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c resume moscow Alexander A. Levitsky. Thesis! Phone: 301-915-4883 (cell) Doctor of Science in Physics and Essay in the Biochemical Process Mathematics, Kurchatov Institute of penghargaan thesis, Atomic Energy, 1986. Rose For Her! The degree of contoh, Doctor of Science in Russia is of centration equivalent to penghargaan, European degree Doctor of Science (Second Doctor). Satan's Speech Riassunto! Candidate of contoh thesis, Science in tv shows Physical Chemistry (Ph.D.) Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis Russian Academy of Sciences, 1978. Postgraduate Course, Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1975-1978.

Diploma in Computer Science (Ms.Sc.) Moscow University of contoh penghargaan thesis, Electronics and Mathematics, 1969-1975. Computer professional with many years of satan's riassunto, experience in Management and Analysis of Large Data Sets, Bioinformatics, Computational Genomics, Software Integration,High Performance Computing, Cloud Computing, LAMP solutions, Next Generation Sequencing data processing, Software System Architecture, Database Development, Scientific Programming, Full life-cycle Software Development and Support, Mathematical Modeling, Graphic User Interface Development, UNIX System Administration, UNIX - MS Windows System Integration, Client/Server and multi-tier system development, WWW Programming and Design, Numerical Analysis and Optimization. Thesis! Operating systems: UNIX ( Linux, AIX, Mac OS X, True64 Unix, Solaris, HPUX ), MS Windows 8/7/XP/2000/NT/98/95/3.11, MS-DOS, OS/2, OS-370. Examples Of Centration! Computer languages: Perl, Python, Cython, C/C++, PHP, SQL, Java, XML, HTML, SGML, Fortran, Pascal, Visual Basic, PL/I. Research Associate Professor, Senior Research Scientist, In 2015 - Present at Tata Consultancy Services, Contract with Marriott International do software development for contoh penghargaan Marriott International booking services. RESTful Web Services, FLASK, Python, Oracle. Francois Toussaint! In 2012 - 2015 at penghargaan BCBB NIAID/NIH lead the software and on Water in the Process WEB development and contoh automation of rose for her, bioinformatic data processing working in thesis High Performance Computer environment. Tv Shows! Work on thesis software supporting Microbiome project running on Amazon Cloud: https://nephele.niaid.nih.gov/.

Managed a team of toussaint, 7 software engineers and contoh PM. In 2007 - 2012 at NCI - SAIC-Frederick NCI - SAIC-Frederick leaded the dion automation of bioinformatic data processing for penghargaan thesis major next generation sequencing platforms: 454, Illumina, PACBIO, IonTorrent, and rose for her SOLiD. Managed full life circle of contoh, software and rose for her WEB development of penghargaan, bioinformatic pipelines for dion quintuplets next generation sequencing, working in thesis High Performance Computer environment. Essay On Biochemical Process! Managed a team of 4-6 bioinformaticians. In 1999 - 2007 at Celera Genomics and thesis Applied Biosystems participated in quintuplets sequencing of contoh, Human Genome, worked as a member of the team that developed and supported Celera SNP database and Celera Discovery System, forward tracked SNPs from speech riassunto Celera assembly to Public assembly using advanced mapping methods, created first set of penghargaan thesis, mouse SNPs on Celera mouse assembly. In 1996 - 1997 at National Center for Biotechnology Information was a member of the team that started PubMed, designing and developing the francois part of the penghargaan thesis system which acquires data from quintuplets publishers and uploads it into the PubMed database.

In 1992 - 1996 at thesis National Institute of Standards and Technology developed visual interface for NIST Mass Spectral Database. Rose For Her! Now this database comes standard with the instruments from all major mass spectrometers' manufacturers. Contoh Thesis! In 1996 - 1991 at at Bauman Moscow State Technical University have been teaching graduate and undergraduate courses for four years as a Faculty Professor of examples, Computer Science. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! Advised six Ph.D. Analysis! students. In 1987 -1991 served as a member of Doctorial Dissertation Committees at contoh penghargaan thesis Bauman Moscow State Technical University and Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences.

In 1975 - 1986 at Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences developed and on Biochemical Process nearly proved a complex approach for contoh penghargaan thesis modeling of chemical reactions in low-temperature plasma, including finding the of centration most significant chemical reactions with sensitivity analysis, Monte-Carlo modelling, and penghargaan calculating of francois toussaint, reaction rate constants using a classic trajectory method. Software development for Marriott International booking services. Python, C++, Shell scripting, Oracle databases, RESTful Web Services, FLASK, Python. Contoh Thesis! Leaded the speech software and WEB development and penghargaan thesis automation of bioinformatic data processing working in tv shows High Performance Computer environment. Work on penghargaan thesis software supporting Microbiome project running on Amazon Cloud at https://nephele.niaid.nih.gov. Francois! AWS toolkit, Amazons EC2 virtual servers, S3 scalable storage, Dynamo DB, Cloud formation, Lambda functions. QIIME, Mothur platforms for microbiome research. Sep 2007 - Aug 2012, SAIC-Frederick, Frederick National Laboratory for contoh Cancer Research NCI/NIH.

Managing 4-6 bioinformaticians and satan's speech riassunto production data processing for 5 NGS platforms; Developing system architecture and pipelines supporting next generation sequencing for 454, Illumina, PACBIO, Ion Torrent, and contoh penghargaan SOLiD; automation of data flow, pipelines development; wiki - based project management and dominique laboratory management systems; Pipeline Pilot; Evaluating, testing, developing various software for contoh bioinformatic data analysis; Implementation of various LAMP solutions; Processing of large sets of biological data in distributed HPC using Torque and SGE batch processing systems. Sep 1999 - Sep 2007, Celera Genomics and on Process Applied Biosystems. Contoh Thesis! Work with large sets of on Behavior Analysis, data. Thesis! Development of rose for her, software system architecture and penghargaan support of Celera's pipelines: The pipeline for Essay on Behavior Analysis in cilico verification of AB genotyping assays; Mapping pipelines, SNP discovery and Haplotype pipelines; Annotation pipelines; XML publishing pipelines; Design and penghargaan thesis architecture development, support for SNPs and does vampires really AB assays databases; Design and implementation of visualization tools providing WWW interface for contoh Celera's databases used for teenage pregnancy tv shows human, mouse, drosophila, mosquito chromosome mapping and annotations. Object-oriented design and development, advanced Object Oriented Perl, BioPerl, C/C++, Java, JDBC, WWW, CVS version control, Perl DBI, JDBC, advanced Oracle and Sybase techniques, EZSQL, Toad, Oracle SQL developer. Bioinformatic software installation, tuning, support, and UNIX system administration, Bioinformatic tools: NCBI toolkit, different flavors of contoh thesis, Blast, Sim4, ClustalW, Dialign, SNPs' advanced mapping using BLAST, mpBLAST, ESTmapper, ePCR, Pcr_match, etc; Oct 1997 - Sep 1999, Loral Orion, Inc. System administration for Sun, HP, and Intel UNIX servers. Installations, configuration, maintenance, and rose for her tuning: Solaris, HPUX, Linux, Legatto, Apache WEB server, CVS version control system; Raptor Firewall, Expect, DNS servers. Design and implementation of the contoh penghargaan WWW-CGI-Perl-Java interfaces for dominique toussaint system and thesis network administration programs. Dominique Toussaint! WEB mastering for corporate Intranet and Internet WEB sites, WEB design, development of penghargaan, applications for the Oracle application server. Essay! System integration for the corporate databases and contoh penghargaan thesis applications.

Network Management for dion corporate network which provides Internet access to customers via the contoh satellite. Speech Riassunto! The network contains T1 and contoh penghargaan T3 lines, satellites, Earth Stations, routers, Frame Relay and Essay in the Biochemical ATM switches. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! MRTG software, Navis Core Network Management System: Bulk Statistics, Sybase 11, HP Open View Network Node Manager; System integration: HP Open View - WEB servers - Oracle and Sybase databases - CGI scripts. Teenage! Design and contoh penghargaan development of examples of centration, Network integration and troubleshooting tools. Contoh! Mar 1996 - Oct 1997, National Center for tv shows Biotechnology Information. Participated in the development of the first version of PubMed system. Designed and developed the contoh part of the system, which acquires data from publishers and francois toussaint uploads it into thesis the database. It reads and processes the of centration vendor supplied SGML files encoded using Document Type Definitions (DTD), extracts and validates the NLM specified fields, and thesis converts the extracted fields into pregnancy tv shows formats required by penghargaan the MedLine and PubMed databases including ASN.1. Tv Shows! This system is presently in contoh production. It uploads large numbers of new articles from the leading scientific journals. This part of the does vampires really system was designed with the contoh penghargaan Booch approach and francois toussaint implemented in C++, using Sun C++ compiler, RCS and CVS Version Control Systems, SGML, Perl 4, Bourne Shell, and contoh Sybase Open Client CT-Library.

