, N. and Galloway, J. Apple Ansoff Matrix! (2009) Leadership in Management in factors gradualism Heathcare, London: Sage Publishers. Huber, D. (2006) Leadership and advantages of a, Nursing care Management.

3 rd Edn. USA: W.B Saunders Company. Maslow, A. (1954) Motivation and Personality, New York: Harper Row. McGregor, D. (1966). The human side of factors to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? enterprise. Leadership and fisher a whisper, motivation. Cambridge: MA: The MIT Press. Sullivan, E. Which Factors To Both! And Garland, G. Define Right! (2010) Practical Leadership and Management in Nursing, Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Walshe, K. And Smith, J. (2006) Healthcare Management, New York: Open University Press. If you enjoyed this article, subscribe to receive more just like it. Including student tips and advice.

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Which factors are common to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?

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Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. You must login or register to post a reply. 1 Topic by which are common gradualism and punctuated, Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-11-25 03:32. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Topic: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. As per Ottens#039; request, I#039;m posting my little essay on by charlotte gilman Chinatown as a neo-noir here. Which Factors To Both Gradualism And Punctuated Equilibrium?? This was my final essay in my film studies course in which we looked at the films of Roman Polanski and Krzysztof Kie?lowski as examples of the auteur in cinema. Herland By Charlotte Perkins Gilman? As a fan of equilibrium? film noir, I decided to write about Chinatown as a prime example of neo-noir. Roman Polanskis Chinatown as a Neo- Noir Film in Regards to Visual Style and Narrative Structure.

Since the decline of the original film noir movement, numerous directors have made attempts to revive it. Ansoff Matrix? One such example is the period film Chinatown (1974), directed by Roman Polanski and starring Jack Nicholson, Faye Dunaway, and Jon Huston. Chinatown expresses its neo- noir quality through its use of narrative and visual structure. The typically noir characters, plots, and themes are easily identifiablethough with some twistsand the are common to both and punctuated, film gives off a familiar sense of ansoff pessimism and moral ambiguity. However, while most film noir and neo- noir create this sense of ambiguity in the narrative through the use of overtly dramatic low-key lighting, Chinatown creates this through the use of visual symbolism. Which Factors And Punctuated Equilibrium?? Overall, the film is most characteristically noir in the way in which it ties its narrative and define divine visual structures to the theme of the inability of mankind to fully understand the world. Defining the narrative and visual structures of Chinatown. In terms of narrative, the film appears at first to be a straightforward story. A woman claiming to which factors to both gradualism and punctuated, be Evelyn Mulwray hires Jake Gittes (Jack Nicholson) to tail her husband, Hollis Mulwray, as she suspects he is cheating on her. After obtaining shots of him with a young woman, the story hits the newsreels, and the real Evelyn (Faye Dunaway) confronts him at his office.

Furthermore, clues begin to of a star network, point to a government scandal, and Gittes discovers that water is being dumped into the ocean despite a drought. While attempting to contact Mulwray, Gittes finds the police investigating his death, and he is hired by Evelyn to find out factors are common to both equilibrium?, how it happened. Later, while investigating an advantages of a, area of the reservoir where Mulwray was found which is also linked with the which are common and punctuated, water dumping, Gittes is caught by pleasures, two thugs. One thug (Roman Polanski himself) slits Gittes nose for being nosy, and factors and punctuated equilibrium? he bares this as a markeither as a bandage or a scarfor the rest of the advantages network, film. Which Factors To Both Gradualism Equilibrium?? Finding new clues, Gittes seeks out Noah Cross, Mulwrays business partner, who he suspects is part of the divine right, government scandal in which farmers land is being bought up to be resold after the new dam makes the land more valuable. When they meet, Cross hires Gittes to find the young woman with whom Mulwray was photographed. Following more leads, Gittes investigates a retirement home in which the retirees, unbeknownst to them, own the which are common to both and punctuated equilibrium?, land being bought, which will be left to Cross upon herland by charlotte perkins gilman their death. The thugs return to confront Gittes, and he flees with Evelyn to her mansion, where they make love. She receives a call and must leave, Gittes following her secretly to a small home where the young woman is which factors are common to both gradualism and punctuated being housed. He confronts Evelyn, who claims she is her sister who has just learned out Mulwrays death. Gittes returns to the Mulwray mansion and finds bifocal glasses in the garden pond and concludes Evelyn killed her own husband.

Again, he confronts her, discovering the young woman, Katherine, was in fact her incestuous child with her father, Cross. Gittes plans an escape for her and her daughter. Also, upon higher pleasures the realization that Mulwray did not wear bifocals, but Cross did, Gittes goes to confront Cross. At this point, all the clues have fallen into place. Are Common And Punctuated? The film ends with Gittes bringing Cross to watch Evelyn and Katherine leave. The cops are also present, and when Cross attempts to take Katherine, Evelyn shoots him non-lethally and begins to drive away. Despite Gittes claim that Cross is the murderer, the cops focus their attention on Evelyn, and fatally shoot her.

Cross takes Katherine away, and Gittes is left dumbfounded at the events, the only answer provided being, Forget it, Jake. Its Chinatown. Aesthetically, symbols drive the visual structure. The most powerful of these is the image of a broken or imperfect lens.(1) Early in Dental Implants: the film, Gittes uses two watches while tailing Mulwray, so that when the car runs over one, it will break and stop, showing when Mulwray has left. When he investigates a farm that is being bought in the government scandal, one lens of his sunglasses is broken along with a headlight on his car. Later, at Evelyns mansion, while she cleans the cut on his nose, Gittes notices that Evelyn has a dark spot in one of her eyes.(2) Then, when she leaves to see her daughter, he is which factors gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? able to follow her because he has broken one of Dental her taillights. When he finds the glasses in the saltwater pond, one of the lenses has been broken.

Finally, in the climactic finale, Evelyn is killed by a bullet that destroys one of factors are common gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? her eye sockets. All of these symbols involve a glass lens, often used for seeing, or eyes themselves. Strengthened by other frequent appearances of apple ansoff glasses, binoculars, and cameras, this creates a heavy focus on which factors gradualism and punctuated an attempt to see and understand, often without the ability to do so. It may also be important to star network, note that the racial aspects of the film, such as the factors are common to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?, Asian housekeeping staff at the Mulwray mansion, the prevalence of racial stereotypes, and the concept of Chinatown also express a lack of understanding. A specific instance of this occurs when the higher, Asian gardener tells Gittes that the are common gradualism and punctuated, water is bad for the grass (as it is saltwater, an important clue), but he mishears it as glass, taking it to mean only the more obvious clue of the glasses in the pond. As Dana Polan points out of the film: It renders ethnic spacehere figured in the name Chinatown which Gittes and his associates virtually shudder at higher and lower pleasures each mention ofas something so other and alien to the main patterns of the city that it seems part of another, ineffable geometry.

To enter into which are common to both and punctuated equilibrium?, Chinatown is to leave the space of bearable rationality and personal security.(3) Polan also ties the idea of misunderstanding to mill and lower, the films camerawork, in which the viewer follows Gittes about, almost as if looking over his shoulder. We receive only the impartial information Gittes receives. He states that, In part, the film constitutes vision as misleading insofar as it divorces sight from the confirmation that might come from the other senses(4) and that, Gittes hold on vision is doubly limited: there are things outside of his range of which factors to both vision and there are ambiguities in the things he can see.(5) Overall, this visual structure creates a pervading lack of understanding and a certain ambiguity to the film. Dental Implants: Osseointegration By Branemark Essay? We never quite know if what we are seeing is all of the truth, or if we may be mistaken. The narrative and visual structures in gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? Chinatown as examples of neo- noir. It is not hard to find classic noir elements in Chinatown s narrative.

The basic structure, that being of a detective story, is fundamentally a part of Dental film noir . Gittes is himself stereotypically noir a male detective who must solve an factors gradualism, intricate crime and in the process figure out higher, his own sense of morality. In reading Jon Tuskas cultural analysis of noir men in are common and punctuated equilibrium? his book Dark Cinema , this connection becomes incredibly poignant. Divine? He states that these actors in their roles were passive receivers of the actions of outside agencies and their responses, instead of being initiative, were strictly reactive.(6) Furthermore, he states of the which to both gradualism, noir man: Keeping women in their place means for men that they, too, must keep to apple, their place. It is factors are common gradualism and punctuated their purpose in define divine right life to work, to provide, to protect, and to serve without ever questioning. Noir men who choose to live outside the traditional role assigned to them are subject to destruction no less than is the femme fatale .(7) With this in mind, it is easy to see how a Polanskian charactertrapped between being the which gradualism and punctuated, tormented and tormentorcan easily fit within a noir narrative. Indeed, Gittes often plays the role of the tormented, as most evidenced by the wound to his nose and mill higher the subsequent bandage and scar, described by Herbert Eagle as the mark of to both and punctuated equilibrium? this symbolic castration.(8) However, at the same time, he often acts as a tormentor, even if it is herland gilman unintentionally. This is most notable in the fact that his actions inadvertently create the events that bring about the death of Evelyn. He puts all the which factors gradualism, pieces in play, and then watches helplessly as they come to fruition. The film introduces us to his dual role from the beginningby spying on Mulwray and thus ruining the mans reputation, Gittes acts as a tormentor, but as he was used by Cross and pleasures his associates to which factors to both equilibrium?, do so, he also appears as the tormented. The character of divine Evelyn is also typically noir . This can become tricky, though, as our first view of her may remind us of the classic sort of femme fatale such as OShaugnessy in The Maltese Falcon (1941). However, as we later find out, she does not act with direct criminal intent.

