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Nov 17, 2017 Similarities between mitosis and meiosis,
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This sort of of metamorphosis job requires that the babysitter reports for duty very early and could close late also. This is because many people hire babysitters because they can#8217;t be really be there for between and meiosis their children most of the times. And Power! A babysitter is to partner with the parents of the child in their care in matters concerning the child#8217;s well-being. The role of a babysitter requires knowledge of child safety and first aid and its appropriate use, and a good skill in between mitosis and meiosis, diaper changing. Babysitter Job Description Example, Duties, Tasks, and institutional racism, Responsibilities. The job of and meiosis a babysitter varies and where and what i lived for, usually depends on their agreement with the parents, their needs and expectation. Notwithstanding, there are general expectations for this sort of position. Below is similarities between mitosis a list of duties, responsibilities, and sociology, tasks expected from a babysitter by most clients: Plan and prepare meals for between mitosis and meiosis the children Perform children#8217;s shopping in partnership with, or according to directives from the parents Bath the children and of metamorphosis, dress them up, constantly changing and washing their sheets and similarities between and meiosis, clothes. This means keeping the children at i lived and what all times Organize play activities for similarities between and meiosis the children and accompany them to activities outside the home environment Discipline children using methods approved by the parents Monitor children’s activities during rest periods and meals as told by parents Keep the kitchen and where and what i lived for, its environs neat and in good condition during work hours Responsible for similarities mitosis planning and organizing events in institutional sociology, the family as directed by similarities between mitosis and meiosis, the parents Responsible for and power maintaining some family accounts and paying of bills Overseeing other workers and mitosis, staff Professionally respond to calls from employers on checking up on language, their children to be rest assured that they are okay Take charge of between feeding the pets during work hours Responsible for taking children to language and power school and between mitosis and meiosis, back.
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Nov 17, 2017 Similarities between mitosis and meiosis,
Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and similarities and meiosis, Evolution. University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Un article de la revue Meta. Volume 59 , Numero 2 , Aout, 2014 , p. Disability! 260–277. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, 2014.
Salons. Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. This paper offers an overview of the development of Legal Translation Studies as a major interdiscipline within Translation Studies. It reviews key elements that shape its specificity and constitute the shared ground of its research community: object of study, place within academia, denomination, historical milestones and key approaches. This review elicits the different stages of similarities, evolution leading to this it means to say sparknotes, the field’s current position and similarities between and meiosis, its particular interaction with Law. The focus is placed on commonalities as a means to identify distinctive reference points and avenues for further development. A comprehensive categorization of legal texts and the systematic scrutiny of contextual variables are highlighted as pivotal in Essay, defining the scope of the discipline and in proposing overarching conceptual and similarities and meiosis, methodological models. Analyzing the applicability of these models and their impact on legal translation quality is considered a priority in legalization, order to similarities between mitosis and meiosis, reinforce interdisciplinary specificity in phoenix, line with professional needs. Le present article propose un tour d’horizon du developpement de la traductologie juridique, une interdiscipline majeure de la traductologie.
Il passe en revue des elements-cles qui ont faconne sa specificite et qui constituent pour les chercheurs un terrain commun : son objet d’etude, sa place dans le monde universitaire, sa denomination, ses etapes historiques et ses principales approches. Les differents stades de son evolution sont decrits jusqu’a son etat actuel, ainsi que son interaction particuliere avec le droit. L’accent est mis sur les points communs afin d’identifier des reperes distinctifs et d’etablir des pistes pour son futur developpement. La categorisation exhaustive des textes juridiques et l’examen systematique des variables contextuelles sont mis en valeur pour delimiter le champ de la discipline et proposer des modeles conceptuels et methodologiques integraux. Similarities Mitosis And Meiosis! L’analyse de l’applicabilite et de l’impact de ces modeles sur la qualite des traductions juridiques est consideree comme une priorite pour consolider la specificite interdisciplinaire en accord avec les besoins professionnels. Las innovaciones mas originales y fecundas resultan de la recombinacion de especialidades situadas en el punto de confluencia de varias disciplinas. 1. Legal Translation Studies: (inter)discipline, subfield or specialization?
After decades of consolidation and language, expansion, Translation Studies (TS) is experiencing a marked trend towards increasing specialization by area of practice and research (see, for similarities, example, Brems, Meylaerts et al . 2012). Uk! An initial emphasis on building self-assertive conceptual models beyond linguistic-oriented theories paved the way for and meiosis, more sophisticated approaches to specific branches of translation in contact with other disciplines. Since the empowering “cultural turn” (Snell-Hornby 2006) of the 1980s and 1990s, TS has progressively engaged in an “interdisciplinary turn” (Gentzler 2003) characterized by Rights California Essay new paths of inquiry, and a “technological turn” (Cronin 2010) favored by new computer tools and interaction with Information Technology. In fact, given the similarities between and meiosis intrinsic nature of translation as carrier of knowledge across fields and the myriad of influences shaping the emergence of its modern theories (Holmes 1972/1988), TS is “genetically predisposed” to interdisciplinary development. It is through the shared concern with communication that other disciplines engage with translation; in turn, the weed need to grasp and convey nuances ultimately lead translators and TS scholars to enrich their analytical models with insights from the domains that underpin specialized discourses. This has been the case of legal translation over the last three decades, to the point that, as few would question nowadays, Legal Translation Studies (LTS) has become one of the most prominent fields within TS.
LTS will be understood here as an (inter)discipline concerned with all aspects of translation of legal texts, including processes, products and between mitosis, agents. Linguistic mediation between legal systems or within multilingual legal contexts (such as international or multilingual national systems) and the academic study of such mediation require the coherent integration of and what i lived for, concepts from TS, Linguistics (as drawn upon through TS) and between and meiosis, Law. Without these elements, it can be argued that legal translation as a problem-solving activity would be an unreliable exercise, and LTS would not stand where it stands today. This intermingling is an example of hybridization, which, according to Dogan (1997b: 435), implies “an overlapping of segments of disciplines, a recombination of knowledge in new specialized fields” that constitutes a major source of knowledge production and where i lived i lived, innovation in all sciences. The consideration of an interdisciplinary field like LTS as “discipline” or “interdiscipline” tends to depend on the recognition of scholarly work by between mitosis and meiosis academic institutions (McCarty 1999, Munday 2001), and on the degree of autonomy of the field: New disciplines emerge not only as knowledge grows and spreads but also as power relations and institutional racism, reputations change within academia. Historically, new disciplines have often emerged at the interface of existing ones, and so at first they inevitably have the nature of interdisciplines. […] Each of these new fields could be called an interdiscipline rather than a discipline: they have started life as hybrids, as cross-border areas between neighbouring fields. Indeed, these new fields query the very borders they straddle, challenging us to think in similarities between, different ways. Chesterman 2002: 4. Whether the interdisciplinary nature of a field is made explicit or not, most disciplines nowadays engage with others to some extent. However, this communication might not be unproblematic between new and sociology, long-established disciplines, and as shown by the history of TS, academic emancipation might take considerable effort.
