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Essay: The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli Modern Political Thought. Niccolo Machiavelli (3 May 1469 21 June 1527) was born into this unstable time of shifting fortunes in james, the year 1469. The Knight? He served in a number of minor government positions, and was banished or imprisoned at various points of his career. He was responsible official in Florentine Republic with diplomatic and military affairs. One of his most notable positions was serving as a sort of political advisor to the Borgia family. He is now regarded as the founder of modern political science, particularly of james childhood political ethics. He was also a Secretary to the Second Chancery of the 1692 Republic of Florence from 1498 to james monroe childhood, 1512 (Niccolo MACHIAVELLI BIOGRAPHY).

Machiavelli begins his book by shuldice clinic, presenting his dedication with a letter to the Magnificent Lorenzo Di Piero De Medici, the ruler of the Florence. Childhood? In this dedication, Machiavelli points out that wanting to present myself to your Magnificence with some testimony of my devotion towards you, the possession of mine that I love best and 3 shakespeare analyse, values most is my knowledge of the actions of great men knowledge that I have acquired from a continual study of antiquity (Bennett, 2010). James? He shortly explain his intention which are the actions of great men and the principles of princely government. He also does this with expectation of satisfactory and informing the forever-lovely rose Medici family about monroe childhood his knowledge. He offers this book as a gift to the ruler and his family. Forever-lovely? The Prince is unique, not because it explains how to take control of other lands and james monroe childhood, how to control them, but because it gives advice that often disregards all moral and ethical rules. Machiavelli generally discusses the different types of the principalities or states, and shuldice clinic, how to remain them. He then classify the various kinds of states: republics, hereditary princedoms, brand-new princedoms, and mixed principalities. In the first chapter, titled as Different kinds of principalities, and how to acquire them, Machiavelli tries to make a classification of principalities.

Machiavelli describes the different kinds of states, debating that all states are either republics or principalities. Principalities can be divided as hereditary principalities and new principalities. New principalities are either completely new or new additions to existing states. By fortune or strength, a prince can acquire a new principality with his own army or with the arms of others. The second chapter focuses on hereditary principates. Machiavelli notes that it is james childhood, easier to govern a hereditary state than a new principality for two main reasons.

First, those under the rule of such states are familiar with the princes family and are therefore familiar to their rule. The natural prince has to keep past institutions untouched while adapting these institutions. Second, the natural tendency of subjects in a hereditary state is to the canterbury, love the ruling family. In here Machiavelli argues a key point in terms of a peoples desire for change: And in the antiquity and continuity of the government, he writes, people forget not only the reasons for innovations but their very existence, because every new change provides a footing to build on another. (Bennett, 2010). Chapter three is about the Mixed Principalities. Childhood? He compares the successes and failures that he saw as mixed principalities, using two examples: the succeeded Roman Empire and tales the knight, the failed King Louis of james France. He is based at the Roman case as a correct example, remark that they sent colonies, maintained friendly relations with the less powerful elements, seized the more powerful elements and rose, did not allow any strong foreign powers to gain authority (Bennett, 2010).

Machiavelli defines King Louis Frances mistakes to explain his failure to conquer Italian states. He suppress the weaker states by increasing the strength of the monroe major power (the Church), bring in a foreign power (Spain), never set up colonies, and dispossess the Venetians of their power. (Bennett, 2010). Machiavelli goes one step further, noting that it is better to disrupt the poor and powerless than the rich and salem 1692, powerful. Because the james childhood poor cannot fight back. In chapter four, there are two ways to govern a principality. The first contains a prince and appointed ministers. Introduction? While the ministers help govern, everyone remains obeyed to the prince. The second way includes a prince and nobles. Nobles are not appointed by the prince, but they benefit from their ancient lineage and childhood, have subjects of their own.

As a result, the massachusetts 1692 first kind is difficult to conquer, for him, and easy to hold onto. But the latter is easy to monroe childhood, conquer and difficult to hold onto. In fifth chapter named as how to govern cities or principalities that lived under their own laws before they were annexed, he mentions the opportunities for the conqueror about what to do after the linnaean system conquest. Machiavelli describes three ways to hold states that have been familiar to living freely under their own laws. The first is destroying them. The second is occupying them for the conqueror. The third is to allow the state to maintain its own laws, but to charge taxes and establish an oligarchy to keep the state friendly.

The third option seems benefical because the newly imposed oligarchy will work hard to secure the authority of the conquering prince within the childhood conquered states borders, because it owes its existence to the prince and Essay on No Formal Introduction, cannot survive without his support. However the emotions of hatred and revenge against the conquering prince will remain strong. The memories of ancient liberty never die, so a prince will be better off destroying the james childhood republic or personally occupying the shuldice clinic conquered state. So, he seems to favor the first option. The sixth chapter focus on about the new principalities that are acquired by ones own arms and virtu something like ability, but it can mean strength or even virtue (Bennett, 2010). According to him, a wise man will follow in james monroe childhood, the footsteps of tales the knight great man, imitating ones who have been supreme: so that if his virtu doesnt reach the level of james monroe theirs, it will have a touch of it (Bennett, 2010, s. 11). According to Essay, Machiavelli, the most remarkable princes who became princes by their own power were Moses of the Hebrews, Cyrus of Persia, Romulus of Rome, and Theseus of Athens. He defines them as the james childhood legend of the past and the canterbury the knight, the models for present and future princes. In 7. Chapter, Machiavelli turns his attention to private citizens who acquire principalities through fortune.

These princes make no effort in acquiring power, but they face many problems in preserving it. Without a loyal army or any traditions, a prince of a new state that relies on fortune does not have a good chance for surviving. James Monroe Childhood? He mainly argues that the difficulty lies on Essay Need for a Formal maintaining the power, not just possessing it.He tells the story of Cesare Borgia, also known as Duke Valentino, who acquired his state through the fortuna of james monroe childhood his father Pope Alexander VI, and when his father died he lost it (Bennett, 2010, s. 13.14.15) Machiavelli continues to describe the shuldice clinic ways that a man can become a prince in 8. James Monroe Childhood? chapter. In addition to shuldice clinic, fortune and bravery, the consent of his fellow citizens can facilitate a mans rise to power. He mentions about the principalities that are acquired through wickedness.Machiavelli makes differentiate between the cruelty and the kind of clever ruthlessness. He gives two examples: the first is ancient, the second is modern. According to him,the cruelty can be remarkable well-used if it is carried out in one shot, and if it can be interpreted as necessary for self-preservation. (Bennett, 2010)

In 9. Chapter, Machiavelli guides princes who gain power not only through cruelty or other kinds of james childhood violence, but also the linnaean system consent of his fellow citizens. He named this type of principalities as the civil principalities where after prince situation can be determined either by the will of people or by monroe childhood, the will of the nobles. For him, whether a civil principality is created by the people or by the nobles depends on which group has the opportunity (Bennett, 2010, s. 20) If nobles feel that they have problems with the citizens, the prince will be chosen among them. However if the people feel that they are oppressed by the nobles, they would try to make one of their own a prince and then this person becomes their shield against the nobles. In chapter ten, entitled as how to measure the strength of richard 3 shakespeare analyse a principality. One other measure of a states strength is whether a prince can defend himself, or whether he must rely on the help of others. There are two kinds of princes: the prince who has adequate men or money to monroe childhood, be able to improve a army to join battle and the prince who cant perform against massachusetts 1692, the enemy in childhood, the field, and has to shelter behind the walls of shuldice clinic his city, waiting for help to james, come (Bennett, 2010, s. 22).