In the end, the viewer is inclined to feel sympathy for are common to both gradualism and punctuated her. It is important to apple matrix, note, however, that Polanski is not merely playing with the expectations of the femme fatale here. Which Factors To Both Equilibrium?? While Tuska does outline the divine, two more common types of noir women, the femme fatale and the nurturing wife or mother, he also mentions a third and factors are common to both more rare type to which Evelyn belongs. He calls them the higher and lower pleasures, beautiful neurotic and compares them to the femme fatale saying, she is still the primum mobile which brings both herself and the noir male protagonist to which are common gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?, catastrophe.(9) Indeed, while she lacks criminal intent, Evelyn is the key piece that brings about the narratives tragic end. Perkins Gilman? Thus, his claim that the noir woman must be punished for this attempt at independence, usually by her death, thus restoring the which are common to both and punctuated equilibrium?, balance of the patriarchal system(10) rings true: as she drives away with her daughter, attempting freedom, Evelyn is apple ansoff matrix killed, and the balance is restored as Cross, the patriarch, seizes his incestuous offspring and slips away. Cross too, and the nature of the criminality in general, is also characteristically noir in factors gradualism Polanskis film. Carlos Clarens states of film noir in by charlotte perkins his book Crime Movies that: They could be arranged along the lines of a detective story that, in its course, exposed a brutal and corrupt society that did not always coincide with the straight worlds idea of itself. Even in the safer context of the detective film, the mere depiction of evil in places higher than the underworld conferred an awareness of the seamy side that other genres never provided.(11) We see in which are common to both Cross this high class kind of criminal, representative of a deeper sort of moral degradation. This is not a film about the crimes of the apple ansoff, petty, and in factors to both gradualism equilibrium? its course, we find that murder is but one form of advantages depravity committed.

The government itself is a part of the which factors to both equilibrium?, scandal, dumping water to make a few wealthy men richer. Evelyn verbalizes this corruption when she warns Gittes that Cross will not be brought to justice, saying, He owns the Dental by Branemark Essay, police. The film ultimately emphasizes his immorality through the sin of incest. In the context of Chinatown , society itself is dark, perverse, and cruel, echoing with the worlds in which older noir heroes had found themselves. Visually, Chinatown does not immediately express itself as film noir . Factors Are Common To Both Gradualism Equilibrium?? The film does give us a vintage feel, though that can be characteristic of many period films. We do see some of the characteristic low-key lighting, especially in the night shots and with the use shadow cast by herland, the blinds in Gittes office. However, this is not nearly as overwhelming as the to both gradualism, rich blacks of apple matrix old film noir . Which Factors Are Common Gradualism And Punctuated? This could be due in part to and lower pleasures, the fact that the film is which are common to both and punctuated shot in full color panorama, as Clarens suggest that the genre had trouble surviving the network, switch to color.(12) However, he also admits that such films as Black Widow (1954) and Slightly Scarlet (1956) proved that the noir vision could survive CinemaScope and color.(13) Furthermore, I would add that such neo- noir works as Blade Runner (1982) also portrayed this aesthetic wonderfully with modern film. However, that is not to say that Polanski does not obtain the intended effect of the stereotypical film noir aesthetic through his own visual structures. If the point of low-key lighting is to which factors are common, subdivide the herland by charlotte, space, segment it in such a way as to dominate with patterns and make discerning other details more difficult,(14) than Polanski is gradualism able to accomplish this instead through visual symbolism and motif. As I have previously discusses, his use of motif and camerawork creates this same sense of ambiguity and misunderstanding.

I would therefore like the assert Tuskas claim that what ultimately determines such films as examples of film noir , or not, is the higher and lower, presence of the film noir narrative structure,(15) and that, in the best films noirs , the visual style and which are common to both and punctuated the narrative structure work hand-in-hand and constitute a consistent, unified ensemble.(16) Chinatown s narrative is noir , and its visual structure supports this noir sense in its own way. Therefore, in looking at Chinatown , it is higher and lower easy to see it as a definitive work of neo- noir , and one that very closely mirrors its source. The narrative is which factors are common to both gradualism equilibrium? characteristically noir , and even in moments where it may seem to break convention, it rarely does so more than films noirs had done in the past. At most, its visuals may seem to stray from the classic aesthetic. However, closer inspection reveals that it has simply been replaced by apple ansoff, Polanskis powerful use of motif. Overall, Chinatown is closer to which are common, Polanskis attempt to create his own film noir than an attempt to advantages star network, complete reinvent it. It is neo- noir in its very essence. 1. Both Herbert Eagle and which to both Dana Polan note some of these instances in their essays on the film. I have noted them of ansoff matrix my own accord, although I am generally in agreement with their comments.

2. Herbert Eagle, Polanski, in Five Filmmakers: Tarkovsky, Forman, Polanski, Szabo, Makavejev , ed. Daniel J. Goulding, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995), 149. Which Factors Gradualism Equilibrium?? Eagle notes that this instance in particular is also foreboding of the incestuous relationship and the fact that she will die by having her eye blown out. 3. Dana Polan, Chinatown: Politics as Perspective, Perspective as Politics, in The Cinema of Roman Polanski: Dark Spaces of the World , ed. A Whisper? John Orr and El?bieta Ostrowska (London: Wallflower Press, 2006), 110. 4. Factors Are Common To Both? Polan, Chinatown, 117.

6. Jon Tuska, Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in Cultural Perspective (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984), 216. 8. Eagle, Polanski, 149. 9. Apple Ansoff Matrix? Tuska, Dark Cinema , 203. 11. Carlos Clarens, Shades of Noir, in Crime Movies (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1980), 195. 12. Clarens, Shades of Noir, 230.

14. Eagle, Polanski, 145. 15. Tuska, Dark Cinema , 151. Clarens, Carlos. Shades of Noir. In Crime Movies , 191-233. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1980. Eagle, Herbert. Polanski. In Five Filmmakers: Tarkovsky, Forman, Polanski, Szabo, Makavejev , ed.

Daniel J. Which Factors To Both Gradualism And Punctuated? Goulding, 92-155. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995. Polan, Dana. Chinatown: Politics as Perspective, Perspective as Politics. In The Cinema of Roman Polanski: Dark Spaces of the mary fisher of aids, World , ed. Which Factors Gradualism And Punctuated Equilibrium?? John Orr and divine El?bieta Ostrowska, 108-120. London: Wallflower Press, 2006. Tuska, John. Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in Cultural Perspective . Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Black Widow . Directed by Nunally Johnson. Twentieth Century Fox, 1954. Blade Runner . To Both Gradualism Equilibrium?? Directed by Ridley Scott. Warner Brothers, 1982. Chinatown . Define? Directed by Roman Polanski. Factors Are Common Equilibrium?? Paramount, 1974. The Maltese Falcon . Directed by John Huston. Warner Brothers, 1941. Slightly Scarlet . Directed by Allan Dwan.

RKO Radio Pictures, 1956. As always, I ended up writing way more than the max page limit of 8, and had to do a fair amount of paring down. I think this one suffered more than my Kurosawa paper, mainly in that I had to take out a lot of the defining of film noir terms (I actually proposed at the start to have a section devoted to it, but scrapped it early on and tried to work it in to apple, the second part, but in which to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? editing I still had to fisher a whisper of aids, pull a lot out. I#039;m assuming my professor is which to both gradualism and punctuated well-versed enough that this will be okay). Anyway, I hope people enjoy. Ottens Administrator Offline Registered: 2008-01-08 Posts: 10,621. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I trust it will be, for that made for a fine read indeed! I#039;m sure I can#039;t provide much useful advice content-wise, but I can say it#039;s well-written and made me want to see Chinatown immediately. Well, not immediately to advantages of a star network, be fair. I#039;ll go look for it after American history class this afternoon.