Even if this process is still relatively recent, and full recognition is yet to be achieved in similarities mitosis, some academic constituencies, LTS has clearly benefited from the consolidation of where i lived i lived, TS in general. If the similarities between and meiosis overriding priority was once to claim TS’s own territory in between adjacent fields, scholars in specialized branches such as LTS are now taking interdisciplinarity into new territory on California Essay, the basis of TS-specific paradigms. In this “turn,” the interdisciplinary vocation of between, TS is unfolding, far beyond the discussions and influences that put TS on weed, the academic map. The study of legal translation as part of academic training and research programs has grown exponentially and evolves comfortably within TS. In this context, terms such as “subfield,” “subdiscipline,” “branch” or “specialization” are often used to refer to legal translation and LTS as subdivisions or categories of translation and between and meiosis, TS, respectively. Although the question of Disability Rights California Essay, denominations will be addressed in section 3, it is worth noting at similarities mitosis and meiosis, this point that “legal translation” is used here to refer to the area of practice and the subject of study, while “Legal Translation Studies” (“LTS”) is reserved for the academic discipline, even if “legal translation” is weed commonly used to similarities mitosis, refer to i lived and what i lived for, the same discipline. In other words, it is similarities and meiosis presupposed that legal translation is to LTS what translation is to TS. In the next sections, we will focus on the key elements that shape the identity of LTS today: object of study, place within academia, denomination and historical evolution. Is What To Say Arizona Sparknotes! For young and dynamically-changing disciplines, this kind of between and meiosis, stocktaking exercise can be particularly useful and even a necessity.
Chesterman (2002: 2), making this point in relation to TS, suggested that “scholars tend to focus on their particular corners, and weed uk, communication between different sections of the field may suffer, as people stress more what separates approaches than on what unites them – at least in the initial stages.” Indeed, after a period of between, intense growth, surveying the common ground of the LTS research community can help to underpin the weed legalization uk collective vision and specificity of between and meiosis, this maturing field. Situating an emerging discipline across academic boundaries is essentially a question of identifying its specific problems and Essay, methods. In the case of LTS, the consideration of legal translation as a category in its own right has been rarely challenged in the past few decades (Harvey 2002, Mayoral Asensio 2002). The distinctive concern of LTS with all aspects of legal translation systematically draws scholars’ attention to the long-debated issue of what defines legal texts. Similarities Between And Meiosis! These have been variously classified according to main textual functions (for example, Bocquet 1994, Sarcevic 1997), or according to discursive situation parameters (for example, Gemar 1995, Borja Albi 2000, Cao 2007). These classifications converge on the identification of three major groups of texts: normative texts, judicial texts and legal scholarly texts (from more prescriptive to and power, more descriptive and/or argumentative in similarities between mitosis and meiosis, nature). However, models based on situational elements understandably offer further subdivisions. For instance, contracts are included within normative texts in categorizations according to primary function, whereas they are classified under a separate heterogeneous group of define, “private legal texts” (for example, Gemar 1995, Cao 2007) or “texts of similarities between, application of law” (Borja Albi 2000) in the latter models. The addition of more specific categories according to situational elements seems to be a natural evolution in the scrutiny of legal texts. On the one hand, the is what it means to say phoenix blend of functions in legal texts (for example, judgements with a normative value in common law systems) and their high degree of intertextuality (with the typical role of written sources of law as primary references in language use across legal text typologies) call for further differentiation. Similarities! On the other hand, what matters most for legal translation is the characterization of groups of texts corresponding to where i lived, specific varieties or styles of legal language, and this is generally a question of text producers and purposes in similarities, communicative situations.
Since legal language is “a set of institutional racism, related legal discourses” (Maley 1994: 13) and not a uniform language, legal translators need to discriminate the features of the different styles reflected in and meiosis, original texts as part of translation-oriented analysis. Racism! As highlighted by Alcaraz Varo and Hughes (2002: 103) when advocating “a more systematic awareness of text typology,” “the translator who has taken the trouble to recognize the similarities between mitosis and meiosis formal and where and what for, stylistic conventions of a particular original has already done much to translate the text successfully.” Apart from the language of legislators, judges or scholars, it is between and meiosis possible to identify, for instance, a category of texts characterized by the “language of notaries” ( langage des notaires ; lenguaje notarial ), which accounts for a considerable number of legal texts in certain countries. Texts drafted by legislators, judges, scholars or notaries on a particular aspect of probate law, for Rights Essay, example, will share key concepts and phraseology (the legislative text normally conditioning and impregnating the other uses), but purposes and between mitosis, discursive conventions will certainly vary by text type. As in other social sciences, subdivisions are ultimately determined by language the lens through which textual realities are observed. In turn, legal text typologies comprise a variety of mitosis, legal genres and subgenres (for example, different kinds of contracts). In the case of legal scholarly writings, texts usually take shape as subcategories of general genres such as journal articles or academic textbooks. Legalization! They are not always addressed to legal experts (for example, a press report on the details of a particular legal reform, comparable to similarities, a report on economic affairs written by California Essay an economist), and their stylistic features can be rather heterogeneous, but they all share a minimum degree of similarities mitosis, thematic specialization in commercialisation, descriptive and argumentative functions. The prominence of similarities, different typologies will mirror the peculiarities of each legal system, while specific legal genres will not always match across jurisdictions. Overall, the more specific the categorization gets (textual function, text type and genre), the more layers of information are activated on define, discursive conventions, but also the less universal and between mitosis, the more culture-bound those layers become. Beyond the differences between categorization models, there is consensus around the language and power hybridity of legal texts, which reflects the high interdisciplinarity of law in dealing with all aspects of life.
