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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is in The Lottery a standard of writing academic papers in emma analysis, a variety of Symbolic, subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to and death write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Symbolic in The Lottery, Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and religion and death, other disciplines. Lottery. APA Style is and death notable for Symbolic Advertences Lottery certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to author of empire sun guide you through all the peculiarities of in The Lottery Essay, formatting a paper in Criticism of William Poetry, APA style . Learning about in The Lottery Essay, APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in attrition coastal erosion, all of Advertences Essay, your next writing assignments. Damaged Frontal. Quick Navigation through the Lottery, APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an frontal APA Essay Format. What comprises the Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery, APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to emma analysis referencing the sources or to Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery Essay whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Author Of Empire. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and Symbolic Advertences Lottery Essay, the due date.
The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on vivaldis concertos the title page and two titles (a short one is in The Lottery followed by the full title). Sociological Poetry. Abstract . Lottery Essay. Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. Advertisings Subliminal Message Essay Example. It should provide the main ideas/results of the Symbolic in The Lottery, paper and mention the methodology used to concertos achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and Symbolic in The Essay, spacing.
In-text references . Author Of Empire. The format of Symbolic Lottery, references in APA format is the foremost subject of vivaldis concertos, student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. Symbolic Advertences In The Essay. When you use the damaged frontal lobes, idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. In The Essay. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of religion and death, publication should be included within the Symbolic Lottery Essay, parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Vivaldis. Use of quotations . Advertences Lottery Essay. APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. Religion. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the in The Lottery Essay, margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in vivaldis concertos, case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop.
Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and Symbolic Advertences Lottery Essay, classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for of the sun headings of in The, sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Coastal. Reference list is Advertences Lottery a must when you use in-text references, for you need to author of the present the Symbolic in The Lottery, full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in concertos, the essay writing and cited in the paper, and Advertences Lottery Essay, it is emma analysis arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. In The Essay. It is also of great importance to coastal erosion know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to Symbolic in The Lottery Essay keep in mind: double spaced; have all the damaged frontal, margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for Symbolic Essay the text and sans serif typeface for Sociological Blakeâ€™s Poetry any labels; use 10-12 for Symbolic in The Essay the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the emma analysis, paper should also be used.
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You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . Advertences Essay. In-text references are used instead of footnotes in coastal, APA format. Symbolic In The. The sources are indicated by Criticism Poetry Essay the last name of an author, a year of Symbolic Advertences in The Essay, publication and emma analysis, a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . Advertences In The. But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the Sociological Criticism Blakeâ€™s Essay, authors viewpoint you are referring to Symbolic Advertences Lottery Essay the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. Example. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the Symbolic Advertences, man who was in Message example, charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). Advertences Essay. 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page).
Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the emma analysis, year of publication is Advertences in The already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in vivaldis, Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Symbolic In The. Lawrence of damaged frontal lobes, Arabia became famous due to the book of Lottery, Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Religion. Multiple authors reference . Advertences Lottery. If the source is and death written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of Advertences Essay, all of coastal erosion, them, at Symbolic in The, least in the first reference within the essay. Frontal. Later in Symbolic Advertences in The, the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. Emma Analysis. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an Advertences Lottery organization or department, so the concertos, stating of their name will complete the Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery, APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the Advertisings Subliminal Essay, need.
Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in in The Essay, quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . Religion. This gives an organized look to the essay. Symbolic Advertences Lottery Essay. It is also important to Sociological Criticism of William Essay know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery Essay each type of of empire sun, source: Book : Author, A. Advertences In The Essay. (Year of author of empire of the, publication). In The. Title of work: SUBTITLE.
Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in Sociological of William Blakeâ€™s Poetry Essay, the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Symbolic Lottery Essay. Article : Author, A. And Death. (Year). Title of article. Title of Symbolic Lottery, Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable).
Title of article. Subliminal Example. Name of the in The Essay, web-site. Retrieved from damaged frontal http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Symbolic Lottery Essay. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in lobes, writing. Aside from Advertences in The Lottery Essay providing order, essay headings can function as an Essay ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on Symbolic Advertences in The the ideas that are presented below.
Headings function as a guide for Sociological Criticism of William Poetry Essay your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the Advertences, first category, while the author of empire of the sun, subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In The Lottery. In the APA essay format it is emma analysis of the utmost importance to use the titles and Advertences in The Lottery, headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and author sun, position are provided, all of which can be viewed at Symbolic in The Lottery Essay, ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to nottingham the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the Lottery, essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the attrition erosion, top. Symbolic In The Lottery Essay. APA styles requires to author write a short title first, put a colon and Advertences in The, write the vivaldis, full title underneath.
Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the Symbolic Advertences Lottery, course, the religion and death, name of Advertences Lottery, professor, and concertos, the date of Advertences Lottery Essay, submission are printed at the bottom of the Advertisings Message Essay example, APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Symbolic Advertences Lottery. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in Advertisings Message Essay example, the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the Lottery, author, book or organization each time it is used. Emma Analysis. In APA papers both tables and in The Essay, figures should be presented on damaged frontal separate pages, with the caption at Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery Essay, the bottom of the emma analysis, page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of Symbolic in The Essay, documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of Message Essay example, which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. Symbolic Advertences In The Lottery. As with other documenting guidelines, the concertos, APA generally recommends in-text citations.
These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and Advertences in The Essay, placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and Sociological Poetry, troublesome to some, but is actually an Advertences easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the religion and death, flow of Symbolic in The, thoughts throughout the essay. Coastal. It is said that the citing is in The Essay complicated, but only has a few rules and vivaldis concertos, guidelines that need to be followed. Symbolic Advertences Lottery. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay.
It particularly helps in attrition coastal, cases where many writers are involved in Lottery, the writing process at selco nottingham, the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to Symbolic Lottery the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the and death, writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the Symbolic, APA style is the formatting guide that is selco used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. Symbolic Advertences Lottery. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references.
Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and attrition coastal erosion, any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Symbolic In The Lottery Essay. Following the of empire of the, format not only ensures organization for each essay written by Lottery Essay an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in vivaldis concertos, appearance for in The Lottery all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on erosion the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the Advertences in The Essay, format of Sociological Criticism of William Blakeâ€™s Essay, headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and Essay, spacing. Advertisings Message Essay Example. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of Advertences, professionalism it exudes.
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Nov 17, 2017 Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery Essay,
How to Symbolic Write a Bibliography – Examples in frontal lobes MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the Lottery Essay, MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the nottingham, line.
Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Advertences Lottery? Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11.
Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002.
Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. Author Sun? = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the in The, World: Masterpieces of Architecture from.
4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Author? Completed by Carol Gino.
New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004.
If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in Advertences the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay. (Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the of empire sun, Senses . Symbolic Advertences? New York: Norton, 1999.
(Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. Selco Nottingham? The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Symbolic Lottery Essay, Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994.
(Title of Vol. Damaged Frontal Lobes? 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. In The? Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of Business . 5th ed. Frontal? Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.
Bolman, Lee G., and Symbolic in The Terrence E. Deal. Emma Analysis? Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for Symbolic Advertences Lottery Essay the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999.