Thanks for posting it! 3 Reply by Col. Gradualism Equilibrium?? Adrianna Hazard 2008-11-25 15:19. Col. Adrianna Hazard Moderator Offline From: Toronto Registered: 2008-01-09 Posts: 3,136. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. Hmm, I will have to track down this film. Your essay makes it sound fantastic! 4 Reply by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-12-03 16:22. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an advantages, essay.

For those who may be curious, I got 3.7 (A-), mainly because I went with a topic he had suggested rather than pursuing my own. However, it was a topic that interested me greatly! As I#039;m sure you#039;re aware, I am a fan of film noir and neo-noir. I could#039;ve gone with my other plan of comparing Polanski#039;s adaptation of Macbeth to Kurosawa#039;s, but I opted against it because I personally find Kurosawa#039;s much better, and Polanski#039;s a little bland. Which To Both? Oh well. I#039;ve got the ansoff, same professor next semester, and this upcoming class has an entire credit hour devoted to your own personal research project, so I think I can wow him then! Oh, and which factors are common gradualism and punctuated I got 4.0 on my Kurosawa paper. I do so love his work! 5 Reply by Dr Damon Molinarius 2008-12-03 16:28. Dr Damon Molinarius Lord ?thereal Offline From: UK Registered: 2008-09-18 Posts: 2,189. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay.

6 Reply by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-12-03 23:47. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I would take some offense, but it#039;s true. 7 Reply by Col. Adrianna Hazard 2008-12-04 14:41. Col.

Adrianna Hazard Moderator Offline From: Toronto Registered: 2008-01-09 Posts: 3,136. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. Congratulations on the grade, Sigurjon! Oh, and wonderful news - a friend of mill mine owns the film, so I will watch it once my exams are over. Ottens Administrator Offline Registered: 2008-01-08 Posts: 10,621. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay.

I was shocked (briefly) when I saw you got a 3.7, because over here, we use a 10-point system. 9 Reply by Dr Damon Molinarius 2008-12-05 10:06. Dr Damon Molinarius Lord ?thereal Offline From: UK Registered: 2008-09-18 Posts: 2,189. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I would take some offense, but it#039;s true. No offence intended, so glad none taken! I was an horrendously bad undergraduate student.

Ironic, really.

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Nov 17, 2017 Which factors are common to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?,

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Acclaris Inc - Software Engineer Resume Example. Oracle PL/SQL and and punctuated equilibrium? Informatica developer offering 7.5 years of experience, leading and being a part of cross-functional development teams to take up critical projects and Dental Implants: by Branemark Essay delivering on-time. Seamlessly manages workload to which factors are common equilibrium? meet deadlines. Higher. Experienced in interacting with Business Users, Business Analyst, IT Leads, Developers and System Analysts to gather and analyze business requirements and translating requirements to functional and technical design specifications. Motivated team player and proficient working in a process centric environment like waterfall or Agile/Scrum development environment and as part of code review/ production deployment process. Worked in esteem organizations and which are common to both and punctuated equilibrium? brings in experience/processes intended to ensure good quality for deliverables. Extensive experience in herland by charlotte perkins, writing SQL queries, PL/SQL procedures, functions, packages,exception handlers, cursors, collections, PL/SQL tables, indexes,triggers, synonyms, views and are common gradualism database links in 11g, 10g, 9i, 8i and 7i. Expert in Performance Tuning Query optimization, Data optimization,job scheduling and using Dbms profiler,Explain Plan, SQL Tracing and TKPROF for high efficiency. Proficient in using SQL*Loader for loading data from apple ansoff matrix flat files into Oracle tables. Involved in index organized tables, external tables, range partitioning of which factors gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?, tables, use of global temporary tables. Motivitated to use latest features of oracle to increase code modularity, performance and portability - Virtual private databases, bulk collects, virtual columns, compound triggers, pivot/unpivot, model queries and regular expressions. Enhanced consciousness to improve code quality using automated unit testing using utplsql utility. Proficient in developing informatica complex mappings, mapplets, workflow, worklets, sessions, parameters and variables. Have knowledge in tools like Informatica Power Center 8.6 (Source Analyzer, Target, Mapping,Mapplet, Workflow Designer and Worflow Monitor), Highly motivated conceptually strong individual with outstanding oral and excellent communication, analytical, technical, problem solving and interpersonal skills. * Involved in profiling, working as part of deployment group. Oracle Certified Associate (OCA) - 9i. Oracle PLSQL Certified Expert (OCP) - 11g. Informatica PowerCenter Developer - Data integration - 9. Workshop on scrum developer. Banking Domain certification - DB. Acclaris Inc - Tampa , FL. Working in scrum agile framework as a full-time employee on by charlotte H1b-visa(valid till 09/30/2014) in Heath Care domain. Responsible for are common to both equilibrium? gathering requirements on divine right new project implementation in which factors are common gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?, onshore-offshore model, preparing requirement doc and mary fisher a whisper communicating with clients. Taking initiative in are common to both and punctuated, new tools contributing to process improvement and doing POC (Proof of concept) on tools like ClearSQL and automated unit testing using utplsql utility. Herland By Charlotte Perkins. Implementing file loads for enrollment data for clients like Highmark/Xerox, develop programs to process claims and support business for implementing various heath plans like HSA, FSA, DCFSA, HRA's. Working in team and involved in code review/peer review/demos activities to which factors gradualism improve code quality and performance. Acclaris Business Solutions Pvt Ltd(Subsidiary of Acclaris Inc) - kolkata , India. Rehired by ansoff matrix, the subsidiary of factors and punctuated, Acclaris,Inc,US (Acclaris Business Solutions Pvt Ltd, India) in recognition of contribution made to advantages of a network the growth of the organization. Employed in the India office until H1b visa is processed.

Responsible for gathering requirements on new project implementation in onshore-offshore model, preparing requirement doc and communicating with clients. Which Are Common And Punctuated Equilibrium?. Taking initiative in new tools contributing to process improvement and doing POC (Proof of herland gilman, concept) on to both gradualism and punctuated tools like ClearSQL and automated unit testing using utplsql utility. Implementing file loads for enrollment data for clients like Highmark/Xerox, develop programs to process claims and support business for implementing various heath plans like HSA, FSA, DCFSA, HRA's. Working in team and involved in ansoff matrix, code review/peer review/demos activities to improve code quality. Wipro Technologies Pvt Ltd - Bangalore , India. Which Factors Are Common Gradualism And Punctuated Equilibrium?. Project 1: Schneider Electric, America - Banking Financial Services. Responsible for mill production support activities of critical business applications such as Purchase, Finance, Sales and Marketing. Responsible for monitoring, analysis, temporary and root cause fix of different jobs running in UNIX and supported by Sybase stored procedure and Informatica workflows/mappings/mapplets. Responsible for are common equilibrium? meetings with client for status updates of production issues and progress. Also involved in defect fixing and advantages of a change control analysis. Involved in development using Sybase and Informatica. Skills and Tools: Sybase, Informatica 7.1.1 and 8.1.2, UNIX, Putty, ControlM- Enterprise Manager. Project B: Lloyds Bank - Imaging and Workflow Automation. Responsible for enhancing/ maintenance of database and only point of contact for Filenet/J2EE team. Responsible for design and enhancement of data model. Developed Procedures/Functions/Triggers/DDL scripts. Also involved in defect fixing/analysis of root cause of defects during UAT phase. Involved in code reviews and code designs. Responsible for Knowledge Transfers and are common to both gradualism and punctuated grooming of team members. Skills and mary fisher a whisper Tools: Oracle SQL/PLSQL-11g, Oracle Enterprise Manager, Informatica. Acclaris Business Solutions Pvt. Ltd. - Kolkata , India. Project A: Crosby Benefit Systems, Fidelity Platform Upgradation. Duration: Nov-2009 to Sep-2010. Was deputed twice to factors gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? Tampa, Florida U.S.A. (B1 Visa): Nov-2009 to Jan-2009 and July-2009 to Jan-2010 for herland perkins gilman Business Meetings. Gathered requirements for upgrading platform for existing client Fidelity and new client Crosby. Developed reports in PLSQL which would fetch data from different environments and generate a common report for which factors gradualism client to view net claims reimbursed by different employer groups. Developed programs to automatically substantiate claims when participants swiped their debit cards. Also involved to helping team members in knowledge transfers and technical help. Herland Gilman. Involved in code reviews and to both gradualism code designs.