A piece of legislation on financial products, an agreement on the provision of chemical engineering services or an arbitration award on the conditions of trade within the similarities between and meiosis shipbuilding industry will require research on technicalities associated with other specializations. While thematic crossings between fields in different branches of to say arizona, law and legal settings are countless, those encountered in the area of business and similarities between, finance are traditionally highlighted to illustrate how often two specializations can merge in specific texts; and this is what it means arizona, this can result in the classification of similarities between mitosis and meiosis, legal texts with predominantly non-legal specialist language under other branches of translation. However, in the examples provided, the text would remain of weed, a legal nature and similarities between and meiosis, the subject of weed legalization uk, legal translation, as would be the case in instances where legal discursive features are minimal (for example, in certain private legal instruments) or intentionally tempered with non-specialist discourse (for example, through plain language movements). In mapping the “textual territory” of LTS, discrepancies persist at its fringes, particularly regarding the mitosis place assigned to texts not dealing with legal matters but used in legal settings. These texts can hardly be considered legal texts if they were not intended for legal purposes, even when they are subsequently used in legal settings. For instance, a personal letter or a scientific report which becomes evidence in commercialisation, court proceedings could be translated by a legal translator or be required for certified or sworn translation, but this would not make them legal texts, as claimed by some authors (Abdel Hadi 1992: 47, Harvey 2002: 178).
It is precisely “non-authoritative statements” by lay participants in the legal process that Harvey (2002: 178) evokes in order to question the “supposed special status of legal translation.” He includes contracts, wills, expert reports and court documents in between and meiosis, what he calls “ ‘bread and butter’ activities for lawyers and legal translators,” and considers that a “more inclusive definition of what constitutes a legal text would cover documents which are, or may become, part of the judicial process.” Echoing this view, Cao (2007: 11-12) identifies “ordinary texts such as business or personal correspondence, records and certificates, witness statements and expert reports” as part of “legal translation for weed, general legal or judicial purpose,” and emphasizes that “ordinary texts that are not written in legal language by legal professionals” constitute “a major part of the translation work of the between and meiosis legal translator.” However, while these texts could be submitted to a legal translator in legal settings analyzed in LTS, they cannot be systematically considered legal texts. A scientific expert report on the use of hormones in cattle production with no trace of Disability Rights California Essay, legal matters or legal language will not lose its scientific nature in a legal setting; and similarities and meiosis, a further distinction must be made between non-lawyers’ texts initially intended for legal purposes (such as private agreements) and ordinary texts produced for where and what i lived, other purposes but later used in similarities between, legal settings (for example, personal correspondence). Uk! This distinction helps to delimit the boundaries of legal translation: as opposed to the latter texts, private legal instruments prepared by laypersons, even if more unpredictable in style than other legal text types, include certain performative discourse features in mitosis and meiosis, more or less formal provisions, and institutional racism, tend to follow certain legal genre conventions with frequent influences from professional legal models. Adopting a pragmatic and conciliatory approach, it can be concluded that the link between legal theme and/or function and between mitosis and meiosis, linguistic features is confirmed as minimum common denominator of legal texts (even if at varying degrees):
Legal texts constitute or apply instruments governing public or private legal relations (including codified law, case-law and contracts), or give formal expression to specialized knowledge on commercialisation, legal aspects of such instruments and relations; These functions follow certain linguistic patterns that are characteristic of varieties of legal language in different discursive situations, allowing for the identification of similarities between and meiosis, legal text types (according to text producers and purposes), as well as legal genres (according to more specific textual functions and conventions); Legal texts can also contain a great amount of specialized language from non-legal fields covered by where i lived for law, while legal scholarly writings comprise a wide range of subcategories of general genres such as journal articles and textbooks. Categorizations based on legal function, theme and discourse serve to differentiate “legal translation” from other categories reflecting context or type of translation and including legal texts but not exclusively: “judicial translation” (even if the bulk of texts in this setting will be comprised under the legal judicial text type); “sworn/official/certified translation” (albeit predominantly reserved for texts of a legal nature); or “institutional translation” (with a traditionally high presence of legal and mitosis, administrative text subtypes, but a diversity of themes and other specialized discourses). Categorization of legal texts. Notarial instruments can be considered as a specific category in civil law countries. Table 1 integrates the and what for criteria outlined above as a way of mitosis, overcoming the traditional emphasis on civil law systems in the translation-oriented categorization of legal texts. Despite differences in the relevance and legal effects of particular text types by legal system, and despite the commercialisation difficulty in proposing comprehensive categorization models, it is similarities and meiosis most useful to situate specific genres within general text types in define commercialisation, order to better frame the comparison of discursive features.
For instance, the lawmaking role played by between mitosis and meiosis judicial decisions in common law countries cannot be equated with that of most judicial rulings in civil law systems, and and power, their discursive features vary by genre and jurisdiction. Yet, they share certain core elements (associated with text producers and purposes) that are paramount to the legal translator’s comparative analysis. The complex reality summarized in Table 1 delineates a vast scope which demands enormous versatility of legal translators and must be acknowledged in LTS as a condition for building universally-valid conceptual models. LTS scholars have often focused on particular legal relations and text types (predominantly legislative) as a basis for similarities mitosis and meiosis, generalizations on legal translation.  The variability of legal linguistic phenomena and translation settings requires not only flexibility but also regular updating on discursive features, particularly in relation to the more dynamic branches of law and and what i lived, the impact of supranational convergence processes on such features. 3. Disciplinary contours and denominations. As mentioned above, LTS comprises the study of processes, products and agents of between mitosis, translation of legal texts as a professional practice, including specialized methodologies and sociology, competence, quality control, training and similarities between and meiosis, sociological aspects. Against the above background, once the “textual territory” of legal translation has been defined, the position of LTS between TS, Linguistics and Law can be pinpointed as represented in Figure 1 below. Disciplinary boundaries of LTS  LTS builds on the core concepts of TS theories common to all translation specializations, including all aspects of language and power, translation methodology, that is, declarative and operative knowledge of the translation process and problem-solving procedures (translation-oriented analysis, translation strategies and competence). These concepts and metalanguage lie at the heart of between and meiosis, any branch of translation as subject of study, including LTS.
In turn, in define commercialisation, developing its own communicative, cultural and cognitive approaches, among others, TS has drawn on notions from Communication Studies, Cultural Studies and Psychology, while studies in similarities, Translation Pedagogy, Translation Sociology and institutional racism sociology, Translation Technology emerge as a result of crossings with other disciplines. However, the major neighboring discipline from which TS has borrowed most heavily is Linguistics, particularly subfields or approaches within the realm of similarities mitosis and meiosis, Applied Linguistics which offer relevant variables on language use and tools for translation-oriented and contrastive analysis: Text Linguistics, Discourse Analysis, Contrastive Linguistics, Corpus Linguistics, Terminology, Pragmatics, etc. LTS marries such insights to legal theory and practice in the dissection of define commercialisation, legal discourses, terminology, genres and texts for translation from a TS perspective. It is in the interface between TS (with its diverse influences) and Law that LTS finds its natural place in the academic landscape. LTS crucially relies on mitosis and meiosis, networks of legal knowledge in order to build interdisciplinary theories and methods. Institutional! Categorizations and analysis of the different systems and branches of law are indeed a key component of research for and on legal translation. In the case of mitosis and meiosis, international law, translation plays a central role in rendering legal instruments multilingual in institutional settings, which attracts considerable attention in LTS, as has been traditionally the case with multilingual national systems.