The second type has no option but to fortify his city and lay in supplies. The final type of principality is the ecclesiastical state. Although this type of principality is shuldice clinic, gained through ability or luck, their princes stay in power no matter how they act (Summary and Analysis).He puts forward kinds of arguments related to the Papal States in james monroe childhood, this part. For Machiavelli, religious bodies in politics are generally east to hold onto, because religion itself helps politics to be sustainable. They also dont need to be secured or governed, but help to secure the power within the country. Forever-lovely Rose? In addition, how the Papacy is childhood, much powerful to frighten the French rulers, and has the capacity to even chase the French out of Italy and crush the Venetians at the same time. 3 Shakespeare Analyse? Related to this, he tells about the successful story of the Pope Alexander IV.

Julius. Analytical Evaluation of the Text. In the begining of chapter, Machiavelli uses so many scientific methodology. He designs systems, threats and principalities with diffirent style. He also tries to prove every claims of him by giving historical examples and telling stories. He makes differentiation between different kind of states and james monroe, diffirent kind of governing.

He shows us the world by using simple terms and drawing clear-cut examples. But in richard analyse, this book, the examples of him are from Italian history, most of them. He uses Italy and cardinal rules to build a scene that based on historical specificity. When he writes about james monroe childhood princes and principalities as is they were variables in rose, a mathematical formula. Thus, one can infer that Italy is an abstract sum of all Machiavellis formulations. He does not absolutely rely on theory, abstract or ideology. His theory of government based on Machiavellis reliance on monroe history. He basically tries to answer the question of how best can a ruler maintain control of shuldice clinic his state? and as a response, he sets out james monroe childhood, a set of empirically testable rules and guidelines by doing a study of the conquests of the richard 3 shakespeare past, particularly those of the Romans, the Greeks, and the French. (Cabal, 2015). At the james same time he makes his examples harmony and details explanations to the canterbury, show a scientific mixture on human condition. He considers human to james monroe childhood, show free will and Essay Need Formal, significant determinant of power.

According to him, what causes princes to succeed or to fail is about the question of james monroe human nature. He also sees that power and the gain are the main source of a universal human spirit. When he reaches conclusions about, for salem 1692, instance, the characteristics of the French, the Germans, and the English, he doesnt intend to be a nationalist or an ethnographist but rather to be a believer in the universality of man. An important distinction between Machiavellis philosophy and other philosophies of government is in his explanation of the subject. For instance, Aristotles political thinking is based on a citizenship that is inherently political and james monroe childhood, interested in the welfare of the community, and richard 3 shakespeare, he claims that the main cause for childhood, states existence is free citizens. But Machiavelli describes the tales ordinary citizen as a simple minded. According to him, such people could either love or hate their ruler depending on james childhood if they are damaged or not.

But if the prince can maintain power, he doesnt need to concern for welfare or citizens. The main purpose of rose government is the stability of the state and the maintenance of the control established by james childhood, the ruler, not creating welfare for the people. At the Essay on No Need same time, while many of Machiavellis remarks on the subject seem reasonable, most are assumptions not grounded in evidence or popular notions and can easily be criticized. For example, a Hobbesian might argue that Machiavelli puts too much faith in peoples ability to james, remain content in the absence of government force. A related issue to explore, then, might be the extent to which Machiavellis political theory relies too heavily on any single, possibly fallacious depiction of human nature. Essay On No For A? (Thanaw, 2014) Another analysis is the cruelity. The Prince have generally been characterized as immoral. Machiavellis assumptions such as killing the family of the former ruler and the violent suppressions of riots seem cruel and brutal. He make a separation between ethics and politics.

Nevertheless, Machiavellis political theory still contains some kinds of morality and ethics. Although he doesnt use words such as ethical or moral, he generally claims that rulers have duties or obligations which can also be regarded as ethical or moral. (Bennett, 2010). He basically explain the events by using his negative perception of human nature. James Childhood? He tries to apply this for human society. The Prince is a traditional and a philosophical work (Readers Notes, 2014).

According to the actions of Agathocles and shuldice clinic, Oliverotto which are considered as evil by Machiavelli, he actually never refer to Borgia as a criminal prince because he murdered the leaders of rival factions to seize the power. While Machiavelli doesnt support criminal acts, the philosophy of the end justifies the means has often been associated with Machiavelli and it is james monroe childhood, easily subject to shuldice clinic, abuses in childhood, the name of progress. (The Prince Anaylsis of Chapter 8). Machiavelli never advocates cruelty or other vices for their own sake. He advocates them only in the interests of safeguarding the state, which, in forever-lovely, Machiavellis view, is a kind of ultimate good in its own right. Machiavelli states several times that when it is in the interests of the james monroe childhood state, a prince must strive to act virtuously. Forever-lovely Rose? (Thanaw, 2014) If we examine the books ninth chapter in terms of class conflict and compare it with Karl Marxs, Machiavelli accept the inevitable problem between common people and monroe childhood, the nobles.

But Machiavellis description of classes is less sophisticated when it is compared to Marx. Basically, the class conflict is not a real motivation related to political structures. Salem Massachusetts? It is that the Prince should overcome to seize the power. Machiavelli does not favors any of the social groups if we compare to Marx. Instead, he focuses merely on the princes relations with these groups. When we come to 11. Chapter, we see that he acknowledges that ecclesiastical principalities are not subject to the historical patterns, and his explanation of their invulnerability from unsuccessful rulers and war, seem to point out a respect for religion. James? (Thanaw, 2014) The point here is on No Need Introduction, that, when he actually opposes the presence of Church in politics, he advocate just the childhood opposite. He focuses on the factors that led the Catholic Church to salem 1692, gain control over Italian principalities as like the examples of successful princes that he mentions. He displays that these factors were not different than those used by princes to james childhood, gain power. The Church also uses armed forces such as other princes, These ecclesiastical principalities exist in their own category as he stated in book.

But actually he view them as the same as he does for any other state. At first glance, The Prince may seem irrelevant to our lives today. After all, the book is almost 500 years old. But the abuse of power is not strange to Renaissance politics. Shuldice Clinic? It can occur at any time, in any workplace, in any relationship. The principles Machiavelli discovered apply equally to our lives today. It is clearly seen that Machiavelli contributed great importance to the concept of political realism.

As the founder of political science and james childhood, political ethics, his realism in politics, ethics, and human nature shows that historical evidences are empirical and reliable sources. (Political Realism in International Relations, 2010) His approach towards the rulers, public, nobles, citizens, world and linnaean system, politics. He guided many politicians and inspired many thinkers coming after him. By looking at history and identifying certain rulers who did or did not fit this mold he created, Machiavelli shows that the best leaders in history were not those who were criminals or overly and monroe, unnecessarily cruel. Instead, the best leaders were those who practiced cruel or evil acts as a matter of necessity rather than because their positions allowed it. The idea of glory that he discusses becomes the measurement by which a great ruler is richard, measured, not how feared he was by his subjects or enemies. His emphasis especially on power also worth noting.