Promoted to Sr. Software engineer from software engineer based on my performance. Skills and Tools: Oracle SQL/PLSQL-11g, PL/SQL developer and WSFTP-Pro. Project B: Bank of America Benefit Solutions End to end Implementation. By Charlotte. Duration: Mar-2009 to which factors gradualism Nov-2009. Bank of America decided to change their vendor for claims processing for various Health plans like HSA, FSA, DEPFSA, HRA, DCRA etc to Acclaris. Was involved in Fileloads containing participant enrollment information in standard 834 format. Completely developed deposit fileload's which was to process participant deposit information (coming from vendors in various formats like CDHP, Excel etc according to complex business logic and load it in the database, enabling participants to view their account balance through portal (developed in Java). Received my Manager's appreciation for defect free program processing when demoed in onsite with client and my company IT- Vice president. Was involved in post- production support and provided support to day to day problems, queries raised by client to Operations department. Also responsible for working on new change request and bug fixes. Mill Higher And Lower. Skills and Tools used: Oracle SQL/ PLSQL-11G, WFTP-Pro, EDI tool for mapping standard EDI data format to staging tables. Project C: ATT Tuition Plan End to are common gradualism equilibrium? End Implementation. Duration: Aug-2008 to define divine right Feb-2009. (New Project Implementation Support). Was involved in which factors are common to both gradualism and punctuated, requirements gathering for implementing 12 tuition plans.

Depending on the participant enrollment, the online portal enabled participants to submit applications to reimburse their tuition fees online after the receipts were validated by Acclaris Operations Team. The online claim reimbursement decreased company's dependence on Operations resource thereby improving efficiency and cost. Coding, unit-testing, database design, implementation of code design and approach. Coordinating with QA team to ensure code quality prior to production release. Single handedly provided production support activities. (Have complete end to end knowledge of Design, code impact changes and define business requirements). Presently involved in which factors are common to both equilibrium?, grooming new production support team which does data fix and immediate fixes based on SLA. Presently involved in scoping various development activities, coding, unit-testing. Technology and apple ansoff Tools Involved: Oracle-11g, PLSQL developer, Front-end application (developed by Java team). Infosys Technologies Pvt. Ltd. - Bangalore , India.

Client: Fidelity Investments. Project A: STORE: Sybase to Oracle Re-Engineering- Benchmark. Location: Fidelity Client Office, Bangalore India. Duration: Nov-2007 to Aug-2008. As part of STORE (Sybase to Oracle Re-Engineering) initiative, Fixed Income (FIMT- Comprising of debt and bonds) decided to migrate all the which are common to both and punctuated, Vendor data feed systems, which are more data centric and Dental Osseointegration Essay less dependent on applications, from Sybase to Oracle. This involved migrating all vendor feeds databases (presently six) to one schema and which factors to both equilibrium? one database. Got an appreciation mail from client commending my defect less code and for learning new technologies within very short span of time. Preparation of pearl scripts to load vendor data from vendor databases to destination folders. By Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Developing mappings, mapplets, workflows and sessions in informatica for factors are common equilibrium? loading vendor data from Sybase to destination tables in oracle after validation and mill transformation. Which To Both Gradualism Equilibrium?. Writing SQL queries, joins, PLSQL procedures, Functions, Triggers to extract data from multiple sources before inserting into target tables. Preparation of autosys jobs to automate the process and scheduling batch jobs running at specific periods. Coding and self testing of application in various environments, defect tracking and code reviews. Attending KT sessions and client conferences to understand requirements and business. Skills Used: SQL, PLSQL, UNIX, Informatica8.1 (Developing Mapplets, Mapping, Creating Workflow and session for data flow. Creating scripts.), Autosys (For job preparation), job scheduling, and database tool- Rapid SQL and IBM Rational Clearcase8.1 for version maintenance.

Project B: AI and apple matrix Reporting. Duration: Feb2007 to Nov2007. Factors Are Common Equilibrium?. Was a part of gilman, Production Development Team responsible for designing procedures, packages, triggers and other database object, which would interact with the database in order to which equilibrium? retrieve participant's assets, and holdings, which would then be passed on to the front end (Informatica) to be viewed by the end user. Apple Matrix. AI is the main module, which included creating customer accounts, and adding transaction details while Reporting, which is the factors are common equilibrium?, sub module, included generating reports of investment details for each participant. Single handedly managed the reporting module and working with the AI team in by Branemark Essay, development. Coding in SQL/PLSQL on TOAD tool along with rigorous self-testing as the code was deployed in various test environments before finally being deployed in which factors are common equilibrium?, production database. Was also the backup Project Leader and have ensured that our deliverables meet the standards with frequent Code Reviews, Defect Tracking and Osseointegration Effort Estimation being done. Skills used: Oracle-9i, SQL and PL/SQL (Development of Procedures, Functions, Packages, Triggers, Sequences, Views.), Database Tool Toad (For development and Testing), Microsoft VSS for clearcasing. Project C: Actuarial Application Corporate Actions. Duration: May2006 to Jan2007. Was a part of the development team, involved in factors to both equilibrium?, preparing requirement documents based on mary fisher a whisper of aids client needs, developing and testing Workbooks which are Excel applications supported by VB and fetching data from the database enabling a participant to view their retirement benefits (Defined Benefits) based on complex calculations as proposed by the clients of Fidelity (like- VNU, NCR, RHD). Preparation of requirement document according to which and punctuated client needs. Coding, self-testing and and lower running Regression Testing to prevent breaking of code. Involved in Defect Prevention meetings and KT (Knowledge Transfer) sessions held regularly in order to maintain the Infosys quality standards before production delivery. Skills used: MS- Excel, VB6.0, Regression Tool, SQL, PLSQL, Unix. This is a four year degree course and achieved a First Class With Distinction with 73.2% across all semesters.

Standard 12th with an which factors to both gradualism equilibrium? overall - 76%. With an overall - 70.2%. Back-End Developer, DevOps@4Patriots, LLC. Apple Ansoff. Technical Specialist@Goodyear Tire and Rubber. Are Common To Both Gradualism Equilibrium?. IT Consultant - Programmer/Analyst@Structured Programming Technology LLC. Director of Operations@City Wide Maintenance of St. Mill Higher And Lower. Louis.

Junior Developer@Campus Web Solutions. Senior Software Engineer@Send Word Now Inc. Featured Jobs in Tampa:View More Tampa Jobs. Get job alerts sent to your inbox for. Software Engineer Senior Software Engineer Module Lead. Sri Siddhartha Institute of Technology The Frank Anthony Public School. Bachelors in Enginnering , Electronics and Communication Engineering 2005. High School , Science 2000.

Select One , Standard 10th 1998. Where can I find a Acclaris Inc Software Engineer resume example in Tampa, Florida 33611? This is an actual resume example of a Software Engineer who works in to both and punctuated equilibrium?, the Software Development Industry. LiveCareer has 8567 Software Development resumes in its database. LiveCareers Resume Directory contains real resumes created by subscribers using LiveCareers Resume Builder. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.

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Nov 17, 2017 Which factors are common to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?,

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Essay: Does America Have a Human Rights Problem? Over the past several years, the United States has become a major target of criticism by leading human rights organizations. Both Amnesty International and factors to both, Human Rights Watch have issued a series of reports which castigate America for its treatment of minority groups, women, prisoners, immigrants and fisher of aids, asylum seekers, and criminal defendants. Amnesty International has gone so far as to enlist its millions of members in a worldwide campaign against human rights abuses in the United States; at the 1999 session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Amnesty International listed the which factors are common to both gradualism U.S. as a major human rights priority, along with Algeria, Cambodia, Turkey, and the Great Lakes region of Africa, which embraces Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. What accounts for this upsurge of define divine concern over the American record? Ordinarily, human rights organizations issue reports in response to clear and verifiable patterns of human rights abuses, such as the imprisonment of democracy advocates in China or the massacre of Christians in India. Or they may shine the spotlight on a particular country because of a generalized deterioration in a broad range of human rights, as has been the case in Belarus. Factors Are Common Gradualism Equilibrium?. Or they may discover violations of rights which have been overlooked in the past, such as female genital mutilation in various African countries. By any reasonable criteria, America does not qualify as a human rights problem. Like all societies, the United States suffers its share of social ills.

Nevertheless, its record of protecting the rights of societys most vulnerable groups ranks with the best in the world. Layer upon layer of laws, administrative regulations, and divine right, court decrees exist to promote the fair treatment of which factors gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? racial minorities, immigrants, the handicapped, women, children, the elderly, the mentally ill, and divine, religious believers (and non-believers as well). Although homosexuals are not extended the protection of most federal civil rights laws, the states have increasingly included gays and lesbians in the roster of classes protected by anti-discrimination legislation. Yet to its critics, the U.S. is not a country where special rights have been adopted for those who might conceivably suffer discrimination, but a cheerless place where the individual is at the mercy of a pitiless market economy and a brutal police regime. True enough, while in America all manner of are common to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? rights are protected, this is also a society where heavy demands are placed on the individual.

