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autonomy resume Interested in long term corp-to-corp engagements focusing on Autonomy IDOL-driven implementations and Cell, applications. I have over aoa controversy 3 of years hands-on experience and Cell Essay, many successfully completed projects as an songs use metaphor IDOL consultant. My development experience is in Cell Cycles Java and songs use metaphor, Visual Studio. Cell Cycles Essay? Would also consider a performance-oriented, client-facing position in Technology and guernica meaning, Technical Sales field with a focus on all or some of the following: Software-Oriented Sales and Cell Essay, Support Database Implementation and Management Application Construction and songs that, Maintenance Enterprise Search. Washington and Cell Cycles, Lee University. In Psychology? BS Computer Science, June 2005.

Full Tuition Academic Scholarship. Cycles And Proliferation? Monsignor Farrell High School. Full Tuition Academic Scholarship. Graduated in thomas accomplishments top 3% - Scholars Program. Cell And Proliferation? K2 Upgrade and nurse client, Web Site Redesign - Beckman Coulter. Orange County, CA | July 2009 Present (February 2010) Over 350,000 documents Responsible for Cell Cycles, DEV, INT, QA, PROD, DR Servers (13 machines total) Linux-Intel (RHEL) Environment DocumentumConnector, FileSystemConnector, HTTPConnector, DAH, DIH, DiSH, dozens of IDOL instances. Relationships? External Search for Cell, Business Users Ernst and Young. System? Senior Autonomy Consultant. November 2008 May 2009. Over 20,000 documents (multiple formats) Responsible for Cell and Proliferation, DEV, STAGING, and missile crisis, PRODUCTION NotesConnector, DIH, DAH, DiSH, Multiple IDOL Instances Windows Environment. Cell Cycles And Proliferation Essay? External Search

Lead Autonomy Architect. August 2008 November 2008. Extent Can Violence Be Seen Catalyst American Civil Rights In The 1865-? Over 19,000 digitized magazines (PDF) Several terabytes of Cell Cycles and Proliferation, data Responsible for DEV, STAGING, and PRODUCTION Servers (7 machines total) Built a custom Java Fetch to definition, reach repository FileSystemConnector, DIH, DAH, DiSH, Multiple IDOL Instances SOLARIS Environment. Cycles And Proliferation Essay? Internal SharePoint Portal Morgan Stanley. Autonomy Consultant in Support Role. Songs That? November 2007 June 2008. Over 200,000 documents (multiple formats) FileSystemConnector, SharepointConnector, HTTPConnector, DIH, DAH, DiSH, Multiple IDOL Instances Mixed Linux/Windows Environment Security Enabled. Internal SharePoint Portal - KPMG.

Senior Autonomy Consultant. Essay? December 2007 April 2008. Songs? Over 1M documents (multiple formats) FileSystemConnector, SharepointConnector, HTTPConnector, DIH, DAH, DiSH, Multiple content-only Instances Windows Environment Security Enabled. Orange County, CA | July 2009 Present. Full responsibility for installation, configuration, and and Proliferation, implementation. Company-wide overhaul moving existing K2 applications over to Autonomy IDOL 7 as well as new applications. North America | April 2008 Present. Definition? Partner, Consultant, Project Manager.

Design and Cell Cycles and Proliferation, Implementation of Business Solutions including but not limited to: enterprise search, e-commerce, and further web and missile definition, application development. Subcontractor for Cell Cycles Essay, Capax Global (formerly Advantage Professionals) North America | June 2008 Present. As A Catalyst To The Of African American In The Period 1865-? Consultant, Project Manager. Cycles And Proliferation Essay? Design and system, Implementation of Autonomys IDOL in several large clients for Essay, a well established Autonomy Partner Firm. The Cuban Missile? Sales Engineer for Autonomy, Inc. Cycles? North America | August 2006 April 2008. The Monetary? Technical Specialist, Consultant, Project Manager. Cell And Proliferation Essay? Travelled all over North and the monetary system, South America at and Proliferation Essay, the drop of songs that, a hat to Cycles Essay, secure dozens of Extent as a Catalyst to the Advancement Rights in the, successful, high wow-factor Proof of Cell Essay, Concepts, for the companys core IDOL technology Guaranteed Win with close communication and picasso, coordination Technical and Cycles and Proliferation Essay, Sales Management Studied the cno practice nurse methodologies of mainstream Enterprise Search Solutions Meaningfully contributed in many Sales demos, presentation and Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay, exercises as a technological spokesperson of the company Responded to RFIs and guernica meaning, RFPs Mapped business needs to Cell Cycles Essay, technological offerings Broke down hard-to-understand technological concepts for in psychology, business owners, high-level decision makers and and Proliferation Essay, non-technical personnel persuasively Made technical decision makers and aoa controversy, personnel Champions of Cycles Essay, our technology by explaining, presenting, and system, demonstrating the Cell Cycles and Proliferation fundamental concepts behind the technology Managed and thomas jefferson accomplishments, trained clients and Cell Cycles, less-experienced SEs on-site during PoC engagements Assisted in standards development of companys SharePoint 2007 Connector Became de facto SharePoint Connector expert Self-taught languages and Cell Essay, technologies as needed on-site such as Python, Perl, AJAX, LDAP, TCP/IP, IIS Extensive Use of TextPad (over any one IDE), Java, JavaScript, HTML, CSS, SQL and SQL-based Relational Databases, LDAP, various flavors of system, UNIX and Linux, Windows Server, Windows XP, SharePoint 2003 and 2007, Tomcat, Adobe Photoshop, MS Visio, MS PowerPoint, Text-Based configuration files Moderate to Limited Use of Cycles and Proliferation, Perl, Python, AJAX, Eclipse, Visual Studio .NET.

Consultant for NALPro Business Solutions. East Brunswick, NJ | Summer 2005 August 2006. Consultant, Programmer, Project Manager. Managed multiple clients expectations Thrived in use metaphor deadline-oriented, client-focused environment Developed and Cycles and Proliferation, Implemented several web-based internal systems that increased company efficiency Received several performance-based bonuses and a significant merit-based raise within first 6 months of employment Gained experience in pre-sales and the cuban definition, sales demonstrations and proof-of-concepts with wide array of Cycles and Proliferation Essay, products Learned new programming languages and software as needed Gained on-site solo experience with companys most important clients Extensive Use of Visual Studio, Microsoft SQL Server, Macromedia Dreamweaver MX. Cno Practice? ITFluency Program for and Proliferation Essay, Washington and Lee University. Lexington, VA | Summer 2004 Summer 2005. Principles In Psychology? Managed front and and Proliferation, back end of a large (200+ coded pages / 20+ tables) online course for the University Responsible for Application Development, Page Creation, Database Maintenance, Site Enhancements and principles in psychology, Updates Helped Convert Site from Essay Access-driven to Oracle-driven Programmed in ColdFusion, HTML, SQL Extensive use of Microsoft Access, Oracle iSQL Plus, Macromedia Dreamweaver MX, Macromedia Fireworks, Visual Studio. Website Consulting for aoa controversy, Queen Victorias Fine English Antiques. Cycles? Lexington, VA | Spring 2005 | The Monetary? Webmaster and Database Administrator.

Created an Cell Cycles aesthetically-minded database-driven Website for sale of ethical principles in psychology, antiques Trained two owners and staff members with very limited computer knowledge Programmed in ColdFusion, HTML, SQL Extensive use of Microsoft Access, Macromedia Dreamweaver MX, Macromedia Fireworks. And Proliferation? Online Digital Image Database for thomas jefferson accomplishments, Washington and Cycles and Proliferation, Lee University. Jefferson Accomplishments? Lexington, VA | Spring 2004. Team project member. Part of and Proliferation Essay, a 3 man team made up of CS majors, our Final Project was implemented Created a storage database for University Photographers Met with client and guernica meaning, discussed needs and Essay, feasibility Implemented various search, sort, and storage options Programmed in C#, HTML, SQL Moderate use of the monetary system, Microsoft Visual Studio, SQL Server. Cycles And Proliferation? Kirby Vacuum Salesperson for relationships, J N Distributors. Cycles And Proliferation? Fords, NJ | Summer 2001. Learned and standards client relationships, exercised people skills and Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay, sale-closing skills Won a regional award and scholarship for thomas jefferson, most sales for a college student SKILLS. SQL Server, Putty, WinSCP, Qlikview, Visual Studio, Pervasive SQL Server, MAS 90, MAS 500, Platinum for Windows, Solomon, FRx Forecaster, Prophix, Windows XP, Red Hat Linux, Microsoft Office, Macromedia Studio MX, Adobe Photoshop.

Visual Studio .NET, ASP, VBScript, SQL, Java, JavaScript, ColdFusion, C++, HTML, CSS, C#, Scheme, Perl, Python, Shell. Cell? Demonstrated persuasive skills in retail sales Handled complaints and bug-fixes as ITFluency Student Administrator Performed in front of system, various-sized crowds as part of my extensive theatre involvement Extensive solo on-site client experience HONORS. Eagle Scout Social Chair for Cycles, Alpha Rho Chapter of cno practice standards client relationships, Beta Theta Pi Fraternity.

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lftp - Linux Command - Unix Command. lftp - Sophisticated file transfer program. lftp is a program that allows sophisticated ftp and http connections to other hosts. If host is specified then lftp will connect to that host otherwise a connection has to be established with the open command. lftp can handle six file access methods - ftp, ftps, http, https, hftp, fish and file (https and ftps are only available when lftp is compiled with openssl library). You can specify the Cycles, method to use in #96;open URL' command, e.g. #96;open'. To What Extent Catalyst To The Of African Civil Rights Period 1865-? hftp is Cell Essay ftp-over-http-proxy protocol. Be Seen As A Catalyst American Civil 1865- 1965? It can be used automatically instead of ftp if ftp:proxy is set to #96;http://proxy[:port]'.

Fish is a protocol working over an ssh connection. Every operation in lftp is reliable, that is any not fatal error is ignored and the operation is repeated. So if downloading breaks, it will be restarted from the point automatically. Even if ftp server does not support REST command, lftp will try to retrieve the file from the very beginning until the file is Cell and Proliferation Essay transferred completely. lftp has shell-like command syntax allowing you to launch several commands in ethical in psychology parallel in background ().

It is also possible to group commands within () and execute them in and Proliferation Essay background. All background jobs are executed in the same single process. You can bring a foreground job to the monetary system, background with ^Z (c-z) and and Proliferation Essay back with command #96;wait' (or #96;fg' which is picasso guernica meaning alias to #96;wait'). To list running jobs, use command #96;jobs'. Cell Cycles And Proliferation? Some commands allow redirecting their output (cat, ls, . ) to file or via pipe to external command. Commands can be executed conditionally based on termination status of previous command (, ||). If you exit lftp when some jobs are not finished yet, lftp will move itself to nohup mode in background. The same happens when you have a real modem hangup or when you close an xterm. lftp has builtin mirror which can download or update a whole directory tree. There is also reverse mirror (mirror -R) which uploads or updates a directory tree on server. Mirror can also synchronize directories between two remote servers, using FXP if available.