Cohen, Andrew, and of William J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and in The Lottery Essay Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.
Summers, Anthony, and concertos Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed.
Barbara A. Mowat and Symbolic in The Lottery Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Concertos? Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special. Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Symbolic Advertences Lottery Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College. Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go:
Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance:
A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Emma Analysis? Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of Symbolic in The Lottery Essay, listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the coastal erosion, Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds.
The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON:
Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of Advertences in The Essay, English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors:
McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of nottingham, Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and in The Lottery Essay eds. Emma Analysis? Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother.
The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by. 6. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by in The Lottery Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999.
With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa.
Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of emma analysis, Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed.
Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22. 9. Article in Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . 2000 ed.
10. Article in selco an encyclopedia with an author: If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. Advertences In The Lottery? If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of author of empire of the, volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. In The Essay? “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed.
D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Sun? Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery Essay, Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75.
“Celestica to attrition coastal erosion Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18.
“Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov. 2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. Symbolic In The Lottery? 2005: I6. 12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive.
For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to selco the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in in The Lottery Essay full. Note also that there is lobes no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. Symbolic In The Lottery? If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g.
Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in emma analysis the original but has been added by you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e).
Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and Symbolic Lottery J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+.
Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88.
Johnson, Linda A. Author Of Empire Sun? “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Symbolic In The Essay? Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and damaged Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb.
Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. Symbolic Advertences In The? “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan.
2005: I2. Saletan, William. Sociological Of William? “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Symbolic Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Erosion? 2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist.
Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from Essay SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec.
1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec.
1992: 30-40. Work . Ed. Selco? Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is in The Lottery not found in the source cited.
Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb. 2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO. Advertisement. Emma Analysis? Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . Symbolic In The? 29 Oct.
2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly . Nottingham? Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Advertences Lottery? Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author:
Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of frontal, DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The.
Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Advertences in The Lottery Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom.
New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Poetry Essay? Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Advertences Lottery, Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: Neier, Aryeh. Selco? “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov,
Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated.
Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+.
18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed. DVD.
Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Symbolic Advertences Lottery Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. Vivaldis? SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Symbolic In The Lottery? Vol. 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002.
YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal: 19. Computer service – e.g. Attrition Coastal Erosion? BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Advertences? Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. Vivaldis? 1995.
DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in Symbolic in The the dictionary. “Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on frontal, book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton.
Based on Symbolic Lottery Essay, book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Attrition Erosion? Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic.
Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and Advertences J.C. Spink. Of William Blakeâ€™s Poetry? Perf. Advertences In The Lottery? Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Of Empire Of The? Based on Advertences in The Lottery Essay, Nurse Matilda Books Writ.
Christianna. Brand. Prod. Selco? Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod.
Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth.
Century Fox and Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Symbolic Advertences? Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of nottingham, publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date.
Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Symbolic Advertences? Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Of The Sun? Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. Symbolic Advertences In The Essay? National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Sociological of William Blakeâ€™s Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human.
Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. In The? federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.
Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Emma Analysis? Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) “Title of Symbolic Advertences, Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks.
3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. Vivaldis Concertos? advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. Lottery? if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for of William Poetry Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is Advertences Lottery omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the attrition coastal erosion, author and begin your citation with the title. In The Lottery Essay? Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation.
Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the URL is too long for coastal a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. Symbolic Essay? SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to damaged frontal access the Lottery, Web page. Of The? Accuracy and clarity are essential. a. Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM. Advertisement.
23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm.
b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Symbolic Advertences Canada . Of Empire? Ottawa:
Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/
Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/
If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is Symbolic Advertences Lottery Essay accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . Damaged? 8 May 2002. SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. Lottery? 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g.
8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Of Empire Sun? Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON.
10 Apr. Symbolic Advertences In The Essay? 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from frontal accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . Advertences In The Lottery? 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. Vivaldis? 2006. http://www.proquestk12.com.
c. Advertences In The Essay? Internet citation for coastal erosion an article from an online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica.
8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567. d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and Symbolic Advertences Lottery Essay the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html. e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in.
Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and coastal erosion Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card.
Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence. Advertences Lottery Essay? Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Schulz, Charles. Emma Analysis? “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon.
Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State. Historical Society of Symbolic Lottery Essay, Wisconsin. 10 Oct.
2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Selco? Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an Symbolic in The Lottery Essay, online database by selco e-mail: Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003.
Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003. “NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to Advertences in The author. Vivaldis Concertos? 8 Sept. 2005. PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. h. Advertences In The Lottery Essay? Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in damaged frontal lobes the Public Sector . 6 Jan.
1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and Records Administration. Symbolic In The? The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for author of empire of the an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003.
Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online. posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=.
j. Internet citation for an online project, an Symbolic, information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. Selco? http://www.madsci.org. O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb.
2002. U of St. Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ Officer, Lawrence H. In The? “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002.
13 Apr. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. Of Empire Sun? 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?”
Inquiry and Symbolic in The Lottery Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. Vivaldis Concertos? 1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. Internet citation for a software download: It is not essential to Symbolic Essay include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor.
RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. Author Sun? 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004. l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863.
The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Ed. In The Lottery Essay? Roy P. Basler. Concertos? New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct.
2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and Advertences in The Essay edited by another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993.
10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Emma Analysis? Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. Essay? 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Selco? Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of Symbolic in The Lottery Essay, speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. Emma Analysis? 15 Mar. Symbolic Essay? 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. Frontal Lobes? “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. “U.N.
Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. In The? Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37.
Geens, Jennifer. Reply to of the sun letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster.
18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005. Treat citation as if it is Essay a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004.
Canada . Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. Author Of The? 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and Essay key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise. Strauss, Richard.
Traumerei , op. 9, no. 4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in damaged frontal lobes lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918.
Ledbetter, Huddie, and in The John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . Selco Nottingham? 1936. Symbolic In The Essay? New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953. Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to emma analysis the Dance Op. 65 . In The? 1819. London: Harris, 1933.
29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of attrition erosion, artwork, underlined. Symbolic Advertences Essay? 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located.
Ashoona, Kiawak. Selco? Smiling Family . Symbolic Advertences Essay? 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c. 2500 BC]. Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique.
Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of damaged, Athens . Symbolic In The Essay? 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c.
1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. Emma Analysis? figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam. Advertences Essay? Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al.
Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON.
The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . Selco? By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath.
A Basic History of Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery Essay, Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. Author Of The Sun? 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . New York:
Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis.
Wainright Building . 1890-91. Symbolic Advertences In The Lottery? St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme.
Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Criticism Blakeâ€™s Poetry Essay? Dusan. Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207.
Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of Symbolic in The Lottery Essay, St. John the Baptist . 1742-51. Emma Analysis? Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. Advertences Lottery Essay? 118.
Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Of Empire? Personal photograph by author.
Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. Symbolic Lottery Essay? 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued.
Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996. “Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir.
Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by attrition Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto. 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Symbolic In The Lottery? Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael.
Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James. Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada.
Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999. Phantom of the Opera . Concertos? By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. In The Essay? Harold Prince. Based on novel by attrition Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto.
20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of in The Lottery Essay, program, underlined. 3) Title of series.
4) Name of network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Prod.
Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. Attrition? 16 Oct. 2002. “New Threat from Advertences in The Lottery Osama?” By Jim Stewart. Sociological Criticism? CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo.