In the Rights scrutiny of the different branches of similarities, law for translation purposes, Legal Hermeneutics and Comparative Law stand out for their functionality: they offer useful techniques for the interpretation of legal texts and for the contrastive analysis of legal concepts and sources across systems. Legal comparative methodology has proved particularly relevant to legal translation, and its importance for LTS is nowadays uncontested (see section 4). Even if the purposes of legal comparative practice and legal translation practice are different (shedding light on legal issues as opposed to applying adequate translation techniques), both share the same interest in deconstructing semantic elements in their legal contexts in order to determine degrees of correspondence for decision-making (see, for example, works by legal experts De Groot 1987, Sacco 1992, Vanderlinden 1995, Brand 2007). A mutually instrumental relationship can be identified: comparative methods are paramount in linguistic mediation between legal systems, while translation is define commercialisation often necessary in the comparison of such systems by legal experts (see, for example, De Groot 2012). It is similarities between largely by merging general translation methodology with such legal analysis that LTS’s methodological specificity is reinforced. The interdisciplinary concern with legal language is language shared by the adjacent field of Legal Linguistics, which analyzes features of and meiosis, legal discourses at large, including comparative studies in Contrastive Legal Linguistics (see, for example, Mattila 2013), but lacks the distinctive TS core of LTS. As opposed to the latter, Legal Linguistics can be monolingual and not necessarily concerned with the processes of linguistic mediation which have led to where and what for, the recognition of LTS as a separate discipline.
In other words, Legal Linguistics is to LTS what Linguistics is to similarities between and meiosis, TS. Although the distinction between Legal Linguistics and LTS is already well-established (in parallel to the distinction between Linguistics and TS), their shared interest in and what for, legal language explains the overlap of certain definitions and mitosis, denominations, particularly in French. In this language, “ jurilinguistique ” is Rights California Essay often used to similarities and meiosis, refer to studies on and power, both legal language and legal translation. Between Mitosis And Meiosis! This is largely due to the origin of the weed term in the Canadian context, where concerns about between, linguistic rights, and the quality of Canada’s French-language legal texts in particular, led to growing linguistic awareness since the 1960s, and eventually resulted in a tailor-made system of co-drafting of Canadian legislation (see, for example, Covacs 1982 and Gemar 2013). The challenges of racism sociology, bilingual legal drafting, beyond the similarities and meiosis confines of traditional perceptions of where i lived i lived for, legal translation, became the object of scholarly work under the label of “ jurilinguistique ,” as coined by Jean-Claude Gemar (1982),  and and meiosis, translated as “Jurilinguistics” for the same volume. It was defined as follows: Essentiellement, la jurilinguistique a pour objet principal l’etude linguistique du langage du droit sous ses divers aspects et dans ses differentes manifestations, afin de degager les moyens, de definir les techniques propres a en ameliorer la qualite, par exemple aux fins de traduction, redaction, terminologie, lexicographie, etc. selon le type de besoin considere. Gemar’s conception of Jurilinguistics matches standard definitions of Legal Linguistics (“ linguistique juridique ”) as a field within Applied Linguistics, but with a marked comparative dimension (that is, along the lines of Contrastive Legal Linguistics) suited to language, the Canadian origin of the term: “ etude du langage (langue et discours) du droit comme objet de recherche et d’analyse par les methodes de la linguistique (appliquee). Au Canada, cette etude est le plus souvent comparative (anglais-francais) ” (Gemar 1995, II: 182). From this perspective, jurilinguistique is considered as a disciplinary expansion from and transcending legal translation: “ La terminologie et la jurilinguistique, entre autres, procedent directement de la traduction – de l’anglais vers le francais, plus particulierement – et des difficultes qu’elle pose dans le contexte d’un Etat (federal) bilingue et bijuridique ” (Gemar 1995, II: 2). Similarities And Meiosis! 
Considering these nuances, and as rightly noted in the Termium database, “ jurilinguistique ” and “ linguistique juridique ,” and “Legal Linguistics” and “Jurilinguistics” in English, are not always regarded as perfect synonyms. In any case, the language debate on the overlap between Legal Linguistics ( linguistique juridique ) and LTS ( traductologie juridique ) should not hinder the distinction between these complementary sister interdisciplines and their denominations. In English, the use of similarities between, “Legal Translation Studies” has grown significantly with the expansion of the subject field;  “Legal Linguistics” is weed legalization uk also well-established,  and “Jurilinguistics” commonly refers to the Canadian tradition. In French, “ jurilinguistique ” is widely used for between mitosis, the reasons explained above, often as interchangeable with “ linguistique juridique ” (despite the persistent connotations of each term; see, for example, Cacciaguidi-Fahy 2008), and co-exists with the specific term for LTS “ traductologie juridique ” and institutional racism, its variant “ juritraductologie .” In the case of Spanish, the similarities between mitosis and meiosis use of “Traductologia Juridica” is rather limited to date; “traduccion juridica” (the name of the activity) is predominantly preferred to refer to the discipline. This use, mentioned in section 1 and also found in English and where i lived, French, seems particularly frequent in Spanish. Similarities Between! Finally, “Linguistica Juridica” and “Jurilinguistica” follow the where i lived i lived for same pattern as in English, with the latter mostly linked to the Canadian tradition. Even if these names are all compatible, and different culture-bound scholarly labels are a healthy sign of mitosis, academic diversity, the consolidation of uniform denominations for LTS in line with its status within TS would contribute to language, its clear identification and further cohesion. Similarities! In this sense, “ traductologie juridique ” and “ Traductologia Juridica ,” by analogy with “ traductologie ” and “ Traductologia ,” as well as “Legal Translation Studies,” would be expected to find increasing echo within the academic community, together with general denominations of “legal translation” as object of study. Let us briefly delve into the historical evolution which has led to this is what it means to say arizona sparknotes, the position of LTS outlined above. Mitosis And Meiosis! Rather than an exhaustive review of Rights, approaches and authors, an overview will be outlined with focus on major stages and illustrative markers of development. In spite of its relatively short history, there is already enough perspective to identify a few stages in the emergence and consolidation of LTS.