There is command #96;at' to launch a job at specified time in be Seen as a to the Advancement Rights in the Period 1865- current context, command #96;queue' to queue commands for sequential execution for Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay current server, and much more. On startup, lftp executes /etc/lftp.conf and then. /.lftp/rc . You can place aliases and #96;set' commands there. Some people prefer to see full protocol debug, use #96;debug' to turn the debug on. Use #96;debug 3' to see only greeting messages and error messages. lftp has a number of settable variables. Ethical Principles In Psychology? You can use #96;set -a' to see all variables and Cycles and Proliferation Essay their values or #96;set -d' to see list of defaults.

Variable names can be abbreviated and prefix can be omitted unless the ethical in psychology, rest becomes ambiguous. If lftp was compiled with ssl support, then it includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in Cell the OpenSSL Toolkit. ( To do a directory listing of the local host. Define or undefine alias name . If value is system omitted, the alias is Cell Essay undefined, else it takes the value value . Thomas Jefferson Accomplishments? If no argument is given the current aliases are listed. Sets the user to and Proliferation Essay, anonymous. This is the default. Wait until the given time and the monetary system execute given (optional) command. The bookmark command controls bookmarks.

The cache command controls local memory cache. The following subcommands are recognized: cat outputs the remote file(s) to stdout. Cycles And Proliferation? (See also more , zcat and zmore ) Change current remote directory. The previous remote directory is stored as #96;-'. You can do #96;cd -' to change the directory back. The previous directory for each site is To What Can Violence as a Civil Period 1965 also stored on disk, so you can do #96;open site; cd -' even after lftp restart. Change permission mask on Cell remote files. The mode must be an octal number. Close idle connections. By default only ethical with the Cell Essay, current server, use -a to close all idle connections. execute given command ignoring aliases. Switch debugging to To What as a Catalyst to the Advancement of African Civil Rights in the 1865-, level or turn it off.

Use -o to redirect the debug output to Cell Essay, a file. guess what it does. exit will exit from lftp or move to guernica meaning, background if jobs are active. If no jobs are active, code is passed to operating system as lftp's termination status. If code is omitted, the Cell Cycles, exit code of last command is used. #96;exit bg' forces moving to background when cmd:move-background is false. List files in the directory (current directory by default) recursively. This can help with servers lacking ls -R support.

You can redirect output of this command. Obsolete. Use one of the following instead: or other combinations to get FXP transfer (directly between two ftp servers). lftp would fallback to plain copy (via client) if FXP transfer cannot be initiated or ftp:use-fxp is false. Retrieve the remote file rfile and store it as the local file lfile . If -o is thomas major accomplishments omitted, the file is Cycles and Proliferation stored to local file named as base name of system, rfile . You can get multiple files by specifying multiple instances of rfile [and -o lfile ]. Does not expand wildcards, use mget for that. Glob given patterns containing metacharacters and pass result to given command. Cell Essay? E.g. #96;#96;glob echo *''.

Print help for cmd or if no cmd was specified print a list of available commands. List running jobs. -v means verbose, several -v can be specified. Delete specified job with job_no or all jobs. (For job_no see jobs ) Change current local directory ldir . The previous local directory is stored as #96;-'. You can do #96;lcd -' to change the Can Violence Advancement of African American in the Period 1965, directory back. Print current working directory on local machine. List remote files. You can redirect output of this command to file or via pipe to external command.

By default, ls output is cached, to see new listing use rels or cache flush. Gets selected files with expanded wildcards. Mirror specified source directory to local target directory. Cell Cycles? If target directory ends with a slash, the source base name is appended to target directory name. Source and/or target can be URLs pointing to directories. When using -R, the first directory is local and the second is remote. If the second directory is ethical principles in psychology omitted, base name of first directory is used. If both directories are omitted, current local and remote directories are used. RX is an extended regular expression, just like in egrep (1). Include and exclude options can be specified multiple times.

It means that a file or directory would be mirrored if it matches an include and does not match to excludes after the include, or does not match anything and the first check is exclude. Directories are matched with a slash appended. Note that when -R is used (reverse mirror), symbolic links are not created on server, because ftp protocol cannot do it. To upload files the links refer to, use #96;mirror -RL' command (treat symbolic links as files). Verbosity level can be selected using --verbose#61;level option or by several -v options, e.g. -vvv. Cell And Proliferation? Levels are: --only-newer turns off file size comparision and uploads/downloads only newer files even if size is standards therapeutic relationships different. By default older files are downloaded/uploaded if size is different.

You can mirror between two servers if you specify URLs instead of Essay, directories. FXP is used automatically for transfers between ftp servers, if possible. Make remote directories. If -p is used, make all components of paths. Load given module using dlopen(3) function. If module name does not contain a slash, it is searched in directories specified by module:path variable. Arguments are passed to the monetary system, module_init function. See README.modules for technical details.

Upload files with wildcard expansion. By default it uses the Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay, base name of local name as remote one. This can be changed by #96;-d' option. Same as #96;glob rm'. Removes specified file(s) with wildcard expansion. List remote file names. Select an ftp server. Gets the specified file using several connections.

This can speed up transfer, but loads the net heavily impacting other users. Use only if you really have to ethical in psychology, transfer the file ASAP, or some other user may go mad :) Options: Upload lfile with remote name rfile . If -o omitted, the and Proliferation Essay, base name of lfile is used as remote name. Does not expand wildcards, use mput for that. Print current remote directory.

Add the To What Can Violence be Seen Catalyst Advancement Rights in the, given command to queue for sequential execution. Each site has its own queue. #96;-n' adds the command before the given item in Cycles Essay the queue. Don't try to the monetary, queue #96;cd' or #96;lcd' commands, it may confuse lftp. Instead do the cd/lcd before #96;queue' command, and it will remember the place in which the Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay, command is to be done. It is the monetary possible to queue up an already running job by #96;queue wait', but the job will continue execution even if it is not the first in queue. #96;queue stop' will stop the queue, it will not execute any new commands, but already running jobs will continue to Cell Cycles, run. You can use #96;queue stop' to create an principles empty stopped queue. #96;queue start' will resume queue execution. When you exit lftp, it will start all stopped queues automatically. #96;queue' with no arguments will either create a stopped queue or print queue status. Delete one or more items from the queue. If no argument is Cell Essay given, the last entry in the queue is deleted.

Move the given items before the given queue index, or to cno practice therapeutic client relationships, the end if no destination is given. For FTP - send the Cycles and Proliferation, command uninterpreted. Use with caution - it can lead to unknown remote state and thus will cause reconnect. Guernica? You cannot be sure that any change of Cell and Proliferation Essay, remote state because of quoted command is solid - it can be reset by reconnect at any time. For HTTP - specific to HTTP action.

Syntax: #96;#96;quote []''. Command may be #96;#96;set-cookie'' or #96;#96;post''. For FISH - send the command uninterpreted. This can be used to execute arbitrary commands on meaning server. The command must not take input or print ### at new line beginning. If it does, the protocol will become out of Cell Cycles and Proliferation, sync.

Same as #96;ls', but ignores the cache. Same as #96;nlist', but ignores the cache. Repeat the command. Aoa Controversy? Between the Cell Cycles Essay, commands a delay inserted, by default 1 second. In Psychology? Example: Remove remote files. Does not expand wildcards, use mrm for that. -r is for recursive directory remove. Be careful, if something goes wrong you can lose files. -f supress error messages. Remove remote directories.

List cached sessions or switch to Cell Cycles, specified session. Set variable to aoa controversy, given value. If the value is omitted, unset the variable. Cycles Essay? Variable name has format #96;#96;name/closure'', where closure can specify exact application of the setting. Ethical In Psychology? See below for details. If set is called with no variable then only altered settings are listed. It can be changed by Cycles and Proliferation, options: Execute site command site_cmd and output the result.

You can redirect its output. Sleep given time interval and exit. Interval is in seconds by default, but can be suffixed with 'm', 'h', 'd' for minutes, hours and system days respectively. See also at . Select specified slot or list all slots allocated. A slot is a connection to a server, somewhat like a virtual console. You can create multiple slots connected to different servers and switch between them. You can also use slot:name as a pseudo-URL evaluating to Cycles, that slot location. Default readline binding allows quick switching between slots named 0-9 using Meta-0 - Meta-9 keys (often you can use Alt instead of picasso guernica meaning, Meta). Execute commands recorded in file file . Stop lftp process. Note that transfers will be also stopped until you continue the process with shell's fg or bg commands.

Use specified info for remote login. Cell? If you specify an URL with user name, the system, entered password will be cached so that futute URL references can use it. Wait for specified job to terminate. If jobno is omitted, wait for last backgrounded job. #96;wait all' waits for all jobs termination. Same as cat, but filter each file through zcat. (See also cat , more and zmore ) Same as more, but filter each file through zcat. (See also cat , zcat and more ) On startup, lftp executes.

/.lftp/rc . Cycles? You can place aliases and #96;set' commands there. Some people prefer to see full protocol debug, use #96;debug' to turn the thomas jefferson major accomplishments, debug on. There is also a system-wide startup file in /etc/lftp.conf . It can be in Cycles Essay different directory, see FILES section. lftp has the following settable variables (you can also use #96;set -a' to major accomplishments, see all variables and their values): save plain text passwords in. /.lftp/bookmarks on #96;bookmark add' command. Off by default. the commands in string are executed before lftp exits. enables csh-like history expansion. The value is used when #96;open' is used with just host name without protocol.

Default is #96;ftp'. if true, exit when an Cycles and Proliferation Essay unconditional (without || and at begin) command fails. time of command execution, which is considered as #96;long' and a beep is picasso guernica done before next prompt. 0 means off. default ls argument.

when false, lftp refuses to Cell and Proliferation Essay, go to background when exiting. Ethical Principles? To force it, use #96;exit bg'. The prompt. lftp recognizes the following backslash-escaped special characters that are decoded as follows: insert #64; if current user is Cell Cycles not default. an ASCII bell character (07) an ASCII escape character (033) the hostname you are connected to. the name of the client (lftp) current slot name. the username of the user you are logged in as. the URL of the remote site (e.g., the current working directory at ethical in psychology the remote site. the base name of the current working directory at the remote site. the character corresponding to the octal number nnn. skips next character if previous substitution was empty.

begin a sequence of non-printing characters, which could be used to embed a terminal control sequence into Cell Cycles Essay, the prompt. end a sequence of non-printing characters. a boolean to control whether or not lftp uses remote completion. if true, lftp resolves host name immediately in #96;open' command. It is also possible to skip the check for a single #96;open' command if `' is given, or if ^Z is pressed during the ethical in psychology, check. if true, lftp checks the Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay, path given in the monetary system #96;cd' command. It is also possible to skip the check for a single #96;cd' command if `' is given, or if ^Z is Cycles and Proliferation pressed during the check. Examples: query for SRV records and use them before gethostbyname. To What Extent Be Seen Catalyst American In The Period 1865- 1965? The SRV records are only used if port is not explicitly specified.

See RFC2052 for details. enable DNS cache. If it is off, lftp resolves host name each time it reconnects. dns:cache-expire (time interval) time to live for DNS cache entries. It has format #43;, e.g. 1d12h30m5s or just 36h. To disable expiration, set it to Cycles and Proliferation Essay, #96;inf' or #96;never'. maximum number of DNS cache entries. limit the time for meaning DNS queries.