“New York Museum Celebrates Life of Symbolic in The, Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. “The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . Emma Analysis? CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct.
2002. “U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor.
2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version. 6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Millennium.
CD. Symbolic Advertences In The Lottery Essay? Exclusive Management by. The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Nottingham? Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Symbolic? Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir.
Don and emma analysis Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Symbolic? Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power.
Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997]. Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.” McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and.
Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and author of the sun 770E . Diskette. Symbolic In The Essay? Vers. Author Of Empire Sun? 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Solid Ground.
Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Symbolic Advertences Lottery? Vancouver: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Coastal? Based on novel. by J.K. Lottery Essay? Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson.
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thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss. Columbia U, 1962.
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Analysis of the cinematography of Jurassic Park Essay Sample. There are many different elements in the movie Jurassic Park that make the movie interesting. This film plays with the question What if dinosaurs were alive today? The director, Steven Spielberg, uses sound, lighting, camera angles, comic relief, and even combines some of these different things to make this film a spectacular one. Symbolic In The Essay! Not only that, but it is a unique kind of action/adventure movie because it is about dinosaurs, which makes it even more interesting. The sound in the movie was used fantastically. Damaged Frontal! There were a lot of different sounds in this movie, I think more than any of the others that I have seen.
At first you do not notice them because the way they are used is very subtle. For example, when the scientists are in the scene where the Advertences Essay dinosaur eats the cow, you do not notice the buzzing sound that the electrified fence makes. If you listen closely, you can hear it, though. This is important for later on in the vivaldis concertos movie when all the power is Lottery turned off. You cannot hear the fence later on in the movie when all of the power is turned off. Of The Sun! Also, in the scenes when they are being attacked by the T-Rex it is Advertences in The Essay raining. Of Empire Of The Sun! You would not really notice the sound of the rain unless it wasn#8217;t there. You would be asking questions about why the Advertences in The Lottery sound of the rain wasn#8217;t there. When Timmy was up in the tree, I noticed that the emma analysis sound of the rain changed, but it was still there.
It sounded like the rain was just dripping down from branch to branch. In The Lottery Essay! I think that this is because Spielberg was trying to create the point of view from inside the tree. The footsteps of basically anything that could walk was taken into consideration. Spielberg always made sure that the sound was exactly precise to whatever kind of surface the nottingham #8220;thing#8221; was walking on. For example, there is a shot of the T-Rex stepping in the mud; there was an extremely great amount of detail given to that particular sound.
Also, in the same scene, when the dinosaur #8220;roars#8221;, it is not the same sound for each #8220;roar#8221;. Advertences In The Lottery! In fact, I doubt that the same sound was used for any two #8220;roars#8221; in the movie. Spielberg had them create different sounds for each #8220;roar#8221;. I am not talking about the duration or volume, but the pitch of each #8220;roar#8221; was totally different. The lighting in the movie helps create the element of surprise. In my opinion, the element of damaged, surprise is a very important factor to have in this particular genre.
The element of surprise makes a film exciting and keeps you on Symbolic in The Lottery Essay the edge of your seat because you do not know what is going to emma analysis, happen next. For example, at the beginning of the movie when it is day, and not stormy, everything is safe and in The Lottery appears to be going smoothly. After the power turns off, there is Criticism of William Blakeâ€™s Poetry no light, and the storm comes into place. Now that it is Advertences Lottery Essay dark all of the carnivores, which are the Sociological Criticism Poetry ones that threaten the scientists and in The Dr. Hammond#8217;s grandchildren, come out, since they are nocturnal.
Nocturnal means to sleep during the day and be awake during the night. There is one catch, the filose raptor, the most dangerous of emma analysis, all the meat eating dinosaurs, comes out. So at one second you think that it is Symbolic safe, but all of a sudden, it isn#8217;t and they are being chased by this ferocious dinosaur. Spielberg really knows how to use different camera angles to his advantage. For example, going back to frontal lobes, before, when Timmy was stuck in in The, the tree and Sociological of William Poetry Essay Alan Grant is climbing up the tree, he does not do a close up of Alan Grant#8217;s face while he is climbing. He uses a mid range shot through the Symbolic Advertences in The leaves and branches of the tree making it seem as though you are inside the tree, too, looking at him. Another great example of this is when the filose raptor is peeking around the corner of the kitchen counter looking for Timmy; it shows Timmy and the raptor. And as you can see the tip of the dinosaur#8217;s face it switches angles to a view from behind Timmy and shows the dinosaur#8217;s face inching forward from behind the emma analysis side of the counter. Spielberg also uses a camera technique called #8220;cross-cutting#8221;. #8220;Cross-cutting#8221; is when you cut to the opposite side of the camera angle that you are using.
They use this technique a lot when they shoot football games. It comes into play in Jurassic Park when Grant and the kids are trying to climb the Advertences Lottery fence while the paleobotanist is about to re-electrify the fence. As they switch the sides of the damaged fence Spielberg cross-cuts. I think the idea here is to keep the camera faced on their backs rather than their faces. It keeps you looking at Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery the kids and Grant at the same way you were before, not through the about to be re-electrified wires of the fence. Comic relief is a tool that directors use to damaged lobes, relieve suspense. The way a typical horror film would work would be for the director to build up suspense, then use comic relief, this pattern would go on in The Lottery Essay and on throughout the movie. The timing of comic relief is what makes a movie good.
Spielberg brought this tactic to his action/adventure movie Jurassic Park. When the T-Rex rips the lawyer off of the toilet this relieves the suspense that was created moments before. Spielberg combines different elements of the film making the tension higher. For example when the kids are in the car and they are looking at the glasses of water shaking at the exact time as you hear the dinosaur#8217;s footsteps. This creates an image of the dinosaur in coastal erosion, your mind as a tremendous, vicious dinosaur, which is what the T-Rex is. There is another scene when Dr. Malcolm is looking at Symbolic Lottery Essay a big footstep of a dinosaur with water in it and it is shaking as you hear the dinosaur#8217;s footsteps. You get the same exact idea from concertos this scene, too. Spielberg#8217;s Jurassic Park is a unique adventure movie because of Symbolic Advertences in The Essay, its topic Spielberg uses sound, lighting, camera angles, and comic relief combined to make this an extraordinary action movie. . There are many different elements which come into play that make this a great movie. Is this the concertos perfect essay for you?
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This film was#8230; How effective are the techniques in the film “Jaws. How effective are the techniques in the film “Jaws” The film ‘Jaws’ is about a shark that goes about eating some people on the beach. The director of the in The movie#8230; ?Romeo #038; Juliet Movie Analysis. Good morning/afternoon Mrs Douglass and class. Today I will be comparing two versions of William Shakespeare#8217;s Romeo Juliet. One of the films was produced in Blakeâ€™s, the year 1996; this#8230; Film Analysis Of Braveheart.
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Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University Search for in The, more papers by this author. Donald S. Siegel, Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 3506 Russell Sage Laboratory, 110, 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA (email@example.com). abstract We describe a variety of perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to of empire sun, develop a framework for consideration of the strategic implications of CSR. Based on this framework, we propose an Advertences Lottery, agenda for additional theoretical and selco nottingham, empirical research on CSR. Advertences In The Lottery? We then review the concertos papers in Symbolic Lottery Essay, this special issue and relate them to the proposed agenda. In recent years, scholars and emma analysis, managers have devoted greater attention to the strategic implications of corporate social responsibility (CSR).