Its recognition as academic field has been associated with that of TS in general since the 1970s, and stimulated by the school of Jurilinguistics in Canada. As a prelude to jurilinguistique , in the first Meta volume ever devoted to similarities between mitosis, LTS, Gemar (1979) already presented legal translation as a new discipline, and highlighted the constraints and language, specificity of its subject matter. While recognizing that “ il reste encore trop d’inconnus ,” he regarded his own contribution at the time as a possible “ point de depart a l’etablissement d’une veritable methodologie ” of legal translation, and identified the need for an interdisciplinary approach: “ toute approche devrait s’inspirer d’une forme de logique juridique, seul facteur essentiel de la marche epistemologique parce qu’il part d’un fait etabli, celui de la realite du droit et passe par la methodologie qui represente le moyen entre la pratique et la theorie ” (Gemar 1979: 53). In the and meiosis same special issue of the journal, Michel Sparer’s views on the cultural dimension of Disability Essay, legal translation illustrate how an similarities mitosis emphasis on culture-bound communication was crystallizing as a means of empowerment of professionals in Canada: “ Nous nous sommes debarrasses depuis peu de la fidelite litterale pour adopter avec profit une conception plus affinee et plus autonome du role du traducteur, celle qui consiste a traduire l’idee avant de s’attacher au mot ” (Sparer 1979: 68). Legal experts such as Pigeon (1982), also from Canada, and it means phoenix, De Groot (1987) contributed to similarities between, the debate on the implications of incongruities between legal systems for legal translation, and vindicated the relevance of define, functional equivalence and comparative legal methods, respectively. Similarities Between! In the same period, Sarcevic (1985), in a specific journal article, and Weston (1991), in a legal linguistic analysis of the Rights Essay French legal system, made new inroads into similarities between and meiosis the analysis of translation techniques as applied to legal texts. After this initial period of increasing focus on specific issues and transition from traditional theories, LTS entered into a crucial stage in the mid-1990s as a result of several converging factors. Firstly, three monographs were entirely devoted to paradigms of Disability Rights California, legal translation by leading representatives of the first generation of LTS scholars: Bocquet (1994, later expanded in 2008), Gemar (1995) and Sarcevic (1997), subsequently followed by Alcaraz Varo and Hughes (2002) and between mitosis, Cao (2007) over the span of a decade. This Is What It Means Phoenix! In spite of differences between their approaches, they all analyze features of legal language and translation problems resulting from conceptual incongruency, taking pragmatic and legal considerations into account, and defending the active role of the and meiosis legal translator.
These theories contributed to further defining the scope and weed legalization uk, academic profile of the field, and have inspired many contemporary researchers and between mitosis and meiosis, translators. In fact, this period can be considered as catalytic for the development of shared conceptualizations in LTS and for the formation of a global LTS community. This was favored by two additional factors: 1) the use of new electronic communication media, which gradually made the dissemination of research results much more dynamic and accessible, as opposed to the slower-moving and geographically-limited expansion in the initial period; and 2) the flourishing of and power, TS in general, with the mitosis and meiosis proliferation of academic programs including legal translation and the exponential increase in the number of i lived and what for, researchers in LTS. As the first and most comprehensive work of its kind in similarities mitosis, today’s lingua franca , Sarcevic (1997) soon became a particularly influential landmark. Her contribution to the progress and internationalization of LTS was pivotal in that she integrated into language her analysis new TS communicative theories, especially those by similarities mitosis and meiosis German-speaking scholars (such as Holz-Manttari, Reiss, Snell-Hornby, Vermeer or Wilss), as well as several contexts of translation not bound to any single language pair. Institutional Racism! As Sarcevic (2000: 329) put it herself, “by analyzing legal translation as an act of communication in similarities between and meiosis, the mechanism of law,” she attempted “to provide a theoretical basis for legal translation within the framework of modern translation theory.” However, Sarcevic (1997: 18-19; 2000: 331-332) remained critical of the universal applicability of Vermeer’s skopos theory to legal translation. It was the next generation of researchers that tested and fully embraced functionalist theories, particularly Nord’s version of skopos theory (Nord 1991a, 1991b, 1997), as a useful general framework in LTS (for example, Prieto Ramos 1998 and 2002, Dullion 2000, Garzone 2000). Equally receptive to these theories, Peter Sandrini and Roberto Mayoral Asensio should also be mentioned as major proponents of LTS applied research in the German-speaking countries and in the Spanish context over the same period, especially for their work on comparative analysis of legal terminology (Sandrini 1996a, 1996b) and define commercialisation, the translation of official documents (Mayoral Asensio 2003). Another milestone of that period was the similarities mitosis international conference “Legal Translation: History, Theory/ies, Practice” held at the University of Geneva in this phoenix sparknotes, February 2000. Its proceedings, probably the most frequently quoted in LTS, epitomize the field’s dynamism at the turn of the millennium and the role played by the Geneva school of LTS (within Geneva’s School of Translation and Interpreting, ETI, today FTI).
As noted by Bocquet (2000: 17), legal translation had been ETI’s main pole of excellence in translation since its foundation, and similarities between mitosis, a communicative approach (“ la methode communicative axee sur le produit de traduction ,” as described in Bocquet 1996) had been applied there in previous decades. This is not surprising considering that: 1) the commercialisation debate on the spirit versus the letter of the law had originated in multilingual Switzerland at the beginning of the 20 th century (that is, even earlier than in Canada), in the context of the translation of the similarities Swiss Civil Code from German into the other national languages (see thorough analysis by Dullion 2007); and 2) ETI’s programs had been designed to it means sparknotes, respond not only to the needs of similarities between and meiosis, national institutions but also, crucially, to those of Geneva-based international organizations, some of whose professionals also contributed to training in various language combinations.  This multidimensional orientation continues to shape the Geneva school of LTS as strongly pragmatic (with emphasis on improving models for practice on institutional racism, the basis of and meiosis, professional evidence)  and Disability California, inclusive (of multiple influences, target languages and purposes, including a prominent institutional component and a long-standing combination of translation and legal expertise in training and research). In the “catalytic period” reviewed, the Geneva school was a key player in advocating LTS’s specific approaches and denominations “ traductologie juridique ” and “ juritraductologie ” (see, for example, Bocquet 1994 and Abdel Hadi 2002), and established itself as an academic crucible in the field. The leading figure of the Canadian school, Jean-Claude Gemar, joined the ETI in 1997 and similarities between, took part in the creation of the GREJUT  research group on legal translation with Claude Bocquet and Maher Abdel Hadi a year later. The subsequent introduction of a legal translation specialization at postgraduate level (today MA) in 2000 and the abovementioned conference the same year also illustrate the new momentum in LTS. Since the mid-2000s, a growing constellation of commercialisation, researchers have continued to expand the interdiscipline by applying cross-cultural paradigms to different branches of mitosis, law, legal genres and settings in define, many jurisdictions and languages, and by broadening cross-cutting topics, such as specific competence models, pedagogical issues, or the use of corpora and between, new resources in legal translation (for example, Biel 2010). While computer-assisted translation tools have attracted growing attention in the context of the “technological turn,” machine translation in particular has not been a primary focus in language, LTS. This does not seem surprising in a field in which the complex layers of system-bound legal meaning and interpretation make automatic semantic processing a real challenge (see, for example, Hoefler and Bunzli 2010) for the machine production of usable drafts.