If DNS server is unavailable too long, lftp will fail to resolve a given host name. 0 means unlimited, the default. dns:order (list of protocol names) sets the order of Cell and Proliferation, DNS queries. Default is #96;#96;inet inet6'' which means first look up address in To What as a American Civil 1965 inet family, then inet6 and Cell Essay use first matched. if true, lftp will fork before resolving host address. Default is true. use specified shell on server side.

Default is /bin/sh. The Monetary System? On some systems, /bin/sh exits when doing cd to and Proliferation, a non-existent directory. lftp can handle that but it has to reconnect. Set it to /bin/bash for as a Advancement of African Civil Rights such systems if bash is installed. Send this string in ACCT command after login. The result is Cycles and Proliferation ignored. The closure for this setting has format user#64;host . sets the password used for anonymous ftp access authentication. Default is -name#64;, where name is the username of the user running the program. sets the user name used for anonymous ftp access authentication.

Default is thomas major anonymous. if first server message metches this regex, turn on and Proliferation Essay sync mode for that host. bind data socket to the interface of control connection (in passive mode). Default is true, exception is the loopback interface. if true, lftp will try to correct address returned by server for PASV command in the monetary system case when server address is in public network and PASV returns an address from a private network.

In this case lftp would substitute server address instead of the one returned by PASV command, port number would not be changed. Default is true. if true, lftp will try to set up source ftp server in Cycles passive mode first, otherwise destination one. If first attempt fails, lftp tries to set them up the other way. If the cno practice standards therapeutic client relationships, other disposition fails too, lftp falls back to plain copy. Essay? See also ftp:use-fxp. Initial directory. Default is thomas accomplishments empty string which means auto. Set this to #96;/' if you don't like the look of %2F in ftp URLs. The closure for Cell Cycles this setting has format user#64;host . sets options which are always appended to LIST command. It can be useful to set this to #96;-a' if server does not show dot (hidden) files by default.

Default is empty. delay between NOOP commands when downloading tail of a file. Extent As A Catalyst To The Of African American Civil 1865-? This is useful for Cycles and Proliferation ftp servers which send Transfer complete message before flushing data transfer. In such cases NOOP commands can prevent connection timeout. sets passive ftp mode. This can be useful if you are behind a firewall or a dumb masquerading router.

allowed port range for active mode. Therapeutic Nurse Client Relationships? Format is min-max, or #96;full' or #96;any' to indicate any port. Default is #96;full'. specifies ftp proxy to use. Cell Cycles And Proliferation Essay? To disable proxy set this to empty string.

Note that it is an ftp proxy which uses ftp protocol, not ftp over http. Default value is taken from To What Can Violence be Seen Catalyst to the American Rights 1865- environment variable ftp_proxy if it starts with #96;#96;ftp://''. If your ftp proxy requires authentication, specify user name and Cycles and Proliferation password in the URL. If ftp:proxy starts with http://, hftp (ftp over http proxy) is used instead of ftp automatically. allow usage of ethical in psychology, REST command before LIST command. This might be useful for large directories, but some ftp servers silently ignore REST before LIST.

if false, lftp will not try to use REST before STOR. This can be useful for some buggy servers which corrupt (fill with zeros) the file if REST followed by STOR is used. Retry on server reply 530 for PASS command if text matches this regular expression. This setting should be useful to distinguish between overloaded server (temporary condition) and Cell Essay incorrect password (permanent condition). Additional regular expression for To What Extent Can Violence be Seen as a American Rights in the Period anonymous login, like ftp:retry-530. Send this string in SITE GROUP command after login. The result is Cycles Essay ignored.

The closure for this setting has format user#64;host . allow sending skey/opie reply if server appears to support it. On by default. do not send plain text password over the network, use skey/opie instead. Principles In Psychology? If skey/opie is not available, assume failed login. Off by default. if true, try to negotiate SSL connection with ftp server for Cell Essay non-anonymous access. Default is true. This setting is only available if lftp was compiled with openssl. if trus, refuse to send password in clear when server does not support SSL.

Default is false. This setting is only available if lftp was compiled with openssl. if true, request ssl connection for data transfers. This is cpu-intensive but provides privacy. Default is principles false. This setting is only available if lftp was compiled with openssl.

interval between STAT commands. Default is 1. if true, lftp will send one command at a time and wait for response. Cycles And Proliferation? This might be useful if you are using a buggy ftp server or router. When it is off, lftp sends a pack of commands and waits for responses - it speeds up operation when round trip time is significant. Unfortunately it does not work with all ftp servers and some routers have troubles with it, so it is on by default. Assume this timezone for time in listings returned by LIST command. This setting can be GMT offset [#43;|-]HH[:MM[:SS]] or any valid TZ value (e.g.

Europe/Moscow or MSK-3MSD,M3.5.0,M10.5.0/3). The default is GMT. Set it to an empty value to assume local timezone specified by environment variable TZ. if false, lftp does not send ABOR command but closes data connection immediately. if true, lftp will try to set up direct connection between two ftp servers.

when true, lftp sends #96;SITE IDLE' command with net:idle argument. Default is in psychology false. if true, lftp sends STAT command in FXP mode transfer to Cell Cycles, know how much data has been transferred. See also ftp:stat-interval. Default is true. if true, lftp sends QUIT before disconnecting from ftp server. Default is true.

verify that data connection comes from the network address of control connection peer. This can possibly prevent data connection spoofing which can lead to data corruption. Aoa Controversy? Unfortunately, this can fail for sertain ftp servers with several network interfaces, when they do not set outgoing address on data socket, so it is disabled by default. verify that data connection has port 20 (ftp-data) on Cycles Essay its remote end. Guernica Meaning? This can possibly prevent data connection spoofing by users of Cell and Proliferation, remote host. Unfortunately, too many windows and even unix ftp servers forget to set proper port on ethical in psychology data connection, thus this check is Cell Cycles off by default. disconnect after closing data connection. This can be useful for aoa controversy totally broken ftp servers. Default is Cell Cycles Essay false. allow server/proxy side caching for ftp-over-http protocol.

specifies http proxy for ftp-over-http protocol (hftp). The protocol hftp cannot work without a http proxy, obviously. Default value is taken from environment variable ftp_proxy if it starts with #96;#96;http://'', otherwise from environment variable http_proxy . If your ftp proxy requires authentication, specify user name and password in picasso guernica meaning the URL. if set to off, lftp will send password as part of URL to the proxy. This may be required for some proxies (e.g. M-soft). Default is on, and lftp will send password as part of Cycles and Proliferation, Authorization header. if set to off, lftp will try to use #96;GET' instead of #96;HEAD' for hftp protocol. While this is slower, it may allow lftp to work with some proxies which don't understand or mishandle #96;#96;HEADftp://'' requests.

If set to off, lftp won't try to append #96;;type#61;' to ethical principles in psychology, URLs passed to proxy. Cell Cycles And Proliferation Essay? Some broken proxies don't handle it correctly. Default is on. http:accept, http:accept-charset, http:accept-language (string) specify corresponding HTTP request headers. allow server/proxy side caching. send this cookie to server. A closure is useful here: set cookie/ param#61;value specifies value of Content-Type http request header for POST method. Meaning? Default is #96;#96;application/x-www-form-urlencoded''.

specifies http proxy. Cell Cycles And Proliferation Essay? It is Extent be Seen Catalyst of African Civil Rights Period used when lftp works over http protocol. Default value is taken from Cell and Proliferation Essay environment variable http_proxy . If your proxy requires authentication, specify user name and password in the URL. specifies which http method to use on put. specifies value of Content-Type http request header for PUT method. specifies value for Extent Can Violence be Seen as a to the of African American Rights 1865- 1965 Referer http request header. Single dot #96;.' expands to current directory URL. Default is #96;.'. Set to empty string to disable Referer header. if true, lftp modifies http:cookie variables when Set-Cookie header is received. the string lftp sends in Cell Cycles Essay User-Agent header of HTTP request.

specifies https proxy. Default value is taken from environment variable https_proxy . specifies default exclusion pattern. You can override it by --include option. mirror:order (list of patterns) specifies order of file transfers. E.g. setting this to *.sfv *.sum makes mirror to transfer files matching *.sfv first, then ones matching *.sum and then all other files. As A Catalyst To The Advancement American Civil Rights In The 1965? To process directories after other files, add */ to end of pattern list. if true, mirror will start processing of several directories in parallel when it is in parallel mode.

Otherwise, it will transfer files from a single directory before moving to other directories. specifies number of parallel transfers mirror is allowed to start. Cycles And Proliferation? Default is picasso guernica 1. You can override it with --parallel option. colon separated list of directories to look for modules. Can be initialized by environment variable LFTP_MODULE_PATH. Default is Cell Essay #96;PKGLIBDIR/VERSION:PKGLIBDIR'.

maximum number of concurrent connections to the same site. 0 means unlimited. if true, foreground connections have priority over background ones and can interrupt background transfers to aoa controversy, complete a foreground operation. disconnect from server after that number of idle seconds. net:limit-rate (bytes per second) limit transfer rate on data connection. 0 means unlimited. You can specify two numbers separated by Cycles Essay, colon to system, limit download and upload rate separately.

limit accumulating of unused limit-rate. And Proliferation? 0 means unlimited. net:limit-total-rate (bytes per second) limit transfer rate of all connections in sum. 0 means unlimited. You can specify two numbers separated by colon to limit download and upload rate separately. Note that sockets have receive buffers on them, this can lead to Extent be Seen as a Catalyst to the Advancement American Civil Rights in the, network link load higher than this rate limit just after transfer beginning. Cell? You can try to set net:socket-buffer to relatively small value to avoid this. limit accumulating of the monetary, unused limit-total-rate. 0 means unlimited.

the maximum number of sequential retries of an operation without success. 0 means unlimited. contains comma separated list of domains for which proxy should not be used. Default is taken from environment variable no_proxy . ignore this number of Cell Cycles and Proliferation, hard errors. Useful to aoa controversy, login to buggy ftp servers which reply 5xx when there is Cell Cycles Essay too many users. sets the base minimal time between reconnects. Actual interval depends on net:reconnect-interval-multiplier and principles in psychology number of attempts to perform an operation. sets maximum reconnect interval. When current interval after multiplication by net:reconnect-interval-multiplier reachs this value (or exceeds it), it is reset back to Cell Essay, net:reconnect-interval-base. net:reconnect-interval-multiplier (real number) sets multiplier by which base interval is multiplied each time new attempt to perform an operation fails.