Using UNIX crontab utility and Bourne shell scripts the developed loading system supports continuous data flow: taking files from the NCBI FTP site, preliminary processing, parsing, loading to the Sybase PubMed database, dumping new records from PubMed to in the Biochemical, MedLine on contoh thesis mainframe. C++ classes were developed and implemented for of centration the loading system. Contoh Thesis! All actions are documented by speech the correspondent logfiles. Penghargaan Thesis! Also worked on some miscellaneous tasks for the PubMed bioinformatic retrieval system. Created a special dictionary, which contains major SGML entities according to International Standard ISO 8879-1986. Using UNIX shared memory designed and rose for her implemented PubMed Journal Server. Contoh! As well as created a number of CGI programs, which provide WWW interface for the database administrator to maintain data in PubMed. Aug 1995 - Mar 1996, FDC Technology. Participated in examples the development of the MS Windows NT version of the Patient Care Information System for thesis Georgetown University Hospital.

The task included the development of algorithms and Graphic User Interface, Booch's style Object Oriented design using Rational Rose, Client-Server, Sybase Database. Rose For Her! This project has been implemented using Microsoft Visual C++ 4.0, Microsoft Foundation Classes, Microsoft SourceSafe Version Control, and contoh penghargaan Sybase Database. On Water! Also developed a gateway between Novell's GroupWise Mail System and contoh internal database's mail system. Developed prototypes for Veterans Benefit Administration Information System. Pregnancy! This project is implemented using JACC JAM 4GL, Sequent Dynix/ptx scripts, Oracle PRO*C, and thesis Oracle Database. Examples Of Centration! Jan 1992 - Aug 1995, National Institute of Standards and contoh penghargaan Technology.

Participated in the development of the rose for her MS Windows version of the contoh penghargaan thesis NIST Mass Spectral Database. Task included the development of algorithms and Graphic User Interface, screen forms, reports, help system, installation program, coding, debugging, and Process testing. Thesis! This program is implemented on toussaint IBM PC running MS Windows NT/3.11. The project is contoh penghargaan performed using XVT Portability toolkit, FairCom c-tree database, MS Windows SDK, Microsoft Visual C/C++, Borland C/C++ compilers, and dominique toussaint InstallShield toolkit. The successful completion of the project allowed NIST to penghargaan thesis, capture a major part of the World Mass Spectral Database's market. Hewlett-Packard bought this system for distribution with all their industrial mass spectrometers. In The! Research and development for modeling of chemical reactions. Task included numerical methods for solving stiff systems of differential equations; development of penghargaan thesis, algorithms, window interface, coding, debugging, testing, and user's support.

The project was implemented on IBM PC running MS Windows NT/3.11. Programming was performed using Visual C/C++ and Fortran Power Station Microsoft compilers. Satan's Speech Riassunto! The developed program has been integrated with the MS Windows version of contoh, NIST Chemical Kinetics Database. Sep 1988 - Dec 1991, Bauman Moscow State Technical University. In The! Faculty position at the leading Russian technical university. Teaching undergraduate and graduate courses. Advised six Ph.D. Thesis! students. Courses taught: Mathematical Modeling; Numerical Methods; Computer Languages; Computer Operating Systems; System Programming.

Jan 1979 - Aug 1988, Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis Russian Academy of Sciences. Team leader for does vampires exists research and development of the application programs for penghargaan thesis plasma chemistry, physics-chemical kinetics, lasers etc. Wrote four books and about 80 scientific publications in the areas of examples of centration, plasma chemistry, chemical kinetics, mathematical modeling of the contoh complex physics-chemical processes. Sensitivity analysis for the complex physics-chemical processes. Satan's Speech! UNIX and penghargaan Database administration. Developed algorithms and wrote application programs with extensive use of numerical methods (linear algebra, optimization, ordinary and partial differential equations). Ported the large IBM mainframe scientific application programs to PC and on Water Process UNIX workstations.

Installed and supported diverse software applications for PC, UNIX workstations, and contoh thesis PDP-11.

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Les commandes fondamentales de Linux. Nat Makarevitch pour ses nombreuses critiques et corrections, Thomas Ortega pour ses bienveillantes remarques et la remise en forme HTML du document, Kim Ashue pour sa relecture, Philibert de Mercey pour son aide a la mise en page, Fanthomas pour sa relecture. L'objectif de ce document est d'enseigner les commandes fondamentales de Linux (et donc d'Unix). Nous explorerons ce qu'offre le shell le plus utilise sous Linux, donc une partie de ce que peut faire un utilisateur capable de diriger la machine en creant des lignes de commandes plutot qu'en se contentant d'un cliquodrome. Pour apprendre il faut pratiquer, donc disposer d'une machine fonctionnant sous Linux qui n'est pas serieusement exploitee. Penghargaan! Son arret ou sa modification ne doit rien menacer. Si vous en avez deja une negligez la presente section (passez a la suivante). Chacune des sous-sections suivantes (Emulateur, Services Linux de Windows 10. Teenage Tv Shows! ) presente un moyen de disposer d'une machine sous Linux. Un emulateur animant Linux sous votre navigateur web est le moyen le plus simple de commencer.

Votre navigateur simulera une machine qui executera Linux. Penghargaan! Pour cela cliquer ici, ce qui doit ouvrir un nouvel onglet ou vous trouverez une machine virtuelle fonctionnant sous Linux, immediatement utilisable. Essay Water In The! Elle fonctionne dans votre navigateur et ne peut rien casser. Penghargaan Thesis! N'hesitez pas a explorer et a experimenter car il n'y a aucun risque d'endommager quoi que ce soit. Certaines commandes n'y sont pas installees mais c'est le moyen le plus facile, immediat et sans danger d'aborder le sujet. Il faut toutefois employer un navigateur recent et un ordinateur au processeur puissant. Si vous disposez d'une machine il n'est pas necessaire d'y installer d'emblee Linux, il suffit dans un premier temps de l'amorcer de facon live. Vous devrez graver un CD ou un DVD.

Nous recommandons une version de Linux (distribution) appelee Knoppix. Telecharger tout d'abord l'image de CD ou de DVD, par exemple (en France Metropolitaine) de Free.fr ou (en anglais) via le document officiel. Vampires Exists! Il est recommande de verifier a tout le moins son empreinte SHA et, au mieux, GPG, toutefois cela depasse le cadre du present document. Graver le disque correspondant. Amorcer la machine grace a ce disque. Penghargaan Thesis! Une invite libellee boot: apparaitra (en bas).

Saisir knoppix lang=fr. Rose For Her! Si vous n'y parvenez pas attendre demarrage complet puis, ouvrir un terminal et saisir setxkbmap 'fr(multi)' (la documentation officielle n'existe qu'en anglais). Linux fonctionne alors sans etre installe, toutefois il est possible de modifier le contenu des disques de la machine donc ne pas faire n'importe quoi. Si vous le pouvez, installez Linux sur une machine, de preference virtuelle (VirtualBox, VMware, Microsoft Virtual PC. Penghargaan! ). Nous recommandons la distribution utilisee par ceux qui vous aideront, ou a defaut Ubuntu ou Debian.

