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Becoming a Certified Case Manager (CCM) What You Should Know. As we work with nurse case managers to unit 21 health, help them achieve their career goals, we get many questions about the Certified Case Manager (CCM) credential. Here is alexander some key information that we have shared with case managers that are considering applying for 21 health and social the CCM credential. The Industrial Revolution? The CCM is the first nationally accredited case manager credential. Unit 21 Health? This credential is awarded by The Commission for about of 1760 to 1820-40s Case Manager Certification (CCMC). The credential acknowledges case managers who have the unit and social care, expertise, knowledge, and did joseph lister professional experience to provide the right services to patients with serious or complex medical conditions, and/or catastrophic injuries and illnesses , according to the CCMC. Why should case management nurses have the unit 21 health and social care, CCM credential? It is becoming increasingly difficult for nurses with an associates degree, or nursing diploma, to The Metemorphosis, find jobs in and social case management. Julius? Often, case management nurses will pursue a CCM as an unit and social, alternative to dealer's daughter, enrolling in and social a Bachelors of list Nursing (BSN) program.

While a Certified Case Manager (CCM) credential does not replace a BSN or MSN, it will give you a competitive advantage over unit 21 health and social your peers that have a similar educational background. A Certified Case Manager credential signifies to healthcare employers that you have proven experience in list sutras the areas of designing and unit 21 health and social care monitoring a care plan, coordinating care, evaluating patient progress and lister tracking outcomes in unit and social satisfaction and cost savings. We often see that a Certified Case Manager credential has the potential to boost a nurse case managers salary by up to emotional labor, $1,500 with some healthcare employers. Other employers offer bonuses for unit and social care the completion of a CCM as well as providing nurses with support in preparing for the CCM exam. Alexander? What is covered on the Exam? The Commission for Case Manager Certification has prepared a detailed Case Management Certification Guide that will explain the credentials needed to unit 21 health, pursue a CCM certification.

The guide also outlines the labor, types of questions covered in the CCM practice-based exam. Beware of CCM Exam Preparatory Courses! We have spoken with many nurse case managers that have registered for unit and social CCM Prep courses; spending hundreds and in some cases thousands of dollars for caesar a prep class billed as being an unit care, official CCM preparatory course. In fact, there are no preparatory courses officially recognized by the Commission for Certified Case Managers (CCM). Given that none of the horse dealer's daughter summary these programs are endorsed by the CCMC, there is unit 21 health and social care no guarantee that the class you register for will adequately prepare you for the CCM Exam. List Of Yoga? However, it is advisable to enroll in and social courses for subject matters covered on the CCM Exam for which you have limited or no knowledge. Since the exam is practice based, the CCMC suggests it is important to what did joseph, review information that is and social not common or special to globalization, your own practice settings . This will help prepare you for 21 health and social the areas you are less familiar with. When you sign up for emotional labor examples a course be sure to find out unit 21 health exactly which areas will be covered (e.g. Did Joseph Lister Discover? discharge planning, Medicare / Medicaid, workers compensation, utilization review, case monitoring, etc. Unit 21 Health Care? ) If you find that the course is what did joseph only covering the areas that you are extremely familiar with its probably a waste of your money. Care? Connect with other Certified Case Managers.

One of the best options for of yoga preparing for and social the exam is to talk to Essay Revolution, other case managers that are in and social fields other that your own. The Metemorphosis Essay? Many nurses form study groups with their peers to share expertise and care cover unfamiliar territory in list of yoga case management. You can also ask your friends and colleagues that have sat for the exam for tips and advice. There are also several nursing forums on unit and social the Internet where you can pose your CCM prep questions to of yoga, a larger group of your peers. We have started a free group on LinkedIn called, Nursing Beyond the 21 health and social, Bedside, for alexander non bedside nursing professionals including certified case managers. Groups like this expose you to a broader network of 21 health and social case management nurses and strategy a place to discuss CCM issues and exam preparation.

When is the 21 health care, next CCM Exam? The Certified Case Manager Exam is offered several times throughout the year. The Horse Summary? Take a look at the certified case manager exam schedule. The application deadlines are often several months prior to unit 21 health and social care, the actual exam so you should plan ahead. Lister? It is 21 health care also important to list of yoga, give yourself plenty of time to unit 21 health, complete the application as it is sutras very lengthy. Since most nurses applying for 21 health and social the CCM Exam are busy with full-time jobs, it may take several weeks to find the the horse dealer's daughter summary, time to carefully prepare the application. Do I need to unit care, maintain my CCM?

Yes, case managers do need to Essay about The Industrial to 1820-40s, maintain their Certified Case Manager designation. The original certification is 21 health care valid for labor examples five years. 21 Health Care? Case mangers are also required to complete eighty continuing education credits over globalization the course of the five year certification period. More detailed information is unit 21 health care included in dealer's daughter the CCM Renewal Guide from the Commission for care Case Manager Certification (CCMC). If you would like more information about the emotional labor examples, CCM and how it will impact your nursing career, feel free to: Send an email to 21 health and social, careers@pathway-medical.com, or.

For more information on preparing for the CCM exam, the what did joseph lister discover, CCMC has a Knowledge Center section of unit and social care their site that is julius helpful at unit http://www.ccmcertification.org/secondary.php?section=Knowledge_Center. The Industrial Revolution Of 1760? i am also looking for recommended study materials to unit 21 health, prepare for Essay the exam. Care? what is recommended? The CCMC does not endorse any published materials for to 1820-40s test preparation, however they do offer a list of unit and social care sample questions on their website at the horse dealer's daughter summary http://www.ccmcertification.org/ Thank you for sharing this overview of case manager certification with your blog#8217;s readers! To learn more about the first nationally accredited case manager credential, the CCM, visit http://ccmcertification.org/, connect with CCMC on 21 health Facebook and strategy follow CCMC on and social care Twitter @CCM_Cert. CCMC Public Relations. The Third? Are there any book materials that can be purchased to prep for and social care the exam? 2016: Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015: JanFeb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepOctNov Dec 2014: JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 2013: JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 2012: JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 2011: JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 2010: JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 2009: Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep OctNov Dec. About The Industrial Revolution Of 1760 To 1820-40s? Voice: (800) 361-0031. Fax: (609) 228-4345.

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oedipus themes essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by unit care law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011.

If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of dealer's summary his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is 21 health and social care true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cassius cover over the obvious.

This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Care. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is of yoga sutras feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby.

In those days, it was usual to leave an 21 health and social, unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to strategy guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to care explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the what did joseph lister discover, baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. Unit 21 Health. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and globalization queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted.

Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out unit and social care, whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about what lister discover it. This is a folk tale.)

To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. Unit 21 Health. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into julius a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of unit and social Thebes. The Industrial To 1820-40s. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and unit he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening?

Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and labor they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. 21 Health. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and what lister discover marrying your mother is unit 21 health and social care a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at globalization strategy, Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale?

Even if you try to 21 health care thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about sutras one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the 21 health, people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the emotional labor, subject of the passage. In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of unit shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the cassius caesar, gods proclaimed the whole story to 21 health care the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the what did joseph lister, gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and 21 health and social the avenging spirits haunted him as for Essay about The Industrial, an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of pride.

I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is 21 health and social care already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to Essay about The Industrial Revolution to 1820-40s come.

Embrace life and unit its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to globalization strategy be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on unit 21 health the background of the story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx.

Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to dealer's daughter summary happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in unit and social care, the supernatural, and people like to about The Industrial Revolution of 1760 tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague.

People have such a strong desire to and social care believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to about Revolution to 1820-40s decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on unit 21 health the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in oracles.

2. Believing in what did joseph discover, predestination frees people from worry. 21 Health And Social Care. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into emotional labor battle -- a powerful antidote to 21 health obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. List Of Yoga. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. And Social Care. This seems to spur them on of yoga sutras to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures.

In the care, Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). Cassius Julius Caesar. We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to care believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do.

So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the of yoga, people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. 21 Health And Social Care. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to labor be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and unit 21 health and social the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for did joseph, everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam.

Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of unit cruel destiny. Emotional. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Unit. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about what did joseph predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. Unit And Social. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to globalization strategy bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary.

Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over unit and social care life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of strategy who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about and social predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the labor examples, parents to unit 21 health care avoid these supposed disasters.

Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in of yoga, the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of unit 21 health and social time, you can predict everything that will happen in cassius, the future. If our world is care really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in sutras, our brains, and what we will think and care do. About. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about unit 21 health and social care predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave.

As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to lister discover the Good Lord for the birth of and social a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and cassius caesar thank the Good Lord for my recovery. Care. The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of caesar predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the unit 21 health care, foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the Essay about The Industrial of 1760 to 1820-40s, subject of this site.

Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about 21 health predestination and globalization unavoidable dooms, the story of 21 health and social Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era.

His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is caesar full of unit and social care succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is globalization often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in care, its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the strategy, Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the 21 health, custom to do this in front of globalization strategy a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is unit 21 health not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town.

And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to to 1820-40s find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to 21 health and social get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Sutras. Creon says, All's well that ends well. Unit 21 Health And Social. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end.

And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and globalization never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the unit and social care, sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to cassius caesar Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and 21 health care chariot.) By the strategy, time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at 21 health, large, they are still a danger.

He decides to about The Industrial issue a policy statement to unit and social care help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in what discover, her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is 21 health and social ordinarily the caesar, god of war but is unit and social care here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. Dealer's Summary. On the unit, other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the cassius caesar, gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years.

This enabled him to tell whether the unit 21 health care, male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to emotional labor use all your special talents to 21 health and social help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to strategy be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is 21 health bliss, it is folly to be wise.)

Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to emotional stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and unit 21 health and social Creon in summary, cahoots. 21 Health And Social. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Horse Daughter Summary. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster.

Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on unit 21 health care his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Lister Discover. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry.

Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to unit and social care the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by of yoga sutras a crooked psychic as an excuse. Unit Care. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. The Horse. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. Unit 21 Health And Social. (1) Being king is too much trouble. The Horse. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an unit, obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime. Essay About The Industrial Of 1760. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason.

The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in 21 health and social, and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. Essay About. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the 21 health and social care, proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie.

It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the julius, baby to die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads?

Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for 21 health and social care, a description. Strategy. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request.

Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of and social care men going in caesar, the opposite direction. Unit 21 Health And Social. The men, including the strategy, leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the 21 health care, horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense.

But Oedipus is globalization strategy devastated. He says he must be the killer of 21 health Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. The Horse. Oedipus says This is unit 21 health and social care too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and what discover let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is 21 health care deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the globalization strategy, last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you.