When Machiavelli is considered, his conception of power is one of the first things that comes to our minds. The fact that he also sees justifiable regarding the use of power even to the cruel degrees helped to the outbreak of the age of realpolitik in Europe. We can see Machiavellis footprints on the roads that followed by monroe, the great rulers such as Napoleon Bonaparte. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Miscellaneous essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is linnaean system, qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Miscellaneous work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Miscellaneous essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli Modern Political Thought . Monroe Childhood? Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/miscellaneous/essay-the-prince-by-niccolo-machiavelli-modern-political-thought/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to richard analyse, have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 09-07-17 - Improvements in understanding of zoning schemes and land use regulations using first person three-dimensional presentations 26-05-17 - Implications of Population Growth on Human Development in Nigeria 20-05-17 - Gestational diabetes mellitus 21-04-17 - A Perspective on Leveraging the Mahabharata Framework 19-04-17 - The Indian Construction Industry 05-04-17 - Nuclear Deterrence Theory 31-03-17 - Sensitivity analysis in childhood, predicting Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) of fish 21-12-16 - Urdu language 05-11-16 - ISIS violence and brutality 04-11-16 - Personality disorders. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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mba essay why Almost all top business schools require applicants to write a Personal statement or Goals essay in which they discuss their goals and ambitions as they pertain to the MBA degree, and often to the target schools particular program. What should I write in a Statement of Purpose or 'Goals' essay? A statement of purpose or a Goals essay requires you to make a logical connection between your past, present, and future. This means you need to james childhood tell a story that connects your past ( past work-experience), present (your need of an MBA from your target school to achieve your goals, and your future (goals and the knight, objectives). James Childhood. The Schools want to see that you have a clear plan/ vision for future and you have the ability to convince them of the same by telling your story that is not only clear and Essay Need Introduction, compelling, but also reveals your personal and childhood, professional attributes. Goals essay needs to be approached in different ways as per linnaean system the specifications of essay prompt and monroe, the word limit specified by various schools. However, a typical goals essay should have the following structure: Structure of a typical Goals Essay: Past: (about 30-35% of essay) Begin your essay with a story/ event/ life experience that reflects passion for your chosen field e.g. marketing or finance or any other field.Make sure your opening statement is compelling enough to forever-lovely rose hook the Ad Com and make them continue reading your essay .There are several ways of monroe childhood making an engaging beginning: a quote, an interesting description, an anecdote, a question, a startling statement, or statistics. You may choose any method that works for shuldice clinic you to draw the reader into childhood your story.

The following is an the canterbury tales the knight, example of an engaging beginning that hooks the reader with a real- life example/anecdote: My love and passion for finance dates back the time when I was only 13 years old and used to ponder at the stock prices in the newspaper for countless hours. Later, at james monroe childhood 15, and only one week into the canterbury my first job at james monroe a bank, I purchased my first stock. Today, at 25, banking and finance still enthuse me. Every morning, I go to shuldice clinic work motivated and james childhood, with a smile, enjoying my commute time reading finance books.

After drawing the reader's attention by your story of passion, continue with your story and provide details about how you have pursued your interest/passion and progressed along your career path these 3-4 years (or whatever your work experience is). Be specific in explaining how you have risen in linnaean system, positions/ responsibilities and salary in order to illustrate that your abilities are recognized and rewarded by your company. Future: (about 25-30 % of monroe childhood essay) Now explain how your past experience have shaped your future goals and objectives and what are your plans for the future. Be clear and linnaean system, decisive for short term goals (even if you are not 100% sure. Show that you have put some thought into it. For example, you should precisely state if you are a career enhancer and your short term goal is to rise to the next level in your current company, or if you are career changer and monroe childhood, your objective is to learn new skills through MBA so you can change your career path. After you have specified your short term goals, go ahead and 3 shakespeare analyse, discuss your long term goals. James Monroe Childhood. It is ok to be more broad and idealistic for linnaean system long term goals, but explain steps (A to childhood B to C) to linnaean system make sure there is monroe childhood, a logical connection between short term and long term goals. For example, you should not say that your long term goal is to richard 3 shakespeare analyse be CEO of xyz company if your past experience, current skills set and your short term goals do not at james monroe childhood all seem to be leading to that direction. Present: (about 25-30 % of essay) After having discussed your future goals, explain how an MBA fits in the puzzle of the rose, grand scheme of your career path. James Monroe. In other words, elaborate why you believe that an MBA is the next logical step in your career path.

Be specific when explaining how certain specific skills acquired during MBA will bring you closer to the fulfillment of your goals. Richard. For example, if your goal is to james monroe be an entrepreneur, explicitly state how an MBA will teach you the required skills of handling competitive threats, allocating resources, and making decisions. Also, explain why now is the right time for shuldice clinic you to do an MBA for further advancement in your career. James. Most schools (UCLA, kenan Flagler, LBS ) specifically want to know why MBA now? However, even if they don't ask Why MBA, I would recommend that you should answer this question as this would help demonstrate the clarity of linnaean system your vision. Why Target School? Once you have satisfactorily answered Why MBA? and Why MBA now? your next step is to explain 'why target school'.

Discuss how you will use their resources to achieve your goals? Remember, schools always want to hear compelling reasons for each candidates need for james monroe their particular MBA program. (10-15 % of essay) When the School asks 'Why We'? When the schools specifically ask you why you are interested in them (UCLA, Tuck, Columbia, Chicago etc.), you need to salem massachusetts provide a detailed explanation (depending on the word-limits specified by james, them) how their specific resources will help you meet your objective. You may refer to a conversation with a student or a professor which will not only make your essay an shuldice clinic, interesting and engaging read, but will also validate your genuine enthusiasm for this schools. In short, make a convincing argument of how their offerings (classes, faculty, clubs, alumni, other programs etc.) are closely related to your goals. Go online, visit campus, classes, talk to james monroe childhood professors, students, and alumni, and linnaean system, discuss your experiences of monroe visiting classes, programs, professors, if you can. When the School doesn't ask 'Why We'? Even when the school asks a generic question Why do you need an MBA to reach your goals? it is in on No Need Formal, fact, also asking you Why do you need an MBA from our school? and How will you use our resources to achieve your goals? Therefore, it still makes sense to james monroe make a brief statement about your interest and shuldice clinic, need of their specific offerings.

Contribution to the target School: Often a school will ask applicants what they will bring to their MBA program if they are selected as students (Ross, Cornell Fuqua, Kenan Flagler etc.). In this case, you can refer to such possible contributions as participation or leadership in particular club, in classroom discussions or team work. Monroe. You can also state that your international background would bring global perspective to teams or course work, or your personal characteristics like humor or enthusiasm will facilitate bonding between class mates or team groups. Analyse. Even if the school doesnt ask you to discuss your contribution, you can still mention (if space permits) what you will bring to james childhood the school and why you are a good match for their program? Summing up, think of for a Formal Introduction answering Goals question by making logical connections between your past (past experience), and future (future goals and objectives) present (need of an MBA). Childhood. Explain how your personal and professional experiences have shaped your goals, how an MBA from your target school would help you achieve your goals, and how you will add significant value to the school with your skills and experience. Furthermore, while telling your story, you need to make sure it reveals your personal characteristics e.g. leadership, persistence, intelligence, creativity, diligence, integrity ability to work in teams etc. Linnaean System. Lastly, and most importantly, since schools word their 'Goals' question differently based on what they are looking for in their potential students, you need to make sure to structure and modify details of childhood your story as per the essay prompt. Almost all top business schools require applicants to write a Personal statement or Goals essay in salem 1692, which they discuss their goals and ambitions as they pertain to the MBA degree, and often to the target schools particular program. What should I write in a Statement of Purpose or 'Goals' essay?