When the interval reachs maximum, it is reset to base value. See net:reconnect-interval-base and net:reconnect-interval-max. use given size for SO_SNDBUF and system SO_RCVBUF socket options. 0 means system default. use given size for TCP_MAXSEG socket option. Not all operating systems support this option, but linux does. sets the Cell and Proliferation, network protocol timeout. use specified file as Certificate Authority certificate.

use specified directory as Certificate Authority certificate repository. use specified file as Certificate Revocation List certificate. ssl:crl-path (path to directory) use specified directory as Certificate Revocation List certificate repository. use specified file as your private key. use specified file as your certificate.

if set to yes, then verify server's certificate to be signed by a known Certificate Authority and not be on Certificate Revocation List. if this setting is off, get commands will not overwrite existing files and generate an error instead. Default is jefferson major accomplishments on. the period over Cell and Proliferation Essay which wheighted average rate is in psychology calculated to produce ETA. show terse ETA (only high order parts). Default is true. maximum number of Cell Cycles Essay, redirections. In Psychology? This can be useful for downloading over HTTP. Default is 0, which prohibits redirections.

the period over which wheighted average rate is calculated to be shown. The name of variables can be abbreviated unless it becomes ambiguous. The prefix before #96;:' can be omitted too. You can set one variable several times for different closures, and Essay thus you can get particular settings for a particular state. Aoa Controversy? The closure is to be specified after variable name separated with slash #96;/'.

The closure for Cell Cycles Essay #96;dns:', #96;net:', #96;ftp:', #96;http:', #96;hftp:' domain variables is currently just the host name as you specify it in the monetary system the #96;open' command (with some exceptions where closure is meaningless, e.g. dns:cache-size). For some #96;cmd:' domain variables the closure is Cell Cycles current URL without path. For other variables, it is not currently used. See examples in the sample lftp.conf . Certain commands and settings take a time interval parameter. It has the aoa controversy, format Nx[Nx. ], where N is time amount and x is time unit: d - days, h - hours, m - minutes, s - seconds. Default unit is second. E.g. 5h30m. Also the interval can be #96;infinity', #96;inf', #96;never', #96;forever' - it means infinite interval.

E.g. #96;sleep forever' or #96;set dns:cache-expire never'. Lftp can speed up ftp operations by sending several commands at once and Cell Cycles Essay then checking all the responses. Cno Practice Nurse Client Relationships? See ftp:sync-mode variable. Sometimes this does not work, thus synchronous mode is the default. You can try to turn synchronous mode off and see if it works for Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay you. It is known that some network software dealing with address translation works incorrectly in the case of several FTP commands in one network packet. RFC959 says: #96;#96;The user-process sending another command before the completion reply would be in violation of protocol, but server-FTP processes should queue any commands that arrive while a preceding command is in progress''. Also, RFC1123 says: #96;#96;Implementors MUST NOT assume any correspondence between READ boundaries on ethical in psychology the control connection and Cell Cycles the Telnet EOL sequences (CR LF).'' and #96;#96;a single READ from the control connection may include more than one FTP command''. So it must be safe to cno practice client relationships, send several commands at once, which speeds up operation a lot and Cell and Proliferation Essay seems to work with all Unix and VMS based ftp servers.

Unfortunately, windows based servers often cannot handle several commands in one packet, and so cannot handle some broken routers. Execute given commands and don't exit. Use the given port to connect. Execute commands in the file and exit. Execute the given commands and exit. RFC854 (telnet), RFC959 (ftp), RFC1123, RFC1945 (http/1.0), RFC2052 (SRV RR), RFC2068 (http/1.1), RFC2228 (ftp security extensions), RFC2428 (ftp/ipv6). (ftp over ssl).

Important: Use the principles in psychology, man command ( % man ) to see how a command is used on your particular computer.

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All About Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Solar Charge Controllers. This section covers the theory and operation of Maximum Power Point Tracking as used in solar electric charge controllers. A MPPT, or maximum power point tracker is an electronic DC to DC converter that optimizes the match between the solar array (PV panels), and the battery bank or utility grid. To put it simply, they convert a higher voltage DC output from solar panels (and a few wind generators) down to the lower voltage needed to charge batteries. (These are sometimes called power point trackers for short - not to Cell, be confused with PANEL trackers, which are a solar panel mount that follows, or tracks, the picasso guernica meaning sun). Solar cells are neat things. Unfortunately, they are not very smart.

Neither are batteries - in fact batteries are downright stupid. Most PV panels are built to Cycles, put out ethical principles in psychology, a nominal 12 volts. The catch is nominal. In actual fact, almost all 12 volt solar panels are designed to put out from 16 to 18 volts. The problem is that a nominal 12 volt battery is pretty close to Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay, an actual 12 volts - 10.5 to ethical in psychology, 12.7 volts, depending on state of charge. Under charge, most batteries want from around 13.2 to 14.4 volts to fully charge - quite a bit different than what most panels are designed to put out. OK, so now we have this neat 130 watt solar panel. Catch #1 is that it is rated at 130 watts at Cell Essay, a particular voltage and current. The Kyocera KC-130 is rated at 7.39 amps at 17.6 volts. (7.39 amps times 17.6 volts = 130 watts).

Why 130 Watts does NOT equal 130 watts. So what happens when you hook up this 130 watt panel to major accomplishments, your battery through a regular charge controller? Unfortunately, what happens is not 130 watts. Cycles Essay. Your panel puts out 7.4 amps. Cno Practice Standards Therapeutic Nurse Relationships. Your battery is setting at 12 volts under charge: 7.4 amps times 12 volts = 88.8 watts. You lost over 41 watts - but you paid for 130. That 41 watts is not going anywhere, it just is not being produced because there is a poor match between the panel and the battery. With a very low battery, say 10.5 volts, it's even worse - you could be losing as much as 35% (11 volts x 7.4 amps = 81.4 watts. You lost about 48 watts. And Proliferation Essay. One solution you might think of - why not just make panels so that they put out meaning, 14 volts or so to match the Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay battery? Catch #22a is that the aoa controversy panel is rated at 130 watts at full sunlight at a particular temperature (STC - or standard test conditions).

If temperature of the Essay solar panel is the monetary high, you don't get 17.4 volts. At the temperatures seen in many hot climate areas, you might get under 16 volts. If you started with a 15 volt panel (like some of the so-called self regulating panels), you are in trouble, as you won't have enough voltage to put a charge into Cell Essay the battery. Solar panels have to have enough leeway built in to perform under the To What Extent Can Violence be Seen as a Catalyst to the Civil Rights Period 1965 worst of conditions. Cell And Proliferation. The panel will just sit there looking dumb, and your batteries will get even stupider than usual. Nobody likes a stupid battery.

What is Maximum Power Point Tracking? There is some confusion about the term tracking: Panel tracking - this is where the panels are on principles a mount that follows the sun. The most common are the Zomeworks. These optimize output by following the sun across the sky for maximum sunlight. Cycles Essay. These typically give you about a 15% increase in winter and up to system, a 35% increase in Cycles and Proliferation Essay summer. This is just the opposite of the seasonal variation for MPPT controllers. Since panel temperatures are much lower in winter, they put out therapeutic, more power. And winter is usually when you need the most power from your solar panels due to shorter days. Maximum Power Point Tracking is electronic tracking - usually digital. The charge controller looks at the output of the panels, and compares it to the battery voltage.

It then figures out Cycles, what is the best power that the panel can put out to charge the battery. Ethical In Psychology. It takes this and converts it to best voltage to get maximum AMPS into Cell and Proliferation the battery. (Remember, it is in psychology Amps into the battery that counts). Cell Cycles. Most modern MPPT's are around 93-97% efficient in the conversion. You typically get a 20 to 45% power gain in winter and 10-15% in summer. Actual gain can vary widely depending weather, temperature, battery state of in psychology, charge, and other factors. Grid tie systems are becoming more popular as the Cell Cycles price of standards therapeutic nurse client relationships, solar drops and electric rates go up. Cell Essay. There are several brands of grid-tie only system, (that is, no battery) inverters available. All of these have built in MPPT. Efficiency is Cycles around 94% to thomas accomplishments, 97% for the MPPT conversion on Cell Cycles and Proliferation those.

How Maximum Power Point Tracking works. Here is cno practice where the optimization, or maximum power point tracking comes in. Assume your battery is low, at 12 volts. Cell And Proliferation. A MPPT takes that 17.6 volts at 7.4 amps and converts it down, so that what the battery gets is now 10.8 amps at 12 volts. Now you still have almost 130 watts, and everyone is happy. In Psychology. Ideally, for 100% power conversion you would get around 11.3 amps at 11.5 volts, but you have to feed the battery a higher voltage to force the amps in. And this is a simplified explanation - in actual fact the Cell and Proliferation output of the meaning MPPT charge controller might vary continually to adjust for getting the maximum amps into the battery. On the Cell and Proliferation Essay left is a screen shot from the Maui Solar Software PV-Design Pro computer program (click on picture for picasso meaning full size image). If you look at Cell Cycles and Proliferation, the green line, you will see that it has a sharp peak at as a of African Civil Rights in the Period 1865-, the upper right - that represents the maximum power point. What an MPPT controller does is look for Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay that exact point, then does the voltage/current conversion to principles in psychology, change it to exactly what the battery needs.

In real life, that peak moves around continuously with changes in light conditions and weather. A MPPT tracks the maximum power point, which is going to be different from the STC (Standard Test Conditions) rating under almost all situations. Cell Essay. Under very cold conditions a 120 watt panel is aoa controversy actually capable of putting over 130+ watts because the power output goes up as panel temperature goes down - but if you don't have some way of Cycles, tracking that power point, you are going to lose it. On the other hand under very hot conditions, the power drops - you lose power as the temperature goes up. Cno Practice Client Relationships. That is why you get less gain in Cell Cycles and Proliferation summer. MPPT's are most effective under these conditions: Winter, and/or cloudy or hazy days - when the extra power is needed the the monetary system most. Cold weather - solar panels work better at cold temperatures, but without a MPPT you are losing most of that.

Cold weather is and Proliferation most likely in winter - the time when sun hours are low and you need the nurse client power to recharge batteries the most. Low battery charge - the lower the state of charge in your battery, the more current a MPPT puts into them - another time when the extra power is needed the most. You can have both of these conditions at the same time. Long wire runs - If you are charging a 12 volt battery, and your panels are 100 feet away, the Cycles Essay voltage drop and To What as a Catalyst Advancement Civil in the 1965 power loss can be considerable unless you use very large wire. That can be very expensive. But if you have four 12 volt panels wired in series for Essay 48 volts, the power loss is much less, and the controller will convert that high voltage to 12 volts at the battery.

That also means that if you have a high voltage panel setup feeding the controller, you can use much smaller wire. Ok, so now back to the original question - What is picasso a MPPT? How a Maximum Power Point Tracker Works: The Power point tracker is a high frequency DC to DC converter. They take the Cycles Essay DC input from the solar panels, change it to high frequency AC, and convert it back down to a different DC voltage and current to exactly match the panels to the batteries. MPPT's operate at very high audio frequencies, usually in To What Can Violence to the Advancement of African Rights in the Period 1865- the 20-80 kHz range. The advantage of high frequency circuits is that they can be designed with very high efficiency transformers and small components. The design of Cell, high frequency circuits can be very tricky because the the monetary problems with portions of the circuit broadcasting just like a radio transmitter and causing radio and TV interference. Noise isolation and suppression becomes very important.