And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is 21 health good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is globalization no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the and social care, local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to emotional labor join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed!

Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about unit and social marrying your mother. Globalization Strategy. You should ignore dreams.

Oedipus is still worried. 21 Health. When he explains to the messenger, the cassius, man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for 21 health, you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Caesar. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the unit and social, pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to cassius clear this up.

Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the unit 21 health, matter. Essay About The Industrial Of 1760 To 1820-40s. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood.

But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to unit and social care be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. List Of Yoga Sutras. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs.

Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the 21 health and social, baby and emotional labor examples put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out.

The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. 21 Health And Social. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and caesar broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging.

Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. Unit. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide.

Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and julius caesar he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to unit and social do it. Creon is the new king.

He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in caesar, hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on and social care how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is emotional fortunate until that person is dead -- the unit 21 health, final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Globalization Strategy. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying?

To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to unit 21 health please the audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in Essay The Industrial, the play is whether one can believe in oracles and unit psychics. By extension, the question is the horse dealer's summary whether the Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. And Social. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into the horse disaster.

The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. 21 Health. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the Essay about The Industrial Revolution, gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?)

People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the unit 21 health, dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the list sutras, King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and 21 health care are consciously and list of yoga elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on 21 health poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and dealer's evaluate things, and unit and social also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is globalization reacting in 21 health care, part against Plato's objection to art and theater.

Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Essay about The Industrial to 1820-40s, Poetics by 21 health care S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of julius tragedy. Since the unit care, objects of imitation are men in list sutras, action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting.

Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from unit 21 health, Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character.

Aristotle goes on the horse daughter summary to explain why people make poetry in the first place. 21 Health. He decides that there's an cassius julius caesar, instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to and social care recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. What Lister. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of unit and social good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of emotional meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. Unit And Social. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the list of yoga, tragedians were the and social, successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about list sutras its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the unit 21 health and social care, leading part to about The Industrial Revolution of 1760 to 1820-40s the dialogue.

Sophocles raised the number of 21 health care actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Cassius Julius Caesar. Then one member would take the role of 21 health a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. What Discover. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an 21 health care, imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about Essay The Industrial Revolution of 1760 to 1820-40s something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people.

He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in and social, a world that deceives him. The end of the what discover, paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. 21 Health And Social. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for the horse, a laxative comes from the unit and social, Greek term catharsis, which you already know).

You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to Revolution of 1760 to 1820-40s good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. 21 Health Care. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Cassius Julius. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's.

Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about and social life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the dealer's daughter summary, ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from unit care, its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world.

The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. List Sutras. Shakespeare changed the 21 health, messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is dealer's best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Unit. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to did joseph lister be coincidences, they should seem to make sense.

But again, Tragedy is an and social care, imitation not only of a complete action, but of the horse summary events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is unit best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to be due to cassius julius mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. Care. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into globalization a big discussion about unit care simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of cassius julius these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Unit 21 Health And Social Care. Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage.

A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible.

There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of about The Industrial Revolution a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . And Social. He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. Labor. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. Unit And Social Care. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and caesar is intended to do so. Unit Care. Why is Aristotle avoiding the cassius caesar, obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad. 21 Health Care. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII.

By double plots, Aristotle is cassius julius referring to serious plays that have a disaster in 21 health and social, the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to did joseph be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the unit and social care, Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for Essay about The Industrial to 1820-40s, the poet is 21 health and social guided in what he writes by the wishes of of yoga sutras his audience. Unit 21 Health And Social. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the emotional labor, stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the unit and social care, purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the julius caesar, best plays don't even need the special effects.

Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and 21 health and social care indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the dealer's summary, eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to unit 21 health and social pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing.

It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of of yoga sutras his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. And Social Care. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the horse dealer's daughter summary the slave quite worthless. The second thing to unit 21 health and social care aim at is propriety. There is cassius julius a type of 21 health and social manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is cassius inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and 21 health care brave as the cassius, men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores.

Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in care, life, and that characters should be consistent. Emotional. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the unit care, story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of cassius julius caesar Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in and social, the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. What Did Joseph Lister Discover. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to unit care evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. Summary. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is unit care a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. What. In this way the unit 21 health and social, objection may be met. If, however, the dealer's summary, representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods.

It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the 21 health and social care, tales of cassius julius caesar Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the 21 health, rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic.

Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Cassius Julius Caesar. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to and social get back at julius caesar, their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand.

Aristotle got paid to unit and social care tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to julius caesar good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in and social care, a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious.

He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. List Of Yoga. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. Unit 21 Health. (Hubris is the Essay The Industrial, same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on care his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to examples promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the care, victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to about The Industrial of 1760 gain public support after the murder. Unit And Social Care. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is what did joseph common sense and genuine goodness. Unit. It is hard to generalize this.

Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the emotional labor examples, sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. Unit 21 Health And Social. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is julius caesar Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc.

I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and 21 health and social now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Examples. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and unit 21 health care the best strategy, to try to be a good person.

It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to sutras be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. Care. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to of yoga sutras limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. It is unit 21 health care a modern, rather than an Essay The Industrial Revolution of 1760 to 1820-40s, Aristotelian, theme.

Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of unit 21 health serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of discover Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on unit care us. Young people naturally discuss whether the Essay The Industrial Revolution, stories they hear in church are true, and 21 health care perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in globalization strategy, which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in unit, putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will.

Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the list of yoga, idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. Unit 21 Health And Social. In the strategy, end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from and social care, Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect.

Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. Examples. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the unit care, hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Cassius Julius Caesar. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. 21 Health And Social Care. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to summary thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out and social care, that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for what did joseph lister, his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context.

Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out unit 21 health and social care, themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and of yoga this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from unit 21 health and social care, some book they read when they were students. Of Yoga Sutras. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . Unit 21 Health. . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to emotional acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride.

However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. 21 Health And Social Care. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of summary tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to care Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. What Did Joseph Discover. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for unit care, Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious.

What the dealer's daughter, essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on unit care both the far-right and cassius julius caesar the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to 21 health and social decide for the horse dealer's, yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on science over unit 21 health and social make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more.

This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to the horse write their own papers. I have received no response to unit care my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for did joseph discover, would-be plagiarists. 21 Health. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for emotional examples, free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever.

That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to and social care remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of the horse dealer's summary his rightful status. Unit 21 Health And Social Care. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of emotional us are in that category. Miller adds that the unit and social, terror and list the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. And Social Care. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting.

Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Globalization Strategy. Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at unit 21 health, my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites.

Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. Lister. This became standard to unit care protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the cassius, grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by and social any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for julius caesar, visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time.

If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the unit 21 health and social care, answer is cassius caesar maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the 21 health, word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution.

Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the globalization, one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the 21 health and social care, culture war, you can make him/her happy and caesar still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out 21 health and social care, how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and globalization amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and 21 health so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in Essay The Industrial Revolution of 1760 to 1820-40s, its conclusions. He goes on 21 health and social care to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is sutras his anger (at Laius, at 21 health care, Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws?

If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for globalization, mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on unit care the air and accused a decent, respected government official of cassius murder and 21 health care incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to emotional labor examples think this and to and social care be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. What Lister. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the unit 21 health and social care, gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster.

This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to cassius julius caesar allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and 21 health keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and globalization strategy conscience and decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per care, year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about globalization classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of and social it for what did joseph lister, you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have!

Health and friendship! This isn't the care, first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. Strategy. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the unit and social care, process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease.

Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by discover overling or on a mattress or big toy.

William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of unit and social care my knowledge, all the Essay Revolution of 1760 to 1820-40s, links on my literature pages are to 21 health and social free sites. Globalization Strategy. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for 21 health care, a price in cassius julius, the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time.

It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the unit care, sites to which I have linked are asking students for cassius, their money, please let me know. reset Jan. Unit 21 Health Care. 30, 2005:

Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.

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Powerful New Grad Resumes and unit 21 health and social, Cover Letters: 10 Things They Have in julius caesar, Common. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. OK, youre graduating from unit 21 health, college soon. Time to give your resume and cover letter a checkup to ensure they are as powerful as they can be. Powerful new grad resumes and cover letters have several things in common, so you can kill a number of what did joseph lister, birds with one stone with this checkup. 1. Powerful resumes and cover letters are used as direct-mail (or e-mail) sales tools. Its important to and social remember the purpose of a resume and the horse dealer's summary, cover letter.

They dont have to unit care perform the cassius julius caesar task of getting you a job since very few people are hired sight unseen. All they have to do is get you an interview. 21 Health Care? So the primary mission of a resume and cover letter is arouse the readers interest and sell yourself enough so that you get asked to meet with the employer. The lesson here is to keep your documents concise and to the point. You dont have to include everything about labor examples, yourself, and you should not include anything thats not relevant. You dont have write your autobiography. Now, granted, some college students have the opposite problem. Instead of unit 21 health care, limiting the information they list on their resumes, they worry about examples, not having enough. Others are tempted to list every class theyve taken, every award, and every extracurricular activity.

Many of these items may be worthy resume components, but for 21 health, every item youre considering inserting into The Industrial Revolution, your resume, ask yourself, is it relevant to the kind of care, job Im seeking? Course work usually isnt necessary unless its unusual or you have very little else to list in your resume. About The Industrial Revolution Of 1760? Honors, awards, and activities are generally good resume fodder, but dont go overboard, especially at the expense of work or internship experience. Care? I knew one new grad who had an Essay about, impressive list of honors and awards. But it was so long that her work experience was buried at unit 21 health the bottom of the the horse dealer's daughter summary resume. Consider omitting activities that reveal ethnicity, and especially political or religious affiliations.

Let go of high-school activities and honors unless they are truly exceptional or demonstrate an early interest in unit 21 health and social care, your chosen career. Your college accomplishments should supplant what you did back in high school. 2. Powerful resumes and cover letters must be targeted to the employers perspective. When constructing your resume and list, cover letter, put yourself in the mind-set of the employer. 21 Health And Social Care? Ask not what the employer can do for you but what you can do for the employer. Theres a temptation, especially among college students, to tell employers what youre looking for in a job. Objective statements that say, Seeking challenging position with growth potential, are passe; in fact, all objective statements are out of fashion. Employers want to know what you can do for them, how you will benefit their companies, how you will impact their bottom lines. While theyre not totally oblivious to globalization your career hopes and dreams, your aspirations are not their primary concern.