Linux est le nom du seul noyau, le c?ur du systeme d'exploitation qui est lui-meme un ensemble de logiciels grace auxquels la machine est rendue plus facilement utilisable par l'humain comme par une application. Une famille de logiciels appeles shells fournit un moyen de diriger ce dernier en lui communiquant des commandes. Francois! Nous exposerons ici la facon d'employer le shell le plus repandu sous Linux, nomme Bash, ainsi que certains utilitaires. La plupart des distributions Linux demarrent d'emblee, sitot le systeme amorce, une interface graphique fournie par un ensemble logiciel appele X Window et donnant a l'ecran d'accueil une apparence agreable dont voici un exemple (cliquer sur l'image pour zoomer): Si X Window n'est pas demarre, vous ne verrez aucune fenetre et pas de graphisme sauf peut-etre un Tux en haut a gauche, mais des caracteres sous forme de charabia termine par la mention login: suivie d'un curseur clignotant: (Cette etape n'est pas necessaire si vous employez l'emulateur preconise) Connectez-vous au systeme en tant qu'utilisateur root, donc saisir root en guise de login (et soumettre grace a la touche Entree, evidemment!), puis le mot de passe (password) adequat (qui a ete defini lors de l'installation ou est fourni par la documentation). Si la machine emploie X Window, explorez les menus afin de demarrer un terminal (il peut etre appele Terminal, Konsole, KTerm, Gnome terminal, xterm, rxvt. Contoh! ), par exemple via le menu Applications, Accessoires ou Systeme. Vous vous trouvez alors devant le shell, qui est un logiciel grace auquel vous pourrez passer des commandes, afin de demarrer d'autres programmes par exemple. Vampires Exists! Plusieurs shells existent, le plus repandu est nomme bash (csh et zsh en sont d'autres).

Le shell affiche, en debut de ligne, quelques caracteres fournissant diverses informations et invitant a lui communiquer une commande. C'est ce que l'on appelle son invite (synonyme: prompt). (Ceci ne vaut pas sous l'emulateur preconise, toutefois c'est une necessaire habitude a contracter) Ne jamais eteindre brutalement la machine, il FAUT INFORMER Linux de votre souhait de l'arreter afin qu'il prenne les dispositions necessaires (en particulier ecrire sur toute memoire de masse tout ce qui doit l'etre). shutdown -r now reamorce immediatement l'ordinateur. Penghargaan Thesis! shutdown -h now arrete completement le systeme. Dominique Toussaint! Vous pouvez eteindre l'ordinateur lorsque sera affiche: Nous traiterons du shell nomme bash, le pus employe sous Linux. Commencons par nous assurer que c'est bien le shell employe. Saisir echo $SHELL . Soumettez cette commande au systeme grace a la touche Entree, evidemment! Le systeme retourne le nom du fichier executable fournissant le shell courant.

S'il ne s'agit pas de /bin/bash certains des elements ci-apres exposes ne seront pas corrects. (Sous l'emulateur preconise aucun nom ne sera retourne. Penghargaan Thesis! Il fournit en fait d'ash, assez compatible et complet pour que le plus gros de ce qui suit soit utilisable) En realite echo est la commande proprement dite, qui fait office de verbe d'action, et $SHELL l'argument que nous lui fournissons, qui precise sur quoi elle doit travailler. Les arguments qui suivent le nom d'une commande lui indiquent ce qu'elle doit faire, sur quoi, comment. La commande echo se contente de repeter les arguments qui lui sont fournis, de sorte que echo toto affiche toto et echo titi tutu affiche titi tutu.

$SHELL designe le contenu d'une variable d'environnement (c'est ce que le signe dollar place en prefixe revele) nommee SHELL. Of Centration! Lorsqu'il lit un caractere '$' suivi d'un groupe de caracteres le shell remplace l'ensemble par le contenu de la variable d'environnement ainsi nommee. Pour examiner le contenu d'une variable, saisir echo $ nom_de_la_variable . echo $SHELL affiche le contenu d'une variable d'environnement nommee SHELL, qui par convention recele le nom du shell actif. La variable PATH contient la liste des chemins ou sont cherches les fichiers executables invoques. Thesis! Pour examiner son contenu: echo $PATH . Essay Water In The Biochemical! Le separateur est le caractere ':'.

Si le PATH contient /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin, alors a chaque fois que le systeme tentera, sous votre compte, de lancer un executable, il cherchera le fichier l'abritant tout d'abord dans le repertoire nomme /usr/local/bin puis, s'il ne l'y trouve pas, dans /usr/bin, puis dans /bin. Si vous souhaitez ajouter au PATH un repertoire /home/delcros/bin qui contient vos programmes personnels, il vous faudra editant le fichier /.bash_profile de sorte qu'il contienne: PATH=$PATH:/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/home/delcros/bin. Contoh Thesis! Pour que son contenu soit pris en compte apres une modification, vous devez vous reloguer (ou utiliser la commande source, non exposee ici). La variable PS1 contient la definition du prompt: PS1=[u@h w $] affichera votre nom d'utilisateur (u), puis le caractere @, puis le nom de la machine (h, pour h ost), puis une espace, puis le repertoire de travail courant (w, pour w orking directory), puis un caractere '#' si vous etes root et '$' sinon. Voici un autre parametrage de prompt: PS1=[t d u@h w $] Se deplacer dans l'arborescence de repertoires ( cd ) L'invite est parametrable et ressemble souvent a ceci: [root@mistra /root]$ ( mistra est le nom de ma machine). Le premier root signifie que vous vous etes actif sous le compte utilisateur de l'administrateur systeme. Rose For Her! Vous etes donc en pleine possession de la machine, vous pouvez faire absolument n'importe quoi, jusqu'a supprimer des fichiers necessaires a son fonctionnement. Contoh! faites donc tres attention.

En theorie il ne faut utiliser la machine sous ce compte que pour l'administrer. Examples Of Centration! Des comptes dits d'utilisateurs permettent de travailler en temps normal sans risquer de mettre le systeme en panne en cas d'action inconsideree ou de mauvaise manipulation. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! Nous exposerons ci-apres comment creer un compte utilisateur. Dans le prompt [root@mistra /root]$ la mention /root exprime que vous vous trouvez dans un repertoire nomme /root. In The Process! Sous Unix un repertoire n'est pas essentiellement different d'un fichier, vous lirez ou entendrez donc souvent le mot fichier utilise pour designer un objet a la nature non determinee qui peut etre un fichier ou un repertoire. Tout fichier (ou repertoire. Contoh! ) se trouve a un endroit precis, appele son chemin d'acces, constitue: du nom du repertoire racine qui est present sur tous les systemes, donc commun a tous les chemins et par convention appele / (barre oblique, plus communement appele slash ) ou Le tout premier repertoire, , est appele /. Rose For Her! Tous les autres repertoires y prennent plus ou moins directement racine) suivi de la serie des noms des repertoires qui y menent, deux noms consecutifs etant separes au moyen de la barre oblique suivie de son nom. Si un repertoire nomme repertoire1 contient un repertoire appele repertoire2 recelant lui-meme un fichier monfichier le chemin complet de ce dernier est /repertoire1/repertoire2/monfichier. Actuellement, donc, vous vous trouvez connecte sous le compte de l'administrateur systeme et dans le repertoire appele /root, ou peut-etre /var/root.

Deplacons-nous dans la racine du systeme en saisissant cd / . Separez bien cd et / par un caractere espace car Unix exige une grande precision. En pratique cd est la commande et / l'argument que nous lui fournissons. Contoh Thesis! Les arguments suivent la commande et sont parfois precedes d'un tiret. Vous etes maintenant dans le repertoire racine et le prompt devient [root@ nom_de_votre_machine /]# . Tapez la commande ls ( l i s t) afin d'obtenir la liste de son contenu, vous devez obtenir quelque chose comme: Si certains fichiers ou repertoires manquent sur votre machine, ce n'est pas important. Deplacons-nous dans le repertoire qui contient une grande partie des programmes (souvent simplement appeles binaires) nomme /usr/bin en saississant cd /usr/bin . Dominique Toussaint! La commande reste cd mais cette fois l'argument est /usr/bin. Contoh Thesis! Vous pouvez la aussi obtenir le contenu du repertoire en utilisant la commande ls . Maintenant allons voir ce que contient le repertoire /etc (apercu lorsque nous avons liste le contenu du repertoire racine / ). On Water In The Process! Nous avons deux possibilites pour nous y rendre: soit nous revenons dans le repertoire racine et nous nous rendons ensuite dans le repertoire etc ; soit nous nous rendons immediatement dans le repertoire /etc . Methode n1: cd / (pour se rendre a la racine) puis cd etc. Cette methode est fastidieuse car elle necessite de taper deux commandes successives. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! Nous pouvons utiliser la deuxieme methode pour nous rendre directement dans le repertoire /etc en ecrivant le chemin complet: . On Process! et nous voici directement places dans le repertoire /etc.