There are a few non-digital (that is, linear) MPPT's charge controls around. These are much easier and cheaper to build and design than the digital ones. They do improve efficiency somewhat, but overall the efficiency can vary a lot - and we have seen a few lose their tracking point and Essay actually get worse. That can happen occasionally if a cloud passed over the panel - the linear circuit searches for the next best point, but then gets too far out on the deep end to find it again when the sun comes out. Thankfully, not many of these around any more. The power point tracker (and all DC to DC converters) operates by taking the DC input current, changing it to AC, running through a transformer (usually a toroid, a doughnut looking transformer), and then rectifying it back to system, DC, followed by the output regulator. In most DC to DC converters, this is strictly an electronic process - no real smarts are involved except for some regulation of the output voltage. Charge controllers for solar panels need a lot more smarts as light and temperature conditions vary continuously all day long, and and Proliferation battery voltage changes.

All recent models of digital MPPT controllers available are microprocessor controlled. They know when to adjust the output that it is being sent to the battery, and they actually shut down for a few microseconds and look at the solar panel and battery and the monetary make any needed adjustments. Although not really new (the Australian company AERL had some as early as 1985), it has been only recently that electronic microprocessors have become cheap enough to be cost effective in smaller systems (less than 1 KW of panel). MPPT charge controls are now manufactured by several companies, such as Outback Power, Xantrex XW-SCC, Blue Sky Energy, Apollo Solar, Midnite Solar, Morningstar and a few others. And Proliferation. Learning Center General Solar Information Batteries Charging Deep Cycle Battery FAQ Glossary of Battery Terms What Types of Batteries are Used in Solar Electric Systems?

Deep Cycle Battery Types Comparisons What is AGM Battery Technology? Solar Charge Controller Basics What is Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Inverters Mobile, Marine, RV Wiring Cabling Manufacturers Brands Rebates Tax Credits Water Pumping. Find out more in our Learning Center. Subscribe to our newsletter and stay up-to-date on all the latest news and promotions.

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competence essay Copyright 2001 Eric S. Raymond. As editor of the Jargon File and Cell Cycles Essay, author of a few other well-known documents of similar nature, I often get email requests from enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) how can I learn to aoa controversy be a wizardly hacker?. Back in Cycles Essay, 1996 I noticed that there didn't seem to be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one. A lot of aoa controversy hackers now consider it definitive, and I suppose that means it is. Still, I don't claim to be the Cell and Proliferation, exclusive authority on ethical principles this topic; if you don't like what you read here, write your own. If you are reading a snapshot of this document offline, the current version lives at Cell and Proliferation, Note: there is picasso guernica a list of Cell Cycles Frequently Asked Questions at jefferson major, the end of this document. Essay? Please read thesetwicebefore mailing me any questions about this document. The five-dots-in-nine-squares diagram that decorates this document is thomas major called a glider . It is a simple pattern with some surprising properties in a mathematical simulation called Life that has fascinated hackers for many years. I think it makes a good visual emblem for what hackers are like abstract, at first a bit mysterious-seeming, but a gateway to a whole world with an Cycles and Proliferation Essay, intricate logic of its own.

Read more about the glider emblem here. If you find this document valuable, please support me on Patreon. System? And consider also supporting other hackers who have produced code that you use and Cell, value. Lots of small but continuing donations add up quickly, and can free the people who have given you gifts of their labor to create more value. The Jargon File contains a bunch of definitions of the term hacker, most having to do with technical adeptness and a delight in solving problems and overcoming limits. If you want to know how to picasso become a hacker, though, only two are really relevant. There is a community, a shared culture, of expert programmers and networking wizards that traces its history back through decades to the first time-sharing minicomputers and the earliest ARPAnet experiments.

The members of Cell Cycles Essay this culture originated the term hacker. Hackers built the Internet. Hackers made the in psychology, Unix operating system what it is today. Cell And Proliferation Essay? Hackers make the major, World Wide Web work. If you are part of this culture, if you have contributed to Cycles and Proliferation Essay it and other people in it know who you are and call you a hacker, you're a hacker. The hacker mind-set is thomas major not confined to this software-hacker culture. There are people who apply the hacker attitude to other things, like electronics or music actually, you can find it at the highest levels of any science or art. Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and may call them hackers too and some claim that the hacker nature is Cycles and Proliferation really independent of the particular medium the hacker works in.

But in the rest of jefferson major accomplishments this document we will focus on Cycles Essay the skills and aoa controversy, attitudes of software hackers, and the traditions of the Cell and Proliferation Essay, shared culture that originated the term hacker. There is another group of people who loudly call themselves hackers, but aren't. These are people (mainly adolescent males) who get a kick out of breaking into computers and phreaking the phone system. Real hackers call these people crackers and guernica, want nothing to do with them. Real hackers mostly think crackers are lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright, and object that being able to break security doesn't make you a hacker any more than being able to and Proliferation hotwire cars makes you an automotive engineer.

Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been fooled into using the picasso meaning, word hacker to describe crackers; this irritates real hackers no end. The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackers break them. If you want to be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to be a cracker, go read the alt.2600 newsgroup and get ready to do five to ten in the slammer after finding out Cell and Proliferation you aren't as smart as you think you are. And that's all I'm going to say about ethical in psychology, crackers. Hackers solve problems and build things, and Cell Cycles, they believe in freedom and voluntary mutual help. To be accepted as a hacker, you have to behave as though you have this kind of picasso guernica meaning attitude yourself. And to behave as though you have the attitude, you have to really believe the attitude.

But if you think of cultivating hacker attitudes as just a way to gain acceptance in the culture, you'll miss the point. Becoming the kind of person who believes these things is important for you for Cell Essay, helping you learn and keeping you motivated. As with all creative arts, the most effective way to become a master is to imitate the mind-set of masters not just intellectually but emotionally as well. Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it: To follow the path: look to the master, follow the master, walk with the master, see through the major accomplishments, master, become the master. So, if you want to be a hacker, repeat the following things until you believe them: 1. The world is Cycles full of fascinating problems waiting to therapeutic nurse be solved. Being a hacker is lots of fun, but it's a kind of fun that takes lots of effort. The effort takes motivation.

Successful athletes get their motivation from a kind of physical delight in making their bodies perform, in pushing themselves past their own physical limits. Similarly, to be a hacker you have to get a basic thrill from solving problems, sharpening your skills, and exercising your intelligence. If you aren't the kind of person that feels this way naturally, you'll need to become one in order to make it as a hacker. Otherwise you'll find your hacking energy is sapped by distractions like sex, money, and social approval. (You also have to develop a kind of faith in your own learning capacity a belief that even though you may not know all of what you need to solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of it and Cycles and Proliferation, learn from thomas jefferson accomplishments, that, you'll learn enough to solve the next piece and so on, until you're done.)

2. No problem should ever have to be solved twice. Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. They shouldn't be wasted on re-inventing the wheel when there are so many fascinating new problems waiting out Cell Cycles Essay there. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe that the thinking time of thomas major accomplishments other hackers is precious so much so that it's almost a moral duty for you to Cell Cycles share information, solve problems and then give the solutions away just so other hackers can solve new problems instead of having to perpetually re-address old ones. Note, however, that No problem should ever have to thomas jefferson be solved twice. does not imply that you have to consider all existing solutions sacred, or that there is only one right solution to any given problem. Often, we learn a lot about the Cell Cycles, problem that we didn't know before by studying the first cut at a solution. It's OK, and To What Extent Can Violence be Seen Catalyst Civil Rights, often necessary, to Cell decide that we can do better.

What's not OK is artificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers (like closed-source code) that prevent a good solution from being re-used and force people to re-invent wheels. (You don't have to believe that you're obligated to give all your creative product away, though the hackers that do are the ethical in psychology, ones that get most respect from other hackers. It's consistent with hacker values to sell enough of Cycles it to keep you in aoa controversy, food and rent and computers. It's fine to use your hacking skills to support a family or even get rich, as long as you don't forget your loyalty to your art and your fellow hackers while doing it.) Hackers (and creative people in general) should never be bored or have to Cycles and Proliferation drudge at stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they aren't doing what only they can do solve new problems. This wastefulness hurts everybody. Therefore boredom and drudgery are not just unpleasant but actually evil. To behave like a hacker, you have to the monetary believe this enough to Cell want to automate away the boring bits as much as possible, not just for yourself but for therapeutic nurse relationships, everybody else (especially other hackers). (There is one apparent exception to this.

Hackers will sometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to an observer as a mind-clearing exercise, or in Cycles Essay, order to acquire a skill or have some particular kind of jefferson major experience you can't have otherwise. But this is by choice nobody who can think should ever be forced into a situation that bores them.) Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. Anyone who can give you orders can stop you from solving whatever problem you're being fascinated by and, given the way authoritarian minds work, will generally find some appallingly stupid reason to do so. So the authoritarian attitude has to be fought wherever you find it, lest it smother you and Cycles and Proliferation, other hackers.

(This isn't the same as fighting all authority. Ethical Principles In Psychology? Children need to be guided and criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to accept some kinds of and Proliferation authority in order to get something he wants more than the time he spends following orders. But that's a limited, conscious bargain; the kind of aoa controversy personal surrender authoritarians want is not on offer.) Authoritarians thrive on censorship and Cell, secrecy. And they distrust voluntary cooperation and information-sharing they only aoa controversy, like cooperation that they control. So to behave like a hacker, you have to develop an instinctive hostility to Cell Cycles and Proliferation censorship, secrecy, and the use of principles in psychology force or deception to compel responsible adults. And you have to Cell Cycles and Proliferation be willing to act on guernica that belief.

5. Attitude is no substitute for competence. To be a hacker, you have to develop some of Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay these attitudes. But copping an attitude alone won't make you a hacker, any more than it will make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Becoming a hacker will take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work. Therefore, you have to learn to distrust attitude and respect competence of every kind. Hackers won't let posers waste their time, but they worship competence especially competence at hacking, but competence at anything is valued. Competence at demanding skills that few can master is especially good, and ethical principles in psychology, competence at and Proliferation, demanding skills that involve mental acuteness, craft, and concentration is best. If you revere competence, you'll enjoy developing it in cno practice standards nurse, yourself the hard work and dedication will become a kind of intense play rather than drudgery. That attitude is vital to becoming a hacker.

The hacker attitude is vital, but skills are even more vital. Attitude is and Proliferation no substitute for competence, and there's a certain basic toolkit of skills which you have to have before any hacker will dream of calling you one. This toolkit changes slowly over time as technology creates new skills and makes old ones obsolete. For example, it used to meaning include programming in Cell and Proliferation, machine language, and didn't until recently involve HTML. But right now it pretty clearly includes the standards therapeutic, following: This, of course, is the Essay, fundamental hacking skill. If you don't know any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python. It is cleanly designed, well documented, and relatively kind to beginners. Despite being a good first language, it is aoa controversy not just a toy; it is very powerful and flexible and well suited for large projects.

I have written a more detailed evaluation of Python. And Proliferation? Good tutorials are available at the Python web site; there's an excellent third-party one at Computer Science Circles. I used to recommend Java as a good language to To What Extent Can Violence as a Catalyst to the of African American Rights in the 1865- learn early, but this critique has changed my mind (search for The Pitfalls of Java as a First Programming Language within it). A hacker cannot, as they devastatingly put it approach problem-solving like a plumber in a hardware store ; you have to know what the components actually do . Now I think it is probably best to learn C and Lisp first, then Java. There is perhaps a more general point here. And Proliferation Essay? If a language does too much for you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for standards therapeutic nurse client relationships, production and a bad one for Cell, learning. It's not only languages that have this problem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Django may make it too easy to reach a superficial sort of understanding that will leave you without resources when you have to tackle a hard problem, or even just debug the solution to an easy one.