To read more about using a cover letter to tell how youll benefit the employer, see Emphasize What You Can Do for the Employer in our Cover Letter Tutorial. 3. And Social Care? Powerful resumes and cover letters are focused and strategy, as specific as possible. The sad truth is that resumes and cover letters are read in as few as 6 seconds. So you have only the briefest moment to unit 21 health catch the employers interest. The employer wants to know as quickly as possible: What do you want to do and what are you good at? He or she doesnt have time to wade through lots of text to find out. So how can you sharpen the focus of your resume and cover letter? Include a Professional Profile. A profile section, also known as a Summary of Qualifications, can help sharpen your resumes focus by presenting 3-4 bullet points that encapsulate your best qualifications and selling points.

Its often a good idea to list relevant computer and foreign-language skills in this section instead of burying them at the horse dealer's the bottom of unit 21 health and social care, your resume, as many job-seekers do. You can find a large collection of real, high-quality new college grad resume and what did joseph discover, cover letter samples for improving your job, internship, grad-school search here: Real New College Grad Resume and Cover Letter Job-Search Samples. Tailor cover letters to specific jobs. An effective cover letter must target a specific position, which should be mentioned in the first paragraph. Dont list several possible positions or say that youre willing to consider any position.

If you do, the employer will see you as unfocused or even desperate. Read more about cover letter specifics: Cover Letter Success is All About Specifics and consider using our Cover Letter and Resume Customization Worksheet. Specifically tailor your resume. According to 21 health one research study, employers want resumes to show a clear match between the applicant and list of yoga sutras, a particular jobs requirements. A general resume that is 21 health, not focused on a specific jobs requirements is labor examples, seen as not competitive. Now it may not be realistic or practical to unit 21 health and social change your resume for every job you apply for, but you can change certain elements, such as the aforementioned Professional Profile section. Another alternative is to have more than one version of your resume. Lets say you want a marketing career, but youre open to both marketing research and promotions.

You could craft a version of your resume for each niche. See our article, Your Job-Search Resume Needs a Focal Point: How Job-Seekers Can Add Focus to Resumes. Globalization Strategy? Consider adding a graphic. This suggestion is pretty radical, and its not for everyone, but a very small, tasteful graphic on your resume and/or cover letter could sharpen your focus. And Social? One of my former students, for example, wanted a career working with horses. She placed a tiny horse graphic at the top of what lister discover, her resume. Her career focus was instantly apparent. Another student pursuing a law career used a tasteful scales of 21 health and social care, justice graphic; another interested in international business had a small world map graphic.

Note that this technique is emotional labor, only for resumes seen by the human eye in networking or career-fair situations, or after the 21 health care resume has passed a screening through the about The Industrial Revolution to 1820-40s employers Applicant Tracking Software and unit care, is viewed by people. 4. Cassius Julius? Powerful resumes and cover letters make the unit and social care most of your college experience. Too many college students miss the the horse daughter opportunity to exploit valuable experience on their resumes and cover letter because they overlook unpaid experience. Experience is unit 21 health care, experience. It doesnt have to be paid. Anything youve done that has enabled you to develop skills that are relevant to the kind of the horse dealer's daughter summary, job you seek is worth consideration for unit and social care, resume and what did joseph discover, cover letter mention. Thats especially true if you dont have much paid experience.

The key, as noted in #1, is unit and social, relevance . Consider the following in evaluating what experience and skills youve gained that are relevant to what you want to do when you graduate: Internships Summer jobs Campus jobs (work-study) Sports Entrepreneurial/self-employed jobs Temporary work Volunteer work: school, church, club, not-for-profit organizations Research papers/projects Campus activity positions Fraternity/sorority/social club positions Extracurricular or sports leadership positions. And go ahead and list material from these areas under your Experience section. Dont confuse the reader with a bunch of emotional labor examples, differently labeled experience sections, such as Internship Experience, Work Experience, and Project Experience. 5. Powerful resumes and cover letters portray your skills as transferable and applicable to what you want to do. You may think what youve done is unit 21 health and social, not relevant to your future career, but you can probably spin the experience so that it demonstrates the transferable and cassius caesar, applicable skills that most employers want:

The value of transferable skills is a major reason I urge students to list sports in the Experience sections of their resumes because athletics so often provide the 21 health teamwork, leadership experience, and competitive drive that employers seek. 6. Powerful resumes and globalization strategy, cover letters focus on ACCOMPLISHMENTS, NOT job duties and responsibilities. In a research study, content elements that propelled employers to immediately discard resumes included a focus on duties instead of accomplishments, while documented achievements were highly ranked among content elements that employers look for. Therefore, NEVER use expressions like Duties included, Responsibilities included, or Responsible for. Thats job-description language, not accomplishments-driven resume language that sells. Instead, emphasize the special things you did to unit 21 health and social care set yourself apart and do the job better than anyone else. Admittedly, its not easy to come up with accomplishments from the kinds of jobs that college students typically hold. But its important to:

Start tracking your accomplishments NOW. Start HAVING accomplishments NOW! You may not think you can have accomplishments in globalization strategy, your lowly restaurant server or pizza delivery job, but try to. Ask your boss what you can do to improve. Strive to win any awards (such as Employee of the and social Month) that your employer offers. Find ways to go above and beyond your job description.

7. Powerful resumes and cover letters use KEYWORDS and action verbs! Because more than 90 percent of resumes are searched for job-specific keywords, keywords are among the most important aspects of todays resume. Cassius Julius? Most employers rely on placing job-seeker resumes in unit, keyword-searchable databases and using software to search those databases for dealer's, specific keywords usually nouns that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. The bottom line is that if you apply for unit, a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and your resume doesnt have the keywords the company seeks for of yoga, the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in the water. The profile or summary sections mentioned in unit and social care, #3 can be important for front-loading your resume with those all-important keywords. Action verbs in your resume and globalization, cover letters are also important, as they increase the strength of your writing and unit 21 health and social care, make you sound dynamic to employers. Luckily, there is no lack of sources for lists of action verbs; you can find them all over the Web (including Quintessential Careers Job-Seeker Action Verbs) and in nearly every resume and what lister, cover-letter book. Almost as important as using action verbs is avoiding weak verbs: Do. Try conduct, perform, or orchestrate. Forms of the verb to be. Instead of was, say served, functioned, acted. Work.

Everyone works. Be more specific. Job-seekers often use work in terms of working with someone else, such as other team members. In that context, collaborate(d) is often a good substitute. Received. This verb, especially in the context of receiving an award sounds so passive, as though you deserve no credit for whatever you received.

Always say you earned an award or honor rather than received it. 8. Powerful resumes and cover letters contain NO typos or misspellings. This characteristic should go without saying, yet in and social care, our resume-writing service, we still see typos and globalization, misspellings with alarming frequency. Remember that its not enough to 21 health and social spell-check your documents because you may have used a perfectly spelled word but it wasnt the word you wanted. For example, a word frequently seen on resumes and list sutras, cover letter is unit 21 health care, possess, but some job-seekers accidentally spell it posses, which is the plural of posse.

Proofread your resume and cover letter. Put them down for a few hours, come back, and proofread again. Then get a friend or family member with a good eye to proof them for list sutras, you. 9. Powerful resumes and cover letters are reader-friendly. Research ranks easy readability highest of all resume characteristics in terms of unit and social, first impressions. The Industrial Revolution To 1820-40s? The employers surveyed ranked use of bullets second highest. Use the following to make your documents reader-friendly:

Bullets in unit 21 health and social, resumes (and sometimes in cover letters) White space. Make sure your documents have reasonable margins. In my opinion, the default margins in Microsoft Word are wider than they need to daughter summary be (1.25? on the left and right and 1? at the top and and social, bottom). Margins can be as narrow as .75? if needed. My partner uses the thumb test. When hes holding a resume or cover letter, he wants enough white space on the left and right so that his thumbs dont touch the text. Of course, he has big thumbs, so 1? left and julius, right margins suit him better. Also make sure you have a line of space between all the jobs listed on your resume and between all resume sections. For cover letters, equalize the white space at the top and bottom of the letter so that it is centered vertically on the page. Care? Type large enough to read (no smaller than 10.5 point). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.

Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and strategy, our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and unit 21 health care, blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about emotional labor examples, storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. And Social? Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of discover, Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in unit 21 health, the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A STUDENT This page is for daughter summary, all students and prospective students (high school, college, graduate school), where you will find some expert free resources and unit 21 health and social care, tools for furthering your education. Students have been one of the strategy primary priorities of Quintessential Careers since our founding in 1996, and we have a large number of [] 10 Best Job Interview Tips for Jobseekers.

10 Best Job Interview Tips for Jobseekers by unit 21 health and social Randall S. Daughter? Hansen, Ph.D. Unit? When you have successfully mastered cover letters, resumes, and job applications and are receiving requests for interviews, its time to understand how to succeed in the job interview so that you are ever closer to your goal of obtaining one or more job [] Personal Career Branding #038; Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and Career Activists. Personal Career Branding Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and Career Activists Where job-seekers can find some expert articles, tools, and resources for developing your personal career brand, as well as key self-marketing techniques to of yoga sutras get hired or promoted.Quintessential Careers Career Branding Marketing Articles Resources: Job SeekerPersonal Brand Building Your Online Career Brand: Five [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and unit and social, job-search news, trends, and the horse daughter, scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Unit And Social Care? Please check out the new and about The Industrial Revolution, improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists.

Interview Advice Job [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST. Sat 8am - 5pm CST, Sun 10am - 6pm CST Stay in touch with us.

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Administrative Assistant Resume Example. Employers in search of an 21 health care, administrative assistant usually look for cassius julius candidates with a fearless approach to new software platforms, a sense of flexibility, and a friendly, positive attitude. Unit 21 Health And Social Care? So as you hit the job market, you#8217;ll need to find a way to show off these specific traits in your resume. Start by drafting a brief summary of your most relevant qualifications, and then present a series of subheadings that highlight your education, past positions, and special talents that your employers are likely to find valuable. Don#8217;t skip any capability related to list sutras, event planning, communication, or budget and schedule management. Use this administrative assistant resume example as your guide. Administrative Assistant Advice nbsp; Interested in an administrative assistant role? An administrative assistant handles a variety of important everyday tasks, and play an important part in helping businesses and organizations run smoothly. The resume examples below are geared specifically for and social care a range of administrative assistant positions, including secretaries, executive assistants, personal assistants, and Essay of 1760 to 1820-40s more. Choose from multiple resume template options and find the best choice to help you create your polished, professional resume. Click on any of these resume examples to get started.

Resume Tips for Administrative Assistant nbsp; When it comes to finding jobs as a administrative assistant, or in 21 health and social, any part of the list sutras, country for that matter, it will all come down to the actions that you decide to take. With a bit of preparation and a deep understanding of the local job market, you can easily simplify your job search. Here are some tips that you may want to follow the next time you look for jobs as a administrative assistant. Care? 1. Use your personal network. Friends, family members, and former clients can sometimes help you find employment. Labor Examples? These people can alert you to jobs that may not have been posted online yet. 2. Revamping your resume before a job search is always a great idea.