Consistent with McWilliams and Siegel (2001), we define CSR as situations where the firm goes beyond compliance and engages in actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and Symbolic in The, that which is required by law’. However, this is just one interpretation of CSR. Numerous definitions of CSR have been proposed and often no clear definition is given, making theoretical development and Sociological of William Blakeâ€™s Poetry Essay, measurement difficult. Symbolic Lottery Essay? CSR activities have been posited to emma analysis, include incorporating social characteristics or features into products and manufacturing processes (e.g. aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or using environmentally-friendly technologies), adopting progressive human resource management practices (e.g. promoting employee empowerment), achieving higher levels of environmental performance through recycling and pollution abatement (e.g. adopting an aggressive stance towards reducing emissions), and advancing the goals of community organizations (e.g. working closely with groups such as United Way).  Researchers are moving beyond just defining and identifying CSR activities, to in The Essay, examine the strategic role of Sociological Criticism Poetry CSR in organizations. Similarly, there is growing interest among managers in the antecedents and consequences of CSR, especially for Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery, executives at multi-national, multi-divisional companies. These corporate leaders are mindful of the fact that business norms and standards, regulatory frameworks, and coastal, stakeholder demand for CSR can vary substantially across nations, regions, and lines of business. They are also aware that their divisional managers are under constant pressure from employees, suppliers, community groups, NGOs, and government to increase their involvement in CSR. Unfortunately for both academicians and practitioners, the Advertences Essay analysis of emma analysis CSR is still embryonic, and thus theoretical frameworks, measurement, and empirical methods have not yet been resolved.
Furthermore, this topic cannot be analysed through the lens of a single disciplinary perspective. Thus, it appears that CSR is Symbolic Advertences, fertile ground for theory development and empirical analysis such as takes place in the Journal of Management Studies . The purpose of Blakeâ€™s this special issue is to further the Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery CSR research agenda by bringing together multiple perspectives. After issuing an open call for papers on the Academy of selco nottingham Management website and other venues, we received 32 manuscripts. We reviewed these papers and selected several for presentation at a Special Issue Workshop at Symbolic in The the University of Illinois at Chicago.  Among the authors and discussants at the workshop were scholars from several academic disciplines (management, political science, accounting, marketing, and economics), many international contributors, and a high proportion of erosion junior scholars. The papers presented at the workshop were critiqued by reviewers and participants and then reviewed again after the workshop. From these revised manuscripts, we selected the five best for Advertences Essay, publication in the special issue. Several themes emerged from these studies: the relation between CSR and competitive advantage, the role of differences in selco nottingham, institutional environments in framing stakeholder expectations regarding the propensity of firms to engage in CSR, a comparison of the Symbolic Advertences social desirability of the strategic use of Sociological Criticism Blakeâ€™s Poetry CSR versus coerced’ CSR, the role of economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship perspectives on CSR, and the evolution and influence of the academic literature on CSR. The remainder of this paper is Symbolic, organized as follows. In the next section, we discuss a variety of theories that shed light on the strategic implications of CSR.
Following that, we outline an agenda for theoretical and empirical research on the strategic implications of CSR. Selco? We conclude with a brief review of each study in the special issue and its importance to our proposed research agenda. Numerous theories have been brought to Symbolic Advertences, bear on damaged frontal lobes the subject of CSR. We summarize selected articles on theoretical perspectives in Table I. Theodore Levitt could be credited with setting the Symbolic Advertences in The Essay agenda for damaged frontal lobes, the debate about the social responsibility of business in his Harvard Business Review article The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, in Symbolic Lottery Essay, which he cautions that government's job is not business, and business's job is not government’ (1958, p. 47). Milton Friedman (1970) expressed the same sentiment and added that the mere existence of CSR was a signal of an erosion, agency problem within the firm. An agency theory perspective implies that CSR is a misuse of corporate resources that would be better spent on valued-added internal projects or returned to shareholders. In The Essay? It also suggests that CSR is an executive perk, in author of empire of the, the sense that managers use CSR to advance their careers or other personal agendas. R. Edward Freeman (1984), building on Chester Barnard's (1938) inducement-contribution’ framework, presented a more positive view of managers’ support of Lottery Essay CSR. Freeman's stakeholder theory asserts that managers must satisfy a variety of constituents (e.g. workers, customers, suppliers, local community organizations) who can influence firm outcomes. According to this view, it is not sufficient for managers to focus exclusively on the needs of stockholders, or the owners of the corporation. Stakeholder theory implies that it can be beneficial for the firm to engage in certain CSR activities that non-financial stakeholders perceive to be important, because, absent this, these groups might withdraw their support for the firm.
Stakeholder theory was expanded by Donaldson and Preston (1995) who stressed the moral and Sociological Criticism of William Blakeâ€™s, ethical dimensions of CSR, as well as the business case for engaging in such activity. Another perspective, stewardship theory (Donaldson and Davis, 1991) is Symbolic in The Lottery Essay, based on the idea that there is coastal, a moral imperative for managers to do the right thing’, without regard to how such decisions affect firm financial performance. Institutional theory and Advertences, classical economic theory have also been applied to CSR in a paper by Jones (1995). The author concludes that companies involved in repeated transactions with stakeholders on the basis of damaged lobes trust and cooperation are motivated to be honest, trustworthy, and ethical because the returns to such behaviour are high. Institutional approaches have also been used to analyse environmental social responsibility. More specifically, Jennings and Zandbergen (1995) analyse the role of institutions in shaping the consensus within a firm regarding the establishment of an ecologically sustainable’ organization. Finally, a recent paper by Lottery Waldman et al. (2004) applies strategic leadership theory to Criticism, CSR. These authors conjecture that certain aspects of transformational leadership will be positively correlated with the propensity of Symbolic Advertences Lottery Essay firms to engage in CSR and that these leaders will employ CSR activities strategically.
To the extent that firms engage in CSR strategically, this behaviour can be examined through the lens of the resource-based-view-of-the-firm (RBV). RBV, as introduced by Wernerfelt (1984) and refined by Barney (1991), borrows heavily from earlier research by Penrose (1959). Frontal Lobes?  This theory presumes that firms are bundles of Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery heterogeneous resources and capabilities that are imperfectly mobile across firms. Barney (1991) maintains that if these resources and capabilities are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable, they can constitute a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The first theoretical paper to of the, apply the RBV framework to corporate social responsibility was Hart (1995), who focused exclusively on environmental social responsibility. Hart asserted that, for certain types of firms, environmental social responsibility can constitute a resource or capability that leads to a sustained competitive advantage.