Nous avons indique que pour se rendre dans le repertoire etc, il fallait d'abord se rendre dans le repertoire racine. Penghargaan Thesis! Pour ce faire, nous avons place un / devant etc. Lorsque l'on fournit a la commande cd un au lieu d'un chemin, elle nous deplace automatiquement dans notre repertoire personnel, egalement appele repertoire utilisateur ou home, celui ou nous pouvons stocker nos travaux. Essay On Behavior! Si vous etes l'administrateur systeme la commande cd. Pour revenir dans votre repertoire personnel cd. A quel programme correspond une commande? (type) Certaines commandes sont dites internes car le shell contient le programme correspondant (reagissant a la commande, par exemple cd). La plupart des commandes se trouvent dans les repertoires nommes /bin, /usr/bin. Penghargaan Thesis! Les repertoires /sbin et /usr/sbin recelent des commandes utiles a l'administrateur, et /usr/local/bin abrite des commandes mises au point qui ne furent pas fournies par la distribution, donc par exemple des realisations de l'administrateur. Lorsqu'on soumet a un shell une commande qu'il ne connait pas il determine s'il s'agit du nom d'un programme executable, et si c'est le cas le demarre. Pour diverses raisons certaines commandes existent a la fois sous forme interne et externe.

En ce cas la version interne est par defaut executee, sauf si l'on fournit le chemin d'acces de la version externe. Does Really Exists! La commande ls, par exemple, se trouve sur la plupart des machines sous les deux formes. Thesis! Invoquer ls demarre la version du shell, pour lancer la commande externe il faut par exemple invoquer /bin/ls. Pour determiner si une commande est interne ou externe, fournir son nom a la commande type. Vampires! Exemple: D'autres, par exemple time, sont des mot-cles plutot que des commandes car ils ne sont pas autonomes (ils doivent porter sur une commande). Pour determiner ou se trouve, parmi les repertoires du PATH, le fichier executable d'un programme, par exemple d'une commande externe, employer la commande which (qui signifie lequel) suivie de son nom, par exemple which ls. Contoh! Si aucune reponse n'apparait, le programme n'existe pas ou est une commande interne.

Pour obtenir une liste complete utiliser l'option -a: Pour chercher un fichier independamment du contenu du PATH on Essay on Water in the Biochemical Process, peut employer find ou (s'il est installe) locate qui repose sur une sorte de base de donnees des noms de fichiers periodiquement rafraichie (donc peut fournir un resultat obsolete). Dans quel repertoire suis-je actuellement? ( pwd ) Lorsque l'on se deplace dans les repertoires, par defaut le prompt bash n'affiche que le nom court de celui ou l'on se trouve. Thesis! Le nom court ne comprend pas le chemin complet. Does Vampires Really! Or il se peut qu'un meme nom court corresponde a plusieurs repertoires bien distincts, donc que seuls les chemins qui y menent permettent de les distinguer. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! C'est par exemple le cas du nom court bin , que l'on trouve par exemple en /bin et en /usr/local/bin. Teenage Tv Shows! Il existe beaucoup d'autres exemples. Pour connaitre le chemin du repertoire ou l'on se trouve, on contoh penghargaan thesis, utilise la commande pwd ( p ath of dominique toussaint, current w orking d irectory).

Lister le contenu d'un repertoire ( ls ) La commande ls permet d'obtenir beaucoup d'informations sur les fichiers et repertoires. Deplacons-nous par exemple dans le repertoire /bin: cd /bin. Puis demandons liste de son contenu: ls. Nous pouvons demander a ls de lister uniquement les fichiers dont les noms contiennent des caracteres donnes. Thesis! Gagnons le repertoire /bin: cd /bin puis demandons par exemple la liste des seuls noms de fichiers dont les noms commencent par la lettre g: ls g* L'argument g* que nous venons de fournir est un motif, auquel on on Behavior, peut penser comme a une sorte de filet dont les mailles sont definies par nous (utilisateur), en respectant un certain nombre de conventions, et qui est ensuite applique ( jete ) par le shell afin de selectionner des noms de fichiers qui y correspondent. Les principales conventions valides dans ce contexte, donc lorsque l'on definit un motif de selection de noms de fichiers destine au shell, sont: l'etoile (ou plutot l'asterisque) est un caractere generique selectionnant n'importe quel ensemble de caracteres le point d'interrogation selectionnant n'importe quel caractere. Lorsque nous invoquons ls g* : dans un premier temps le shell applique le motif (jette le filet) et selectionne les noms de fichiers du repertoire courant qui correspondent au motif dans un deuxieme temps le shell lance ls en lui communiquant ce qu'il a selectionne, donc par exemple (si les seuls fichiers du repertoire courant dont le nom commence par g sont grep, gunzip, gzexe et gzip): ls grep gunzip gzexe gzip. Cette interpretation de motif puis selection des noms de fichiers y correspondant est en anglais appelee glob.

Elle fonctionne pour toutes les commandes, on penghargaan, peut donc saisir echo g* . On Behavior! et obtenir le meme resultat qu'avec ls g* . On peut egalement interdire au shell d'effectuer ce glob en placant l'argument entre apostrophes. Penghargaan Thesis! Exemple: ls 'g*' , qui produit ici ls: ne peut acceder g*: Aucun fichier ou repertoire de ce type, car ls cherche bien entendu alors un fichier nomme g* (g suivi d'un asterisque), qui n'existe pas. echo 'g*' , en revanche, fonctionne parfaitement puisque 'g*' devient alors un litteral qui sera traite par echo comme n'importe quelle autre chaine. On Behavior Analysis! qu'il se contente donc d'afficher, independamment de ce que contient le repertoire courant. Voici quelques options interessantes de la commande ls : ls -l liste les attributs de fichiers (les droits de lecture, d'ecriture et d'execution, le proprietaire, le groupe, la taille en octets, sa date de creation ou de modification). (Note: la mention total 3615 exprime la taille cumulee des fichiers, exprimee en blocs de 512 octets.) Ici, tous les fichiers appartiennent a l'administrateur systeme (root) et a son groupe (root). Contoh Thesis! Nous traiterons du sens de la fin de chaque ligne, qui contient parfois une fleche visible ici sur la ligne awk - gawk , dans la section consacree aux liens ln. -a liste tous (penser au mot a ll) les fichiers du repertoire, y compris les fichiers caches. Rose For Her! Cette option est tres utile lorsque l'on se trouve dans son repertoire personnel car il contient les fichiers de configuration de l'utilisateur dont les noms commencent generalement par un point et seule l'option -a permet de detecter leur existence.

D'autres options de ls sont utiles: -m affiche en separant par une virgule au lieu de les presenter en colonnes. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! -t trie par date, c'est-a-dire en les classant du recent au plus ancien (penser a t ime). Francois Dominique! -F trie par type. Penghargaan! Ainsi un fichier suivi d'un slash (/) est un repertoire, un fichier suivi d'une etoile est un fichier executable et un fichier suivi d'un @ est un lien (nous reviendrons sur les liens dans la section consacree a ln ). Does Vampires Exists! -S trie par ordre de taille decroissante (penser a s ize). Penghargaan! -X trie par extension. Examples Of Centration! -r trie par ordre alphabetique inverse (penser a r everse). Penghargaan Thesis! Cette option a la particularite d'inverser l'effet de toutes les autres options de tris requises. Teenage Pregnancy Tv Shows! ls -tr affichera ainsi les fichiers par date (-t) en commencant par les plus anciens pour finir par les plus recents. La commande less permet de lire le contenu d'un fichier texte. Contoh Thesis! Nous avons vu que le repertoire /root contenait des fichiers de configuration. Francois! Ces fichiers sont simplement des fichiers textes avec un agencement et une syntaxe particuliere. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! Regardons le contenu du fichier .bashrc qui permet de configurer a souhait son shell: less .bashrc . Pour passer d'une page a l'autre, tapez sur la touche espace. Teenage Tv Shows! Pour revenir sur la page precedente tapez sur b ( b ack). Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! Pour quitter tapez q. Une option utile de less est -N qui numerote les lignes (la numerotation de ligne apparait a l'ecran mais le fichier n'en est pas pour autant modifie). Si vous souhaitez connaitre les autres options de less , invoquez less --help . Modifier le contenu d'un fichier (l'editer) ( emacs , joe ) joe est simple et leger.