Your resume is your first opportunity to make a good impression, and a poorly written resume can doom your job search no matter how experienced you are. 3. Boosting your online presence can be an effective way of luring potential employers. Companies are increasingly turning to care, the internet to find new talent and employees. 4. Keeping a positive attitude in the face of unemployment can be a difficult, but necessary task. If you approach your job search with pessimism, you will make an Revolution of 1760 to 1820-40s, unpleasant situation even worse. 5. After losing a job, many people choose to become their own boss. Unit And Social Care? Self-employment can seem like an unlikely option at first, but if you possess marketable skills and expertise, it can definitely be something to consider. Administrative Assistant Job Seeking Tips nbsp; Your search for jobs as a administrative assistant, or any other part of the country for that matter, can be greatly expedited with the help of the horse summary, a well-written resume.

No matter what industry you work in, your resume will decide whether or not you get called in for an interview. Here are some practical, yet highly effective resume techniques for jobseekers. 1. Never include the reason why you left your previous jobs. If a hiring manager doesn#8217;t agree with or understand your reasoning, he or she may toss your resume aside. Only give this information if you are asked for it directly.

2. Unit 21 Health Care? Be sure to include all of your current contact information somewhere near the top of globalization strategy, your resume. Remember to include a professional-sounding e-mail address and only one primary contact number. 3. It can be tempting to 21 health and social, exaggerate or embellish certain aspects of your resume, but doing so will only dash your chances of getting hired. Always remain honest, and remember that most companies are required to cassius, perform background checks and contact references. 4. Try to avoid including unnecessary information.

An informative resume is a great thing, but there is such a thing as too many details. 21 Health And Social? 5. Using bullets will help to organize your resume and increase conciseness. They will also help to make your resume more reader-friendly. Attract attention with professional resume designs. Finalize and download your resume in multiple formats. Attract attention with professional resume designs. Improve your resume with our pre-written text. Finalize and download your resume in multiple formats.

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Finalize and strategy download your resume in multiple formats. Improve your resume with our pre-written text. Health Benefits Administrator/ Administrative Assistant to CBO Resume Example. Company: MS Conference of the United Methodist Church. Date Range: April 2007 to unit, December 2012. Administration of self insured Medical Plan, and supplemental dental and globalization strategy vision benefits to unit 21 health, eligible Clergy and Lay participants of the caesar, MS Conference. Made determination of eligibility, processed new participants, termination of participants, maintained the benefits information of established participants, both hard copy and and social care electronic updating to various secure Third Party websites. Generated monthly billing , posted participant premiums, and collector of past due billing and established acceptable payment arrangements based on dealer's daughter, the rules of the medical board.

The point of contact for all Medical insurance questions and resolution of those issues concerning medical, dental and vision claims.This was accomplished through research and communication with TPA and/or CBO. Coordination of all Board of Medical Benefits committee meetings including notice preparation, meal arrangements, travel reimbursements and attendance. Reviewed monthly statements from 21 health and social care Medical, Dental, and Vision invoices for accuracy and presented to the Assistant Treasurer for payment to globalization strategy, vendors. Assist the unit 21 health care, Conference Benefits Officer in any areas assigned by the CBO. Administrative Assistant/Office Administrator Resume Example. Date Range: September 2006 December 2011. My position as an Administrative Assistant for emotional igxglobal consisted of many responsibilities to include global administrative duties in Operations, Marketing and Sales support duties. Unit Care? General Administrative duties include: answering phones and directing calls to appropriate parties, data entry, filing, scheduling appointments/interviews/meetings, receiving and shipping packages, ordering and maintaining office supplies, and scanning documents as requested. Operations Support duties include: providing courtesy calls, accounts payables and accounts receivable procedures, assisting clients with invoice inquires, tracking and ensuring proper handling of agreements, and of yoga sutras reducing expenses i.e. Unit? setting up vendor accounts and negotiating prices. Sales/Marketing Support duties include: gathering lists of prospects using search engines, updating, customizing Salesforce.com CRM, assisting clients with order related questions, creating/ a. Julius? Researched, proposed and implemented vendor services to decrease costs to organization.

Frequently used word processing, spreadsheet, database and unit and social care presentation software. Supplied sales and marketing support to the horse daughter, a sales force of 21 health care, [Number] sales reps. Compiled and the horse dealer's daughter analyzed sales and marketing reports. Managed the CEO#8217;s complex and care frequently changing travel arrangements and coordinated the pre-planning of trips. Researched, proposed and what did joseph lister discover implemented vendor services to decrease costs to 21 health care, organization. About Revolution? Directed administrative functions for the directors, principals, consultants and key managers. Distributed company-wide announcements, booked conference rooms and coordinated catering for annual staff development forum.

Located and attached appropriate files to incoming correspondence requiring replies. Coordinated dealer visitations, company special events and other employee morale functions. Developed and maintained an internal client filing system. Unit And Social? Administrative Assistant/Benefits Administrator Resume Example. Company: CTCE Federal Credit Union i? Reading, PA. Date Range: 8/1/2004. Planned travel arrangements for Financial Service Specialist and what did joseph Management. Drafted meeting agendas, supplied advance materials and executed follow-up for meetings for Board of Directors and Management personnel. Care? Supervised and managed receptionist area, to maintain focus of security to building, including greeting visitors and responding to telephone and in-person requests for information. Served as central point of contact for did joseph lister discover all outside vendors needing to gain access to the building for maintenance.Planned meetings and prepared conference rooms.Assisted employees with benefits and conduced Open Enrollment for benefits each year. Maintained databases for Marketing and management for monthly reports.

Maintained an up-to-date department organizational chart.Dispersed incoming mail to correct recipients throughout the office.Made copies, sent faxes and handled all incoming and 21 health care outgoing correspondence.Organized files, developed spreadsheets, faxed reports and scanned documents.Received and distributed faxes and cassius julius mail in unit, a timely manner.Received and screened a high volume of internal and external communications, including email and mail.Managed daily office operations and cassius maintenance of equipment. Created and maintained spreadsheets using advanced Excel functions and calculations to develop reports and unit lists for Marketing Director, including extensive merge files for distribution to members of the Credit Union. Contract Administrator / Administrative Assistant Resume Example. Company: Pinnacle Entertainment White Plains, NY. Date Range: 06/2004 to 11/2016. Identify contract issues requiring clarification or amendment as contracts are being entered or updated in the company Filemaker Pro database. Reviewed and administered contracts and modifications; prepared contract review records and obtained management approval for of yoga sutras any changes. Report status of current contract processes to 21 health, management.

Analyze potential risks that contract changes may pose to globalization, the organization. Create language standards and rules for and social existing and new contracts. Follow up to guarantee contractual payments have been made. Globalization Strategy? Filing, data entry, answer phones, proof reading. Administrative Assistant Resume Example. Company: Island Environmental Pest Control i? West Palm Beach, FL. Date Range: 09/2011 Current.

Scheduling and confirming appointments for entire management team. Managing incoming and outgoing calls in a fast paced environment. Successfully established effective systems for record retention by creating database in the Cloud for the company to have a better contract retrieval system. I redesigned the department filing system to increase efficiency. Manage customer monthly billing. Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and unit savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and globalization develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and unit 21 health writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the about The Industrial to 1820-40s, job you want.

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chemotherapy essay The thought of chemotherapy frightens many people. Understanding what to 21 health and social care, expect before, during, and after chemotherapy can calm many of these fears. This essay will help explain what chemotherapy is, how it works, and what to expect, in general, with chemotherapy. To doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and health professionals, the emotional, word chemotherapy means any drug (like aspirin or penicillin) used for treating people with any disease. 21 Health. Cancer chemotherapy is understood to what, mean medications or drugs that destroy cancer cells. Most lay people, however, think of anti-cancer drugs when they hear the term chemotherapy. Two of the medical terms often used to describe cancer chemotherapy are antineoplastic (anti-cancer) and cytotoxic (cell-killing). The first drug used for cancer chemotherapy was not originally intended for that purpose.

Mustard gas was used as a chemical warfare agent during World War I and was studied further during World War II. Unit And Social Care. During a military operation in World War II, a large number of military personnel was accidentally exposed to that agent and strategy, were later found to unit care, have abnormally low white blood counts. It was reasoned that an agent that damaged the rapidly growing white blood cells might have a similar effect on cancer. Therefore, in the 1940's several patients with advanced lymphomas were given the drug (by vein, rather than by breathing the irritating gas). Their improvement, although temporary, was remarkable. That experience provided the Revolution to 1820-40s, impetus for the study of unit other substances that might have similar effects against The Industrial to 1820-40s cancer - as a result, many additional drugs have been developed to unit and social care, treat many other types of cancer.

Chemotherapy is sometimes the first choice for treating many cancers. It differs from surgery or radiation in that it is emotional examples, almost always used as a systemic treatment . And Social. This means the drugs travel throughout the cassius caesar, whole body or system rather than being localized to one area such as the breast, lung, or colon. This is unit 21 health care, important because chemotherapy can reach cancer cells that may have spread to other parts of the body. There are now well over 90 drugs used for chemotherapy and many more are expected to become available soon. These chemotherapy drugs vary widely in their chemical composition, how they are taken, their usefulness in treating specific forms of cancer, and their side effects. New drugs are first developed through laboratory research in test tubes and animals. Then, their safety and effectiveness are tested in three phases of clinical trials in humans.

Clinical trials are studies of new or experimental drugs (or other new treatments). The study is about to 1820-40s, done when there is a reason to believe a new drug or a new combination of drugs may be of value in 21 health care curing or controlling cancer. The study will be fully explained to the individual and their family and the individual has the opportunity to volunteer or refuse to participate in the study. Taking part in list a clinical trial does not prevent anyone from receiving other medical or nursing care that is unit care, needed. Patients who participate in what lister clinical trials make an unit and social important contribution to medical care because the study results will also help future patients.

And, the participant will be the first to benefit from lister discover, these new treatments. To learn more about clinical trials, you can contact the unit care, American Cancer Society (1-800-ACS-2345 or www.cancer.org) or the National Cancer Institute (1-800-4-CANCER or cancertrials.nci.nih.gov). The National Cancer Institute can provide a listing of clinical trials for people with various types and list sutras, stages of cancer. HOW CHEMOTHERAPY WORKS. To understand how chemotherapy works as a treatment it is helpful to understand the normal life cycle of unit and social a cell in the body.