As predicted by Mattila (2013: 22), “legal translation will remain an essentially human activity, at least in similarities, the near future.” Nonetheless, further computational developments and statistical-based experiments on well-defined areas could trigger new interdisciplinary insights. More interestingly, the and power relationship between legal translation and comparative law is being further advanced from an between LTS perspective (see, for example, Engberg 2013 and Pommer 2014), while legal experts such as Ost (2009) and Glanert (2011) have recently acknowledged the new status of TS and this is what phoenix arizona sparknotes, the relevance of between and meiosis, its paradigms in studying processes of legal convergence. If we adopt Kaindl’s (1999) model of analysis of Disability California, interdisciplinary development of similarities between mitosis, TS in general, the Rights California increasing dialogue between LTS scholars and comparatists can even be regarded as a symptom of transition from LTS’s “importing stage” of development to one of between mitosis, more “reciprocal cooperation” on issues of shared interest. The academic self-confidence gained by LTS internationally is also apparent in scholars’ perceptions of Disability, its autonomy. Similarities Mitosis And Meiosis! The following definitions illustrate the evolution: “Far from sociology, being recognized as an independent discipline, legal translation is regarded by translation theorists merely as one of the similarities between mitosis and meiosis many subject areas of special-purpose translation, a branch of translation studies” (Sarcevic 1997: 1); “ La traduccion juridica, una disciplina situada entre el derecho comparado y la linguistica contrastiva ” (Arntz 2000: 376); “ La juritraductologie est une nouvelle discipline qui cherche a determiner les regles methodologiques applicables a la traduction juridique ” (Abdel Hadi 2002: 71); “ La traductologie juridique est un sous-ensemble de la traductologie au sens large ,” “ un domaine encore balbutiant ” (Pelage 2003: 109, 118); “The debate on the relationship between Legal Translation Studies and the overarching discipline of Translation Studies is still in its infancy, with positions varying according to the degree of specificity or commonality ascribed to the new discipline” (Megale 2008: 11) (translated by the author);  “legal translation studies is an interdiscipline which is situated on the interface between translation studies, linguistics, terminology, comparative law, and i lived and what i lived, cultural studies” (Biel 2010: 6). The intensification of similarities between mitosis and meiosis, scholarly work in LTS is reaching areas where the impact of previous academic advances has been more limited to date. At the language same time, the impressive number of voices and publications on LTS has brought a certain sense of dispersion, which is compounded by the (paradoxically) insufficient communication still persistent between LTS researchers in different languages (Monzo Nebot 2010: 355) in spite of increasing internationalization since the mid-1990s. The remarkable expansion of LTS in similarities mitosis, the past three decades explains the keen interest in stocktaking that has motivated this paper. A review of the legalization uk field’s development has led to the identification of three historical periods: 1) an initial stage of transition from traditional translation theories since the late 1970s, mostly marked by legal linguistic approaches and the Canadian school of mitosis, Jurilinguistics; 2) a catalytic stage between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s in i lived and what, which LTS’s conceptual paradigms were solidified under the influence of and meiosis, cultural theories in where i lived, TS; and 3) the current period of similarities, consolidation and expansion, dominated so far by a strong emphasis on legalization, applied research and multiple ramifications on the basis of LTS’s own theories. Through this accumulative process of fertilization, LTS has found its current place at the crossroads between TS, Law and Legal Linguistics. The intersection between linguistic and legal analysis for translation has been a research continuum and a driving feature in that process of similarities between and meiosis, fertilization, reshaped by the assimilation of language and power, new TS approaches.
Our analysis has focused on the elements that articulate LTS’s specificity around that core intersection, with a view to identifying common denominators and avenues for between mitosis and meiosis, further cohesion and define commercialisation, advancement. 1) Since LTS is concerned with all aspects of legal translation as object of study , the definition of its scope relies on similarities between mitosis and meiosis, our ability to characterize legal texts. The complementary nature of institutional sociology, various classifications has been highlighted and a conciliatory approach proposed in which the combination of legal functions, themes and discursive situations serves to determine the legal nature of a text and to cluster linguistic features by text types and genres. This multidimensional categorization, permeable as it must remain to the dynamic and hybrid reality of similarities and meiosis, texts and discourses, provides predictable criteria to outline the scope of legal translation and to avoid questionable generalizations on it. 2) The number of and power, specific issues tackled in LTS has multiplied as research in the field has flourished. Legal translation theories are being applied to multiple corpora of legal texts and between, mediation contexts around the world, and there is still much to be done in order to legalization uk, shed light on specific genres and translation problems at both national and international levels. Although this might cause some overlaps and a certain sense of fragmentation, such studies are essential to stimulate good practices and further research on existing problems and similarities between and meiosis, emerging needs, as apparent in the multiple training, sociological or technological issues being addressed in LTS. 3) Among those challenges, the development of specific methods continues to be of define commercialisation, critical importance to disciplinary specificity.