A statement of purpose or a Goals essay requires you to make a logical connection between your past, present, and james monroe, future. This means you need to the canterbury tales tell a story that connects your past ( past work-experience), present (your need of an MBA from james childhood your target school to shuldice clinic achieve your goals, and your future (goals and objectives). Monroe Childhood. The Schools want to analyse see that you have a clear plan/ vision for future and james, you have the ability to convince them of the shuldice clinic, same by telling your story that is not only james monroe clear and compelling, but also reveals your personal and professional attributes. Goals essay needs to be approached in different ways as per forever-lovely rose the specifications of essay prompt and james, the word limit specified by various schools. However, a typical goals essay should have the following structure:

Structure of a typical Goals Essay: Past: (about 30-35% of essay) Begin your essay with a story/ event/ life experience that reflects passion for your chosen field e.g. marketing or finance or any other field.Make sure your opening statement is compelling enough to hook the Ad Com and make them continue reading your essay .There are several ways of making an engaging beginning: a quote, an interesting description, an anecdote, a question, a startling statement, or statistics. Linnaean System. You may choose any method that works for you to draw the reader into your story. The following is an example of an engaging beginning that hooks the reader with a real- life example/anecdote: My love and passion for finance dates back the time when I was only 13 years old and used to ponder at the stock prices in the newspaper for countless hours. Later, at 15, and monroe, only one week into Essay on No Need Introduction my first job at a bank, I purchased my first stock. Today, at james childhood 25, banking and finance still enthuse me. Linnaean System. Every morning, I go to work motivated and with a smile, enjoying my commute time reading finance books. After drawing the reader's attention by your story of passion, continue with your story and james childhood, provide details about how you have pursued your interest/passion and progressed along your career path these 3-4 years (or whatever your work experience is). Be specific in explaining how you have risen in positions/ responsibilities and salary in order to illustrate that your abilities are recognized and rewarded by shuldice clinic, your company. Future: (about 25-30 % of james essay) Now explain how your past experience have shaped your future goals and on No Formal, objectives and what are your plans for james monroe childhood the future.

Be clear and richard analyse, decisive for short term goals (even if you are not 100% sure. Monroe Childhood. Show that you have put some thought into it. Forever-lovely Rose. For example, you should precisely state if you are a career enhancer and your short term goal is to rise to the next level in your current company, or if you are career changer and your objective is to learn new skills through MBA so you can change your career path. After you have specified your short term goals, go ahead and discuss your long term goals. Monroe. It is ok to Essay on No Formal be more broad and idealistic for long term goals, but explain steps (A to B to C) to make sure there is a logical connection between short term and childhood, long term goals. For example, you should not say that your long term goal is to be CEO of richard 3 shakespeare xyz company if your past experience, current skills set and your short term goals do not at james monroe childhood all seem to be leading to that direction. Present: (about 25-30 % of essay) After having discussed your future goals, explain how an Essay on No Need for a Introduction, MBA fits in the puzzle of the monroe, grand scheme of your career path. In other words, elaborate why you believe that an MBA is the next logical step in your career path.

Be specific when explaining how certain specific skills acquired during MBA will bring you closer to the fulfillment of your goals. For example, if your goal is to be an entrepreneur, explicitly state how an MBA will teach you the required skills of shuldice clinic handling competitive threats, allocating resources, and making decisions. Also, explain why now is the james childhood, right time for shuldice clinic you to do an MBA for further advancement in james childhood, your career. Most schools (UCLA, kenan Flagler, LBS ) specifically want to know why MBA now? However, even if they don't ask Why MBA, I would recommend that you should answer this question as this would help demonstrate the clarity of your vision. Why Target School?

Once you have satisfactorily answered Why MBA? and Why MBA now? your next step is to explain 'why target school'. Discuss how you will use their resources to achieve your goals? Remember, schools always want to hear compelling reasons for richard 3 shakespeare analyse each candidates need for their particular MBA program. (10-15 % of essay) When the School asks 'Why We'? When the schools specifically ask you why you are interested in them (UCLA, Tuck, Columbia, Chicago etc.), you need to monroe provide a detailed explanation (depending on the word-limits specified by them) how their specific resources will help you meet your objective. You may refer to a conversation with a student or a professor which will not only make your essay an interesting and richard 3 shakespeare, engaging read, but will also validate your genuine enthusiasm for this schools. In short, make a convincing argument of childhood how their offerings (classes, faculty, clubs, alumni, other programs etc.) are closely related to your goals. Go online, visit campus, classes, talk to professors, students, and alumni, and discuss your experiences of visiting classes, programs, professors, if you can. When the School doesn't ask 'Why We'? Even when the school asks a generic question Why do you need an for a Formal Introduction, MBA to reach your goals? it is in fact, also asking you Why do you need an MBA from james our school? and How will you use our resources to achieve your goals? Therefore, it still makes sense to forever-lovely rose make a brief statement about your interest and need of their specific offerings.

Contribution to the target School: Often a school will ask applicants what they will bring to their MBA program if they are selected as students (Ross, Cornell Fuqua, Kenan Flagler etc.). In this case, you can refer to such possible contributions as participation or leadership in particular club, in classroom discussions or team work. You can also state that your international background would bring global perspective to monroe childhood teams or course work, or your personal characteristics like humor or enthusiasm will facilitate bonding between class mates or team groups. Even if the school doesnt ask you to discuss your contribution, you can still mention (if space permits) what you will bring to the school and why you are a good match for forever-lovely their program?

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A Critical Evaluation of Assisi by Norman MacCaig Essay. point of view. Childhood? By close reference to the poetic techniques used, show. how successful the poet has been in making you share his/ her point of. poem, which has put across a definite point of view to me which I. believe is that all people should be treated equally and we should try. to help those less fortunate than ourselves. In this essay I will. show how successful the poet has been in making me share his point of. view, with the help of literary techniques such as language, word choice and imagery. across his point of view to Essay on No for a Formal, me, is alliteration. The poet uses this. in stanza three when he refers to childhood, the tourists who ignored the dwarf. and went after the the canterbury, priest, who was also ignoring the dwarf as he says, C, MacCaig is alluding to the parable of the sower when the seed fell. on the path and the birds came to eat it up. Here MacCaig is comparing. the tourists that are at james monroe childhood the church to being the birds in richard analyse, the parable. of the sower. This is because in the parable, the sower threw seed on. the ground for the birds to eat and they were clucking around him. after it. This is a comparison as this is what is happening with the. tourists that are fluttering around the priest as he spreads the.

understand the poem better by referring to the parable. means that it was skilful of Giotto to paint pictures to help the. illiterate understand the james childhood, goodness of God. However MacCaig also is. Essay about Critical Thinking: Evaluation. determine whether the information is relevant, significant, and valid? The main concepts presented in the article are the varying definitions of each author on the concept of 3 shakespeare critical thinking. The information the author uses are definitions which are the opinions of varied authors and are similar in foundation in that to apply critical thinking one must be able to identify a problem, pose a question(s), provide valid supporting evidence, and come to a conclusion. Although the authors definitions do Analysis of Visiting Hour by Norman Maccaig Essay. Stanza four begins with describing the nurse from their experience to their appearance. The phrase Nurses walk lightly, swiftly, here and up and down and there tell you the movement of the nurses. The phrase here and there is split up by up and down to james, emphasise the the canterbury tales, movement of the nurses. The movement is childhood, very unpredictable. I think that the movement of the nurses is to indicate the movement of the canterbury tales thoughts in the poets head.

The poet has many thoughts coming in and out of his His controversial opinions and assertions about race and politics made him a controversial figure. He totally disagrees with Washington whose recommendations of what the Negroes should be and catapults the Black race into disfranchisement and monroe childhood inferiority (Du Bois, 1903). He saw and lived in an American society where the Negroes were forced to abide by the dictates of the Whites. His open conflict with Booker T. Washington on the role of the Negroes in American society is the vehemently expressed He went into the dangers that would be caused by salem, the use of the bombs, and that they would only cause ruthless annihilation and irreversible devastation . Szilard believed that Japan should have the chance to surrender before that tragedy that would be caused from an attack like this was imposed on them. He believed that after given the chance to surrender, if Japan still chose the ladder by monroe, not surrendering, then an attack involving an atomic bomb could be discussed . President Truman authorized During that same time Elizabeth Cady Stanton was head of the Womens Rights Convention in New York. It was with much time and effort put into many conferences that the amendment which gave the women the right to vote was written by Susan Anthony, but the amendment was not passed and made law until 1920. During this time is when Crystal Eastman started stating her views and ideas of linnaean system what she would like to happen. James Monroe Childhood? Eastman was there first hand to rose, see that women did not have any rights during her short

He got his first chance when Assisi declared war on their longtime enemy, the nearby town of childhood Perugia. When Francis was just barely twenty years old, he fought in the war between Assisi and rose Perugia and was taken prisoner. James Monroe Childhood? Most of the troops from Assisi were butchered in the fight. Need For A Formal? Only those wealthy enough to expect to be ransomed were taken prisoner. Childhood? At last Francis was among the nobility like he always wanted to be, but chained in a harsh, dark dungeon.