If you get into serious programming, you will have to learn C, the core language of Unix. C++ is very closely related to C; if you know one, learning the other will not be difficult. Neither language is a good one to major accomplishments try learning as your first, however. And, actually, the more you can avoid programming in C the more productive you will be. C is very efficient, and very sparing of your machine's resources. Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by requiring you to do a lot of low-level management of resources (like memory) by hand. All that low-level code is complex and bug-prone, and will soak up huge amounts of your time on debugging. And Proliferation Essay? With today's machines as powerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff it's smarter to use a language that uses the machine's time less efficiently, but your time much more efficiently.

Thus, Python. Other languages of particular importance to hackers include Perl and LISP. Perl is worth learning for practical reasons; it's very widely used for active web pages and system administration, so that even if you never write Perl you should learn to thomas jefferson major accomplishments read it. Cycles? Many people use Perl in the way I suggest you should use Python, to avoid C programming on jobs that don't require C's machine efficiency. You will need to be able to thomas major understand their code. LISP is worth learning for a different reason the profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it.

That experience will make you a better programmer for Cycles, the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. (You can get some beginning experience with LISP fairly easily by writing and modifying editing modes for the Emacs text editor, or Script-Fu plugins for the GIMP.) It's best, actually, to learn all five of Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and LISP. Besides being the guernica meaning, most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to programming, and each will educate you in valuable ways. But be aware that you won't reach the skill level of a hacker or even merely a programmer simply by accumulating languages you need to learn how to Cell Essay think about programming problems in a general way, independent of any one language. The Monetary? To be a real hacker, you need to get to the point where you can learn a new language in days by relating what's in Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay, the manual to standards therapeutic nurse client what you already know. This means you should learn several very different languages. I can't give complete instructions on and Proliferation Essay how to aoa controversy learn to program here it's a complex skill. But I can tell you that books and Cell and Proliferation, courses won't do it many, maybe most of the best hackers are self-taught. You can learn language features bits of knowledge from books, but the picasso, mind-set that makes that knowledge into living skill can be learned only by practice and apprenticeship.

What will do it is (a) reading code and (b) writing code . Peter Norvig, who is one of Google's top hackers and Cell and Proliferation, the co-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written an excellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years. Cno Practice Standards Therapeutic Nurse? His recipe for programming success is worth careful attention. Learning to program is like learning to write good natural language. The best way to do it is to read some stuff written by masters of the Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay, form, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a little more, read a lot more, write some more . and cno practice therapeutic, repeat until your writing begins to develop the kind of Cell and Proliferation Essay strength and economy you see in your models. I have had more to say about this learning process in How To Learn Hacking. It's a simple set of instructions, but not an easy one. Finding good code to read used to be hard, because there were few large programs available in source for fledgeling hackers to read and tinker with. This has changed dramatically; open-source software, programming tools, and operating systems (all built by hackers) are now widely available. Which brings me neatly to our next topic.

2. Get one of the open-source Unixes and thomas jefferson major accomplishments, learn to Cell and Proliferation use and the monetary system, run it. I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access to one. (Take a moment to appreciate how much that means. The hacker culture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive that individuals could not own them.) The single most important step any newbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy of Linux or one of the BSD-Unixes, install it on a personal machine, and run it. Yes, there are other operating systems in the world besides Unix. But they're distributed in binary you can't read the code, and you can't modify it.

Trying to learn to hack on Cycles a Microsoft Windows machine or under any other closed-source system is Can Violence be Seen as a Catalyst to the of African Rights 1865- like trying to learn to Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay dance while wearing a body cast. Under Mac OS X it's possible, but only part of the system is open source you're likely to hit a lot of walls, and you have to be careful not to develop the bad habit of ethical principles in psychology depending on Apple's proprietary code. If you concentrate on the Unix under the hood you can learn some useful things. Unix is the operating system of the Internet. Cell Cycles Essay? While you can learn to use the Internet without knowing Unix, you can't be an Internet hacker without understanding Unix. For this reason, the client relationships, hacker culture today is pretty strongly Unix-centered. (This wasn't always true, and Cell, some old-time hackers still aren't happy about it, but the symbiosis between Unix and the Internet has become strong enough that even Microsoft's muscle doesn't seem able to ethical principles seriously dent it.) So, bring up a Unix I like Linux myself but there are other ways (and yes, you can run both Linux and Cell Cycles, Microsoft Windows on aoa controversy the same machine). Learn it.

Run it. Tinker with it. Essay? Talk to the Internet with it. Read the code. Modify the code. You'll get better programming tools (including C, LISP, Python, and Perl) than any Microsoft operating system can dream of ethical hosting, you'll have fun, and Essay, you'll soak up more knowledge than you realize you're learning until you look back on it as a master hacker.

For more about learning Unix, see The Loginataka. You might also want to have a look at The Art Of Unix Programming. The blog Let's Go Larval! is a window on the learning process of a new Linux user that I think is guernica unusually lucid and helpful. Cycles And Proliferation? The post How I Learned Linux makes a good starting point. To get your hands on a Linux, see the thomas jefferson major, Linux Online! site; you can download from there or (better idea) find a local Linux user group to help you with installation.

During the first ten years of this HOWTO's life, I reported that from a new user's point of Cycles view, all Linux distributions are almost equivalent. Cno Practice Standards Nurse Client Relationships? But in 2006-2007, an actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu. While other distros have their own areas of strength, Ubuntu is Cycles and Proliferation Essay far and away the most accessible to jefferson Linux newbies. Beware, though, of the Cycles Essay, hideous and nigh-unusable Unity desktop interface that Ubuntu introduced as a default a few years later; the Xubuntu or Kubuntu variants are better. You can find BSD Unix help and resources at A good way to dip your toes in the water is to cno practice standards therapeutic nurse relationships boot up what Linux fans call a live CD, a distribution that runs entirely off a CD or USB stick without having to modify your hard disk. This may be slow, because CDs are slow, but it's a way to get a look at the possibilities without having to do anything drastic. I used to recommend against installing either Linux or BSD as a solo project if you're a newbie. Nowadays the installers have gotten good enough that doing it entirely on your own is Cell Cycles Essay possible, even for a newbie.

Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your local Linux user's group and asking for help. It can't hurt, and thomas, may smooth the process. 3. Learn how to use the World Wide Web and write HTML. Most of the things the hacker culture has built do their work out of sight, helping run factories and Cell and Proliferation, offices and To What Extent Can Violence be Seen as a Catalyst to the of African American in the Period 1865- 1965, universities without any obvious impact on how non-hackers live. The Web is the one big exception, the huge shiny hacker toy that even politicians admit has changed the world. For this reason alone (and a lot of Cell other good ones as well) you need to learn how to work the Web. This doesn't just mean learning how to drive a browser (anyone can do that), but learning how to write HTML, the Web's markup language. If you don't know how to program, writing HTML will teach you some mental habits that will help you learn. Aoa Controversy? So build a home page. But just having a home page isn't anywhere near good enough to make you a hacker.

The Web is Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay full of home pages. Aoa Controversy? Most of Essay them are pointless, zero-content sludge very snazzy-looking sludge, mind you, but sludge all the same (for more on this see The HTML Hell Page). To be worthwhile, your page must have content it must be interesting and/or useful to other hackers. To What Extent To The Of African In The Period? And that brings us to the next topic. 4. If you don't have functional English, learn it. As an American and Cell and Proliferation, native English-speaker myself, I have previously been reluctant to suggest this, lest it be taken as a sort of ethical principles in psychology cultural imperialism. But several native speakers of other languages have urged me to point out that English is the working language of the hacker culture and the Internet, and and Proliferation Essay, that you will need to know it to function in the hacker community. Back around 1991 I learned that many hackers who have English as a second language use it in technical discussions even when they share a birth tongue; it was reported to me at Extent be Seen as a to the Advancement of African Civil Rights in the Period 1965, the time that English has a richer technical vocabulary than any other language and is therefore simply a better tool for Cell Essay, the job.

For similar reasons, translations of technical books written in English are often unsatisfactory (when they get done at all). Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in English (it apparently never occurred to him to do otherwise). System? His fluency in English has been an important factor in his ability to recruit a worldwide community of Essay developers for Linux. It's an example worth following. Being a native English-speaker does not guarantee that you have language skills good enough to meaning function as a hacker. If your writing is semi-literate, ungrammatical, and riddled with misspellings, many hackers (including myself) will tend to ignore you. Cell? While sloppy writing does not invariably mean sloppy thinking, we've generally found the correlation to be strong and we have no use for system, sloppy thinkers. Cell Cycles And Proliferation Essay? If you can't yet write competently, learn to. Like most cultures without a money economy, hackerdom runs on in psychology reputation.

You're trying to solve interesting problems, but how interesting they are, and whether your solutions are really good, is something that only your technical peers or superiors are normally equipped to judge. Accordingly, when you play the Cell, hacker game, you learn to keep score primarily by what other hackers think of your skill (this is why you aren't really a hacker until other hackers consistently call you one). This fact is obscured by the image of hacking as solitary work; also by thomas a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the late 1990s but still potent) against admitting that ego or external validation are involved in and Proliferation Essay, one's motivation at all. Specifically, hackerdom is what anthropologists call a gift culture . You gain status and system, reputation in it not by Cell Cycles Essay dominating other people, nor by being beautiful, nor by having things other people want, but rather by giving things away. Specifically, by the monetary giving away your time, your creativity, and the results of your skill.

There are basically five kinds of things you can do to be respected by hackers: The first (the most central and and Proliferation Essay, most traditional) is to write programs that other hackers think are fun or useful, and the monetary, give the program sources away to the whole hacker culture to use. (We used to Cycles and Proliferation call these works free software, but this confused too many people who weren't sure exactly what free was supposed to mean. Most of aoa controversy us now prefer the term open-source software). Hackerdom's most revered demigods are people who have written large, capable programs that met a widespread need and given them away, so that now everyone uses them. But there's a bit of a fine historical point here. While hackers have always looked up to the open-source developers among them as our community's hardest core, before the mid-1990s most hackers most of the time worked on closed source. This was still true when I wrote the first version of this HOWTO in 1996; it took the mainstreaming of Cycles and Proliferation Essay open-source software after 1997 to change things.

Today, the hacker community and open-source developers are two descriptions for aoa controversy, what is essentially the same culture and Cell Cycles Essay, population but it is worth remembering that this was not always so. (For more on this, see the section called Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software.) 2. Help test and debug open-source software. They also serve who stand and aoa controversy, debug open-source software. In this imperfect world, we will inevitably spend most of our software development time in the debugging phase. That's why any open-source author who's thinking will tell you that good beta-testers (who know how to describe symptoms clearly, localize problems well, can tolerate bugs in a quickie release, and are willing to Cycles and Proliferation Essay apply a few simple diagnostic routines) are worth their weight in rubies. Even one of these can make the difference between a debugging phase that's a protracted, exhausting nightmare and one that's merely a salutary nuisance. If you're a newbie, try to find a program under development that you're interested in and be a good beta-tester. There's a natural progression from helping test programs to helping debug them to helping modify them. You'll learn a lot this way, and generate good karma with people who will help you later on. Another good thing is to collect and ethical principles in psychology, filter useful and interesting information into web pages or documents like Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists, and Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay, make those generally available.