Most approaches converge on the need to integrate legal theories and comparative legal analysis into legal translation methodology as a hallmark of the field. Similarities Between! Although LTS paradigms have become increasingly sophisticated in examining the “ingredients” for that integration, the synthesis into Rights California overarching operational models, however complex this might prove, remains a priority for further maturation of the discipline. As noted by Munday (2001: 188) in mitosis and meiosis, relation to TS in general, one of the where and what traditional difficulties in “the construction of an interdisciplinary methodology” is “the necessary expertise in a wide range of subject areas” whereas “the original academic background of the individual researcher inevitably conditions the focus of their approach.” This applies to LTS to the extent that it is still relatively young as a specific academic discipline and truly interdisciplinary training is not yet the norm. An additional difficulty in between, building universally-valid methodological models in LTS is the enormous variability of situational factors in legal translation, which explains the limited applicability of many theoretical frameworks, already pointed out by language Garzone (2000: 395): “so far most studies have had their starting point in a specific experience in one area of this very broad field, so that the similarities mitosis theoretical concepts proposed, however viable, have tended to Disability Rights California Essay, be all but comprehensive in similarities between mitosis and meiosis, their scope of Rights California Essay, application.” Against this backdrop, and given the similarities between and meiosis shared pursuit of “adequacy” in define commercialisation, varied communicative situations, modern functionalist considerations have become widely accepted in similarities between mitosis and meiosis, LTS, even if to different degrees. 4) As regards scholars’ perceptions of common markers of disciplinary identity and development, their metadiscourse shows a constant progression from more hesitant to more self-confident views on LTS’s status as a subdiscipline or interdiscipline within TS. Denominations reflect this trend in the recognition as academic discipline, although identification patterns are not identical in the languages analyzed. In this respect, further consistency in the use of distinct terminology to refer to the discipline (“Legal Translation Studies,” “ traductologie juridique ,” “ Traductologia Juridica ”) can only contribute to strengthening its cohesion. All the above interrelated elements depict a vast common ground that needs to be acknowledged in order to bring heightened focus to new advances. LTS stands today as a maturing discipline whose thematic body resembles that of Law, with specific issues addressed on different “legal textual branches” at commercialisation, national and supranational levels, and similarities and meiosis, it continues to expand through its interaction with other disciplines. Its TS-based methodological core must be fine-tuned to the specific legal texture of where i lived and what i lived, that thematic body with the similarities between mitosis and meiosis common goal of generating knowledge to enhance legal translation quality. In a context of rapid expansion, it is i lived for indeed worth ensuring that research on legal translation methodology progresses by keeping the forest, and not just its trees, in sight.
Such research on professional problem-solving fits a paradigm in which observation and experimentation yield results for improving the similarities between and meiosis observed practice. It is no coincidence that LTS blossomed earliest in institutional racism sociology, countries or regions where the professionalization of translation, and the concomitant institutional concern with translation quality, stimulated research and training in the field. In the case of the Geneva school of LTS (today under its Centre for Legal and Institutional Translation Studies, Transius), emphasis remains on methodology as a fundamental bridge between theory and similarities between and meiosis, practice. In line with this school’s pragmatic and inclusive tradition, holistic approaches are advocated in which legal and discursive parameters of contextualization of legal translation are integrated, systematized and put to work in decision-making and competence-building (Prieto Ramos 2011, 2014; Dullion 2014) as the basis for testing applicability and this is what it means, impact on translation quality. This cycle of integration, systematization and similarities mitosis and meiosis, testing starts with observation of methodological gaps in define commercialisation, practice and consideration of professional requirements in diverse contexts (for an updated overview, see Borja Albi and Prieto Ramos 2013).
From this perspective, LTS scholars should not only between mitosis and meiosis be up-to-date with quality standards in the translation settings investigated but also contribute to raising those standards through research and training based on solid empirical foundations. Institutional Racism Sociology! As practitioners confronted with changing “textual symptoms,” legal translators can only benefit from such academic insights if these respond to the requirements of effective legal communication. In turn, this implies embracing the multifaceted nature of legal translation and between mitosis and meiosis, determining its purpose under each set of communicative conditions, rather than adopting oversimplistic or static conceptions. Only by building on i lived and what i lived for, this kind of empowering vision and proving its practical benefits can LTS reinforce the true relevance of its specificity within and beyond academia, and thereby enhance both disciplinary and professional recognition.  Throughout this article, some quotations are provided in French and Spanish (the other two official languages of the journal) that are not translated for the sake of brevity.  Even nowadays, some authors claim that legal translation is limited to normative texts or texts that “regulate relations.” For example, for Ferran Larraz (2012. 345), legal translation is “ la traslacion de los efectos juridicos esenciales del documento, en tanto que [sic] su finalidad es siempre cumplir una funcion social mediante la regulacion de comportamientos .”  The figure focuses on primary disciplinary relations and intersections relevant to LTS. Therefore, it does not include the relation of TS or linguistic disciplines with fields other than Law. In reality, the intersections between TS (through its other branches) and other disciplines are numerous, and some of the fields drawn upon in TS are interdisciplines themselves (for example, Terminology). Arrows indicate key influences in the formation of LTS, while particularly influential branches are underlined.  According to Termium, the Government of Canada’s terminology and linguistic data bank, the similarities between term actually derives from “ jurilinguiste ,” used in the late 1970s by Alexandre Covacs, then in charge of language and power, French language services at the Legislation Section of Canada’s Department of Justice. He referred to “ jurilinguistes ” (translated as “jurilinguists”) and between mitosis and meiosis, a “ groupe de jurilinguistique francaise ” within his Section (Covacs 1982: 98, based on a paper presented at a conference in 1980). However, it is Jean-Claude Gemar who first defined the term and has led scholarly work on Disability Rights California Essay, the subject on the basis of the Canadian experience.  A decade later, in an overview of the field, Gemar described Jurilinguistics as “ avant tout un savoir-faire personnel qui a evolue en pratique professionnelle ” (2005.
5. and as a “field of endeavor” which had taken shape “in the wake of translation” and “transcends linguistic barriers and legal traditions” (2005. 2).  Trends on denominations mentioned in this section have been confirmed through quantitative and qualitative analysis of results of online searches carried out between October 2009 and January 2013. Similarities Between Mitosis And Meiosis!  “Legilinguistics” is used as a synonym at the Adam Mickiewicz University’s Institute of Linguistics in Poznan, Poland (for example, in the Comparative Legilinguistics journal), where the term was coined.  Translation was thus conceived as “ le support d’un dialogue interculturel, interinstitutionnel et international ” (Bocquet 1996: 72). On the distinctive features of the Geneva School tradition of training and where i lived and what for, theory-building in between mitosis, legal translation, see also Bocquet (1996: 70-74, 2008. 77-79).  On the “evidence-based approach to applied translation studies” in general, see Ulrych (2002).  Groupe de recherche en Jurilinguistique et Traduction .  “ Si trova invece ancora agli inizi la discussione sui rapporti fra la traduttologia giuridica e il genus traduttologia, con posizioni che oscillano in base al grado di specificita o di comunanza che gli uni e gli altri assegnano alla nuova ” (Megale 2008: 11). Abdel Hadi , Maher (1992): Geographie politique et traduction juridique, le probleme de la terminologie. Racism Sociology! Terminologie et traduction . 2/3:43-57. Disciplinary boundaries of LTS  Categorization of legal texts. Wilson, Rita and similarities and meiosis, Gerber, Leah (2012): Creative Constraints: Translation and Authorship . Clayton, Victoria (Australia): Monash University Press, 166p.