Russo and Fouts (1997) tested this theory empirically using firm-level data on Symbolic Advertences Lottery environmental and Sociological of William Blakeâ€™s Poetry, accounting profitability and found that firms with higher levels of environmental performance had superior financial performance, which they interpreted to Advertences Lottery Essay, be consistent with the RBV theory. Using the RBV framework, a more formal theory-of-the-firm model of profit-maximizing’ CSR was posited in McWilliams and Siegel (2001). These authors outlined a simple model in which two companies produce identical products, except that one firm adds an additional social’ attribute or feature to attrition coastal erosion, the product, which is Symbolic, valued by some consumers or, potentially, by other stakeholders. In this model, managers conduct a cost/benefit analysis to determine the level of resources to devote to CSR activities/attributes. That is, they assess the demand for Criticism Poetry, CSR and also evaluate the cost of satisfying this demand. The theory of the firm perspective on CSR has several strategic implications. The first is that CSR can be an integral element of a firm's business and corporate-level differentiation strategies. Therefore, it should be considered as a form of strategic investment. In The? Even when it is not directly tied to a product feature or production process, CSR can be viewed as a form of reputation building or maintenance. A second strategic implication of nottingham a theory of the firm perspective is that one can apply the RBV logic to CSR, in the sense that it is possible to Advertences in The Lottery Essay, generate a set of predictions regarding patterns of author investment in CSR across firms and industries.
For example, we expect to observe a positive correlation between CSR and both RD and advertising (McWilliams and Siegel, 2000), an assertion that we will explain below. Expanding on this theory of the firm perspective, we can shed further light on the strategic implications of CSR. Advertences Essay? In particular, we wish to focus on issues relating to industry evolution, market structure, firm dynamics, and the role of asymmetric information in the context of CSR. We first note that in damaged frontal, the context of using CSR to differentiate products, it is important to distinguish between two types of Essay product differentiation. Of William? The first is vertical differentiation which occurs when most consumers prefer one product to another. Other things being equal, most consumers prefer a more fuel-efficient vehicle. In the context of CSR, such a situation could occur when it is clear in the mind of Symbolic Advertences consumers that the product with a CSR characteristic is better than the product without such a characteristic.
For example, a hybrid’ version of a Honda Accord generates less pollution than a standard Honda Accord. Thus, it is clear to frontal lobes, most consumers that the hybrid car is better than the Symbolic Advertences Lottery standard model. Some consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, given that the social characteristic of less pollution is valuable’ to them. This type of differentiation can strengthen or maintain the reputation of the selco firm which adds value in addition to allowing the firm to meet a particular market demand (Fombrun and Shanley, 1990). In contrast, horizontal differentiation occurs when only some consumers prefer a particular product, but the preference is based on Advertences Essay taste, rather than quality. Vivaldis? For example, some consumers choose a particular vehicle because of the Symbolic colour. This type of differentiation does not contribute to the reputation of the firm and does not allow the firm to charge a premium price. Horizontal differentiation also operates for different brands. For example, some consumers prefer Coke to Pepsi, while others have the opposite view. In contrast to the ease of valuing CSR attributes, consumers often find it difficult to determine if a firm's internal operations meet their moral and political standards for social responsibility.
The level of asymmetric information regarding internal operations can be mediated by Essay the firm itself or by activists. Essay? For instance, companies such as McDonalds, Motorola, and Nike publish annual reports on social responsibility. One can view this activity as a form of advertising, especially for more general types of CSR. While such reports may be useful, some consumers perceive this information as biased, since it is filtered through senior management. Fedderson and Gilligan (2001) assert that activists can play an important role in addressing this concern, by supplying consumers with information they can rely on of William to choose socially responsible firms. The relationship between CSR and advertising is an interesting one, which bears further reflection. Several stylized facts relating to industry evolution and the nature of Lottery advertising are useful to consider. The first is that we expect levels of investment in CSR to be higher for established firms in more mature industries, since the extent of production differentiation will be greater in such sectors and consumers will, in general, have more sophisticated tastes and knowledge regarding products and firms. It is clear that such companies are likely to of empire of the, derive greater benefits from the use of in The Lottery CSR for reputation enhancement/protection. A second point is that if some forms of CSR do indeed constitute advertising, then it is important to distinguish between persuasive CSR advertising and informative CSR advertising. Persuasive CSR advertising attempts to positively influence consumer tastes for products with CSR attributes.
It follows that this type of advertising need not be firm-specific. Informative CSR advertising merely provides information about the CSR characteristics or CSR managerial practices of the firm. Following Milgrom and Roberts (1986), one could also view a high level of CSR advertising (either persuasive on emma analysis informative CSR advertising) as a signal of product or firm quality. Another critical issue concerns the nature of the market structure of the firm's industry. A key conclusion of the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) paper was that, in equilibrium, firms that engage in CSR will earn the same rate of profit as firms that do not engage in Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery Essay, CSR.
We refer to Sociological Criticism, this finding as the neutrality result. In The Lottery Essay? This finding was misinterpreted by Piga (2002) as implying that CSR can only occur in monopolistically competitive industries, since some oligopoly models of selco vertically differentiated markets predict that (in equilibrium) firms selling the higher quality product (in our case, the firm that sells a good with a CSR characteristic) reap abnormal’ profits. A monopolistically competitive industry consists of numerous firms, some product differentiation, and relative free entry. In The Essay? Some examples of such sectors are restaurants and retail establishments. On the other hand, oligopolies are characterized by a consolidated industry structure, considerable entry barriers, and substantial product differentiation (e.g. Author Of Empire? autos, computers). We believe that the neutrality result holds under both oligopoly and monopolistic competition. This is implied for monopolistic competition because sectors with such a structure are characterized by both horizontal and vertical differentiation, a fragmented industry structure, and Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery Essay, very low entry barriers. Under this scenario, it is impossible for firms to use CSR to outperform rivals. Of Empire Of The? Examples of firms in monopolistically competitive industries that engage in CSR include restaurants, hotels, companies selling organic produce, and Symbolic Advertences in The, different types of retail establishments. The neutrality result likely holds for emma analysis, monopolistic markets as well.
That is because, while some oligopoly models predict that firms producing a higher quality product earn abnormal’ returns, these findings hinge on the assumption that costs are constant and independent of quality. These assumptions were not invoked in the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) model. Furthermore, recent economic models of CSR (Baron, 2001; Fedderson and Gilligan, 2001) identify an Symbolic Advertences in The, important countervailing force on the ability of companies to engage in strategic CSR in oligopolistic industries: activists who target leading firms (e.g. the attack on nottingham Nike's Asian production). This countervailing force makes it difficult for oligopolistic firms to achieve a competitive advantage through the strategic use of Lottery Essay CSR. The question of whether firms can use CSR to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage is another important question. Sociological Criticism Blakeâ€™s Poetry? A paper by Symbolic Essay Reinhardt (1998) finds that a firm engaging in erosion, a CSR-based strategy can only in The Lottery, generate an abnormal return if it can prevent competitors from imitating its strategy. Vivaldis? In competitive markets this is unlikely, since CSR is highly transparent, with little causal ambiguity. Other theoretical studies (Dutta et al., 1995; Hoppe and Lehmann-Grube, 2001) show that any early mover advantages that might be gained by offering higher quality products (recall that CSR is modelled as a quality improvement’ in McWilliams and Siegel, 2001) are eroded when competitive strategies are observable.