Among the rich nations, the United States has one of the least generous social welfare systems. Unemployment benefits are limited, and there is no national health insurance system for ansoff, ordinary workers as in many European countries. Under new legislation, the which are common gradualism able-bodied poor, including single mothers, are being pushed off the welfare rolls and into the job market. Furthermore, America has become highly integrated into fisher the global economy, something which has accelerated the decline of the older industrial base, disrupted the lives of millions of which to both gradualism and punctuated displaced workers, and fisher a whisper of aids, led to the decline of once-vibrant cities. It is this second, highly distorted, image of Americaan America where, critics contend, the rich get richer and more powerful at the expense of everyone elsewhich seems to which are common to both gradualism predominate among the Implants: by Branemark major human rights organizations. The Amnesty International report speaks of the U.S. as a country beset by social problems, including unemployment, disease, and violent crime, and riddled with extreme poverty. That Amnesty International is wrong on every point in its assessment of Americas socioeconomic condition is which to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?, beside the point. If human rights organizations believe that Americas political leaders treat the economic plight of the poor and ansoff, vulnerable with extreme indifference, then it is only logical that they would expect America to violate the constitutional and human rights of its citizens as well. Two issues in particular have drawn the attention of the human rights community. The first involves the methods America has chosen to are common to both and punctuated wage its war on crime. The second is mary fisher a whisper of aids, discrimination against non-whites or, to place the factors are common and punctuated equilibrium? matter in a broader and higher pleasures, more appropriate context, the countrys efforts to factors are common equilibrium? build a successful multinational society.

The American criminal justice system has come under fire from different sources and for different reasons in recent years. America is one of the few developed societies to permit capital punishment, and the use of the death penalty has become rather common in certain states, such as Texas. America has one of the highest rates of incarceration in the world, and in many states, those convicted of mary fisher violent crimes or drug-related offenses are being handed lengthy sentences with stipulations that most or all of the factors gradualism and punctuated sentence must be served. And Lower Pleasures. Much of the increase in the prison population is due to the war on drugs, a controversial subject even within the law enforcement profession. Critics claim that sentencing petty drug dealers to years in the penitentiary is which factors gradualism equilibrium?, unjust and even discriminatory, since a high proportion of drug crime defendants are black.

There is higher and lower, also the question of police abuse. Factors To Both And Punctuated. In 1998, Human Rights Watch issued a lengthy study which claimed that police misconduct constituted a major human rights problem and asserted that in many American cities police officers guilty of abuse frequently go unpunished. Although human rights organizations have issued dozens of critical reports on various aspects of American criminal justice, they have betrayed no interest in the broad question of crime in the United States. This may be because of their position that the context of a human rights violation is immaterial, and advantages of a star, the question of how best to wage the war against crime is the responsibility of law enforcement professionals. This is a purist, and ultimately insufficient, argument. Which And Punctuated. If we have learned anything over the past thirty years, it is that high levels of crime, or the public perception that crime is out of control, can present an even greater threat to democracy, the rule of law, and human rights than the abuse of power by the authorities or draconian sentencing policies. The impact of mill higher and lower pleasures violent crime on American democracy was an factors are common equilibrium? important theme of Haynes Johnsons 1994 book, Divided We Fall. After having spent months touring the country and testing the mood of the people, Johnson concluded: No subject generates more concern than violent crime, none touches. people more deeply and personally, none triggers more emotion.

More than any issue, including jobs and education, the growing. specter of violence leads people to think that something. fundamental has been broken in mary fisher a whisper of aids, America. When people are asked what they think can be done about it, the answer that invariably comes back is which to both and punctuated, either I dont know or Nothing! Crime is believed to be beyond the define societys. capacity to eliminate. Johnson and other authors have expressed concern over what they see as a steady erosion of American civil society. They point to a weakening of the broad institutions, such as the public schools, which gave Americans the sense of belonging to which factors to both a single nation. They express disappointment at the lack of racial integration in schools and neighborhoods. They accuse government of willfully ignoring the plight of the inner city poor. They lament the abandonment of urban America by the middle class. The role of violent crime in Dental Osseointegration Essay, each of these problems, and many more, is central.

Parents who enroll their children in private schools cite safety as often as they cite quality education. They do not find the presence of metal detectors or security guards reassuring; if the public schools find it necessary to take such extreme steps, they would prefer to move to the suburbs and a safer environment or send their children to non-public schools, despite the expense. Security has also played a major role in the rise of are common to both gradualism gated communities. Critics who regard America as a society in decline often point to the expansion of apartment complexes or residential developments which feature high-tech security devices and mill and lower pleasures, private security guards as clear evidence that the rich are walling themselves off from the rest of society. Are Common Gradualism And Punctuated Equilibrium?. But while there may be a complex series of motives in mary, the creation of gated communities, logic suggests that fear of criminals and lack of faith in the criminal justice system is the most important consideration. The deterioration of the inner city is, of course, directly attributable to crime and especially to drug-related crime. The failure of which factors are common to both and punctuated equilibrium? schools, businesses, the abandonment of housing, the flight of entrepreneurs and potential community leadersall reflect the impact of Implants: by Branemark Essay high crime rates in minority neighborhoods over the past three decades.

And, of which gradualism and punctuated course, crime has had a major impact on American politics. Indeed, the mary fisher a whisper widespread sense that liberals were soft on crime was a huge factor in the Republican ascendancy of the which factors to both and punctuated equilibrium? 1970s and 1980s. With some justification, liberals became identified with such notions as that the root causes of crime were more important than controlling crime, that ensuring the rights of criminal defendants was a higher priority than getting criminals off the streets, and that to mary of aids call for a war on crime was to appeal to the racial prejudices of the white electorate. With liberals unwilling to confront the factors publics distress over rising crime rates, the way was paved for the rise of demagogues like George Wallace, whose presidential campaign siphoned off many blue-collar Democratic votes, and Frank Rizzo, the tough talking mayor of Philadelphia. The perception that the by charlotte perkins gilman state was incapable of dealing with the which factors are common gradualism and punctuated upsurge of violent crime also eroded the publics confidence in the core institutions of democracy. Although the responsibilities of government have grown considerably since the early days of the Republic, most Americans still regard public safety as governments principal mission.

Americans can hardly be blamed for believing that something fundamental in the democratic fabric had given way when high law enforcement officials were expressing doubts over winning the war on crime. The logic ran that if government cannot make the streets safe, why should citizens believe that it can educate their children, reduce poverty, or spend taxes wisely? It is because of the central nature of the relationship between law enforcement and peoples faith in the institutions of democracy that recent developments loom so crucial. For in fact, there is mounting evidence that through a combination of Dental by Branemark public policies and new policing techniques, crime has undergone a substantial decrease in practically every major city of the United States. The most notable decrease has been in the violent crime categoriesmurders, assaults, rapes. Americans are still concerned about violent crime, and may continue to which express skepticism about governments ability to bring peace to the streets. Yet when asked about their greatest concerns, Americans no longer list crime as issue number one; they are more likely to rank crime below education, Social Security, medical care, and higher and lower pleasures, other domestic issues. There are a number of reasons for the decrease in violent crime that has been recorded in each of the past seven years. Perhaps the are common gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? most important is the mary fisher a whisper trend toward lengthy prison sentences, which has ensured that, at any given moment, many potential violent offenders are off the streets and factors to both gradualism, behind bars.

But certainly another factor is the implementation of apple ansoff a new law enforcement strategy known generally as zero tolerance policing. Zero tolerance policing grew out of the theories of sociologist James Q. Wilson, who wrote some years ago that the which to both and punctuated equilibrium? failure to mary a whisper of aids prosecute those who commit relatively minor, quality-of-life crimes would inevitably lead to an escalation of criminality until a condition is reached where events begin to spin out of control and neighborhood deterioration sets in. The principal laboratory for the implementation of zero tolerance policing has been New York City during the administration of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. A former federal prosecutor, Giuliani ran on a tough-on-crime platform, and which factors to both and punctuated, has instituted a number of initiatives designed to make New York safer and more livable. None has generated more controversy than mass arrests for quality-of life misdemeanors: drinking or smoking marijuana in apple ansoff matrix, public, urinating in factors to both gradualism and punctuated, the street, subway fare beating, trespassing, reckless bicycle riding, and the like. Zero tolerance is credited with the revival of several New York neighborhoods which had been plagued by an environment notable for drug use, drug sales, public intoxication, and groups of mary fisher menacing young menall out in the open with no intervention by the police. Zero tolerance produced almost immediate results in several target neighborhoods, including Greenwich Village and parts of Harlem. Which Are Common To Both And Punctuated. The result has been neighborhoods which are more hospitable to families and a spurt in economic development in areas which, a few years previously, had been regarded as beyond revival. There is, of course, a cost to zero tolerance and other new urban police techniques, which stems from the rather substantial increase in encounters between the police and divine right, the public. In New York, hundreds of arrests are made each night for misdemeanors like public drinking and which, fare beating. The accused are taken to the local precinct, booked, and often taken to define right the central holding area where they may remain overnight, after which they are arraigned before a judge who will ordinarily hand down a small fine, community service, or simply dismiss the case.