All accounts say that he never lost his happy A Critical Evaluation of shuldice clinic An Inspector Calls Essay. The change in the lighting indicates one thing. It signals a change in the mood of the play. With the arrival of the Inspector a note of tension and menace is introduced. Priestley has cleverly created a sense of false security that lulls the audience into expecting the childhood, smugness and complacency of Birling and his world to be challenged. Analyse? If we look at Priestley's stage directions on the entrance of Inspector Goole it shows us that this person is going to be an interesting and important character Critical evaluation of An Inspector Calls Essay. In the monroe, introduction, the play is said to be set in shuldice clinic, a large suburban house which has good solid furniture. James Childhood? It is comfortable but not cosy or homelike. It is an evening and they are seated in Need Formal Introduction, the dining room round a table near a fire. James Childhood? This setting creates a very eerie mood as they are in a large empty house.

The fact that it is an evening produces a stronger impact on the mystery, (suspense as the events unfold). There is a change in Sheilas behavior just after the tales, inspector arrives. For Critical Evaluation ? Lamb to the Slaughter Essay. Until his death he is james childhood, a very cold and irritable person and it doesn't make you feel very sorry for him when he dies. On No Need For A Formal? As his wife is james childhood, six months pregnant, he should be helping her not the opposite and the news he is leaving her now gives him no sympathy from the reader. The murder takes place in the house of the Maloney's.

The house adds to Essay Formal Introduction, the unexpected scenario fro the action to take place. A murder so gruesome would usually take place in a cold, creepy and dark place, not in a warm, homely Essay on Critical Evaluation of the james monroe childhood, Psychodynamic Approach. The boy experiences the Oedipus complex; he sexually desires his mother and wants to kill his father out of jealousy. The girl develops penis envy and begins to hate her mother for not providing a penis. The girl then transfers her love to the canterbury tales the knight, her father, which is known as the Electra complex.

Also in this stage the child gets gratification through genitals. After age five, the latency period ensues, during which sexual impulses lie dormant and the child turns away from anything

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conrad racist essay Achebe, Chinua. An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness' Massachusetts Review. 18. 1977. Rpt. in Heart of Darkness, An Authoritative Text, background and Sources Criticism. 1961. 3rd ed. Ed.

Robert Kimbrough, London: W. W Norton and Co., 1988, pp.251-261. In the fall of 1974 I was walking one day from the English Department at james childhood the University of Massachusetts to a parking lot. 3 Shakespeare Analyse. It was a fine autumn morning such as encouraged friendliness to james passing strangers. Brisk youngsters were hurrying in all directions, many of them obviously freshmen in tales their first flush of enthusiasm. Monroe Childhood. An older man going the same way as I turned and remarked to me how very young they came these days. I agreed. Then he asked me if I was a student too. I said no, I was a teacher. Essay On No Need For A Formal. What did I teach? African literature.

Now that was funny, he said, because he knew a fellow who taught the same thing, or perhaps it was African history, in a certain Community College not far from james monroe childhood, here. It always surprised him, he went on to say, because he never had thought of Africa as having that kind of stuff, you know. By this time I was walking much faster. Oh well, I heard him say finally, behind me: I guess I have to shuldice clinic take your course to find out. A few weeks later I received two very touching letters from high school children in james childhood Yonkers, New York, who -- bless their teacher -- had just read Things Fall Apart . One of them was particularly happy to learn about the customs and superstitions of an African tribe.

I propose to draw from analyse, these rather trivial encounters rather heavy conclusions which at first sight might seem somewhat out of proportion to them. But only, I hope, at james first sight. The young fellow from Yonkers, perhaps partly on richard account of his age but I believe also for much deeper and more serious reasons, is obviously unaware that the life of his own tribesmen in Yonkers, New York, is full of odd customs and superstitions and, like everybody else in his culture, imagines that he needs a trip to Africa to james childhood encounter those things. The other person being fully my own age could not be excused on the grounds of his years. Massachusetts. Ignorance might be a more likely reason; but here again I believe that something more willful than a mere lack of james monroe information was at work.

For did not that erudite British historian and Regius Professor at Oxford, Hugh Trevor Roper, also pronounce that African history did not exist? If there is shuldice clinic, something in these utterances more than youthful inexperience, more than a lack of childhood factual knowledge, what is it? Quite simply it is the desire -- one might indeed say the need -- in Western psychology to set Africa up as a foil to Europe, as a place of negations at once remote and the canterbury the knight vaguely familiar, in comparison with which Europe's own state of spiritual grace will be manifest. This need is not new; which should relieve us all of considerable responsibility and perhaps make us even willing to look at this phenomenon dispassionately. I have neither the childhood, wish nor the competence to massachusetts embark on monroe the exercise with the tools of the social and Formal Introduction biological sciences but more simply in the manner of a novelist responding to james monroe childhood one famous book of European fiction: Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness , which better than any other work that I know displays that Western desire and need which I have just referred to. Of course there are whole libraries of books devoted to the same purpose but most of them are so obvious and so crude that few people worry about them today.

Conrad, on the other hand, is undoubtedly one of the great stylists of modern fiction and a good storyteller into the bargain. His contribution therefore falls automatically into a different class -- permanent literature -- read and taught and constantly evaluated by serious academics. Heart of Darkness is indeed so secure today that a leading Conrad scholar has numbered it among the half-dozen greatest short novels in the English language. I will return to this critical opinion in due course because it may seriously modify my earlier suppositions about who may or may not be guilty in some of the shuldice clinic, matters I will now raise. Heart of childhood Darkness projects the image of Africa as the other world, the linnaean system, antithesis of Europe and therefore of civilization, a place where man's vaunted intelligence and refinement are finally mocked by triumphant beastiality. The book opens on the River Thames, tranquil, resting, peacefully at the decline of day after ages of good service done to the race that peopled its banks. But the actual story will take place on the River Congo, the very antithesis of the james monroe, Thames. The River Congo is quite decidedly not a River Emeritus. It has rendered no service and enjoys no old-age pension. We are told that Going up that river was like traveling back to the earliest beginnings of the world. Is Conrad saying then that these two rivers are very different, one good, the other bad?

Yes, but that is not the real point. It is not the differentness that worries Conrad but the lurking hint of kinship, of common ancestry. For the Thames too has been one of the shuldice clinic, dark places of the earth. It conquered its darkness, of course, and is now in daylight and at peace. But if it were to visit its primordial relative, the Congo, it would run the terrible risk of hearing grotesque echoes of its own forgotten darkness, and falling victim to monroe an avenging recrudescence of the richard 3 shakespeare, mindless frenzy of the first beginnings. These suggestive echoes comprise Conrad's famed evocation of the African atmosphere in Heart of Darkness . In the final consideration his method amounts to no more than a steady, ponderous, fake-ritualistic repetition of two antithetical sentences, one about silence and the other about frenzy. We can inspect samples of this on pages 36 and 37 of the present edition: a) it was the stillness of an implacable force brooding over an inscrutable intention and b) The steamer toiled along slowly on the edge of a black and incomprehensible frenzy. Of course there is a judicious change of adjective from time to time, so that instead of inscrutable, for james monroe example, you might have unspeakable, even plain mysterious, etc., etc. The eagle-eyed English critic F. R. Leavis drew attention long ago to Conrad's adjectival insistence upon inexpressible and incomprehensible mystery.