However, CSR may be used in the context of Advertences in The political strategies that result in regulatory barriers to selco, imitation. One such strategy would be for firms to use government regulation to Symbolic Essay, impose CSR on frontal lobes rivals who do not employ an appropriate technology, thus raising the costs of those rivals relative to the initiating firm. Marvel (1977) provided an example of this in the British textile industry in the early 1800s. The first child labour law was passed in Great Britain after the mill owners who employed modern technology banded together and lobbied for restrictions on child labour, which was used more by the older, smaller mills. McWilliams et al. (2002) applied the Symbolic Essay RBV framework to demonstrate how US firms can use political strategies based on CSR to raise regulatory barriers that prevent foreign competitors from vivaldis concertos, using substitute (e.g. low labour cost) technology. This discussion focused primarily on understanding CSR from an applied perspective. However, it begins to point to a broader and deeper set of research issues that have yet to be resolved. RESEARCH AGENDA ON THE STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF CSR. There are numerous unresolved theoretical and empirical issues relating to the strategic implications of CSR.
These include defining CSR, identifying institutional differences in CSR across countries, determining the motivations for CSR, describing CSR strategies, modelling the effects of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, determining the effects of Symbolic in The leadership and corporate culture on CSR activity, assessing the effect of CSR on author of empire sun the firm and stakeholder groups, measuring the demand for CSR, measuring the costs of in The Essay CSR and assessing the vivaldis concertos current knowledge base. Theoretical Issues To Be Resolved. As noted in our introduction, there is a no strong consensus on a definition for Symbolic Advertences Lottery Essay, CSR. CSR has been used as a synonym for business ethics, defined as tantamount to corporate philanthropy, and considered strictly as relating to environmental policy. CSR has also been confused with corporate social performance and corporate citizenship. The lack of consistency in the use of the term CSR makes it difficult to compare results across studies, hampering our ability to understand the implications of CSR activity. As other issues are resolved, we hope that they lead to the emergence of an agreed-upon definition of CSR.
Having a good definition of CSR, with a common terminology, would aid us in erosion, modelling the role of Advertences in The Lottery organizational culture and leadership in determining the importance of CSR within an organization. Researchers could analyse how changes in corporate control, particularly through merger or acquisition, affect the type and level of CSR activity within firms. Alternatively, changes in top management (CEO or team) might be examined to determine whether leadership style and emma analysis, characteristics are more important than corporate control/culture for predicting CSR activity. Symbolic Advertences In The Lottery Essay? Understanding the role of vivaldis concertos leadership could be extended to understanding the decision making process and how decisions about CSR activity are affected by demands from multiple stakeholders. Asymmetric information makes it difficult to Advertences Essay, study the antecedents and selco nottingham, consequences of CSR.
Managers may perceive that many external stakeholders view CSR activity more favourably if it is divorced from any discussion of the bottom line. With this in mind, managers may not reveal the more practical motivations (such as product promotion, labour cost control and reputation building) behind their CSR activities, especially in corporate publications such as annual reports. Symbolic In The Lottery? This lack of candid information has made it difficult to distinguish and discuss the different motivations for CSR, which may be private or social. The use of CSR to capture value is referred to as strategic CSR by Baron (2001) who points out of the, that it is the motivation for the action that identifies socially, as opposed to Advertences Lottery Essay, privately, responsible action’. Attrition? That is, if the motivation is to serve society, at the cost of profits, the action is socially responsible, but if the motivation is to serve the bottom line, then the action is Symbolic Advertences in The Essay, privately responsible. For privately responsible actions, there may well be social benefits that exceed the cost of the action to Poetry, the firm. However, this does not change the motivation, unless these social benefits are of value to managers. For example, providing day care may lower the number of juvenile crimes in a community, but the firm might provide the day care only Symbolic Advertences Lottery, because it increases the availability of workers and lowers the cost of absenteeism. This is reminiscent of the emma analysis consideration of positive externalities associated with innovative activity. An externality is defined as the impact of an Advertences in The, economic agent's actions on the well-being of a bystander. Pollution is a classic example of a negative externality, while innovation (whose benefits cannot be entirely appropriated by attrition its creator) is a classic example of a positive externality.
While the private returns to innovation (or those that accrue to the company) may be high, the social returns to innovation (through the Advertences creation of new or improved products and processes) may be even greater. Researchers need to erosion, use more direct methods, such as interviews and surveys, to tease out’ less self-serving information about the motivations for CSR activity and improve the precision of measurement of the private and Symbolic in The, social returns to CSR. In addition to understanding the motivation for the provision of concertos social benefits, we need to understand how the provision of these goods, through strategic CSR, affects society. Advertences In The Lottery? An example of strategic CSR is selco nottingham, when a firm links the provision of a public good to the sale of their (private) products (e.g. eco-labelling). Bagnoli and Watts (2003) model this behaviour and Symbolic in The Essay, find that the propensity of firms to engage in strategic CSR depends on two factors: the intensity of competition in the market and the extent to which consumers are willing to pay a premium for social responsibility. Erosion? The authors conclude that there is an inverse relation between intensity of competition and provision of CSR. That is, in Advertences in The Lottery Essay, more competitive markets, less of the public good will be provided through strategic CSR. Conversely, in emma analysis, less competitive markets, more of the Symbolic in The Essay public good will be provided. This is easy to understand, since more competition results in lower margins and, therefore, less ability to provide additional (social) attributes or activity. Of William Blakeâ€™s Poetry? Conversely, less competition leads to the potential for higher margins and more ability to provide additional attributes or activity.
An analysis of the provision of Advertences in The public goods by private firms is a welcome addition to the management literature on CSR, which has been primarily concerned with answering the following question: do firms do well by doing good’? Showing that a firm does well by doing good is often referred to as making the business case for CSR. While understanding the relation between firm performance and social performance is of primary importance in the management literature, a more thorough understanding of the CSR phenomenon requires that we take account of other stakeholders as well. These stakeholders include: customers, employees, governments, suppliers, taxpayers, community groups, and underrepresented groups. Our understanding of CSR should be extended to an examination of the strategic use of CSR activities. Fombrun and Shanley (1990) established that investing in CSR attributes and activities may be important elements of product differentiation and reputation building. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) suggest that CSR activities be included in Sociological Blakeâ€™s Poetry Essay, strategy formulation and that the level of Symbolic Advertences resources devoted to CSR be determined through cost/benefit analysis. Analysis of the strategic implications of frontal lobes CSR is hampered by cross-country/cultural differences in the institutions that regulate market activity, including business, labour and social agencies. Institutional differences lead to different expectations and different returns to activity.
For firms operating in multiple countries/cultures this complicates the in The process of determining which activities to engage in Sociological Criticism of William Poetry, and how much to invest. Symbolic In The Lottery Essay? As the knowledge base of CSR develops world-wide, we will be better able to analyse and advise on CSR. In summary, the CSR literature suffers from definitional questions that limit the attrition erosion future research. Symbolic Advertences? Distinguishing among strategic CSR, altruistic CSR, and even coerced CSR (e.g. Husted and emma analysis, De Jesus Salazar, 2006) constitutes a significant theoretical breakthrough. However, until theory and Symbolic Advertences in The Essay, research can adequately agree upon concertos what, specifically, constitutes CSR, research will continue to provide a lack of consistent results.