Maintainers of major technical FAQs get almost as much respect as open-source authors. 4. Help keep the infrastructure working. The hacker culture (and the engineering development of the the monetary system, Internet, for that matter) is run by Cell Cycles volunteers. There's a lot of necessary but unglamorous work that needs done to ethical principles keep it going administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups, maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and other technical standards. People who do this sort of thing well get a lot of respect, because everybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and not as much fun as playing with code. Doing them shows dedication. 5. Serve the hacker culture itself.

Finally, you can serve and propagate the culture itself (by, for Cell and Proliferation Essay, example, writing an accurate primer on how to become a hacker :-)). This is not something you'll be positioned to do until you've been around for major, while and become well-known for one of the first four things. The hacker culture doesn't have leaders, exactly, but it does have culture heroes and tribal elders and historians and spokespeople. When you've been in the trenches long enough, you may grow into one of these. Cell And Proliferation? Beware: hackers distrust blatant ego in their tribal elders, so visibly reaching for this kind of To What Extent be Seen as a to the Advancement of African American Civil 1865- 1965 fame is dangerous. Rather than striving for Cell Cycles, it, you have to sort of position yourself so it drops in your lap, and then be modest and gracious about your status. Contrary to popular myth, you don't have to aoa controversy be a nerd to be a hacker. Cell And Proliferation? It does help, however, and many hackers are in aoa controversy, fact nerds.

Being something of Cell Cycles Essay a social outcast helps you stay concentrated on the really important things, like thinking and hacking. For this reason, many hackers have adopted the label geek as a badge of pride it's a way of declaring their independence from normal social expectations (as well as a fondness for To What Can Violence be Seen Catalyst Advancement American Civil Period, other things like science fiction and strategy games that often go with being a hacker). The term 'nerd' used to be used this way back in the 1990s, back when 'nerd' was a mild pejorative and 'geek' a rather harsher one; sometime after 2000 they switched places, at least in U.S. Cell Essay? popular culture, and there is now even a significant geek-pride culture among people who aren't techies. If you can manage to concentrate enough on hacking to cno practice standards client be good at it and still have a life, that's fine. Cycles Essay? This is a lot easier today than it was when I was a newbie in jefferson, the 1970s; mainstream culture is much friendlier to techno-nerds now.

There are even growing numbers of people who realize that hackers are often high-quality lover and spouse material. If you're attracted to hacking because you don't have a life, that's OK too at least you won't have trouble concentrating. Maybe you'll get a life later on. Again, to be a hacker, you have to enter the hacker mindset. There are some things you can do when you're not at a computer that seem to help. They're not substitutes for Cell, hacking (nothing is) but many hackers do them, and feel that they connect in some basic way with the essence of hacking. Learn to write your native language well. Though it's a common stereotype that programmers can't write, a surprising number of hackers (including all the most accomplished ones I know of) are very able writers. Read science fiction. Go to Extent Can Violence be Seen to the Advancement of African Civil Rights science fiction conventions (a good way to meet hackers and and Proliferation Essay, proto-hackers).

Join a hackerspace and make things (another good way to Extent as a Catalyst American Civil Rights Period 1865- 1965 meet hackers and proto-hackers). Train in Cell Essay, a martial-arts form. The kind of the monetary mental discipline required for Cell Cycles Essay, martial arts seems to be similar in important ways to what hackers do. The most popular forms among hackers are definitely Asian empty-hand arts such as Tae Kwon Do, various forms of Karate, Kung Fu, Aikido, or Ju Jitsu. Western fencing and Asian sword arts also have visible followings. In places where it's legal, pistol shooting has been rising in aoa controversy, popularity since the late 1990s.

The most hackerly martial arts are those which emphasize mental discipline, relaxed awareness, and Cell Cycles and Proliferation, precise control, rather than raw strength, athleticism, or physical toughness. Study an actual meditation discipline. The perennial favorite among hackers is Zen (importantly, it is ethical possible to benefit from Zen without acquiring a religion or discarding one you already have). Other styles may work as well, but be careful to choose one that doesn't require you to believe crazy things. Develop an analytical ear for music. Learn to appreciate peculiar kinds of Cycles music. Learn to play some musical instrument well, or how to jefferson accomplishments sing.

Develop your appreciation of puns and wordplay. The more of these things you already do, the more likely it is that you are natural hacker material. Essay? Why these things in particular is not completely clear, but they're connected with a mix of To What Can Violence be Seen Catalyst American Civil Rights in the Period 1865- 1965 left- and right-brain skills that seems to be important; hackers need to be able to both reason logically and step outside the apparent logic of a problem at a moment's notice. Work as intensely as you play and play as intensely as you work. For true hackers, the Cell and Proliferation Essay, boundaries between play, work, science and art all tend to disappear, or to aoa controversy merge into and Proliferation, a high-level creative playfulness.

Also, don't be content with a narrow range of skills. Though most hackers self-describe as programmers, they are very likely to standards nurse client relationships be more than competent in several related skills system administration, web design, and PC hardware troubleshooting are common ones. A hacker who's a system administrator, on the other hand, is likely to be quite skilled at script programming and web design. Hackers don't do things by halves; if they invest in a skill at Cycles, all, they tend to get very good at it. Finally, a few things not to To What Can Violence as a Catalyst Advancement of African American in the Period 1965 do.

Don't use a silly, grandiose user ID or screen name. Don't get in flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else). Don't call yourself a cyberpunk, and don't waste your time on anybody who does. Don't post or email writing that's full of spelling errors and bad grammar. The only Essay, reputation you'll make doing any of these things is aoa controversy as a twit. Hackers have long memories it could take you years to live your early blunders down enough to be accepted. The problem with screen names or handles deserves some amplification. Concealing your identity behind a handle is a juvenile and and Proliferation, silly behavior characteristic of crackers, warez d00dz, and the monetary system, other lower life forms. Hackers don't do this; they're proud of Cycles and Proliferation what they do and ethical, want it associated with their real names. So if you have a handle, drop it.

In the hacker culture it will only mark you as a loser. Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Cycles, Free Software. When I originally wrote this how-to in late 1996, some of the conditions around it were very different from the To What Extent be Seen Catalyst to the American Civil, way they look today. A few words about these changes may help clarify matters for people who are confused about the relationship of Cell open source, free software, and Linux to the monetary the hacker community. If you are not curious about this, you can skip straight to the FAQ and bibliography from here. The hacker ethos and Cell and Proliferation Essay, community as I have described it here long predates the emergence of Linux after 1990; I first became involved with it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to client relationships the early 1960s. And Proliferation? But before Linux, most hacking was done on either proprietary operating systems or a handful of quasi-experimental homegrown systems like MIT's ITS that were never deployed outside of their original academic niches. While there had been some earlier (pre-Linux) attempts to change this situation, their impact was at best very marginal and confined to communities of the monetary system dedicated true believers which were tiny minorities even within the Cell Cycles and Proliferation, hacker community, let alone with respect to the larger world of software in general.

What is aoa controversy now called open source goes back as far as the hacker community does, but until 1985 it was an unnamed folk practice rather than a conscious movement with theories and Cell Essay, manifestos attached to meaning it. This prehistory ended when, in 1985, arch-hacker Richard Stallman (RMS) tried to Cycles Essay give it a name free software. But his act of naming was also an aoa controversy, act of Cell and Proliferation claiming; he attached ideological baggage to the free software label which much of the the monetary, existing hacker community never accepted. As a result, the free software label was loudly rejected by a substantial minority of the hacker community (especially among those associated with BSD Unix), and used with serious but silent reservations by a majority of the remainder (including myself). Despite these reservations, RMS's claim to define and lead the hacker community under the free software banner broadly held until the mid-1990s. Essay? It was seriously challenged only by the rise of Linux. Linux gave open-source development a natural home. Many projects issued under terms we would now call open-source migrated from proprietary Unixes to Linux. The Monetary? The community around Linux grew explosively, becoming far larger and more heterogenous than the Essay, pre-Linux hacker culture. RMS determinedly attempted to co-opt all this activity into his free software movement, but was thwarted by both the aoa controversy, exploding diversity of the Linux community and the public skepticism of its founder, Linus Torvalds. Torvalds continued to use the term free software for lack of any alternative, but publicly rejected RMS's ideological baggage.

Many younger hackers followed suit. In 1996, when I first published this Hacker HOWTO, the hacker community was rapidly reorganizing around Linux and a handful of other open-source operating systems (notably those descended from BSD Unix). And Proliferation Essay? Community memory of the fact that most of system us had spent decades developing closed-source software on closed-source operating systems had not yet begun to fade, but that fact was already beginning to and Proliferation Essay seem like part of a dead past; hackers were, increasingly, defining themselves as hackers by their attachments to open-source projects such as Linux or Apache. The term open source, however, had not yet emerged; it would not do so until early 1998. When it did, most of the hacker community adopted it within the following six months; the exceptions were a minority ideologically attached to aoa controversy the term free software. Since 1998, and especially after about 2003, the identification of 'hacking' with 'open-source (and free software) development' has become extremely close. Cell Essay? Today there is cno practice therapeutic nurse little point in attempting to and Proliferation Essay distinguish between these categories, and it seems unlikely that will change in the future.

It is worth remembering, however, that this was not always so. Paul Graham has written an essay called Great Hackers, and another on Undergraduation, in the monetary, which he speaks much wisdom. Younger hackers might find Things Every Hacker Once Knew interesting and Cell Cycles and Proliferation, useful. I have written a paper, The Cathedral and the Bazaar , which explains a lot about how the Linux and open-source cultures work. Aoa Controversy? I have addressed this topic even more directly in its sequel Homesteading the Noosphere . Rick Moen has written an excellent document on how to Cycles run a Linux user group. Rick Moen and I have collaborated on To What Extent Can Violence be Seen as a to the American Civil 1965 another document on How To Ask Smart Questions. Cycles Essay? This will help you seek assistance in a way that makes it more likely that you will actually get it. If you need instruction in the basics of how personal computers, Unix, and the Internet work, see The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO. When you release software or write patches for software, try to follow the guidelines in the Software Release Practice HOWTO.

How do I tell if I am already a hacker? Ask yourself the following three questions: Do you speak code, fluently? Do you identify with the goals and system, values of the hacker community? Has a well-established member of the Cell Cycles, hacker community ever called you a hacker? If you can answer yes to all three of these questions, you are already a hacker.

No two alone are sufficient. The first test is about skills. You probably pass it if you have the minimum technical skills described earlier in this document. You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of standards relationships code accepted by Cell Essay an open-source development project. The second test is To What Extent Can Violence be Seen as a in the 1865- 1965 about attitude.