That insistence must not be dismissed lightly, as many Conrad critics have tended to do, as a mere stylistic flaw; for it raises serious questions of rose artistic good faith. When a writer while pretending to record scenes, incidents and their impact is in reality engaged in inducing hypnotic stupor in his readers through a bombardment of emotive words and other forms of childhood trickery much more has to be at Essay Introduction stake than stylistic felicity. Generally normal readers are well armed to detect and resist such under-hand activity. Childhood. But Conrad chose his subject well -- one which was guaranteed not to put him in conflict with the psychological predisposition of his readers or raise the need for him to contend with their resistance. He chose the shuldice clinic, role of purveyor of james monroe childhood comforting myths. The most interesting and revealing passages in Heart of salem Darkness are, however, about people. I must crave the james monroe childhood, indulgence of my reader to quote almost a whole page from about the middle of the stop/when representatives of Europe in a steamer going down the Congo encounter the denizens of Africa. We were wanderers on a prehistoric earth, on an earth that wore the aspect of an unknown planet. We could have fancied ourselves the first of men taking possession of an accursed inheritance, to be subdued at the cost of forever-lovely rose profound anguish and of excessive toil. James Monroe. But suddenly as we struggled round a bend there would be a glimpse of rush walls, of peaked grass-roofs, a burst of Need for a Formal yells, a whirl of black limbs, a mass of hands clapping, of feet stamping, of bodies swaying, of eyes rolling under the droop of heavy and motionless foliage.

The steamer toiled along slowly on the edge of a black and incomprehensible frenzy. Monroe. The prehistoric man was cursing us, praying to us, welcoming us -- who could tell? We were cut off from the shuldice clinic, comprehension of our surroundings; we glided past like phantoms, wondering and secretly appalled, as sane men would be before an enthusiastic outbreak in monroe a madhouse. We could not understand because we were too far and could not remember, because we were traveling in the night of shuldice clinic first ages, of those ages that are gone, leaving hardly a sign -- and no memories. The earth seemed unearthly. Monroe Childhood. We are accustomed to look upon the shackled form of a conquered monster, but there -- there you could look at forever-lovely a thing monstrous and free. It was unearthly and the men were . No they were not inhuman. Well, you know that was the worst of it -- this suspicion of their not being inhuman.

It would come slowly to one. They howled and james leaped and spun and made horrid faces, but what thrilled you, was just the thought of the canterbury tales the knight their humanity -- like yours -- the monroe childhood, thought of your remote kinship with this wild and passionate uproar. Ugly. Yes, it was ugly enough, but if you were man enough you would admit to yourself that there was in you just the faintest trace of a response to forever-lovely the terrible frankness of that noise, a dim suspicion of childhood there being a meaning in it which you -- you so remote from the night of first ages -- could comprehend. Herein lies the meaning of Heart of Darkness and the fascination it holds over the Western mind: What thrilled you was just the thought of their humanity -- like yours . Shuldice Clinic. Ugly. Having shown us Africa in the mass, Conrad then zeros in, half a page later, on a specific example, giving us one of his rare descriptions of an james childhood, African who is not just limbs or rolling eyes:

And between whiles I had to shuldice clinic look after the savage who was fireman. He was an improved specimen; he could fire up a vertical boiler. He was there below me and, upon my word, to look at him was as edifying as seeing a dog in a parody of breeches and a feather hat walking on his hind legs. A few months of training had done for that really fine chap. James. He squinted at the steam-gauge and at Essay on No Need Formal Introduction the water-gauge with an evident effort of monroe intrepidity -- and he had filed his teeth too, the poor devil, and salem 1692 the wool of his pate shaved into queer patterns, and three ornamental scars on james childhood each of his cheeks. He ought to have been clapping his hands and stamping his feet on the bank, instead of the canterbury tales the knight which he was hard at work, a thrall to strange witchcraft, full of improving knowledge. As everybody knows, Conrad is a romantic on monroe the side. Linnaean System. He might not exactly admire savages clapping their hands and james monroe stamping their feet but they have at least the merit of being in their place, unlike this dog in a parody of breeches. For Conrad things being in their place is of the utmost importance. Fine fellows -- cannibals --in their place, he tells us pointedly.

Tragedy begins when things leave their accustomed place, like Europe leaving its safe stronghold between the policeman and the baker to like a peep into the heart of darkness. Before the story likes us into the Congo basin proper we are given this nice little vignette as an example of things in their place: Now and then a boat from the shore gave one a momentary contact with reality. It was paddled by black fellows. You could see from afar the white of shuldice clinic their eyeballs glistening.

They shouted, sang; their bodies streamed with perspiration; they had faces like grotesque masks -- these chaps; but they had bone, muscle, a wild vitality, an intense energy of movement that was as natural and hue as the surf along their coast. James Monroe Childhood. They wanted no excuse for being there. They were a great comfort to salem massachusetts look at. Towards the end of the story Conrad lavishes a whole page quite unexpectedly on an African woman who has obviously been some kind of mistress to Mr. Kurtz and james childhood now presides (if I may be permitted a little liberty) like a formidable mystery over the inexorable imminence of linnaean system his departure: She was savage and superb, wild-eyed and magnificent . She stood looking at us without a stir and like the wilderness itself, with an air of brooding over an inscrutable purpose. This Amazon is drawn in considerable detail, albeit of a predictable nature, for two reasons. First, she is in her place and so can win Conrad's special brand of approval and second, she fulfills a structural requirement of the story: a savage counterpart to the refined, European woman who will step forth to end the story: She came forward all in james monroe childhood black with a pale head, floating toward me in salem massachusetts 1692 the dusk.

She was in mourning . Childhood. She took both my hands in hers and murmured, I had heard you were coming.. She had a mature capacity for fidelity, for belief, for suffering. The difference in the attitude of the novelist to these two women is conveyed in too many direct and subfile ways to need elaboration. But perhaps the most significant difference is the one implied in the author's bestowal of human expression to the one and the withholding of it from the other. It is clearly not part of Conrad's purpose to confer language on the rudimentary souls of Africa. In place of speech they made a violent babble of uncouth sounds. They exchanged short grunting phrases even among themselves.

But most of the time they were too busy with their frenzy. There are two occasions in massachusetts the book, however, when Conrad departs somewhat from his practice and confers speech, even English speech, on the savages. The first occurs when cannibalism gets the better of them: Catch 'im, he snapped with a bloodshot widening of james monroe his eyes and a flash of 3 shakespeare sharp teeth -- catch 'im. Give 'im to us.

To you, eh? I asked; what would you do with them? Eat 'im! he said curtly. . James Monroe. . . The other occasion was the famous announcement:Mistah Kurtz -- he dead. At first sight these instances might be mistaken for unexpected acts of generosity from Conrad. On No For A Formal Introduction. In reality they constitute some of his best assaults. In the monroe childhood, case of the cannibals the incomprehensible grunts that had thus far served them for speech suddenly proved inadequate for Conrad's purpose of letting the the knight, European glimpse the unspeakable craving in their hearts. Weighing the necessity for james monroe consistency in the portrayal of the dumb brutes against the sensational advantages of securing their conviction by clear, unambiguous evidence issuing out of forever-lovely rose their own mouth Conrad chose the latter. James Monroe. As for the announcement of Mr. Kurtz's death by the insolent black head in the doorway what better or more appropriate finis could be written to the horror story of that wayward child of civilization who willfully had given his soul to the powers of darkness and taken a high seat amongst the devils of the land than the richard, proclamation of his physical death by the forces he had joined?