It is to Symbolic, this empirical research that we next turn our attention. Problems with measurement of the vivaldis concertos costs and benefits of CSR activities continue to cloud our understanding of the strategic implications of Symbolic in The Essay CSR. A major impediment to empirical research is the continuing confusion over frontal, definition that we mentioned above. It is impossible to measure what we cannot define and, as long as we use different definitions, we will get empirical results that cannot reliably be compared. Table II presents selected empirical studies of CSR. Most of these papers focus on the relation between CSR and firm performance. Lottery Essay? Early studies used either the event study methodology (which is based on analysis of short-run changes in damaged lobes, stock prices as a proxy for firm performance in the aftermath of a CSR-related event) or regression analysis (which uses an accounting measure of profitability, such as return on assets, as the dependent variable in a regression model that explains’ firm performance). These studies usually attempted to answer the question: do firms do well by doing good? The reported results have ranged from showing a negative relation between CSR and firm performance, to showing no relation, to showing a positive relation (e.g. the results of divesting from South Africa shown in Table II). There is Symbolic Lottery, little consistency in Criticism Essay, these findings.
This may be a result of Advertences Essay inconsistency in defining CSR, inconsistency in defining firm performance, inconsistency in samples, imprecision and inconsistency in Criticism Blakeâ€™s, research design, misspecification of models, changes over time, or some more fundamental variance in the samples that are being analysed. McWilliams and Siegel (1997) critiqued the Symbolic Advertences Lottery Essay use of the event study methodology to measure the consequences of CSR. The authors reported that the findings of event studies of CSR appearing in top management journals were unreliable, due to serious flaws in the research design and implementation of the event study methodology (see also McWilliams et al., 1999). They also cautioned that the use of stock price as a metric for performance is not appropriate for studying CSR. That is because CSR is a firm level measure and many socially responsibility activities occur at the plant level or the of empire of the sun product level. Another concern is that an Advertences in The, analysis of stock price effects only relates to financial stakeholders and it is damaged, clear that non-financial stakeholders are also affected by CSR activities. McWilliams and Symbolic Lottery, Siegel (2000) challenged the conventional regression model used to assess the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP), which is often used as a synonym for CSR, and firm performance. They noted that the typical regression equation estimated was misspecified because it did not include two key variables: the level of RD spending and advertising expenditure. Nottingham? Both of these variables have been shown to be determinants of firm performance and, because all three (RD, advertising, and CSP) are elements of a differentiation strategy, they hypothesized that RD and advertising would be correlated with a measure of CSP. Symbolic In The? The results of McWilliams and selco, Siegel's estimation of the correctly-specified, expanded equation demonstrated that the three explanatory variables were correlated. Thus, the model that excluded RD and advertising variables was misspecified.
Most notably, they showed that when RD and advertising were included in the model, CSP was not a significant determinant of firm performance, as had been reported in several widely-cited studies. Consistent with Baron's (2001) distinction between altruistic CSR and strategic CSR, Hillman and Keim (2001) conjecture that empirical tests of the Symbolic Lottery Essay relation between CSR and firm performance should disaggregate CSR activities into those that are strategic (stakeholder management) and those that are altruistic (social issue participation). Based on estimation of of empire a disaggregated model, they report that there is Symbolic in The Lottery Essay, a positive relation between firm performance (measured using market value added) and strategic CSR and a negative relation between altruistic CSR and firm performance. McWilliams and selco nottingham, Siegel (2001) provide a framework for analysing CSR within the context of the theory of the firm. Based on this framework, they develop hypotheses regarding the provision of CSR attributes across industries and Symbolic Advertences in The, market structures. They hypothesize that the provision of CSR will depend on RD spending, advertising intensity, the extent of product differentiation, the attrition erosion percentage of government sales, consumer income, the tightness of the labour market, and the stage of the industry life cycle’ (2001, p. 125). Symbolic In The Lottery Essay? All of these should be tested empirically to see if the results support the hypotheses. McWilliams and Siegel conclude that there is some level of CSR that will maximize profits while satisfying the demand for selco, CSR from Advertences in The, multiple stakeholders. The ideal level of CSR can be determined by cost-benefit analysis’ (2001, p. 125). While costs of providing CSR attributes may be easy for managers to determine, consumer demand (benefit) may not be. Author Of Empire Sun? Consumer demand for CSR could be difficult to measure because CSR attributes are among many attributes of a product.
For example, a particular shampoo may have the CSR attribute that it is not tested on animals’. But, it also has a particular scent, colour, consistency, and package. This makes it difficult to in The Lottery, separate out the demand for the CSR attribute. A method for assessing how much consumers are willing to pay for a given product characteristic or feature is hedonic pricing. Hedonic pricing involves using data on actual purchases, in order to determine the implicit price’ of a particular attribute. For example, new homes have many attributes, one of which might be central air conditioning. Examining a large number of new home sales, with and without central air conditioning, but holding other attributes constant, it would be possible to selco, determine how much consumers are willing to pay for Symbolic in The Essay, the central air conditioning. Similarly, to Sociological Criticism of William Poetry, determine the demand’ for Advertences in The Essay, not tested on author of the animals’, researchers can compare sale data on many shampoos, with and without the Symbolic Lottery CSR attribute and can determine how much consumers will pay for emma analysis, that attribute.
This information could then be used in a cost/benefit analysis of the CSR attribute. To illustrate, we return to the example of hybrid cars, which are highly fuel efficient. Symbolic In The Essay? Given the high price of gasoline, it is clear that some consumers will be attracted to these automobiles because they want to save money on fuel. Frontal Lobes? Others may choose to Symbolic Advertences Essay, purchase a Honda hybrid, as opposed to GM hybrid, because Honda has a superior reputation for quality. Still others are willing to author, pay a price premium for the hybrid car, strictly because the social characteristic of less pollution is valuable’ to them. In The Lottery Essay? The beauty of the hedonic method is that it allows us tease out the value to the consumer of each of these three factors (fuel efficiency, quality differential, and the social characteristic of less pollution). The hedonic method is based on nottingham the notion that the (logarithm of the) price of a good or service is related to its characteristics or features as follows: where #x25b; is a random error term and Z is a vector of k characteristics or attributes. These attributes are typically sources of private satisfaction, such as the speed of a computer or the horsepower of an auto engine. The researcher typically estimates a regression, in order to determine the values of the Symbolic Lottery Essay β coefficients.
The β coefficients provide estimates of how much customers are willing to pay for a given attribute. Some characteristics may also have social dimensions, such as aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or environmentally-friendly lighting. A major advantage of hedonics, relative to other methods (e.g. Sociological Poetry Essay? focus groups), is that it is based on Advertences in The observed, not hypothetical data. Hedonics have been used by Sociological Criticism of William government agencies and other researchers to price’ individual attributes of computers, autos, housing, land, and Symbolic Advertences in The Lottery, dowries. They are also increasingly being used for more abstract non-market environmental goods’, such as views, clean air, and open space. These estimates can have important managerial and policy implications, since they help managers estimate demand for social characteristics and can also be used in national price/cost of living statistics.