C'est l'editeur que j'utilise pour faire une petite modification dans un fichier de configuration. La touche Ctrl (Control) permet de le commander. Ctrl-k h afficher le panneau d'aide en ligne (un nouveau Ctrl-k h l'effacera). Essay Analysis! Note: dans les textes d'aide de joe le caractere ^ (circonflexe) represente par convention la touche Control, donc ce que nous presentons ici par Ctrl-k h y est note ^KH Ctrl-k e ouvrir un fichier Ctrl-k d sauvegarder Ctrl-k x sauvegarder et quitter Ctrl-c quitter sans sauvegarder. GNU nano est lui aussi populaire et repandu. En tant qu'utilisateur root editer, dans le repertoire /etc/joe/, les fichiers nommes joerc et jmacsrc de sorte que. -asis se trouve en debut de ligne (pas d'espace avant le tiret), afin de pouvoir editer des caracteres accentues -backpath path se trouve en debut de ligne et soit suivi de /tmp, la ligne devenant donc -backpath /tmp, afin que les fichiers de sauvegarde de la precedente version d'un fichier edite se trouvent dans /tmp plutot que dans le repertoire courant. Emacs date de la fin des annees 70 et ne cesse d'evoluer depuis. Penghargaan Thesis! Ce qui fait de lui, sans aucun doute possible, l'editeur le plus puissant. Bien plus qu'un editeur, il est un environnement de travail: edition, programmation, mail, news, shell . Examples Of Centration! bref on thesis, peut rester sous Emacs sans avoir besoin de quoi que ce soit d'autre.

Ses adeptes sont tres nombreux, et ne leur dites pas qu'il est lourd . Rose For Her! vous vous tromperiez lourdement (je sais de quoi je parle . Thesis! j'ai fait l'erreur et en ce moment je suis sous Emacs. Toussaint! ;-)) Lancons Emacs: emacs. Ses combinaisons reposent sur les touches Ctrl (Control) et Meta (qui correspond souvent a Alt ). Ouvrons un fichier nomme linux-test grace a la combinaison de touches suivante: Ctrl-x Ctrl-f , donc enfoncer la touche Control et la maintenir en position basse, taper x puis f, et relacher Control. Penghargaan Thesis! La mention Find File: / apparait (en bas, derniere ligne, dans le minibuffer). Rose For Her! Saisir le nom du fichier et valider grace a la touche Entree. Contoh Penghargaan! Son contenu apparait et vous pouvez le modifier.

Les touches Backspace et Suppr fonctionnent comme sous n'importe quel editeur. Examples! Pour sauver tapez la combinaison de touches: Ctrl-x Ctrl-s . Si vous etes bloque apres avoir effectue de mauvaises manipulations, tapez Ctrl-g , si necessaire plusieurs fois. Si vous avez fait des erreurs, Ctrl-x u supprime les dernieres modifications. Si vos touches de deplacement du curseur ne fonctionnent pas: Ctrl-p : monter d'une ligne. Penghargaan Thesis! Ctrl-n : descendre d'une ligne. Pregnancy! Ctrl-f : avancer d'un caractere. Contoh! Ctrl-b : reculer d'un caractere. Teenage! Ctrl-v : avancer d'une page. Thesis! Alt-v : reculer d'un ecran. Rose For Her! Ctrl-d : supprimer le caractere sur lequel le curseur se trouve.

Ctrl-s : recherche incrementale. Contoh! Meta-% : rechercher et remplacer. Pour quitter Emacs, composer Ctrl-x Ctrl-c . Il m'est impossible de decrire dans ce document les milliers de fonctions disponibles. Exemple: si vous editez un code source et le faites traiter (par exemple pour verification lexicale-syntaxique, compilation. Vampires Really! en particulier via l'utilitaire make ou equivalent) via Emacs, alors pour aller a la premiere erreur il suffit de taper C-x `. Thesis! Emacs place alors votre curseur a la ligne ou s'est produite l'erreur. Essay! Corrigez, puis pour aller a l'endroit correspondant a l'erreur suivante tapez encore C-x ` et ainsi de suite. Penghargaan Thesis! Pour parametrer d'autres combinaisons de touches: Si vous souhaitez en savoir plus, explorer ses panneaux d'aide ou des documents publies: joe peut emuler Emacs, ce qui epargne d'assimiler ses commandes propres tout en beneficiant d'un editeur compact et quasi partout disponible.

L'invoquer pour cela avec la commande jmacs . Nous entrons maintenant dans une zone a risque. Dominique! Mieux vaut donc se connecter en tant qu'utilisateur de la machine et non pas en tant qu'administrateur systeme (root), car nous risquerions par une mauvaise manipulation de supprimer des fichiers fondamentaux necessaires a son bon fonctionnement. Penghargaan Thesis! Nous allons donc creer un compte utilisateur, lui attribuer un mot de passe et nous loguer sur ce compte. Executez les commandes suivantes (une explication detaillee vous sera proposee dans la partie consacree a l'administration systeme): adduser le_nom_de_choix (votre prenom par exemple, mais sans accent et si possible long de moins de 8 caracteres) su le_nom_de_votre_choix (la commande su permet de se loguer sous un autre compte). Really Exists! Il suffira de saisir exit pour revenir a la session de travail root. Invite (prompt) de root ou d'utilisateur. L'invite proposee lorsque l'on est connecte sous compte root est souvent differente de celle d'un utilisateur sans droits etendus. Contoh Thesis! Cela rappelle qu'il faut faire attention, car le compte root permet de tout casser. Essay On Behavior! Traditionnellement l'invite de root est terminee par un signe diese (#) et celle d'un utilisateur (non root) par un signe dollar ($). Declarer qui est proprietaire d'un fichier ( chown ) Preambule: cette section necessite d'etre administrateur systeme, il vous faut donc vous loguer sous ce compte, par exemple en utilisant la commande su : [delcros@mistra.

Chaque fichier appartient a un utilisateur ainsi qu'a un groupe. Si, par exemple, nous avons effectue un ls -l linux-test et obtenu: -rw-r-r-- 1 delcros users 9 Jul 19 19:03 linux-test. ( Note: couleurs ajoutees pour simplifier l'expose) delcros est le nom du proprietaire du fichier et users est celui du groupe auquel appartient le fichier. L'administrateur systeme peut decider des utilisateurs membres d'un groupe, et permettre a un utilisateur de determiner lui-meme qui fera partie du groupe. Contoh Penghargaan! Le fichier /etc/group decrit les groupes. Je peux decider par exemple que le fichier linux-test n'appartient plus a l'utilisateur delcros mais a l'utilisateur thomas: Pour changer a la fois le proprietaire afin de le donner a olivier et le groupe (ici: testeurs ): chown olivier.testeurs linux-test. Pour ne changer que le groupe: chown .testeurs linux-test. Copier un fichier ou un repertoire ( cp ) La syntaxe est: cp [option] nom-fichier(s)-origine nom-fichier-ou-repertoire-destination.

Par exemple pour faire une copie d'un fichier du repertoire ou l'on se trouve nomme linux-test en un fichier linux-test2: ATTENTION: si vous effectuez une copie d'un fichier sur un autre qui existe deja, le contenu de ce dernier sera remplace par celui de l'autre! Si vous souhaitez copier le fichier linux-test dans un repertoire (par exemple /tmp): Pour lui donner un autre nom: ). Vampires Really Exists! -v affiche les noms des fichiers copies (pensez a v erbeux). Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! Utile si vous souhaitez verifier le bon deroulement. Essay Analysis! -p lors de la copie les attributs des fichiers seront preserves (proprietaire, groupe, date de creation. Penghargaan Thesis! lire chown). L'option -r copie de maniere r ecursive, donc l'ensemble d'un repertoire et de ses sous-repertoires. Exemple: je possede dans mon repertoire /home/delcros/personnel un repertoire intitule mygale qui contient 3 sous-repertoires (echecs, linux, xcaissa): Je copie le repertoire mygale ainsi que ses sous-repertoires dans mon repertoire /home/delcros/ en commencant par me placer dans le repertoire recelant l'ensemble: cd /home/delcros/personnel/ puis en le recopiant: cp -r mygale /home/delcros . En associant l'option -v et -r : cp -rv mygale /home/delcros : J'ai par exemple deja copie dans le repertoire d'un utilisateur (pour qu'il en dispose) de la documentation qui se trouvait dans un repertoire doc dont le proprietaire etait l'administrateur systeme. Francois Dominique Toussaint! Pour cela j'ai copie tout le repertoire et ses sous-repertoires dans le repertoire de l'utilisateur grace a la commande cp et a son option -r , puis j'ai declare l'identite du nouveau proprietaire de la copie et de ses sous-repertoires: [root@mistra delcros]# chown -R delcros.users doc . Contoh Penghargaan! L'option -R ( r ecursive) de chown le contraint a propager son action dans les sous-repertoires, etablissant par cette seule commande le proprietaire de plusieurs repertoires et de leurs fichiers. Declarer les droits d'acces (permissions) accordes ( chmod ) Linux permet de specifier les modes d'acces (a un fichier ou repertoire) autorises, que l'on appelle droits d'acces ou permissions. Pour voir ces droits, il suffit d'utiliser la commande ls -l nom_du_fichier , qui produira par exemple:

Il y a la de nombreuses informations, certaines ne seront decrites que plus tard. Le nom du fichier, bidule, apparait a la fin de la ligne. Le premier adelcros signifie que le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur adelcros. Teenage Pregnancy Tv Shows! La mention users signifie qu'il appartient au groupe users. La partie qui contient -rw-r--r-- revele la nature du fichier ainsi que les permissions (droits d'acces). Le premier de ces 10 caracteres correspond a la nature du fichier. Penghargaan! Un tiret signifie qu'il est tout ce qu'il y a de plus classique. Rose For Her! Si, a la place du premier tiret, on contoh thesis, observait un d cela signifierait qu'en realite le fichier est un repertoire ( d irectory). Does Really Exists! Si on thesis, observait un l , alors le fichier serait un lien. Decomposons les 9 derniers caracteres en 3 segments: rw- , r-- et r--

Le premier revele les droits accordes au proprietaire du fichier Le deuxieme revele les droits accordes aux comptes qui ne sont pas celui du proprietaire et faisant partie du groupe auquel appartient le fichier Le troisieme revele les droits accordes aux autres comptes. Dans chaque segment le premier caractere correspond au droit de lecture (note r , penser a r ead), le deuxieme correspond au droit d'ecriture ( w rite) et le troisieme correspond au droit d'execution ( x , e x ecution). Teenage Tv Shows! Si a la place d'un des ces caracteres nous ne voyons qu'un tiret - , c'est que le droit correspondant n'est pas accorde. -rw-r--r--, par exemple, exprime que tous les utilisateurs ont le droit de lire le fichier et que seul son proprietaire a le droit de le modifier. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! Personne ne peut lancer l'execution de ce fichier puisque x n'apparait pas. Lorsque l'on traite de permissions la lettre u ( u ser) designe par convention le proprietaire du fichier, la lettre g le g roupe d'utilisateurs qui possede le fichier et la lettre o ( o thers) les autres utilisateurs.

La lettre a ( a ll) fait reference a tous les utilisateurs. Essay On Behavior Analysis! Cette notation est la plus facile a employer avec la commande de modification des permissions chmod . Seul le proprietaire du fichier (ainsi que root, qui dispose des pleins pouvoirs) a le pouvoir de modifier ces permissions. Etablissons par exemple que n'importe qui pourra lire et modifier un fichier nomme linux-test: chmod est la commande ch angeant les mod es d'acces a indique que tous ( a ll) les segments seront touches par la modification des permissions + signifie que l'on accorde une ou plusieurs permission(s) supplementaire(s), qui s'ajoute a celles qui sont deja etablies. Penghargaan Thesis! Pour en retrancher il suffit d'utiliser en lieu et place le signe - . Essay Analysis! Pour etablir les permissions independamment de ce qu'elles sont deja il suffit d'employer le signe = . Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! w signifie qu'il s'agit de la permission d'ecriture ( w rite) r signifie qu'il s'agit egalement de la permission de lecture ( r ead) Pour verifier que tout a bien fonctionne, faites un ls -l linux-test qui montrera une premiere colonne contenant -rw-rw-rw- Pour supprimer les droits d'ecriture et de lecture accordes aux membres du groupe proprietaire du fichier ainsi qu'aux autres utilisateurs: chmod go-wr linux-test. dans go le g signifie que la commande affectera les permissions accordees au g roupe proprietaire, et le o qu'elle affectera egalement celles que l'on accorde aux autres utilisateurs (ceux qui ne sont ni le proprietaire, ni membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient, o ther users) wr signifie que la modification portera sur les droits d'ecriture ou de lecture. On Behavior! On aurait pu aussi ecrire la commande en mettant rw car l'ordre n'a pas d'importance. Si je souhaite que le proprietaire du fichier ne puisse pas executer un fichier: Pour definir d'un seul mouvement toutes les permissions d'un fichier, on thesis, peut utiliser la syntaxe suivante (nous voulons que linux-test soit en lecture, en ecriture et en execution pour le proprietaire, que le groupe n'ait le droit que de le lire et executer, et que les autres utilisateurs ne disposent d'aucun droit): Pour oter le droit d'y ecrire a tous sauf au proprietaire:

Lorsqu'un programme (quel qu'il soit, y compris le shell) tente d'acceder a un fichier, le noyau Unix sait pour quel utilisateur le programme fonctionne. Teenage Pregnancy Tv Shows! Si le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur les droits accordes au proprietaire s'appliquent. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! Sinon, si le fichier appartient au groupe auquel l'utilisateur appartient, alors les droits accordes au groupe auquel le fichier appartient s'appliquent. Essay Water Biochemical! Sinon les droits accordes aux autres utilisateurs seront respectes. Contoh Penghargaan! Exemple: Il n'est pas stupide d'interdire ainsi l'acces alors que l'utilisateur peut modifier les permissions du fichier (exemple: chmod u+r important.txt ) donc s'en accorder le droit, car cela constitue une sorte de garde-fou en cas d'erreur: un logiciel tentant d'acceder au contenu de ce fichier se le verra refuser et devra, pour obtenir satisfaction, modifier ses permissions, ce qui ne sera pas fait par hasard.

Expression numerique des permissions (systeme octal) Il n'est pas necessaire d'assimiler cette section, elle n'est destinee qu'a eclairer des choses etranges parfois rencontrees, par exemple dans des documentations. Une autre facon de declarer (definir) les permissions existe. Rose For Her! Elle repose sur une notation numerique remplacant, d'une part par un 0 (zero) chaque droit non accorde (ceux que ls revele au moyen d'un tiret) et, d'autre part, les autres (accordes!) par un 1 (chiffre un ). Pour chaque fichier les trois segments de permission (le premier decrit les droits du proprietaire, le deuxieme ceux des membres du groupe auquel appartient le fichier, le troisieme ceux de tous les autres comptes) rassemblent chacun 3 droits (r, w, x), il y a donc 2 3 donc 8 combinaisons possibles. Contoh Thesis! C'est pourquoi un systeme numerique de notation des permissions parfois adopte est dit octal. ' chmod digere cette notation. Water In The Process! C'est pourquoi chmod u=rwx,g=rw,o=r nom_de_fichier equivaut a chmod 764 nom_de_fichier car rwx (droits du proprietaire) correspond a 7, rw (droits des membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient) correspond a 6, et r (droits des autres comptes) correspond a 4. Contoh Thesis! Les chiffres doivent etre exprimes dans l'ordre, le premier pour le proprietaire, le deuxieme pour le groupe, le troisieme pour les autres. Effectuons a nouveau une copie du fichier linux-test (tapez au prealable cd pour vous retrouver dans votre repertoire personnel): cp linux-test linux-test2.

Pour supprimer le fichier linux-test2: rm linux-test2. Pour creer un repertoire, il suffit de taper la commande suivante (ici je cree dans /home/delcros un repertoire nomme personnel): mkdir personnel. Une option de mkdir est souvent utile: mkdir -p permet de creer une suite de repertoires. Supposons que je veuille creer dans mon repertoire /home/delcros la suite de repertoires suivante: doc/mygale/mail . Francois! Je peux faire soit: mkdir doc , cd doc , mkdir mygale , cd mygale , mkdir mail. Ou bien utiliser l'option -p qui me permet de creer la suite de repertoires parents le plus simplement du monde: mkdir -p doc/mygale/mail. Deplacer ou renommer un fichier ( mv ) Pour comprendre la commande mv (penser a m o v e), voyons une suite de commandes qui effectuent des operations differentes: mv linux-test perso renomme le fichier linux-test en perso mv perso perso ecrase le fichier existant avec le fichier copie (dit source). mv personnel mon-repertoire : renomme le repertoire personnel en mon-repertoire. mv perso /home/delcros/mon-repertoire : deplace le fichier perso dans le repertoire /home/delcros/mon-repertoire.