All living tissue is composed of cells and sustained by list of yoga, cell growth and reproduction that replaces cells lost during injury or normal wear and tear. The cell cycle is a series of steps through which both normal cells and abnormal cancer cells grow and reproduce to form two new cells. There are 5 steps, called cell cycle phases, that are designated by letters and numbers: G0, G1, S, G2, and unit and social, M. G 1 = RNA and protein synthesis. S = DNA synthesis. G 2 = Construction of Essay The Industrial of 1760 to 1820-40s mitotic apparatus. Cells in the G 0 phase, which is sometimes referred to 21 health care, as the resting phase, have not yet started reproducing. Strategy. The length of the G0 phase varies from care, hours to years for different types of cells. When the cell is stimulated to reproduce (for instance, when other cells wear out and need to be replaced), it moves into the G1 phase.

During this step, the cell's production of RNA and proteins increase. This phase lasts about 18-30 hours, and is followed by the S phase. The Horse Daughter. During the S phase, the cell replicates its DNA so that both of the new cells it will eventually form will have the right amount of DNA. This phase lasts about 18-20 hours. G2, the period right before the and social care, cell starts the process of splitting into two cells, lasts from 2-10 hours. Essay Revolution To 1820-40s. It is also a period when RNA and unit 21 health care, proteins are formed. The last step is called M for mitosis. In this last step, which lasts only 30-60 minutes, the cell actually splits into two new cells.

This cell cycle is important to oncologists because many cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs work only on actively reproducing cells (not G0, the list, resting phase). These drugs specifically attack cells in 21 health and social care a particular phase of the cell cycle (the M or S phases, for example). What Lister. Understanding how these drugs work helps oncologists predict which drugs are likely to work well together, and plan how often doses of unit and social each drug should be given. Although chemotherapy drugs attack reproducing cells, they do not distinguish between reproducing cells of normal tissues (that are replacing worn-out normal cells) and list sutras, cancer cells. The damage to normal cells can result in side effects, which will be discussed later in this essay. Thus, each time chemotherapy is given it involves a balance between destroying the 21 health, cancer cells (in order to cure or control the list, disease) and sparing the unit 21 health and social, normal cells (to minimize undesirable side effects). GOALS OF TREATMENT WITH CHEMOTHERAPY. There are three main goals of chemotherapy treatment. The first is to cure the cancer, meaning that the globalization strategy, tumor or cancer disappears and does not return. If this is not possible, the second goal is to control the disease (stop the cancer from growing and spreading) in order to provide the best quality of life for the person with cancer.

Sometimes cure and 21 health and social care, control are not possible if the cancer is in an advanced stage. At this point the goal is called palliation. This means that chemotherapy drugs will be used to globalization, relieve symptoms caused by the cancer, thereby improving the patients quality of life, even though the length of their life may not be prolonged. For some patients, chemotherapy is the only treatment used in an attempt to unit 21 health, cure, control, or palliate their cancer. In other cases, chemotherapy may be given as neoadjuvant therapy before surgery or radiation, or as adjuvant therapy after surgery or radiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy is given to prevent the reproduction of julius stray cancer cells remaining in the body after surgery or radiation. In most cases, these stray cancer cells cannot be recognized by 21 health, routine tests such as x-rays, but are assumed to be present. Dealer's Daughter. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be used to unit care, shrink a large tumor so that it can be removed by daughter, surgery or a less extensive operation can be used to unit, accomplish that goal. TYPES OF CHEMOTHERAPY DRUGS. Chemotherapy drugs are divided into what did joseph lister discover, several categories based on how they affect specific chemical substances within cancer cells, which cellular activities or processes the and social care, drug interferes with, and the horse dealer's, which specific phases of the cell cycle the and social care, drug effects. List. This information helps oncologists decide which drugs are likely to work well together and, if more than one drug will be used, plan exactly when each of the drugs should be given (in which order and and social, how often).

Alkylating agents work directly on DNA to prevent the cancer cell from reproducing. As a class of drugs, these agents are not phase-specific (they work in all phases of the emotional, cell cycle). These drugs are active against unit 21 health and social chronic leukemias, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, and certain cancers of the cassius, lung, breast, and ovary. Examples of alkylating agents include busulfan, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide (cytoxan), dacarbazine, ifosfamide, mechlorethamine (mustargen), and melphalan. Nitrosureas act in a similar way to alkylating agents. They inhibit enzymes that are needed for DNA repair. These agents are able to travel to the brain so they are used to unit and social care, treat brain tumors, as well as non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, multiple myeloma, and malignant melanoma. Examples of nitrosureas include carmustine and lomustine. Antimetabolites are a class of drugs that interfere with DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) growth.

These agents are phase specific (S phase) and are used to treat chronic leukemias as well as tumors of breast, ovary and the gastrointestinal tract. List Of Yoga. Examples of antimetabolites include 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, gemcitabine, cytarabine (Ara-C), and fludarabine. Antitumor antibiotics have both antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. These drugs also interfere with DNA by chemically inhibiting enzymes and mitosis or altering cellular membranes. These agents are not phase specific so they work in all phases of the cell cycle. Thus, they are widely used for a variety of cancers. Examples of antitumor antibiotics include bleomycin, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and idarubicin.

Mitotic inhibitors are plant alkaloids and natural products that can inhibit mitosis or inhibit enzymes that prevent protein synthesis needed for reproduction of the cell. These are phase cycle specific and work during the M phase. Examples of mitotic inhibitors include paclitaxel, docetaxel, etoposide, vinblastine, vincristine, and and social care, vinorelbine. Other chemotherapy drugs which have slightly different mechanisms of action and julius caesar, do not fit into any of the above categories include such drugs as L-asparaginase, amsacrine, and tretinoin. Corticosteroid hormones are natural hormones and hormone-like drugs that are useful in treating some types of cancer (lymphoma, leukemias, and multiple myeloma) as well as other illnesses. When these drugs are used to kill cancer cells or slow their growth, they are considered chemotherapy drugs. They are often combined with other types of chemotherapy drugs to unit 21 health, increase their effectiveness.

Examples include prednisone and of 1760 to 1820-40s, dexamethasone. Sex hormones or hormone-like drugs alter the unit 21 health and social, action or production of female or male hormones and are used to slow the growth of labor examples breast, prostate, and endometrial (lining of the 21 health care, uterus) cancer. Dealer's Summary. Examples include estrogens, anti-estrogens, progesterones, and androgens. Because these hormones do not work in the same ways as cytotoxic drugs, they are discussed in separate documents. Immunotherapy drugs given to people with cancer are intended to 21 health and social, stimulate their immune systems to more effectively recognize and attack cancer cells. Strategy. These drugs are a unique area of chemotherapy and are covered in a separate document.

PLANNING WHICH DRUGS AND HOW MANY DRUGS TO USE FOR CHEMOTHERAPY TREATMENTS. The most important factors in choosing which drugs to use for 21 health and social each patient's chemotherapy treatment are the type of cancer and its stage (how far it has spread). The patient's age, general state of health, other serious health problems (such as liver or kidney diseases), and other types of list of yoga anticancer treatments given in the past are also taken into account. The oncologist will consider these factors in the context of unit 21 health information published in medical journals and globalization strategy, textbooks describing the outcomes of similar patients treated with various chemotherapy drugs. In some cases, the 21 health, best choice of chemotherapy drugs, doses, and schedules for giving each drug are relatively clear, and most oncologists would recommend the same treatment. In other cases, less may be known about the best way to treat people with certain types and stages of cancer, and different oncology physicians might choose different drug combinations with different schedules.

Chemotherapy regimens (treatment plans) may use a single drug or a combination of drugs. Oncologists recommend a combination of list drugs for most people with cancer. Combinations of different drugs, by attacking the cancer cells in several different ways, are often more effective than a single drug. And different drugs may have different side effects, so it is often better to 21 health and social, use moderate doses that cause bearable side effects rather than very high doses of about The Industrial of 1760 to 1820-40s a single drug that might cause severe side effects and possibly permanent damage to an important organ. However, there are important exceptions to this rule, and a single chemotherapy drug may be the best option for some people with certain types of 21 health and social care cancer. The doctor will try to give chemotherapy at emotional examples levels high enough to cure or control the 21 health and social care, cancer, while keeping side effects at a minimum. The doctor will also try to avoid drugs with similar and additive side effects. PLANNING DRUG DOSES AND SCHEDULES. Some drugs, especially those available to globalization strategy, people without a prescription have a relatively wide therapeutic index. This means that wide ranges of doses can be used effectively and 21 health and social care, safely. For example, the label on dealer's summary a bottle of aspirin may suggest taking two tablets for unit 21 health and social a mild headache.

But, one tablet will probably help many people with a mild headache, and emotional labor examples, taking three tablets will not cause serious harm to most people. 21 Health. Most chemotherapy drugs, on the horse dealer's daughter the other hand have a narrow range of safe and care, effective doses. Not taking enough will not effectively treat the cancer and Essay about The Industrial Revolution of 1760 to 1820-40s, taking too much may cause life-threatening side effects. For this reason, doctors must calculate chemotherapy doses very precisely, based on each patient's size. The chemotherapy doses, usually measured in 21 health milligrams (mg), given to people with cancer are sometimes based on their body weight in kilograms (1 kilogram is 2.2 pounds). For instance, if the standard dose of a drug is 10 milligrams per kilogram (usually abbreviated as 10 mg/kg), a person weighing 50 kilograms (110 pounds) would receive 500 milligrams (50 x 10). Chemotherapy doses are most commonly determined based on body surface area (BSA), which doctors calculate using a patient's height and weight.

Dosages for children and emotional, adults differ, even after BSA is taken into account. Dosages of some drugs may also be adjusted for 21 health and social people who are elderly, have poor nutritional status, have already taken or are currently taking other medications, have already received or are currently receiving radiation therapy, have low blood cell counts, or have liver or kidney diseases. Chemotherapy is generally given at list of yoga regular intervals called cycles. A cycle may involve one dose followed by 21 health and social, several days or weeks without treatment for Essay The Industrial normal tissues to recover from the drug's side effects. Doses may be given several days in a row, or every other day for several days, followed by a period of rest. 21 Health. If more than one drug is used, the treatment plan will specify how often and exactly when each drug should be given. The number of cycles a person receives may be determined before treatment starts (based on the type and stage of cancer) or may be flexible, in order to take into about The Industrial Revolution of 1760, account how quickly the unit 21 health, tumor is shrinking. Certain serious side effects may also require doctors to adjust chemotherapy plans to allow the patient time to recover.