It might be contended, of course, that the attitude to the African in Heart of Darkness is not Conrad's but that of his fictional narrator, Marlow, and that far from endorsing it Conrad might indeed be holding it up to irony and criticism. Certainly Conrad appears to go to considerable pains to set up layers of insulation between himself and monroe the moral universe of his history. He has, for Essay on No Need for a Introduction example, a narrator behind a narrator. The primary narrator is monroe childhood, Marlow but his account is given to us through the linnaean system, filter of a second, shadowy person. But if Conrad's intention is to draw a cordon sanitaire between himself and the moral and psychological malaise of his narrator his care seems to me totally wasted because he neglects to hint however subtly or tentatively at an alternative frame of reference by which we may judge the actions and monroe opinions of his characters. It would not have been beyond Conrad's power to make that provision if he had thought it necessary. Marlow seems to me to enjoy Conrad's complete confidence -- a feeling reinforced by the close similarities between their two careers. Marlow comes through to us not only Formal as a witness of truth, but one holding those advanced and humane views appropriate to the English liberal tradition which required all Englishmen of decency to be deeply shocked by childhood, atrocities in Bulgaria or the Congo of King Leopold of the Belgians or wherever. Thus Marlow is able to toss out the knight such bleeding-heart sentiments as these: They were dying slowly -- it was very clear. They were not enemies, they were not criminals, they were nothing earthly now, nothing but black shadows of disease and monroe childhood starvation lying confusedly in the greenish gloom.

Brought from tales, all the recesses of the coast in all the legality of time contracts, lost in uncongenial surroundings, fed on unfamiliar food, they sickened, became inefficient, and childhood were then allowed to salem massachusetts crawl away and rest. The kind of liberalism espoused here by Marlow/Conrad touched all the best minds of the age in England, Europe and America. It took different forms in the minds of different people but almost always managed to sidestep the ultimate question of equality between white people and black people. That extraordinary missionary, Albert Schweitzer, who sacrificed brilliant careers in music and theology in Europe for a life of service to Africans in much the same area as Conrad writes about, epitomizes the ambivalence. In a comment which has often been quoted Schweitzer says: The African is indeed my brother but my junior brother. And so he proceeded to build a hospital appropriate to the needs of junior brothers with standards of hygiene reminiscent of james medical practice in 1692 the days before the germ theory of james monroe childhood disease came into being. Naturally he became a sensation in tales Europe and America. Pilgrims flocked, and I believe still flock even after he has passed on, to witness the prodigious miracle in Lamberene, on the edge of the primeval forest.

Conrad's liberalism would not take him quite as far as Schweitzer's, though. He would not use the word brother however qualified; the farthest he would go was kinship. When Marlow's African helmsman falls down with a spear in his heart he gives his white master one final disquieting look. And the intimate profundity of that look he gave me when he received his hurt remains to this day in my memory -- like a claim of james distant kinship affirmed in a supreme moment. It is important to linnaean system note that Conrad, careful as ever with his words, is monroe childhood, concerned not so much about distant kinship as about someone laying a claim on the canterbury tales it. The black man lays a claim on the white man which is well-nigh intolerable. Monroe. It is the analyse, laying of this claim which frightens and at the same time fascinates Conrad, . the monroe childhood, thought of their humanity -- like yours . The Canterbury The Knight. Ugly. The point of my observations should be quite clear by now, namely that Joseph Conrad was a thoroughgoing racist. That this simple truth is glossed over in criticisms of james childhood his work is due to 1692 the fact that white racism against Africa is such a normal way of thinking that its manifestations go completely unremarked.

Students of Heart of Darkness will often tell you that Conrad is concerned not so much with Africa as with the deterioration of one European mind caused by solitude and james monroe sickness. Salem. They will point out to you that Conrad is, if anything, less charitable to james monroe childhood the Europeans in the story than he is to the natives, that the linnaean system, point of the monroe, story is to forever-lovely rose ridicule Europe's civilizing mission in james childhood Africa. A Conrad student informed me in Scotland that Africa is merely a setting for the disintegration of the linnaean system, mind of Mr. Kurtz. Which is partly the point. Africa as setting and monroe childhood backdrop which eliminates the African as human factor. Africa as a metaphysical battlefield devoid of all recognizable humanity, into which the wandering European enters at his peril. Can nobody see the preposterous and linnaean system perverse arrogance in thus reducing Africa to the role of props for the break-up of one petty European mind? But that is james monroe, not even the point. Salem Massachusetts. The real question is the dehumanization of Africa and Africans which this age-long attitude has fostered and monroe continues to linnaean system foster in james childhood the world. And the question is salem 1692, whether a novel which celebrates this dehumanization, which depersonalizes a portion of the human race, can be called a great work of art.

My answer is: No, it cannot. James Monroe. I do not doubt Conrad's great talents. Even Heart of Darkness has its memorably good passages and moments: The reaches opened before us and closed behind, as if the forest had stepped leisurely across tile water to bar the way for our return. Its exploration of the minds of the European characters is often penetrating and full of insight. But all that has been more than fully discussed in the last fifty years. His obvious racism has, however, not been addressed. And it is high time it was! Conrad was born in 1857, the linnaean system, very year in which the first Anglican missionaries were arriving among my own people in Nigeria. It was certainly not his fault that he lived his life at james monroe childhood a time when the reputation of the black man was at shuldice clinic a particularly low level.

But even after due allowances have been made for all the influences of contemporary prejudice on his sensibility there remains still in Conrad's attitude a residue of antipathy to black people which his peculiar psychology alone can explain. James Monroe Childhood. His own account of forever-lovely rose his first encounter with a black man is very revealing: A certain enormous buck nigger encountered in Haiti fixed my conception of blind, furious, unreasoning rage, as manifested in monroe childhood the human animal to the end of my days. Of the nigger I used to dream for years afterwards. Certainly Conrad had a problem with niggers. His inordinate love of linnaean system that word itself should be of interest to psychoanalysts. Sometimes his fixation on blackness is equally interesting as when he gives us this brief description: A black figure stood up, strode on long black legs, waving long black arms. Childhood. . . . as though we might expect a black figure striding along on black legs to wave white arms! But so unrelenting is Conrad's obsession. As a matter of interest Conrad gives us in A Personal Record what amounts to linnaean system a companion piece to the buck nigger of Haiti. At the age of sixteen Conrad encountered his first Englishman in Europe.

He calls him my unforgettable Englishman and describes him in the following manner: (his) calves exposed to the public gaze . . . dazzled the beholder by the splendor of james monroe their marble-like condition and their rich tone of young ivory. . The Knight. . . The light of a headlong, exalted satisfaction with the world of men. . . illumined his face. . . and triumphant eyes. In passing he cast a glance of kindly curiosity and a friendly gleam of monroe big, sound, shiny teeth. . . his white calves twinkled sturdily. Irrational love and irrational hate jostling together in the heart of on No that talented, tormented man. But whereas irrational love may at worst engender foolish acts of indiscretion, irrational hate can endanger the life of the community. Naturally Conrad is james monroe childhood, a dream for shuldice clinic psychoanalytic critics. Perhaps the most detailed study of him in james monroe this direction is by Bernard C. Meyer, M.D.

In his lengthy book Dr. Meyer follows every conceivable lead (and sometimes inconceivable ones) to explain Conrad. As an example he gives us long disquisitions on the significance of hair and hair-cutting in Conrad. And yet not even one word is spared for his attitude to black people. Not even the discussion of Conrad's antisemitism was enough to spark off in Dr. The Canterbury The Knight. Meyer's mind those other dark and explosive thoughts. Which only leads one to surmise that Western psychoanalysts must regard the kind of racism displayed by Conrad absolutely normal despite the profoundly important work done by Frantz Fanon in james childhood the psychiatric hospitals of French Algeria. Whatever Conrad's problems were, you might say he is now safely dead.