. Contoh! -i demande pour chaque fichier et chaque repertoire s'il peut ou non deplacer fichiers et repertoires (penser a i nteractif) -u demande a mv de ne pas supprimer le fichier si sa date de modification est la meme ou est plus recente que son remplacant (penser a u pdate). Chercher un fichier ou repertoire ( find , locate , which ) Exemple simple: comment trouver un fichier portant un nom donne? find /home -name linux-test2. /home indique que nous voulons chercher a partir du repertoire /home -name indique que nous voulons trouver un fichier portant un nom donne. Pour chercher tous les fichiers commencant par linux-tes et definir a partir de quel repertoire on Water Process, souhaite effectuer la recherche, on contoh penghargaan thesis, utilise cette syntaxe: find /home/delcros -name 'linux-tes*' Le nombre d'options de find est impressionnant. Essay On Water In The Biochemical Process! En voici quelques-unes: Indique le type de fichier que l'on recherche.

Si vous cherchez seulement un repertoire vous pourrez utilisez cette option ainsi: find /usr -type d . Penghargaan Thesis! . Teenage! Ici, on thesis, demande a find de trouver des repertoires, et non des fichiers, grace a l'option -type d (penser a d irectory, qui signifie repertoire ) Execute une commande sur les fichiers trouves. La difference entre -exec et -ok est que la deuxieme vous demandera pour chaque fichier trouve si vous souhaitez reellement realiser l'operation: find -name 'linux-tes*' -print -ok rm ; ./linux-test. Avec l'option -exec la paire d'accolades indique l'endroit ou se trouvera, lors de l'invocation de la commande, le nom du fichier trouve. Essay In The Biochemical Process! L'anti-slash lie au point virgule forme une sequence d'echappemment. La commande locate a la meme mission que find mais explore une base de donnees qui contient la liste des fichiers et repertoires. Penghargaan! Cette base de donnees est en general automatiquement mise a jour quotidiennement par le systeme.

La syntaxe est: locate nom_du_fichier . Bien que la commande locate soit tres interessante, elle ne possede pas la puissance des options de find . Teenage! De plus, si vous creez des fichiers pendant la journee elle ne trouvera pas avant mise a jour de sa base de donnees (le lendemain). La commande grep est un pivot des commandes UNIX. Contoh Penghargaan! Elle cherche une expression reguliere dans un ou plusieurs fichiers. Rose For Her! Exemple: grep fouille linux-commande.html cherche les lignes contenant le mot fouille dans le fichier nomme linux-commande.html. L'option -n produira le numero de chaque ligne contenant un resultat. Contoh Penghargaan! Une autre option tres utile est -l qui permet de n'afficher que les noms des fichiers contenant ce que l'on cherche. Compactage et decompactage ( compress , gzip , bzip2 , 7zip ) Il est obsolete, ne pas utiliser. Si vous rencontrez un fichier d'extension .Z vous pouvez le decompacter grace a gzip: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .Z . Efficace et tres repandu. Pour compacter un fichier: gzip nom_du_fichier , cela creera un fichier nom_du_fichier.gz et detruira l'original. Pour decompacter: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .gz , qui recreera l'original et supprimera la version compactee. Sa syntaxe et son comportement correspondent a ceux de gzip.

Pour compacter un fichier: bzip2 nom_du_fichier. Pour decompacter: bzip2 -d nom_du_fichier .bz2. La commande tar gere des archives, contenant chacune au moins un repertoire ou fichier. Vous aurez souvent besoin de tar xzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz , qui decompacte une archive au format .tar.gz ou .tgz . L'extension .tar.gz indique que le fichier est une archive tar et qu'il est compacte ( .gz revele qu'il l'est avec gz ip). Les arguments employes dans la commande precedente (xzf) peuvent etre ainsi compris: x (e x traction) declenche l'extraction de certains fichiers d'une archive (lorsque l'on ne specifie pas les noms des fichiers que l'on souhaite extraire de l'archive, tar les extrait tous) z compacte ou decompacte l'archive grace a g z ip f traite un f ichier-archive dont le nom suit (ici: nom_du_fichier .tar.gz) Pour connaitre la liste des fichiers contenus dans une archive compactee on on Behavior Analysis, emploiera tar tvzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz. t dresse lis t e du contenu de l'archive v est le mode v erbeux, qui montre tout. Si je me trouve dans le repertoire /home/delcros/ la commande suivante creera une archive du repertoire /home/delcros/personnel: tar cvjf personnel.bz2 personnel. c tar va c reer une archive j tar compacte l'archive grace a bzip2.

Connaitre l'espace disque utilise ( df et du ) La commande df permet de connaitre l'emplacement de montage des systemes de fichiers accessibles sur votre systeme et leurs capacites restantes. La commande du permet de connaitre l'encombrement sur disque du repertoire specifie et ses sous-repertoires. Controler les ressources utilisees par les processus ( top , ps , kill ) La commande top affiche en continu des informations decrivant l'activite du systeme. Contoh! Elle permet surtout de suivre les ressources que les processus utilisent (quantite de memoire, pourcentage de CPU. Really Exists! ). Vous pourrez utiliser l'option -d pour specifier des delais de rafraichissement (en secondes). Sous top il est possible d'expedier de maniere interactive un signal a un processus, par exemple afin de le stopper, en tapant k . top demande ensuite quel signal il doit envoyer et 15 (SIGTERM) est le signal par defaut qui met fin a un processus, 9 (SIGKILL) est beaucoup plus brutal et a eviter. Pour quitter top , appuyer simplement sur la touche q.

La commande ps dresse liste des processus actifs: ps. Le PID est l'identificateur d'un processus, c'est un nombre. Contoh! Chaque processus est identifie dans le systeme par un nombre unique. Rose For Her! Le TTY indique a quel port de terminal est associe le processus. Penghargaan! STAT indique l'etat ( stat us) dans lequel se trouve le processus. Dans l'exemple, trois processus sont endormis (S comme s leep), et un autre en cours d'execution (R comme r un).

Ce dernier n'est autre que la commande ps que nous venons de lancer, qui se voit elle-meme. Dominique! Le TIME indique le temps total durant lequel le processus profita du microprocesseur. Thesis! COMMAND precise, comme son nom l'indique, la commande qui crea le processus. Une simple commande ps n'indique pas tous les processus du systeme. Examples Of Centration! Le simple fait de lancer ps nous a juste indique les processus associes a un terminal qui dependent de l'utilisateur courant. Contoh Thesis! En fait, il est tout a fait probable que d'autres processus non lies a un terminal soient actifs: ps -ax les revelera. Si en plus vous voulez connaitre les utilisateurs associes a chaque processus, il vous suffit d'utiliser l'option aux . On Behavior Analysis! Vous verrez alors plusieurs colonnes s'ajouter, dont USER qui indique a quel utilisateur appartient le processus. Contoh Thesis! %CPU indique en pourcentage les ressources actuelles du microprocesseur utilisees par le processus. Teenage Pregnancy! %MEM montre en pourcentage la proportion de memoire vive dans la memoire utilisee par le processus, elle-meme fournie dans la colonne RSS. Contoh! START indique l'heure a laquelle le processus a ete lance. Cette commande permet d'afficher les processus sous forme d'arborescence, donc de voir leurs inter-dependances: pstree.

On voit par exemple ici que j'utilise Fvwmpager qui a lui-meme ete lance par fvwm. La commande kill permet d'expedier un signal a un processus. Sa syntaxe est la suivante: kill [options] PID. Elle est souvent utilisee afin d'interrompre un programme sans IHM ou recalcitrant. Pregnancy! Si j'ai lance un programme donne, par exemple xeyes , un processus sera actif. Contoh Thesis! Si je le lance deux fois, deux processus seront actifs, et ainsi de suite. Francois Dominique! Pour demander a un processus de cesser de fonctionner (on parle de le tuer), je peux d'abord invoquer ps auxw pour connaitre son PID, si par exemple le PID est 592, le tuer en invoquant kill 592. La premiere colonne presente le PID et la derniere le nom du programme invoque.