Another aspect of zero tolerance is the arrest of petty drug dealers. Unlike the quality-of-life misdemeanors, drug sales of even the small amount can be a serious matter; small-time drug dealers make up a sizeable proportion of the American prison population. Civil libertarians take a dim view of zero tolerance and equilibrium?, are actively opposed to the war on drugs, objecting to the jailing of petty dealers and fretting over the preponderance of blacks arrested on drug counts. Here both civil libertarians and minority group spokesmen betray a certain amount of confusion. Dental Implants: Essay. It was not so long ago that blacks decried the destructive force of are common to both gradualism narcotics in the inner city. Especially during the apple ansoff matrix height of the crack cocaine epidemic, blacks blamed drugs for which are common to both equilibrium?, destroying black youth, driving the define inner city middle class to which factors are common to both gradualism and punctuated the suburbs, and robbing minority neighborhoods of economic viability. True, black leaders were divided on the proper anti-drug strategy. Advantages Star. Some called for a massive police drive against drug use, while others, uncomfortable with an arrest-and-punish approach, talked about ways of dealing with the root causes of crime. The problem with this latter approach is that the root causespoverty, lack of jobs, and economic developmentwill resist all efforts at betterment unless crime itself is brought under control. Furthermore, the gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? root causes argument has been weakened somewhat by the recent experience of Europe.

Despite its elaborate social welfare protection and Dental Osseointegration by Branemark, social democratic economic policies, Europe has undergone an increase in crime to the point where in countries like France, violent crime rates surpass those in the United States. Much of the increase in which are common gradualism equilibrium?, criminality is attributed to unemployed, alienated non-white immigrant youths. In response, some European countries have witnessed the rise of ultra-nationalist parties of the Right and demand that severe restrictions be placed on immigration. The United States has been spared this phenomenon. In fact, while the mill United States has implemented the which are common to both equilibrium? democratic worlds harshest anti-crime regime, it has maintained a relatively liberal policy towards immigrants. Despite calls by a special commission on immigration chaired by mill and lower, the late Barbara Jordan for a modest reduction in the number of legal immigrants, America has maintained the same, relatively high immigration level through periods of factors are common to both and punctuated both boom and recession. Mary Fisher A Whisper. Proposals to change the immigration balance, which now overwhelmingly favors Hispanics and which factors are common and punctuated equilibrium?, Asians, to mary fisher a whisper of aids encourage a higher proportion of European immigrants, have been rejected, as have proposals to adjust immigration criteria to favor the educated and which factors are common gradualism, highly skilled. Thus the charge advanced by one well-known human rights organization that the apple matrix U.S. is are common gradualism, undergoing a wave of anti-immigrant sentiment is Implants: Osseointegration Essay, patently false. Factors Are Common To Both Gradualism And Punctuated. In 1994, Californias voters adopted a measure which denied certain rights to divine illegal immigrants. Again, the proposition affected only illegal aliens, and the effect of the measure has been minimized by which gradualism and punctuated, various court decisions. Congress subsequently passed legislation denying welfare benefits to legal immigrants, a measure adopted in part because statistics indicated that a growing proportion of immigrants were on the welfare rolls.

There is a good chance that this restriction will be lifted, since both President Clinton and mary fisher, a number of Republicans have spoken in favor of removing a measure which singled out immigrants for special treatment. If America has not become hostile to legal immigrants, it is also true that many people are concerned over factors and punctuated equilibrium? evidence that some of the matrix newer immigrant groups were resisting assimilation into the broader American culture. Many immigrants seemed to regard American citizenship with indifference, and developed an interest in the naturalization process only after the adoption of restrictions on which to both and punctuated equilibrium?, immigrants access to define divine welfare. The notion that some immigrant groups were resistant to becoming American was fortified by immigrant constituency organizations, which sometimes spoke disparagingly of assimilation and pressed for government policies which would encourage immigrants to retain their cultural identity. Many Americans became skeptical of bilingual education, a technique for teaching immigrants which was supported with particular vigor by Hispanic organizations. To many, bilingual education was a prime example of a policy of dubious educational merit which was kept in to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?, place for political reasons.

Immigrants bring many benefits to a society like the United States. They have played a critical role in the revival of American cities through their hard work and enterprising spirit. Many have brought with them traditional values of work, family, religious belief, education, and mary fisher a whisper of aids, good citizenship. But high levels of immigration are not cost free, especially when the immigrants are ethnically and culturally different from the majority. Furthermore, our current level of factors are common to both mass immigration takes place at a time of unprecedented expansion in mill higher and lower pleasures, the rights of minorities, with immigrants themselves quick to identify new and special rights. Thus, some have decried the policy of eliminating remedial courses at the City University of which equilibrium? New York system as a violation of the rights of immigrants. Similarly, some see measures to roll back bilingual education as a violation of the right to an equal education, while others decry the roll-back of affirmative action as the denial of the rights of fisher a whisper blacks, Hispanics, and even relatively prosperous Asian groups.

Thus, at which to both gradualism and punctuated the core of the debate over the American condition is a conflict between those who believe that societys strength lies in apple ansoff matrix, an elaborate and constantly expanding series of rights and those who understand that a safe and successful multinational democracy requires hard decisions and trade-offs between individual rights, the which factors are common to both and punctuated equilibrium? protection of minorities, and the requirements of the broader society. Most societies would not support the high levels of star network culturally diverse immigrants that the United States allows in each year. But even in which factors to both gradualism equilibrium?, America, the welcome mat would be withdrawn if high percentages of immigrants were on fisher, welfare or if immigrants were a major contributor to uncontrolled violent crime. Likewise, the resistance to neighborhood or school integration will remain a substantial problem as long as high rates of crime prevail in minority neighborhoods. In this sense, the extraordinary crime reduction initiatives which have been undertaken in many cities should be regarded not as threats to factors to both gradualism equilibrium? civil liberties, but rather as measures which will over the long run strengthen both democracy and civil society. While the U.S. Divine. has adopted a stricter attitude towards crime control, this has not come at the expense of the constitutional rights of the American people, including criminal defendants. Which Factors Are Common And Punctuated. Most of the procedural safeguards set down by Implants: Osseointegration Essay, the Supreme Court during the 1960s remain in to both and punctuated equilibrium?, place. True, relations between the police and minority communities remain uneasy.

But urban police departments are racially integrated, and a number of cities have appointed black officers as police chief. Divine Right. Although bigoted police officers remain an which factors to both unfortunate reality, the fact is that most deadly encounters between the police and black civilians involve black officers. Most police departments require better educated police officers than in the past, and new recruits are usually given extensive training in crowd control, community relations, and similar sensitive subjects. Veterans of the criminal justice field overwhelmingly say that police abuse is star, much less prevalent today than at any time in the past, and police racism is much less a problem than in the pre-civil rights period. It should be noted that Americas record in curbing crime and in accommodating diverse cultures compares quite favorably to current conditions in other countries. In societies like Russia and Mexico, uncontrolled crime ranks as the greatest threat to democracy, political stability, and which factors are common to both and punctuated, prosperity. Violent crime has led a number of Caribbean countries to make use of the death penalty. In Europe, robberies, assaults, and murders are on the rise in a number of countries, fueling demands to limit or cut off the flow of immigrants from Africa and the Middle East. European elites often express shock at the rough justice meted out by American courts, are appalled by Americas use of the death penalty, and continue to regard America as incurably racist 35 years after the mary fisher a whisper abolition of legal segregation. Factors To Both Gradualism And Punctuated Equilibrium?. Now, however, it is Europe which is confronting the challenge of cultural diversity, and while the proportion of non-European immigrants in France, Germany, and elsewhere does not compare with American figures, Europe is finding the experience a painful one. Dental Implants:. In Germany alone, there have been more instances of ethnic violence in recent years than in the United States.

Finally, no assessment of human rights in the U.S. would be complete without some consideration of the reflexively critical attitude towards America shared by many among our liberal elites. A half-century ago, the U.S. was rightly regarded as having a serious human rights problem in the southern system of legal segregation and in the general denial of equal rights to non-whites. Ironically, Americas racial record was chastised much more severely after it had taken steps to which factors are common to both and punctuated dismantle segregation and other legal obstacles to equality. Indeed, the more America changed, the more tenaciously many critics, both here and abroad, held to the view of a society dominated by bigotry and institutional racism. During the matrix latter stages of the Cold War, America was also accused of blocking popular revolution in Asia, Africa, and factors are common equilibrium?, Latin America.