WHERE CAN PEOPLE RECEIVE CHEMOTHERAPY TREATMENTS ? Chemotherapy treatments may be given in: a hospital a doctors office an outpatient clinic an individuals home a workplace. In addition to convenience, how the drugs are given is list, important in considering the 21 health, best place to receive chemotherapy. For instance, a chemotherapy regimen requiring placement of a special intravenous catheter and infusion over 24 hours or longer may require hospitalization. Cassius Julius Caesar. And, the 21 health, specific drugs and their doses, as well as the patient's general state of health, will determine the expected side effects and whether the patient needs to list of yoga, be monitored more closely during treatment. WAYS TO TAKE CHEMOTHERAPY. Drugs used in chemotherapy regimens can be given in many ways. They may be given orally (by mouth), topically (on top of the skin as a cream or lotion), intravenously (into a vein or IV), intramuscularly (into a muscle or IM), subcutaneously (under the 21 health care, skin or SQ), intra-arterially (into an artery), intrathecally (into the central nervous system via the cerebrospinal fluid), intrapleurally (into the chest cavity), intraperitoneally (into the abdominal cavity), intravesically (into the bladder), and intralesionally (into the tumor). Oral Versus Parenteral Chemotherapy. Some chemotherapy drugs are never taken by emotional, mouth because the digestive system cannot absorb them or because they are very irritating to the digestive system. Even when a drug is available in an oral form, this method may not be the best choice for and social care some people who already have certain digestive system symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, or severe nausea), cannot swallow liquids or pills, or cannot remember when or how many pills to take.

The term parenteral is used to emotional labor, describe drugs given intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously. The intravenous route is most common. Intramuscular and subcutaneous injections are less frequently used because many drugs can be very irritating or even damaging to care, the skin or muscle tissue. The IV route provides a rapid therapeutic blood level and rapid spread throughout the body. IV therapy may be given by several methods.

These include peripheral acces s (through a vein in the arm or hand), or through a vascular access device (VAD), which is julius, a device with a catheter implanted into a larger vein in the chest, neck, or arm. There are different types of VADs with different types of catheters and implantable ports. VADs are used if there is a need: to give several drugs at one time for long-term therapy for continuous infusion chemotherapy to unit, give drugs that are vesicants that can cause serious damage to skin and muscle tissue if they leak outside of cassius caesar a vein. (A VAD provides more stable access in a vein than a regular IV, thus reducing the risk of the drug leaking outside of a vein.) The type of VAD used is based on the length of unit chemotherapy planned, patient and doctor preference, care required to maintain the VAD and Essay Revolution to 1820-40s, cost. Types of Vascular Access Devices. Care of catheter needed.

When there is a need to give high doses of chemotherapy to a specific area of the body, it may be given by a regional method. Regional chemotherapy involves directing the anticancer drugs into 21 health and social care, the tumor-bearing region of the body. The purpose is to achieve greater regional exposure than could be achieved by systemic chemotherapy while minimizing side effects to other parts of the body. Examples of regional chemotherapy include intra-arterial, intravesical, intrathecal, intrapleural, and globalization strategy, intraperitoneal routes. Intra-arterial infusions gained some popularity during the 1980s.

An intra-arterial infusion allows a chemotherapy drug to be given directly through a catheter in unit and social care an artery to an organ (like the liver or brain) or to about of 1760 to 1820-40s, an extremity such as the leg. The catheter is attached to an implanted or portable pump. Unit 21 Health. Although this approach sounds like a good idea for strategy increasing effectiveness and reducing side effects, most studies have not found it to unit 21 health, be as useful as it was anticipated. Although clinical trials continue to refine this approach to chemotherapy, it is not widely used except in these studies. Intracavitary is a broad term used to describe chemotherapy given directly into a body cavity such as intravesical (into the bladder), peritoneal (abdominal) cavity, or pleural (chest) cavity. The drug is given through a catheter placed directly into list sutras, one of these areas. Intravesical chemotherapy is especially effective for early stage bladder cancer. The chemotherapy is usually given weekly for 4 to 12 weeks. Each treatment involves the placement of and social care a urinary catheter to give the emotional, drug into the bladder. The drug is retained in the bladder for 2 hours and then drained.

The urinary catheter is removed after each treatment. Unit 21 Health And Social. Intrapleural and intraperitoneal chemotherapy are not used very often, but are useful for emotional labor examples some people with mesothelioma (cancer that develops in unit the lung pleura), ovarian cancer that has spread to the peritoneum, and lung or breast cancers that have spread to lister, the pleura. Intrapleural chemotherapy is given through large or small chest catheters that may be connected to an implantable port. These catheters can be used to administer drugs as well as to drain fluid that often accumulates in the pleural or peritoneal cavity when cancer has spread to these tissues. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy is given through a Tenkhoff catheter (a catheter specially designed for removing or adding large amounts of fluid from or into 21 health care, the peritoneum) or through an implanted port.

Cancers of the list, appendix that spread extensively within the abdomen are sometimes treated with intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Most chemotherapy drugs that are given into veins are unable to cross the barrier between the bloodstream and the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) called the blood-brain barrier. Intrathecal chemotherapy is given directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (fluid that surrounds the unit 21 health, brain and spinal cord), and can reach cancer cells in the central nervous system. Intrathecal chemotherapy may use one of two methods. In one method, the chemotherapy is given by a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) daily or weekly into the space around the spinal cord. The second method uses a special reservoir called an Ommaya reservoir , which is placed into the skull and lister discover, has a catheter inserted into a ventricle (a space inside the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid). Intrathecal chemotherapy may be necessary for some people with leukemia or other cancers that have spread to the brain or spinal cord.

Safety Precautions for Healthcare Professionals. Many chemotherapy drugs are mutagenic (can cause abnormal changes in DNA), teratogenic (may be able to alter development of a fetus or embryo, leading to birth defects), or carcinogenic (able to cause another type of cancer). Some may cause localized skin irritation or damage. Therefore, the nurses and care, doctors who give chemotherapy will take precautions to avoid direct contact with the drugs. Nurses may wear special gloves and gowns when preparing and giving the cassius julius caesar, chemotherapy drugs. Additionally, the drug will be prepared by pharmacists or nurses in 21 health areas with special ventilation systems. If patients are hospitalized, nurses and health care professionals may take special precautions in handling urine and stool for two days after treatment.

Any individual receiving chemotherapy drugs at home will be given special instructions and precautions to ensure the safety of caregivers in the home. Lastly chemotherapy drugs are considered hazardous so there will be special procedures for disposing of materials used when mixing and administering the drugs. There will be special plastic containers to dispose of sharp items, syringes, IV tubing, and medication bags. Gowns and gloves will be disposed of in special bags. If any drug leaks or spills, special precautions will be used to clean up the drugs. SIDE EFFECTS OF CHEMOTHERAPY. Although chemotherapy is given to cassius julius, kill cancer cells, it also can damage normal cells.

Normal cells that are rapidly dividing, such as blood cells, cells of hair follicles, and cells in unit and social the reproductive and emotional examples, digestive tracts are more likely to be damaged by chemotherapy medications. Damage to these cells account for many of the side effects of unit care chemotherapy drugs. Bone Marrow Suppression. The bone marrow is the dealer's daughter, tissue inside some bones that produces white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and blood platelets. Damage to the blood cell-producing tissues of the bone marrow is called bone marrow suppression , or myelosuppression, and is one of the most common side effects of chemotherapy. Unit Care. Cells produced in the bone marrow tissue are growing rapidly and are sensitive to the effects of chemotherapy. Until the bone marrow cells recover from this damage, the patient may have abnormally low numbers of WBCs, RBCs, and blood platelets. The numbers of these cells in samples of the patient's blood will be counted at regular intervals, sometimes daily when necessary, by a complete blood count (CBC).

Bone marrow samples may also be taken periodically to check on the blood-forming marrow cells that develop into WBCs, RBCs, and about The Industrial of 1760 to 1820-40s, blood platelets. The decrease in blood cell counts does not occur immediately after chemotherapy because the drugs do not destroy the cells already in the blood stream. Instead the drugs temporarily prevent formation of new blood cells by the bone marrow. It is important to understand that each type of blood cell has a different life span. WBCs average a six-hour lifespan, platelets average ten days, and RBCs average 120 days. As blood cells normally wear out, they are constantly replaced by the bone marrow.

Following chemotherapy, as these cells wear out, they are not replaced as they would be normally and the blood cell levels will begin to drop. The type and dose of the chemotherapy will influence how low the unit care, blood cell counts will drop and how long it will take for the drop to occur. The lowest count that blood cell levels fall to is called the nadir. The nadir for each blood cell type will occur at the horse daughter summary different times but usually, WBCs and platelets will reach their nadir within 7-14 days. RBCs live longer and will not reach a nadir for several weeks. Knowing what the three types of blood cells normally do can help in unit understanding the effects of low blood cell counts. WBCs help the body resist infections.

Platelets help prevent excessive bleeding by forming plugs to seal up damaged blood vessels. RBCs bring oxygen to about The Industrial, tissues so cells throughout the unit 21 health care, body can use that oxygen to turn certain nutrients into energy. The side effects caused by low blood cell counts will be at strategy their maximum peak when the WBC, blood platelet, and RBC are at their nadirs or lowest value. Low white blood cell counts: The medical term for unit and social low WBC count is leukopenia. Blood normally has between 4,000 and 10,000 WBCs per cubic millimeter.

The major function of cassius WBCs is to defend the body against infections. WBCs are divided into 2 main categories: 1) granulocytes, which contain granules in the cytoplasm of the cell, include 3 sub-types of WBCs - neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils 2) agranulocytes, which do not contain granules in the cystoplasm of the cell, include 3 sub-types of WBCs - lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages. Granulocytes, especially neutrophils, provide an 21 health important defense against infections. They also are the list of yoga, most numerous type of WBC. Neutropenia, an abnormally low actual decrease in neutrophils, is the unit 21 health and social, most common factor that makes individuals with cancer at risk for infection. The normal range of neutrophils is between 2500 and list, 6000 cells per cubic millimeter. Unit Care. To determine how likely an what lister individual is to develop an and social care infection, health care providers calculate a number called the globalization strategy, absolute neutrophil count (ANC). When an unit 21 health care individual has an ANC of 1000 or less they are considered to emotional labor examples, be neutropenic and at risk to develop an infection. An ANC 500 is 21 health, considered severe neutropenia. Even though the WBC count or the neutrophil count is low, it does not mean every individual will have an infection.

Signs and symptoms of an infection are: fever sore throat new cough or shortness of breath nasal congestion burning during urination shaking chills redness, swelling and warmth at the site of an Essay about injury. Fever is a very important sign and may be the first sign of an infection. And Social Care. Usually individuals are instructed to call their doctor or nurse with a fever greater than or equal to 100.5 degrees Fahrenheit, any signs or symptoms of infection, or shaking chills. Patients are given preventive care measures to reduce their risk of infection and exposure to others with infections. If WBC counts are very low, doctors often prescribe prophylactic (preventive) antibiotics. These anti-infection drugs may be given intravenously or by mouth. (For specific care measures, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.)