The theoretical and empirical issues discussed above provide an important foundation for understanding the contributions of the articles in of William Essay, this special issue. These papers shed light on the definitional issues that plague this research, and demonstrate, both theoretically and empirically, how making clear, specific definitions can result in deeper understanding and guide more rigorous research in CSR. The article by Alfie Marcus and Marc Anderson (2006) poses an in The Lottery Essay, interesting research question, especially in light of our previous discussion of the strategic implications of CSR. Frontal Lobes? The authors ask whether a firm's dynamic capability’ influences its competence in Symbolic Advertences in The, CSR. To address this question, they provide a novel and interesting application of the RBV framework to the case of CSR.
In the theoretical section of the paper, the erosion authors make two important points. The first is that they distinguish between business and social competencies. They also consider a general dynamic capability’, a term coined by Ghemawat (2001), which describes such activities as enhancing the absorptive capacity of the firm, benchmarking, and experimentation. The authors examine their research question using a detailed firm-level survey in the US retail food industry. Specifically, they surveyed 806 grocery stores/chains with operations in North America as of 1997. The results indicate that a general dynamic capability has a positive influence on a firm's competence in Advertences Lottery Essay, supply chain management, which is a key business competence in this industry. However, a general dynamic capability does not appear to have any influence on a firm's competence in environmental management, which is a key social’ competence in this industry. The authors conclude that their findings suggest that the factors driving competitive advantage are different than those that influence CSR. Jonathan Doh and Terrence Guay (2006) assess the role of differences in the institutional environments of Europe and the USA in explaining expectations regarding the propensity of firms to be socially responsible. As such, the paper is an interesting synthesis of neo-institutional and stakeholder theory. Emma Analysis? It is a qualitative analysis, consisting of three case studies.
Specifically, the authors assess the roles that US and European non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played in influencing CSR policies in three areas: the trade and regulation of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), pharmaceutical pricing and distribution policies, and international environmental agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol Treaty. The case studies reveal the Symbolic role of institutional differences in these two regions in influencing government policy, corporate strategy and of empire sun, NGO activism related to CSR. Specifically, the authors find that these factors play an important role in determining how CSR is perceived and implemented in the USA and Europe. A key implication of the Doh and Guay study is that any cross-country comparison of the propensity of firms to engage in CSR should take into in The Lottery Essay, account these institutional differences. In the frontal next article, Bryan Husted and Jos de Jesus Salazar pose another interesting research question: is it better for firms to act strategically with respect to CSR than to be coerced into making such investments? More generally, the authors analyse the conditions under which firms can maximize profit and in The Lottery Essay, enhance social performance. As such, they take the theory of the Sociological Blakeâ€™s Poetry Essay firm perspective on Advertences CSR seriously, since they conduct a cost/benefit analysis of social responsibility. This technique was proposed by attrition erosion McWilliams and Symbolic in The Lottery Essay, Siegel (2001). Husted and De Jesus Salazar model this cost/benefit analysis under three scenarios concerning the firm's desire to engage in CSR: altruism, coerced egoism’, and the strategic use of CSR. Altruism describes the case when firms sincerely want to be socially responsible, without regard to how such activities affect the bottom line. Coerced egoism occurs when firms act in a socially responsible manner only when they are compelled by regulation (and other factors) to do so.
The strategic use of CSR is defined as instances where there are clear benefits to the firm for engaging in CSR. The authors employ standard microeconomic analysis to determine the optimal level of social output that results under each of these cases. They demonstrate that both society and firms are better off when firms use CSR strategically than when they are coerced into making such investments. Criticism Of William Blakeâ€™s Poetry? This is a conclusion that would make Adam Smith smile. In the Advertences Essay next paper, Duane Windsor (2006) examines different perspectives on CSR. As noted earlier, CSR is still an embryonic concept in the academic literature. Windsor's essay is a tour-de-force on of empire the evolution on three opposing perspectives on Symbolic Advertences Lottery CSR: economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship. Selco? As he defines it, the economic viewpoint focuses on Advertences in The the firm's ability to use CSR as a tool to create wealth, implies minimal government intervention to promote CSR, and advocates that the firm adopt prevailing business ethics. On the other hand, the philosophical perspective results in moral reflection on CSR and attrition erosion, should lead to Symbolic Advertences in The, higher levels of CSR and other forms of altruism. He also notes that this view supports active government intervention to promote CSR, as well as policy initiatives that strengthen stakeholder rights.
The global corporate citizenship perspective seems to fall somewhere in nottingham, between the economic and philosophical views, although this perspective can be used instrumentally to enhance market opportunities and the firm's moral reputation. The author concludes by discussing the implications of each of these perspectives for CSR scholarship. This special issue concludes with an article by Andy Lockett, Jeremy Moon, and Wayne Visser (2006), which assesses the status of CSR research in the management literature. Advertences? Specifically, they assess the focus and nature of CSR research and the use of the accumulated knowledge in management and related fields. The authors also attempt to determine the key intellectual influences on the field of selco CSR and whether CSR research has a dominant paradigm. Their empirical analysis is based on data on Symbolic Advertences Lottery Essay CSR-related publications and citation analysis over the period 19922002.
The authors identified CSR-related articles in the following journals: Academy of Management Journal , Academy of nottingham Management Review , Administrative Science Quarterly , Journal of Management , Organization Science , Strategic Management Journal , Journal of Management Studies , Harvard Business Review , Sloan Management Review , and California Management Review . They analysed both the articles cited in these CSR-related papers and the citations that CSR-related articles generated in other journals. They found that the Symbolic Advertences Lottery Essay field’ is in a continuing state of emergence’, a term coined by of empire of the Thomas Kuhn (1962). That is, based on its overall profile in these leading management journals and the citations these articles generate, CSR lacks a dominant paradigm. This is an obvious call to action for concerned researchers. It is in The Essay, this state of emergence that we hope to advance with this special issue.
The papers here exemplify the variety of perspectives that have been brought to bear on damaged CSR. They also demonstrate an increasing ability to clearly define the construct of CSR (albeit not necessarily all agreeing on the definition) and build strong theoretical arguments and Symbolic Advertences Essay, high-quality empirical studies that will provide an effective springboard for future research in CSR. We thank participants at the April 2004 University of Illinois at Chicago/International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility Workshop on Corporate Social Responsibility, Ann Buchholtz, Steve Floyd, Mark Shanley, and Mike Wright for their insightful comments on a previous version of this paper. The second author also gratefully acknowledges financial support from the School of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Lally School of Management and Technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. For the benefit of attrition erosion non-US readers, the United Way is a global network of non-profit, philanthropic organizations. Symbolic Advertences? In the USA, many employees (especially those working for large organizations) donate a small fraction of their salaries to United Way, which is then distributed to a specific charity (or charities) that is part of the network. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the College of Business Administration at the University of Illinois at Chicago and the International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR) at the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom. See Kor and Mahoney (2004), Lockett and Thompson (2004), and Rugman and Verbeke (2004) for an excellent series of articles on Edith Penrose and the resource-based view of strategic management. Issue online: 10 January 2006 Version of author of the sun record online: 10 January 2006.
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