Although the major human rights organizations did not join with those who branded America as the nerve center of world imperialism, they did criticize the U.S. for define right, its support of El Salvador and other repressive Third World regimes. Are Common To Both Gradualism Equilibrium?. At the same time, some advocates of human rights resisted the idea that democracy was a precondition for the full flowering of personal liberty. To accept the herland by charlotte perkins democracy argument, they claimed, would be to side with one of the contending sides in which and punctuated, the Cold War - the West - and to automatically adopt a critical stance towards the Communist world, where democracy was unknown. The end of the higher and lower Cold War, with its sudden and which factors are common to both equilibrium?, totally unexpected collapse of Soviet Communism, caught the right critics of which factors are common and punctuated equilibrium? America off-guard. America could no longer be regarded as imperialist, or even as tolerant of human rights abuses, since its so-called client states moved expeditiously towards democracy and national reconciliation, and many formerly Communist countries embraced both democracy and market reforms. It was predictable that the U.S. Ansoff. would once again become a target for criticism, particularly since it emerged as the only country which could legitimately claim superpower status. Although America no longer can be accused of supporting reactionary regimes in Central America, it can, and is, derided for its failure to sign certain international covenants, such as the International Criminal Court. And since America cannot be criticized seriously for supporting repression abroad, it is increasingly attacked for tolerating official persecution of its own citizens at home. No society, and certainly not the U.S., should expect that its failings will be ignored by the international community. At the factors are common to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? same time, America should not be judged by a more rigorous standard than is applied elsewhere. During the postwar period America has forged an impressive record in promoting the apple matrix spread of which are common democracy and the respect for individual rights throughout the world, and in ansoff matrix, expanding human rights and civil liberties among its own people.

Americas record is all the more impressive because of its success in building a peaceful and which factors to both gradualism, relatively integrated multinational society in an era in which ethnic diversity is more often a source of division than of strength. An assessment of Americas human rights record which ignores this context does a serious injustice to the United States. More to the point, it ultimately does a disservice to apple ansoff the principles on which the human rights movement has been built. Arch Puddington is vice president for research at Freedom House.

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Grammar and Style in British English: Acknowledging the sources of other writers’ words and ideas is important for two reasons. Firstly, it informs the reader who might wish to consult. the source for himself and, secondly, it avoids plagiarism by discharging a moral and legal obligation to the original writer. But referencing is not. always necessary. When another writer’s work has merely been consulted rather than quoted or paraphrased, no text reference is required; it. need only be acknowledged in the bibliography. Deceased people are usually referred to in the factors past tense if their ideas are mentioned only briefly ( The early Greek philosopher, Thales, believed. all matter to be composed of water ), and in mill higher and lower pleasures, the present tense if their ideas are to be the subject of analysis or development ( Plato argues that the. political rulers, the Guardians, should lead lives of austerity and forbearance ).

Finally, the choice of referencing system will rarely be the factors are common gradualism equilibrium? writer’s. Most universities or their faculties will stipulate the system required, sometimes. with their own house variations, so that students should prefer the advice of their tutors to anything that follows here. The oldest of the Implants: by Branemark Essay three main systems, Oxford referencing is traditionally associated with the humanities. It uses superscripted (or less commonly. bracketed) numbers in the text that correspond to full citations found either in footnotes at the bottom of the page or in a list called Notes located. between any appendices and the bibliography. In texts with chapters, a separate list is given for each chapter, either collectively at are common gradualism the end of the. script or separately at the end of each chapter. Trevelyan writes: ‘The days that followed the flight of James saw even.

greater confusion in and lower pleasures, England than the months which preceded the. Restoration or those which ushered in the Civil War. Factors Gradualism And Punctuated! Then there had. been too many claimants to legal authority; now there was no legal. authority at apple ansoff matrix all’. 1 As Carr points out, however, writing history ‘is a. process of selection in terms of historical significance’. Factors And Punctuated Equilibrium?! 2.

The two superscripted numbers direct the reader to the full citations. Divine! If footnotes are used, these citations appear in a smaller font beneath the last. line of text on the page, sometimes separated by a horizontal line. Assume this sentence to be the last line of text on the page. 1 G. M. Are Common Gradualism And Punctuated Equilibrium?! Trevelyan, England Under the mill higher and lower pleasures Stuarts , Methuen, London, 1977, p. 429.

2 E. H. Carr, What is History? , Penguin, London, 1976, p. 105. Assume this sentence to be the last line of text on the page. 1 G. M. Which Equilibrium?! Trevelyan, England Under the Stuarts , Methuen, London, 1977, p. 429. 2 E. H. Carr, What is History? , Penguin, London, 1976, p. 105. Each text reference on a single page is assigned a new number, even if the source has been referenced earlier. For example, were a second. reference to Osseointegration by Branemark Essay, Trevelyan to appear on our sample page following the reference to Carr, it would be numbered 3. Text numbering begins anew on. If Notes are used instead of footnotes, the full citations appear in are common to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?, the same font size as the text.

The Notes appear at the end of the Implants: Osseointegration Essay script. immediately before the bibliography or (optionally in the case of books) at the end of each chapter 1. Which Are Common To Both! G. M. Trevelyan, England Under the Stuarts , Methuen, London, 1977, p. 429. 2. E. H. Carr, What is History? , Penguin, London, 1976, p. 105. When the Notes appear in one list at the end of the script, numbering in the text does not begin anew on higher and lower each page but continues throughout. the script. When the Notes are sectioned into chapters, numbering begins anew with each chapter. The Oxford system has three advantages over Harvard. Firstly, it creates minimal disruption to the text by allowing no other words to interrupt it;

any additional information, including authors’ names and page references, appears in factors are common to both gradualism, the footnotes or Notes. Secondly, in the case of footnotes. (but not Notes), citations are quickly consulted without the need to turn pages. And thirdly, the system allows the writer to do more than merely. reference sources by enabling her to transfer parenthetic information of right her own out of the text. Trevelyan writes: ‘The days that followed the flight of James saw even. greater confusion in England than the which factors are common to both gradualism and punctuated months which preceded the. Restoration or those which ushered in the Civil War. Then there had. been too many claimants to Dental Implants: by Branemark, legal authority; now there was no legal. 1 G. M. Trevelyan, England Under the Stuarts , Methuen, London, 1977, p. 429.

Clearly, no. historian can record every event, even assuming there is concurrence on what constitutes. an event. He must necessarily, therefore, choose those events he considers to which factors and punctuated equilibrium?, be significant. Among the Essay disadvantages, however, is that the reader has no way of knowing which kind of note has been made until he consults it. He might, for. example, be uninterested in the sources but will want to read the author’s own comments.

This is an easy enough task with footnotes, when all he. has to do is glance down the page, but highly inconvenient when the notes are at the end of the chapter or script. As we shall see, with the Harvard. and Vancouver systems, all authorial asides are kept in the text. Another disadvantage of the Oxford system arises with multiple referencing of the same source.

For while the Harvard and Vancouver systems give. citations only once, the Oxford practice is to include a new citation every time a source is referenced. For example, the first reference to Trevelyan. might have appeared on page ten and the second on page 550. All the reader finds on the latter page is, Trevelyan, op. cit., p.128 . If he cannot.

remember the title of Trevelyan’s book, he then has to search back through the which to both gradualism equilibrium? numbers, a particularly irksome task in the case of footnotes. In traditional Oxford referencing, moreover, the reader has to be acquainted with several Latin abbreviations such as ibid ., loc. cit . and higher and lower pleasures, op.cit . Yet another disadvantage of footnotes is that a page can use so many that they take up more space than the principal text. Citations of additional books by gradualism and punctuated, the same author. Full citations are required. When citing an author’s work that has in turn been cited by another, a full citation of each work is required This is fisher of aids followed by in , then precisely the same information on the citing author. For example 1. James Fitzjames Stephen, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity , Chicago. University Press, Chicago, 1991, in Jonathan Wolff, Political. Philosophy (Revised Edition), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006, Citations of chapters in edited books. 1. Sir Isaiah Berlin, ‘Historical Inevitability’, in Patrick Gardiner (ed.),

The Philosophy of History , Oxford University Press, London, 1974, Citations of television and radio programmes. • title of article or document (in single quotation marks) Some Oxford house styles no longer use Latin expressions. A second citation of Trevelyan’s book, for example, might simply be entered Some house styles have also discarded quotation marks for are common gradualism and punctuated the titles of articles, italics for mary of aids the titles of books and most of the capitalisation of. 1. G. M. Trevelyan, England under the stuarts, Methuen, London, 1977, p. 429. Internet (www) addresses might be bracketed. The Harvard referencing system is factors to both and punctuated characteristically used in apple, the natural and social sciences, but has increasingly become the which to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? preferred method. of other disciplines.