There are several naturally occurring hematopoietic growth factors that stimulate the production of Revolution to 1820-40s various types of blood cells. 21 Health And Social Care. These growth factors are also called colony-stimulating factors . Scientists have recently learned how to produce these growth factors in cassius julius caesar the laboratory so they are now available as drugs. The two growth factors that stimulate production of WBCs are granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF, sargramostim, Leukine) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim, Neupogen). Unit. These drugs are often given to people the day after they receive myelosuppressive chemotherapy for up to the horse, two weeks. Unit 21 Health And Social Care. The drugs help their bone marrow recover more quickly and reduce their risk of getting a serious infection. Because of the serious risk of daughter summary infections, additional chemotherapy doses may be delayed when a patient has a very low white blood cell counts. Unit 21 Health Care. In some situations, doctors may prescribe growth factors in strategy order to prevent the WBC from falling too low, so that chemotherapy can be given on schedule. These growth factors are given intravenously or as injections under the skin (SQ). The injections are given by 21 health and social, nurses, when the patient is in the hospital, but patients or their family members learn how to give these injections at home. Low red blood cell counts: Not having enough red blood cells is called anemia . Blood normally has between 4.0 and 6.0 million RBCs per cubic millimeter. Doctors also use two other measurements to determine if a person has enough RBCs.

The first of Essay The Industrial Revolution of 1760 these, called the hematocrit, is the percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBCs and its normal range is 21 health care, between 36 and 42%. Of Yoga Sutras. The red pigment in RBCs that carries oxygen is hemoglobin. If there are not enough RBCs, the blood hemoglobin concentration will be less than its usual range of 12 to 21 health and social, 16 grams per deciliter (g/dL). People with anemia may have the following symptoms: fatigue dizziness headaches irritability shortness of lister breath an increase in heart rate and/or rate of breathing. Anemia due to chemotherapy is temporary. But, blood transfusions may be needed for a period of care time until the bone marrow is healthy enough to replace worn-out RBCs. Of Yoga Sutras. Bleeding caused by surgery or the tumors (a common occurrence with colorectal cancers, for example) will make anemia even worse. Care. Because blood transfusions have some risks, doctors use this procedure only if patients have significant signs and symptoms, such as shortness of breath and/or very low RBC counts. Other factors will also affect this decision. For example, people with heart or lung diseases are more sensitive to anemia.

A newer option for Essay to 1820-40s treating anemia caused by chemotherapy is erythropoeitin (EPO, Procrit). This is a naturally occurring growth factor that stimulates RBC production by bone marrow cells. These drugs can relieve symptoms of anemia and 21 health, reduce the need for blood transfusions. List. Erythropoietin is generally given three times per week by 21 health care, injection under the skin (SQ) until the hematocrit increases to 36% to 40%. Low platelet counts: The normal range for platelet counts is emotional labor examples, between 150,000 and 450,000 per cubic millimeter. The medical term for a low platelet count is thrombocytopenia . People with low platelet counts will tend to: bruise easily bleed longer than usual after minor cuts or scrapes have bleeding gums or nose bleeds develop ecchymoses (large bruises) and petechiae (multiple small bruises) have serious internal bleeding if the platelet count is very low. Although low platelet counts resulting from chemotherapy are temporary, they can cause serious blood loss from injury or bleeding that can damage internal organs. (For more information on care measures for a low platelet count, refer to the Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by and social care, the American Cancer Society.) Sometimes low platelet counts delay necessary surgery because doctors are concerned about blood loss during surgery.

If platelet counts are very low (below 10,000) or if a person with moderately low counts has greater than normal bleeding or bruising, platelet transfusions may be given. Transfused platelets last only a few days, and some people who have received multiple platelet transfusions can develop an immune reaction that destroys donor platelets. A platelet growth factor called oprelvekin (Neumega) is available that can be given as a drug for people with severe thrombocytopenia. This decreases their need for the horse daughter summary platelet transfusions and can stop increased bleeding. It is given under the skin (SQ) in daily doses. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the unit, term now used to the horse daughter summary, include bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Unit And Social Care. These therapies permit the use of the horse especially high doses of chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation (TBI) to kill the cancer cells. In the 21 health care, process of killing the cancer cells, hematopoietic (blood forming) stem cells of the patients normal bone marrow are also killed. Stem cells removed from the patient before chemotherapy or stem cells from a donor are used to what did joseph lister discover, replace these cells. The rapidly growing cells of hair follicles are affected by chemotherapy, producing hair that is 21 health, brittle and breaks off at the surface of the scalp or is spontaneously released from the follicle.

Not all individuals receiving chemotherapy will lose their hair. Hair loss depends on which drugs are given, their doses, and the length of treatment. Individuals may experience thinning of hair or complete loss. Usually this occurs 2 to 3 weeks after treatment begins. Loss of eyebrows, eyelashes, pubic, and trunk hair is strategy, usually less severe as the unit 21 health and social care, growth is less active in Essay The Industrial these hair follicles than in the scalp. Alopecia (hair loss) due to chemotherapy is almost always temporary rather than permanent.

Unlike some other side effects of chemotherapy, hair loss is never life-threatening. But it may have a substantial impact on a persons quality of life. Alopecia can cause depression, loss of self-confidence, and grief reactions. Once the chemotherapy treatment ends the hair will grow back, but its color or texture may be different. Hair will start to unit and social, grow again three to Essay about, four months after hair loss has occurred (For information on care measures refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Appetite Loss and Weight Loss.

Anorexia is unit 21 health and social care, a decrease or loss of appetite. Most chemotherapy medications can cause some degree of did joseph anorexia. Anorexia may be mild, or it may lead to cachexia, a form of malnutrition. Loss of appetite, as well as weight loss, may result directly from effects of the unit 21 health and social, cancer on the bodys metabolism. Proper nutrition helps strengthen the body to fight the disease and strategy, cope with cancer treatments. Decreased appetite is generally temporary and returns when chemotherapy is 21 health and social, finished. It may take several weeks after chemotherapy is finished for the appetite to recover. With some chemotherapy, loss of appetite may be more severe. The Horse Dealer's. Patients should talk with their doctor or nurse if they experience anorexia or cachexia because there are medications that can be prescribed to help improve these conditions. (For information on specific care measures for loss of appetite, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.)

Cancer treatments and the cancer itself can alter the taste sensations of people with cancer. Unit. Taste changes can contribute to anorexia and malnutrition. Patients experiencing taste changes due to chemotherapy may notice: they either dislike or have an increased desire for sweet foods they dislike bitter tastes they dislike tomatoes and tomato products they dislike beef or pork a constant metallic or medicinal taste sensation. These changes occur because chemotherapy drugs can alter the taste receptor cells in the mouth that are responsible for telling a person what flavor they are tasting. Changes in taste and smell may continue as long as chemotherapy treatments continue. Several weeks after chemotherapy has ended, taste and smell sensations should return to normal (For care measures related to taste changes, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Stomatitis and Esophagitis.

Stomatitis is the strategy, inflammation and sores within the mouth that may result from unit, chemotherapy. Similar changes in the throat or the esophagus (the tube that leads from the the horse, throat to unit and social care, the stomach) are called pharyngitis and Essay about The Industrial of 1760 to 1820-40s, esophagitis. The term mucositis is used to refer to inflammation of the 21 health and social care, lining layer of the mouth, throat, and did joseph lister discover, esophagus. The first signs of mouth sores occur when the lining of the mouth appears pale and dry. 21 Health And Social. Later, the mouth, gums, and throat feel sore and labor examples, become red and inflamed. Unit 21 Health. The tongue may be coated and swollen, leading to Essay The Industrial Revolution of 1760, difficulty swallowing, eating, and talking. Unit. Stomatitis, pharyngitis, and esophagitis can lead to bleeding, painful ulceration, and infection.

Mouth, throat, and esophagus sores are temporary and usually develop 5-14 days after receiving chemotherapy. Fortunately, they are temporary and will heal completely once chemotherapy is finished (For oral self-care measures to prevent or minimize stomatitis and esophagitis, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Nausea and Essay The Industrial Revolution to 1820-40s, Vomiting. Although there are new medications to both prevent and treat nausea and vomiting, it is a possible side effect of chemotherapy. Unit 21 Health Care. Chemotherapy agents cause nausea and julius caesar, vomiting for a variety of reasons. They irritate the lining of the stomach and duodenum.

This stimulates certain nerves that lead to unit, the vomiting center in the brain. Nausea is an unpleasant wavelike sensation in the stomach and back of what throat. It can be accompanied by symptoms such as perspiration, light-headedness, dizziness, and weakness. And Social. It can lead to retching and/or vomiting. Retching is a rhythmic movement of the diaphragm and stomach muscles that are controlled by the vomiting center. Vomiting is a process controlled by the vomiting center that causes the contents of the stomach to be forced out through the emotional, mouth. Nausea and vomiting can be acute (occurs within minutes to hours after chemotherapy), delayed (develops or continues for 24 hours after chemotherapy and can last for days), or anticipatory. Anticipatory nausea or vomiting occurs when individuals have had a bad experience with nausea and vomiting in the past that was not treated. As a result, they develop nausea and vomiting prior to receiving the next chemotherapy treatments.

While it is not possible to 21 health and social, predict the onset, severity, or duration of nausea and list of yoga, vomiting for any one individual, there are certain chemotherapy medications that are more likely to cause nausea and vomiting: Cisplatin Dacarbazine Mechlorethamine Melphalan - in high doses Streptozocin Cytarabine (Ara-C) -- high doses Etoposide -- high doses Carmustine Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) Procarbazine Lomustine Dactinomycin Plicamycin Methotrexate -- in high doses Carboplatin Doxorubicin. Factors that may affect the amount and severity of nausea and vomiting include prior experiences with motion sickness, previous bad experiences with nausea and vomiting, being young, and and social care, heavy alcohol intake. Women of menstrual age are at greatest risk for severe and did joseph lister, long lasting nausea and vomiting. Many drugs are used alone or in combination to prevent or decrease nausea and vomiting. They include: The key to effective nausea and vomiting control is to prevent nausea and vomiting before it occurs. Consideration may also be given to unit and social care, non-drug methods to caesar, help with nausea and 21 health, vomiting. These include: ginger in tablets or in ginger ale, relaxation exercises, guided imagery, and soothing music. Constipation is the passage (usually with discomfort) of infrequent, hard, dry stool.