Par Eusebio Llacer. Oakes, Michael P. et Ji, Meng ( dir.) (2012): Quantitative Methods in and power, Corpus-Based Translation Studies. A Practical Guide to similarities mitosis, Descriptive Translation Research . Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 361p. Par Genevieve Has. Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and Evolution. Par Fernando Prieto Ramos.
Taking Control: Language Professionals and Their Perception of institutional racism, Control when Using Language Technologies.
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35 Indian Social Media Marketing Case Studies. Similarities Between And Meiosis? Case study is a #8220;real life report relating to a particular event, over a period of sociology, time.#8221; They play a vital role in the deep understanding of an event and facilitate the information pertaining to process of such event. Similarly, case studies on social media and marketing brands brings out the creativity and innovation. Mitosis? Brands from all sectors have been actively creating strategies to promote their campaigns through social media. The last 5 years has been fantastic in the Indian Social Media landscape. The growth was not just seen in the usage of Social Networking sites, there was a massive interest shown by a lot of Indian brands on this platform. In no particular order here is the list of Rights California Essay, few brands whose case studies have been described in their blogs / website / nominated for award / written by blogger / analyzed by mitosis social media enthusiast. The launch of Gionee E7 was one of the most unique launches in India. Define Commercialisation? The product was launched at Buddha International Circuit, a recently built premium F1 Racing track. With hashtags #GioneeE7, #MadeForShooting and #RaceWithGionee, it was able to mitosis and meiosis, create a buzz on social media.
With an incredible opportunity for where and what participants to win a chance to witness the launch event, the similarities mitosis, Campaign received overwhelming response and and power was a great success. [Read More] With the campaign “Look Up” and a logo projecting the same, the brand underwent change with new logo and an optimistic brand identity. The brand generated responses with #lookupmoments where people shared their pictures and similarities mitosis and meiosis kept up the momentum. [Read More] Vogue, a leading magazine brand teamed up with Bollywood’s popular face Deepika Padukone for a social media awareness campaign. Vogue’s #MyChoice and weed #VogueEmpower speaks about Women’s choice for equality. A two minute short film featuring Deepika and Homi Adajania created massive following and received words of appreciation from Amitabh Bachchan. [Read More] For the Star Sports’ ICC Event promotions, the Sports Channel brand known for its quirky take in its ad campaigns brought on board the “Mauka Guy” who dons opposition’s jersey (against India) with every match. The back to back witty ads built buzz for the campaign on similarities mitosis and meiosis, social networks. [Read More] Tata Motors’ hatchback Bolt was launched in a very unique influencer based campaign. Four social media influencers with huge following competed in a reality based event. The influencers needed to and power, get a digital bolt key to their locked glass cubicles by creating maximum digital buzz. The winner took home the new bolt and his followers won prizes too. [Read More] A smart advertisement campaign launched by Fevikwik when the sentiments of Indians were all time high during an India-Pakistan fixture. The #TodoNahiJodo campaign though not done on a larger scale, still managed to similarities and meiosis, be talked about campaign during the period. [Read More]
Cashvenger, digital mascot of ICICI’s #LiveWithoutCash campaign, and the protagonist who teaches youth about the benefits of Debit and language and power Credit Cards. The campaign for focused on six plans for between and meiosis youth to Disability California Essay, go online and cashless with the help of similarities, credit and debit cards. It also included a series of digital creative images posted on social media. [Read More] Online Digital Wallet and Marketplace Paytm have launched many successful campaigns. “Seal of Trust” and #PaytmKaro were successful. Commercialisation? The concept of cash backs, partnering with all the operators, brands and dedicated 24?7 Customer Support gave it a great push ahead of between mitosis and meiosis, other rivals. [Read More] The launch of Chumbak’s Delhi Store was done with a quirky campaign. The #bobbymissingcampaign was staged in a series of edited pictures where bobby was seen at different places and finally reached Delhi. Bobby being a popular character from define, their bobble heads was able to create a good following and yet another successful campaign for Chumbak. [Read More] Ariel, detergent brand from PG in a smart campaign raised question about gender equality. The campaign kicked off with the question “Is laundry only a woman’s job?” and sensitised men to similarities mitosis, #ShareTheLoad. Later in language and power, the second phase it launched a men’s selfie campaign #WashBucketChallenge where men submitted their picture doing washing chores. [Read More] 11. Why this Kolaveri Di Youtube Case Study How it became a Overnight sensation. (Read Case Study) 12.
How Facebook Applications are used by between mitosis brands – Technology based Social Media engagement campaign. (Review of 4 Apps) 13. Adidas on Facebook Cricket based Social Media marketing case study (Read Case Study) 14. Define? Axe Facebook Marketing Case Study (Read Case Study) 15. Asian Paints Tag a Holi Friend Campaign on Facebook (Read Case Study) 16. HDFC Bank on Social Media How they listen customers on similarities between, Twitter (Read Case Study) 17. Is What It Means To Say Arizona? Kingfisher Beerup – How Kingfisher Beer organizes Tweetups and helps promote brand value (Read Case Study) 18. The Tweeting Newspaper Volkswagen Fair integration of Traditional and Social Media (Read Case Study) | How volkswagen uses Social Media using Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and YouTube (Read Case Study) 19. Listening on Social Media – Snapdeal.Com | How poor advertising leads to bad online reputation (Read Case Study) 20.
Evalueserve – Using LinkedIn for lead generation and brand building (Read Case Study) 21. Volkswagen India Campaign Inspires 2,700 Recommendations in 4 Weeks on LinkedIn (Read Case Study) 22. Dance India Dance-2- How engagements were created on Social Media for the popular TV show- Social Media Case Study (Read Case Study) 23. How Anna Hazare Used Social Media for Anti Corruption Campaign in India (Read Case Study) 24.
MTV roadies- complete Social Media integration The most explosive youth brand in the country (Read Case Study) 25. How unbranded community on Facebook works out- Shari Academy of similarities between and meiosis, Photography Case Study (Read Case Study) 26. How Nando’s Peri-Peri Discount Offer worked out On Facebook (Read Case Study) 27. Channel V Using Twitter to create buzz around the relaunch of channel[V] (Read Case Study) 28. IPL multiplied with the power of social media with spectators worldwide- YouTube case study (Read Case Study) 29 Maggi Noodles India : Social Media Marketing Efforts (http://ravindrakhandelwal.com/2011/07/maggi-noodles-india-social-media-marketing-case-efforts/) 30. How JustBooks Clc uses Facebook to and power, connect with their target audience by creating memory games. (Read Case Study) 31.
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