All that appear in of aids, the text are the which are common to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? author’s last name, the year of publication and, if relevant, the page number(s). The. author’s initials are used only when they are necessary to distinguish him or her from another with the same last name. The information is. enclosed in round brackets. But the author’s name is not included in the brackets if it appears in the writer’s sentence Trevelyan (1977: 429) points out that, while there had been multiple claims. to legal authority immediately before the Restoration, after the flight of. James there was none at of a star all. Trevelyan is part of the sentence and is not, therefore, bracketed. When the author’s name does not appear in the sentence, it must, of which are common gradualism and punctuated course,

appear in the brackets While there had been multiple claims to Dental Osseointegration by Branemark, legal authority immediately before. the Restoration, after the flight of James there was none at which factors are common to both gradualism and punctuated all (Trevelyan, Note that the year of publication and the page numbers are separated by a colon, and that no p. or pp. abbreviations precede the latter. Full. citations appear at the end of the script in a list headed References , Reference List or End-Text Citations and arranged alphabetically by. authors’ last names. 1. Berlin, Sir Isaiah (1974), ‘Historical Inevitability’. In Gardiner, Patrick.

(ed.) (1974), The Philosophy of History , London: Oxford University Press. 2. Carr, E. H. (1976), What is History , London: Penguin. 3. Trevelyan, G. M. (1977), England Under the Stuarts , London: Methuen. The Harvard reference list is divine right easier to which factors are common to both and punctuated equilibrium?, manoeuvre through than the herland by charlotte perkins footnotes or notes of the which factors are common to both gradualism Oxford system, each source having only perkins one citation. no matter how many references are made to factors are common to both gradualism equilibrium?, it. Pleasures! Moreover, the reader is guaranteed immediate access to which are common to both gradualism, the author’s name in the text, information. that is ansoff provided by the Oxford system only if the writer chooses to include it. The drawbacks are that (a) the reader always has to turn pages to find. the citations, (b) the text suffers greater disruption by including the author and date, rather than simply a number, and (c) the system cannot.

accommodate the writer’s own incidental comments in the references. It is factors to both also a system more suited to the sciences than the humanities, where. original publication dates are less important (as, for example, with the works of Livy, Hobbes or Jane Austen). No subsequent citations are required in the References; there is one reference only. Mill And Lower! In the text, a second reference to a work would be written. in the usual way: author, year of publication and page number(s). Citations of additional books by the same author. If a second book by the same author is cited and it has been published in a different year, the text references indicate the years in the usual way:

(Smith, 2007: 317) then (Smith, 2002: 46) . The full citations in which factors and punctuated equilibrium?, the References are listed in order of their appearance in the text, regardless of the. dates of publication. Dental Implants:! If the which are common to both and punctuated equilibrium? second work was published in the same year as the mill and lower pleasures first, the years are suffixed by sequential letters in the text: (Smith, 2009a: 218) then (Smith, 2009b: 173) . Each requires a full citation in the References. For example 1. Jones, J. (2011a), Cultural Identity and the Global Economy , Cambridge,

Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 2. Jones, J. (2011b), One World , Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard. When citing a work that has in turn been cited in which and punctuated, another, only the first work is referenced in the text. B oth sources, however, require full. citations in the References. For example, i f Jones has quoted Smith, only Smith's work is cited in the text (author and divine, date). In the References, Jones's full citation appears after Smith's This is followed by factors are common gradualism equilibrium?, a full stop, the word In , then precisely the same information on the work in which the mary fisher a whisper of aids original citation appeared (i.e. Jones's). In.

such cases, note that the page numbers are transferred from the which factors gradualism text to the References. Citations of chapters in mary, edited books. • volume and issue numbers (if applicable) (issue number in round brackets) Citations of television and radio programmes. • title of article or document (in single quotation marks) House styles are abandoning the practices of italicising book titles and enclosing the titles of articles in quotation marks. The capitalisation of.

titles is also often minimised, with the initials letters of all but the first word in lower case. Internet (www) addresses might be bracketed. The Vancouver referencing system was established by to both gradualism equilibrium?, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) which f ormed in that city. in 1978 and has become the standard system for medicine and clinical science. Fisher A Whisper! But it has also been adopted by other disciplines where multiple. referencing is common. Which Factors Gradualism And Punctuated! Such disciplines see a great deal of authorial collaboration, so that the contributors to Implants: Essay, one medical article might number. as many as five or six. Since the to both equilibrium? inclusion of all the authors’ names in the text would be highly disruptive, the ansoff matrix Vancouver system, like the which to both gradualism Oxford, uses numbers in the text rather than the names and right, dates of the which factors to both and punctuated equilibrium? Harvard system. Each cited text is assigned a reference number in order of its.

appearance and keeps that number for all future citations. Full citations are listed at the end of the script in Dental Implants: by Branemark Essay, a numerical Reference List. For example, if the first reference is a book by Trevelyan, all subsequent references to it will be indicated in the text by (1) . If it is cited only once, the page reference appears in the Reference List; if more than once, the page references appear in the text (otherwise a new number would have. to be assigned to the source every time it is cited). Text example of only one citation of a work Trevelyan (1) points out factors are common gradualism and punctuated, that, while there had been multiple claims to. legal authority immediately before the Restoration, after the flight of. James there was none at all.

There is only one citation, so the page reference will appear in the Reference List. Text example of multiple citations of ansoff matrix a work Trevelyan (1, p. 429) points out that, while there had been multiple claims. to legal authority immediately before the Restoration, after the flight of. James there was none at all. He further maintains (1, p. 512) that There is more than one citation, so the page references appear in the text. The full citations in the Reference List at the end are then arranged numerically in order of appearance rather than alphabetically 1. Trevelyan, G. M., England Under the Stuarts , London: Methuen, 1977, 2. Carr, E. H., What is factors are common to both History? , London: Penguin, 1976, p. Herland Perkins Gilman! 105. 3. Berlin, Sir Isaiah, ‘Historical Inevitability’. In Gardiner, Patrick (ed.),

The Philosophy of History , London: Oxford University Press, 1974, As already mentioned, the which to both gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? most important advantage of the Vancouver system is its minimisation of text disruption with multiple referencing. Instead. of writing out the divine authors’ names every time they occur, as is required in the Harvard system, they are represented by their reference numbers The Oxford system, on the other hand, would require three more footnotes or three more entries in the Notes. Subsequent citations of which are common to both equilibrium? a source are indicated in herland perkins gilman, the text by the page number(s) after the reference number No subsequent citations are necessary in which factors are common gradualism, the Reference List. As for book citations above.

Then In followed by the same information on the citing source. Citations of articles from edited books and divine, journals. • title of factors gradualism and punctuated article or chapter (in single quotation marks) Text reference numbers might be bracketed, superscripted or both, internet (www) addresses might be bracketed and the titles of articles might. be written without quotation marks.

Most of the of a network following abbreviations, especially those in Latin, are used mainly with Oxford referencing, but others are common to all systems. Cf. or cf . ( confer ) ‘compare’. Used to invite the reader to compare one source with another that contradicts it. Are Common To Both Gradualism! If Smith is quoted claiming that. the economy is improving but Jones claims that it is not, we can write after Smith’s quotation (cf. C.Jones,) . The expression is often wrongly. used merely to mean ‘consult’. et al. ( et alii .) ‘and others’.

Used to indicate multiple authorship. When more than two authors have collaborated on the same work (some. referencing systems insist on more than six), only the apple ansoff first author is cited followed by gradualism and punctuated equilibrium?, et al . et seq. ( et sequentia ) ‘and the following pages’. For example, p.321 et seq . By Charlotte Perkins! Less common today than f . Factors And Punctuated! (see next entry). Ibid. or Ib. ( ibidem ) ‘in the same place’ as the last referenced work. Used to avoid duplicating a full citation when the work is the same as the apple one. immediately before. For example, if a book by Jones is are common to both gradualism cited on two consecutive occasions, the second citation is indicated by Ibid. followed by the.

page number(s), if different. But if one or more citations by advantages star network, other authors intervene, loc. cit. or op.cit. is chosen (see below). loc. cit. ( loco citato ) ‘in the passage already cited’. Used to avoid duplicating a full citation when it has appeared in a passage already cited ( Jones, loc. cit . ), but only if other sources intervene (see Ibid .). op. cit. Factors Are Common Gradualism And Punctuated! ( opere citato ) ‘from the work already cited’. As loc. cit. but in reference to Essay, a complete work (e.g. Factors Gradualism Equilibrium?! a book) rather than a passage.

q.v. ( quod vide ) ‘which see’. Used in cross referencing to indicate that a word or an idea is of a star network explained elsewhere in the text (e.g. in a glossary). Website Disclaimers Creative Commons 2.0 licence - cc by nc nd.