Quite true. Unfortunately his heart of darkness plagues us still. Which is why an offensive and deplorable book can be described by a serious scholar as among the half dozen greatest short novels in the English language. And why it is today the linnaean system, most commonly prescribed novel in twentieth-century literature courses in james English Departments of American universities. There are two probable grounds on which what I have aid so far may be contested. The first is that it is no concern of fiction to please people about whom it is forever-lovely rose, written. Childhood. I will go along with that. But I am not talking about pleasing people. I am talking about a book which parades in the most vulgar fashion prejudices and insults from which a section of mankind has suffered untold agonies and 1692 atrocities in the past and continues to childhood do so in many ways and the canterbury tales the knight many places today. Monroe Childhood. I am talking about richard a story in which the very humanity of black people is monroe, called in question. Secondly, I may be challenged on the grounds of actuality.

Conrad, after all, did sail down the linnaean system, Congo in 1890 when my own father was still a babe in arms. Monroe Childhood. How could I stand up more than fifty years after his death and purport to contradict him? My answer is that as a sensible man I will not accept just any traveler's tales solely on the grounds that I have not made the journey myself. I will not trust the the canterbury tales, evidence even off man's very eyes when I suspect them to be as jaundiced as Conrad's. Monroe. And we also happen to know that Conrad was, in the words of his biographer, Bernard C. Meyer, notoriously inaccurate in the rendering of his own history. But more important by far is the abundant testimony about Conrad's savages which we could gather if we were so inclined from other sources and which might lead us to think that these people must have had other occupations besides merging into the evil forest or materializing out of it simply to plague Marlow and his dispirited band. For as it happened, soon after Conrad had written his book an event of far greater consequence was taking place in the art world of Europe. This is how Frank Willett, a British art historian, describes it:

Gaugin had gone to salem Tahiti, the most extravagant individual act of turning to a non-European culture in the decades immediately before and after 1900, when European artists were avid for new artistic experiences, but it was only about 1904-5 that African art began to make its distinctive impact. One piece is still identifiable; it is childhood, a mask that had been given to Maurice Vlaminck in 1905. He records that Derain was 'speechless' and 'stunned' when he saw it, bought it from Vlaminck and in turn showed it to Picasso and Matisse, who were also greatly affected by it. Ambroise Vollard then borrowed it and had it cast in bronze. . . The revolution of Essay on No Need for a twentieth century art was under way! The mask in question was made by other savages living just north of Conrad's River Congo. They have a name too: the Fang people, and are without a doubt among the world's greatest masters of the sculptured form. The event Frank Willett is referring to marks the beginning of cubism and the infusion of new life into European art, which had run completely out of strength. The point of all this is to suggest that Conrad's picture of the people of the Congo seems grossly inadequate even at the height of their subjection to the ravages of King Leopold's lnternational Association for james childhood the Civilization of Central Africa.

Travelers with closed minds can tell us little except about themselves. But even those not blinkered, like Conrad with xenophobia, can be astonishing blind. Let me digress a little here. One of the greatest and most intrepid travelers of all time, Marco Polo, journeyed to the Far East from the Mediterranean in the thirteenth century and spent twenty years in the court of Kublai Khan in China. On his return to Venice he set down in his book entitled Description of the World his impressions of the the canterbury the knight, peoples and places and customs he had seen. But there were at least two extraordinary omissions in his account. Childhood. He said nothing about the art of printing, unknown as yet in forever-lovely Europe but in full flower in China. He either did not notice it at all or if he did, failed to see what use Europe could possibly have for childhood it. Whatever the reason, Europe had to wait another hundred years for Gutenberg. The Canterbury Tales. But even more spectacular was Marco Polo's omission of any reference to the Great Wall of monroe childhood China nearly 4,000 miles long and already more than 1,000 years old at on No Need for a Introduction the time of his visit. Again, he may not have seen it; but the Great Wall of China is the only structure built by man which is visible from the moon!

Indeed travelers can be blind. As I said earlier Conrad did not originate the image of Africa which we find in his book. It was and is the dominant image of james monroe childhood Africa in the Western imagination and Conrad merely brought the peculiar gifts of his own mind to bear on it. For reasons which can certainly use close psychological inquiry the West seems to suffer deep anxieties about the precariousness of its civilization and to have a need for constant reassurance by comparison with Africa. If Europe, advancing in civilization, could cast a backward glance periodically at salem Africa trapped in primordial barbarity it could say with faith and feeling: There go I but for the grace of God. James. Africa is to Europe as the picture is to Dorian Gray -- a carrier onto whom the master unloads his physical and moral deformities so that he may go forward, erect and linnaean system immaculate. Consequently Africa is something to be avoided just as the james childhood, picture has to be hidden away to rose safeguard the man's jeopardous integrity. Keep away from Africa, or else!

Mr. Kurtz of Heart of Darkness should have heeded that warning and the prowling horror in his heart would have kept its place, chained to james its lair. But he foolishly exposed himself to the wild irresistible allure of the jungle and analyse lo! the james, darkness found him out. In my original conception of this essay I had thought to conclude it nicely on an appropriately positive note in which I would suggest from my privileged position in linnaean system African and Western cultures some advantages the West might derive from Africa once it rid its mind of old prejudices and began to monroe childhood look at Africa not through a haze of distortions and cheap mystifications but quite simply as a continent of people -- not angels, but not rudimentary souls either -- just people, often highly gifted people and often strikingly successful in their enterprise with life and society. But as I thought more about the stereotype image, about its grip and pervasiveness, about the willful tenacity with which the West holds it to its heart; when I thought of the West's television and linnaean system cinema and newspapers, about books read in its schools and out of james monroe childhood school, of churches preaching to empty pews about the need to send help to the heathen in Africa, I realized that no easy optimism was possible. On No Need. And there was, in james childhood any case, something totally wrong in offering bribes to the West in return for its good opinion of Africa.

Ultimately the abandonment of unwholesome thoughts must be its own and only reward. Although I have used the richard, word willful a few times here to monroe childhood characterize the Need for a Formal Introduction, West's view of Africa, it may well be that what is monroe, happening at 3 shakespeare this stage is more akin to reflex action than calculated malice. Which does not make the situation more but less hopeful. The Christian Science Monitor, a paper more enlightened than most, once carried an interesting article written by monroe, its Education Editor on the serious psychological and learning problems faced by little children who speak one language at home and then go to school where something else is spoken. It was a wide-ranging article taking in tales the knight Spanish-speaking children in America, the children of migrant Italian workers in Germany, the quadrilingual phenomenon in Malaysia, and so on.

And all this while the article speaks unequivocally about language. But then out of the blue sky comes this: In London there is an enormous immigration of children who speak Indian or Nigerian dialects, or some other native language. I believe that the introduction of dialects which is technically erroneous in the context is almost a reflex action caused by an instinctive desire of the writer to downgrade the discussion to the level of Africa and India. And this is quite comparable to Conrad's withholding of language from his rudimentary souls.

Language is too grand for these chaps; let's give them dialects! In all this business a lot of violence is inevitably done not only to the image of despised peoples but even to james childhood words, the very tools of possible redress. Look at the phrase native language in the Science Monitor excerpt. Surely the shuldice clinic, only native language possible in London is Cockney English. But our writer means something else -- something appropriate to the sounds Indians and Africans make! Although the work of redressing which needs to be done may appear too daunting, I believe it is not one day too soon to monroe begin. Conrad saw and condemned the evil of imperial exploitation but was strangely unaware of the racism on which it sharpened its iron tooth.

But the victims of racist slander who for centuries have had to linnaean system live with the inhumanity it makes them heir to have always known better than any casual visitor even when he comes loaded with the gifts of a Conrad.