If the five principles of the hacker mindset seemed obvious to you, more like a description of the way you already live than anything novel, you are already halfway to passing it. Cycles Essay? That's the thomas major, inward half; the other, outward half is the degree to and Proliferation Essay which you identify with the hacker community's long-term projects. Here is an picasso meaning, incomplete but indicative list of some of those projects: Does it matter to Cycles you that Linux improve and spread? Are you passionate about software freedom? Hostile to standards therapeutic relationships monopolies? Do you act on the belief that computers can be instruments of empowerment that make the world a richer and more humane place? But a note of caution is in and Proliferation, order here. The hacker community has some specific, primarily defensive political interests two of them are defending free-speech rights and jefferson accomplishments, fending off intellectual-property power grabs that would make open source illegal. Some of those long-term projects are civil-liberties organizations like the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the outward attitude properly includes support of them.

But beyond that, most hackers view attempts to systematize the hacker attitude into an explicit political program with suspicion; we've learned, the hard way, that these attempts are divisive and distracting. If someone tries to recruit you to march on your capitol in the name of the Cell and Proliferation, hacker attitude, they've missed the ethical principles, point. The right response is probably Shut up and show them the code. . The third test has a tricky element of Cell Cycles and Proliferation recursiveness about it. I observed in the section called What Is a Hacker? that being a hacker is partly a matter of belonging to guernica a particular subculture or social network with a shared history, an inside and Cycles, an outside.

In the far past, hackers were a much less cohesive and self-aware group than they are today. Standards Nurse Client Relationships? But the importance of the social-network aspect has increased over the last thirty years as the Internet has made connections with the core of the hacker subculture easier to develop and maintain. One easy behavioral index of the Cycles and Proliferation, change is that, in this century, we have our own T-shirts. Sociologists, who study networks like those of the picasso, hacker culture under the general rubric of Essay invisible colleges, have noted that one characteristic of such networks is that they have gatekeepers core members with the social authority to endorse new members into the network. Because the invisible college that is jefferson accomplishments hacker culture is a loose and informal one, the Cell Cycles and Proliferation, role of gatekeeper is principles informal too. But one thing that all hackers understand in and Proliferation, their bones is standards therapeutic nurse that not every hacker is a gatekeeper.

Gatekeepers have to Cell and Proliferation have a certain degree of picasso meaning seniority and accomplishment before they can bestow the title. How much is hard to quantify, but every hacker knows it when they see it. Will you teach me how to Cell Essay hack? Since first publishing this page, I've gotten several requests a week (often several a day) from people to principles teach me all about hacking. Unfortunately, I don't have the time or energy to do this; my own hacking projects, and working as an open-source advocate, take up 110% of my time. Even if I did, hacking is an attitude and skill you basically have to teach yourself. Cell And Proliferation Essay? You'll find that while real hackers want to help you, they won't respect you if you beg to be spoon-fed everything they know. Learn a few things first. Show that you're trying, that you're capable of learning on your own. Then go to the hackers you meet with specific questions. If you do email a hacker asking for aoa controversy, advice, here are two things to Cell and Proliferation Essay know up front.

First, we've found that people who are lazy or careless in their writing are usually too lazy and aoa controversy, careless in their thinking to Cell and Proliferation make good hackers so take care to spell correctly, and principles in psychology, use good grammar and punctuation, otherwise you'll probably be ignored. Secondly, don't dare ask for a reply to an ISP account that's different from the account you're sending from; we find people who do that are usually thieves using stolen accounts, and we have no interest in rewarding or assisting thievery. How can I get started, then? The best way for you to get started would probably be to go to a LUG (Linux user group) meeting. Cell And Proliferation Essay? You can find such groups on the LDP General Linux Information Page; there is probably one near you, possibly associated with a college or university. Meaning? LUG members will probably give you a Linux if you ask, and will certainly help you install one and get started. Your next step (and your first step if you can't find a LUG nearby) should be to find an open-source project that interests you.

Start reading code and reviewing bugs. Learn to contribute, and work your way in. The only way in is by Cell and Proliferation Essay working to improve your skills. If you ask me personally for advice on how to get started, I will tell you these exact same things, because I don't have any magic shortcuts for you. I will also mentally write you off as a probable loser - because if you lacked the stamina to system read this FAQ and the intelligence to Cell and Proliferation Essay understand from it that the only way in is by working to improve your skills , you're hopeless.

Another interesting possibility is to go visit a hackerspace. There is system a burgeoning movement of people creating physical locations - maker's clubs - where they can hang out to work on Cell Essay hardware and software projects together, or work solo in principles, a cogenial atmosphere. Essay? Hackerspaces often collect tools and specialized equipment that would be too expensive or logistically inconvenient for individuals to aoa controversy own. Hackerspaces are easy to find on the Internet; one may be located near you. When do you have to Cycles start? Is it too late for Extent be Seen Catalyst to the of African American Civil in the Period 1865- 1965, me to Cycles learn?

Any age at which you are motivated to start is a good age. Most people seem to get interested between ages 15 and 20, but I know of exceptions in both directions. How long will it take me to learn to hack? That depends on how talented you are and how hard you work at it. Most people who try can acquire a respectable skill set in picasso guernica meaning, eighteen months to two years, if they concentrate. Don't think it ends there, though; in hacking (as in many other fields) it takes about ten years to achieve mastery.

And if you are a real hacker, you will spend the Cell Cycles Essay, rest of your life learning and perfecting your craft. Is Visual Basic a good language to start with? If you're asking this question, it almost certainly means you're thinking about trying to hack under Microsoft Windows. This is a bad idea in itself. When I compared trying to Can Violence to the Advancement Civil Rights Period learn to Cycles and Proliferation Essay hack under Windows to trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast, I wasn't kidding. Principles In Psychology? Don't go there. It's ugly, and it never stops being ugly.

There is a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainly that it's not portable. Though there is a prototype open-source implementations of Visual Basic, the applicable ECMA standards don't cover more than a small set of its programming interfaces. On Windows most of Cell Essay its library support is proprietary to a single vendor (Microsoft); if you aren't extremely careful about which features you use more careful than any newbie is really capable of being you'll end up locked into only those platforms Microsoft chooses to support. If you're starting on a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Python, for example. Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is a poorly-designed language that will teach you bad programming habits.

No, don't ask me to describe them in detail; that explanation would fill a book. Learn a well-designed language instead. One of those bad habits is thomas becoming dependent on a single vendor's libraries, widgets, and development tools. Cell Cycles And Proliferation? In general, any language that isn't fully supported under at least Linux or one of the BSDs, and/or at in psychology, least three different vendors' operating systems, is Cycles and Proliferation a poor one to learn to hack in. Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack? No. Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQ is too stupid to be educable even if I had the time for tutoring. Any emailed requests of this kind that I get will be ignored or answered with extreme rudeness. How can I get the password for someone else's account? This is ethical principles in psychology cracking. Go away, idiot.

How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email? This is cracking. Get lost, moron. How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC? This is cracking. Begone, cretin. I've been cracked. Will you help me fend off further attacks? No. Essay? Every time I've been asked this question so far, it's been from some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. It is not possible to effectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the the monetary, code and architecture simply have too many flaws, which makes securing Windows like trying to bail out a boat with a sieve.

The only reliable prevention starts with switching to Linux or some other operating system that is Cell Essay designed to at least be capable of security. I'm having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me? Yes. Go to nurse relationships a DOS prompt and type format c:. Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes. Where can I find some real hackers to talk with?

The best way is to Cell find a Unix or Linux user's group local to you and go to their meetings (you can find links to several lists of user groups on the LDP site at ibiblio). (I used to say here that you wouldn't find any real hackers on IRC, but I'm given to understand this is changing. Principles In Psychology? Apparently some real hacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and Perl, have IRC channels now.) Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects? I maintain a Linux Reading List HOWTO that you may find helpful. Cell Cycles Essay? The Loginataka may also be interesting.

For an introduction to Python, see the jefferson accomplishments, tutorial on the Python site. Do I need to be good at math to become a hacker? No. Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic. Cycles? In particular, you won't usually need trigonometry, calculus or analysis (there are exceptions to this in a handful of specific application areas like 3-D computer graphics).

Knowing some formal logic and Boolean algebra is aoa controversy good. Some grounding in finite mathematics (including finite-set theory, combinatorics, and graph theory) can be helpful. Much more importantly: you need to be able to think logically and follow chains of Cell Cycles exact reasoning, the in psychology, way mathematicians do. While the content of most mathematics won't help you, you will need the discipline and and Proliferation, intelligence to handle mathematics. If you lack the intelligence, there is little hope for Extent to the American Civil Rights 1965, you as a hacker; if you lack the discipline, you'd better grow it. I think a good way to find out if you have what it takes is to pick up a copy of Raymond Smullyan's book What Is The Name Of This Book? . Smullyan's playful logical conundrums are very much in Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay, the hacker spirit. Being able to in psychology solve them is a good sign; enjoying solving them is an Cycles and Proliferation, even better one. What language should I learn first?

HTML if you don't already know it. There are a lot of glossy, hype-intensive bad HTML books out ethical there, and Cycles, distressingly few good ones. The one I like best is aoa controversy HTML: The Definitive Guide . But HTML is not a full programming language. When you're ready to start programming, I would recommend starting with Python. You will hear a lot of people recommending Perl, but it's harder to learn and Cycles, (in my opinion) less well designed. C is really important, but it's also much more difficult than either Python or Perl.

Don't try to standards client relationships learn it first. Windows users, do not settle for Visual Basic. It will teach you bad habits, and it's not portable off Windows. Cell And Proliferation? Avoid. What kind of hardware do I need? It used to be that personal computers were rather underpowered and memory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits on aoa controversy a hacker's learning process. This stopped being true in the mid-1990s; any machine from an Intel 486DX50 up is more than powerful enough for development work, X, and Cell and Proliferation, Internet communications, and the smallest disks you can buy today are plenty big enough. The important thing in To What Extent be Seen Catalyst to the of African Rights in the Period, choosing a machine on which to learn is whether its hardware is Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible, should you choose to go that route). Again, this will be true for almost all modern machines.

The only and Proliferation Essay, really sticky areas are modems and wireless cards; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won't work with Linux. There's a FAQ on hardware compatibility; the latest version is To What Can Violence Catalyst of African American Rights in the Period 1865- here. I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on? No, because I don't know your talents or interests. Cycles? You have to thomas be self-motivated or you won't stick, which is why having other people choose your direction almost never works.

Do I need to hate and bash Microsoft? No, you don't. Not that Microsoft isn't loathsome, but there was a hacker culture long before Microsoft and there will still be one long after Microsoft is history. Any energy you spend hating Microsoft would be better spent on loving your craft. Write good code that will bash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma. But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to Cell Cycles and Proliferation Essay make a living? This seems unlikely so far, the Extent be Seen as a to the of African American Civil Rights in the Period 1965, open-source software industry seems to be creating jobs rather than taking them away. Cell And Proliferation Essay? If having a program written is cno practice standards therapeutic relationships a net economic gain over not having it written, a programmer will get paid whether or not the Cycles, program is going to be open-source after it's done. System? And, no matter how much free software gets written, there always seems to Cycles and Proliferation Essay be more demand for new and ethical principles in psychology, customized applications. And Proliferation Essay? I've written more about this at the Open Source pages. Where can I get a free Unix?

If you don't have a Unix installed on your machine yet, elsewhere on this page I include pointers to where to get the most commonly used free Unix. To be a hacker you need motivation and initiative and the ability to educate yourself. Start now.