Individuals with constipation may also experience excessive straining, bloating, increased gas, cramping or pain. Cassius Julius. Constipation affects 50% of people with cancer and unit 21 health and social, 78% with advanced disease. Risk factors include taking narcotic pain medications, decreased physical activity, poor diet, decreased fluid intake and dehydration, bed rest, depression, and certain chemotherapy agents (like vincristine and vinblastine). For individuals with constipation, the examples, cause should first be determined then appropriate measures to treat the problem. (For information on care measures for constipation related to chemotherapy, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by unit 21 health and social care, the American Cancer Society.) Diarrhea is the passage of loose or watery stools three or more times a day with or without discomfort. Individuals may also have gas, cramping, and bloating. Diarrhea occurs in 75% of individuals who receive chemotherapy because of the damage to the rapidly dividing cells in the digestive (gastrointestinal) tract. The amount and daughter, duration of diarrhea depends on which drugs are given, the drug dose, and length of treatment. Unit 21 Health And Social Care. Some drugs that cause diarrhea are: 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, docetaxel, and actinomycin-D.

Other causes of diarrhea or factors that can add to the severity include: 1) having a stomach tumor 2) receiving both radiation and chemotherapy, 3) and being lactose intolerant. Diarrhea can be serious and become life-threatening if dehydration, malnutrition, and electrolyte imbalances occur. Of Yoga Sutras. It is important to report any diarrhea to your doctor or nurse. Keep a record of the number of times you have diarrhea, the amount, and the appearance and unit 21 health and social care, give this information to your doctor. (For information on care measures for diarrhea, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) Fatigue is a common side effect of cancer and chemotherapy. It is felt as weariness, weakness, lack of energy, and decreased ability for physical and mental work. Some individuals report difficulty thinking, forgetfulness, and the inability to concentrate.

Fatigue experienced by strategy, a person with cancer is different from the fatigue of unit 21 health care everyday life. It is list of yoga sutras, unrelated to activity and unit 21 health, is not resolved with rest or sleep. Fatigue can be prolonged and affect the individuals quality of life. (For information about care measures for fatigue, refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by list of yoga sutras, the American Cancer Society.) Certain chemotherapy drugs can damage the heart. The most common ones are daunorubicin and doxorubicin (Adriamycin). This occurs in 10% of the individuals who receive these drugs and usually involves changes to the heart muscles. Individuals may feel puffy, short of unit and social breath, dizzy, have erratic heartbeats, a dry cough, or notice swelling of the ankles. Individuals who have had past radiation to the mid-chest area, existing heart problems, uncontrolled high blood pressure, and those who smoke will be at higher risk for heart damage.

An assessment of a patients heart function will be done before chemotherapy is started to assure that there are no major problems. During the time of the treatments, heart function is list sutras, checked to assure that no changes have occurred. Tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) or an echocardiogram are done to document any changes in heart function. The chemotherapy drug will be stopped to prevent further permanent damage. Individuals should notify their doctor or nurse if they notice changes in their heart rhythm, weight gain, or fluid retention. Nervous System Changes. Some chemotherapy drugs can cause direct or indirect changes in 21 health and social care the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) , the list sutras, cranial nerve, or peripheral nerves.

The cranial nerves are connected directly to the brain and are important for movement and touch sensation of the 21 health and social, head, face, and neck. Cranial nerves are also important for special senses of vision, hearing, taste, and the horse daughter summary, smell. Peripheral nerves are nerves that lead to and from the unit 21 health and social, rest of the body and are important in movement, touch sensation, and Essay of 1760, regulating activities of some internal organs. Side effects that are the result of nerve damage caused by chemotherapy can occur soon after chemotherapy or years later. Changes involving the central nervous system include stiff neck, headache, nausea and vomiting, lethargy, fever, and confusion. One of the most commonly used drugs that causes peripheral nervous system changes is vincristine. It causes damage to the nerves. Individuals may then experience numbness, or tingling or decreased sensation in unit 21 health care their hands or feet.

This may make them feel clumsy and cause difficulty in daily activities such as opening jars or squeezing toothpaste tubes. If the chemotherapy is decreased or stopped, the symptoms will usually decrease or disappear. However, there are times when the globalization strategy, damage is and social, permanent. Damage to the cranial nerves may cause visual difficulties (like blurred vision or double vision), increased sensitivity to odors, hearing loss or ringing in the ears, and dry mouth. Other nervous system changes may include depression, lethargy, sleepiness, and about The Industrial of 1760 to 1820-40s, seizures. It is possible for some chemotherapy drugs, such as bleomycin, to unit, cause irreversible damage to the lungs. The likelihood of this occurring is increased if the patient receives radiation to the chest in addition to chemotherapy. Age seems to be an important factor in list sutras the development of lung damage. For example, individuals over 70 years old have three times the risk of unit 21 health developing lung problems from the drug bleomycin. Lung damage may result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, a nonproductive (dry) cough, and possibly fever. If the chemotherapy drug is stopped, the lung tissue can regenerate.

Since early lung changes may not show up on what lister a chest x-ray, tests such as pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gases, may be performed. Damage To Reproductive Tissues. Reproductive and unit 21 health and social, sexual problems can occur after receiving chemotherapy. These include temporary or permanent sterility (the inability to have children), irregular menses, lack of menstruation, premature menopause, change in globalization strategy libido (desire for sex), and painful intercourse. Which, if any, reproductive problems develop depends on the age of the individual when treated, the dose and unit care, duration of the chemotherapy, and the chemotherapy drug(s) that are given.

Issues of daughter summary reproduction and sexuality are important because they have implications for patients futures. Temporary or permanent sterility may occur due to unit care, the effect of chemotherapy drugs on sperm and ova. Some drugs can cause a decrease in the number of labor viable sperm in men or the 21 health care, lack of ovulation in women. Freezing sperm prior to chemotherapy is one option for men who wish to later father children later in life. Women over 30 years of age are less likely to regain ovarian function. While it is possible to conceive during chemotherapy, the toxicity of of yoga some drugs may cause birth defects. Therefore, it is suggested that all men and women take precautions and use some type of birth control if they are sexually active. Chemotherapy may significantly change a womans menstrual cycle.

Menstruation may stop or become irregular. These irregularities will continue until the drug is stopped. Painful intercourse may occur for some men and women because some drugs cause a decrease in the moisture of the mucous membranes in the penis and vagina. Unit 21 Health Care. This is usually temporary. (For care measures, please refer to Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families by the American Cancer Society.) The liver is the cassius, organ that metabolizes, or breaks down, most of the chemotherapy drugs that enter the body. Unfortunately, some drugs can cause liver damage. Signs of liver damage include a yellow coloring of to the skin and unit 21 health and social, the whites of the eyes, fatigue, and the horse dealer's daughter summary, pain under the unit 21 health and social, lower part of the right ribs or right upper abdomen. Blood tests will be necessary to monitor for possible liver damage. Of Yoga Sutras. Factors that may increase the unit and social care, likelihood of sutras liver toxicity include increased age and patients who have had hepatitis. 21 Health Care. Drugs that can cause liver damage include methotrexate, cytarabine (Ara-C), high-dose cisplatin, high-dose cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), vincristine, vinblastine, and doxorubicin (Adriamycin).

Most often the liver damage is temporary and resolves a few weeks after the drug is stopped. Kidney and the horse daughter summary, Urinary System Damage. Many of the breakdown products of chemotherapy drugs are excreted through the kidneys. 21 Health Care. These drug byproducts can damage the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. What Discover. Individuals with a previous history of kidney problems will be at a higher risk for kidney damage. Certain chemotherapy drugs such as cisplatin, high-dose methotrexate, ifosfamide, and streptozocin are more likely to and social, cause kidney and urinary damage than other medications. Signs and symptoms may include headache, pain in the lower back, fatigue, weakness, nausea, vomiting, increased blood pressure, increased rate of breathing, change in of yoga pattern of urination, change in color of urine, need to urgently urinate, and swelling or puffiness of the body. Blood tests to measure kidney function are done regularly to watch for any changes. Long-term Side Effects of Chemotherapy. For many people with cancer, chemotherapy is the best option for controlling their disease.

However, these individuals may be faced with long-term side effects related to the chemotherapy treatments. Side effects related to specific chemotherapy drugs can continue after the 21 health and social, treatment is emotional labor, completed. These effects can progress and become chronic or new side effects may occur. Long-term side effects depend on the specific drugs received and whether the patient received other treatments such as radiation therapy. As previously mentioned, certain chemotherapy drugs may cause permanent damage to the bodys organs. If the damage is unit 21 health and social, detected during treatment, the labor examples, drug will be discontinued. However, some of the side effects may remain. Care. Damage to some organs and julius caesar, systems, such as the reproductive system, may not be apparent until after chemotherapy is care, finished. When young children receive chemotherapy for cancer treatment, it may affect their growth and their ability to learn.

Several factors affect long-term side effects, including the age of the patient, the specific drugs that are given, the of yoga, dosage and length of treatment, and if chemotherapy is used along with other types of unit treatment such as radiation. Nervous system changes can develop months or years after treatment. Individuals may show signs of fatigue, personality changes, sleepiness, impaired memory, shortened attention span, or seizures. Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears) can be long-term side effects of some drugs. Long-term side effects of nerve damage can include numbness, tingling, or prickling sensations in the hands and feet. Until the immune function returns to normal, individuals are at list sutras increased risk for bacterial and viral infections, such as pneumonia and shingles. Hemorrhagic cystitis (blood in the urine), a side-effect of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, can continue for some time after the drug is stopped, and symptoms may become worse.

Development of a second cancer is a great concern for cancer survivors. Secondary cancers can include Hodgkins disease and non-Hodgkins lymphoma, leukemias, and unit 21 health care, some solid tumors. Follow up care after all treatment is completed is an essential component of cancer care for all cancer survivors. WHAT QUESTIONS SHOULD I ASK MY DOCTORS AND NURSES ABOUT CHEMOTHERAPY? Specific information about chemotherapy for cassius julius patients and families can also be obtained from care, your doctors and nurses. The doctor will decide on the appropriate chemotherapy plan based on the medical history, type of cancer, extent of cancer, current state of health, and current research. The Horse Dealer's Daughter Summary. Questions you may want to ask your doctor or nurses may include: What chemotherapy medications will I be given? How will I take these drugs (by mouth or through a vein)? How frequently will I need to 21 health and social care, take chemotherapy?

How long will I be receiving chemotherapy treatments? What side effects might I experience? What activities should I do or not do to take care of myself? What long-term effects might I expect? How can I contact you after office hours if I have signs or symptoms that you need to know about?