La seconde ligne, ici, correspond au grep invoque, qui se voit ainsi lui-meme. Seul l'utilisateur auquel le processus appartient (ou root) peut le tuer. La commande killall tue un processus mais au lieu de fournir son PID vous indiquerez son nom (la commande qui le lanca). Thesis! Si plusieurs processus y correspondent vous tentez ainsi de tous les tuer, mieux vaut utiliser l'option -i (pour i nteractif) qui demande confirmation avant de tenter d'arreter un processus. Un processus peut se trouver dans un etat ne permettant pas de lui demander de s'interrompre. On In The Process! Tenter en ce cas de lui expedier le signal HUP puis INT en invoquant par exemple kill -HUP PID . Contoh Thesis! S'il fait la sourde oreille demander au noyau de le tuer sans condition en lui expediant KILL (KILL est ici le libelle d'un signal). Rose For Her! Attention: le signal KILL ne laisse pas le processus ainsi condamne prendre des dispositions parfois souhaitables ou necessaires, par exemple fermer un fichier, donc peut endommager ou perdre des donnees voire causer des dysfonctionnements. Redirection (des entrees/sorties d'executables) Lorsque vous saisissez des donnees a mesure recues par un processus vous fournissez des elements a traiter, appeles entrees, grace au clavier. Contoh Penghargaan! L'activite des processus produit des sorties (resultats), le plus souvent par defaut affiches. L'entree de donnees peut se faire par un canal autre que le clavier, en indiquant par exemple un fichier qui contient les donnees a traiter.

Le canal de sortie peut lui aussi etre dirige ailleurs que vers l'ecran, par exemple vers un fichier dont on francois dominique toussaint, pourra ensuite continuer a traiter le contenu. On peut egalement recevoir ou expedier des donnees a chacun des peripheriques connectes, auquel correspond un fichier special dans le repertoire /dev. Le shell offre un moyen de gerer tout cela, en interconnectant a loisir ces canaux, grace aux redirections. Comment faire, par exemple, pour que la commande less , qui affiche le contenu d'un fichier, le place plutot dans un fichier? C'est le signe qui va nous permettre cela.

Dans un premier temps, je veux voir le contenu du fichier nomme test: less test . Penghargaan Thesis! La commande less affiche son resultat vers la sortie standard qui est le terminal. Dans un deuxieme temps, je veux placer le fichier test dans un fichier test2: less test test2 . Teenage Pregnancy! Ce n'est qu'une copie du fichier test en test2. Thesis! La commande cp permet aussi de le faire. Plusieurs types de redirections existent: nom_de_fichier redirige vers le fichier nomme ce que produit le programme. Pregnancy! Exemple: ls ls.txt nom_de_fichier permet comme le signe de rediriger le canal de sortie standard vers le fichier nomme. Penghargaan Thesis! Si ce dernier existe deja, ce qui provient du canal de sortie sera ajoute apres ce qui y existe deja alors qu'avec un simple le contenu existant serait remplace (ecrase) nom_de_fichier redirige le canal d'entree standard, qui devient le contenu du fichier nomme.

Exemple: less ls.txt . Teenage! Cela revient apparemment a ce que montre less ls.txt mais est subtilement different car interdit a less d'acceder directement au fichier en demandant au shell d'en copier le contenu sur le canal d'entree standard de less , qui ne pourra savoir d'ou il vient nom_de_fichier redirige sortie standard et erreur standard vers un seul et meme fichier. Ce sont les formes les plus frequemment employees. Toutes ces formes sont des versions simplifiees. Thesis! Pour maitriser tout cela il faut savoir que l'entree standard dans un systeme Unix est le clavier, designe par le descripteur de fichier numerote 0. Pregnancy! Par defaut le terminal est la sortie standard, ce descripteur de fichier est designe par le chiffre 1. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! Il existe un troisieme descripteur de fichier classique qui est le canal de sortie des erreurs produites par l'execution d'une commande, designe par le chiffre 2. Examples Of Centration! Dans les exemples suivant la lettre n remplace l'un de ces chiffres: n nom_de_fichier redirige ce qui sort via le descripteur n (vers le fichier nomme). Contoh! Par exemple, si vous souhaitez obtenir les erreurs standards (donc le canal 2) dans un fichier nomme monprogramme.err : nom_de_commande 2 monprogramme.err n nom_de_fichier declare le fichier nomme comme correspondant au descripteur n duplique la sortie standard vers le fichier correspondant au descripteur n n duplique l'entree standard depuis le fichier correspondant au descripteur n. A premiere vue, on toussaint, se demande bien a quoi servent certaines des redirections.

On le decouvre en employant le shell. L'une des plus utiles redirections est 21 qui redirige le canal des erreurs vers la sortie standard. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! Elle est tres appreciee des utilisateurs lorsqu'ils souhaitent conserver la liste des messages d'erreur produits par un programme: nom_du_programme 21 erreurs nom_du_programme .tmp. Les canaux sont autant de tuyaux vehiculant les donnees, que l'on peut assembler librement grace aux redirections fournies par le shell. Does! Cela mene a la plomberie. Interconnexion de commandes: les pipes. Le mot pipe designe la barre verticale (|) obtenue avec la combinaison de touches AltGr + 6 sur les claviers francais classiques, ou Altgr + 1 sur les claviers franco-belges. Un tube passe le resultat d'une commande a une autre, sans passer par une redirection qui impliquerait un fichier temporaire.

Un exemple permettra de comprendre tout cela. Je veux savoir quels sont les processus bash qui fonctionnent sur le systeme, mais je veux que la commande ps aux ne me fournisse que les lignes qui contiennent le mot bash pour m'epargner de lire tout ce qu'elle produit. Avec ce que nous connaissons deja il nous faudrait une premiere commande visant a obtenir la liste des processus bash actifs et a la placer dans un fichier temporaire: ps aux temporaire.tmp . Penghargaan Thesis! Puis nous pourrions mobiliser grep: grep bash temporaire.tmp afin d'obtenir le resultat souhaite. Teenage Pregnancy Tv Shows! Il ne resterait plus qu'a nettoyer: rm temporaire.tmp . Employer un tube realise l'equivalent en sollicitant moins le systeme, qui n'aura rien a stocker temporairement: ps aux | grep bash. On peut dire que l'on a lance un traitement qui connecte les deux commandes ( ps et grep ) entre elles, de sorte que ce que la premiere citee produit soit immediatement communique a l'autre. Contoh Penghargaan! Vous pouvez ainsi en connecter autant que vous voulez: commande1 | commande2 | commande3 . Rose For Her! | commandeN. Si on contoh penghargaan, prend conscience de l'utilite des tubes, on examples of centration, les utilise et on thesis, finit par ne plus vouloir s'en passer. Un lien est un type special de fichier qui permet a plusieurs noms de fichiers de faire reference au meme contenu sur le disque. Teenage! Ce sont des sortes de synonymes, d'aliases.

Un lien dur associe deux ou plusieurs fichiers a un meme espace sur le disque, en preservant toutefois leurs independances lors de modifications de leurs contenus. Exemple: creons un fichier (dont le contenu importe peu) nomme linux-test grace a echo toto linux-test. Puis creons un lien dur vers ce fichier: ln linux-test linux-test-lien-dur. Le fichier linux-test-lien-dur est cree dans le repertoire courant. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! Si vous faites un ls -l vous constaterez que linux-test et linux-test-lien-dur ont la meme taille. Examples! Ils semblent independants mais en realite un seul contenu (commun aux deux) existe pour le moment. Contoh! Si le fichier linux-test-lien-dur est modifie, nous aurons automatiquement une modification du fichier linux-test (et vice-versa), car elle s'effectuera physiquement sur le disque dur a l'endroit stockant le contenu des deux fichiers. Si nous creons un lien symbolique : ln -s linux-test linux-test-lien-symb. ls -l montrera le nom du fichier linux-test-lien-symb suivi d'une fleche revelant qu'il pointe sur linux-test.

Toute reference au fichier linux-test-lien-symb impliquera en realite le fichier linux-test. En resume un lien symbolique est un fichier de petite taille qui a une existence propre et contient le nom du fichier auquel il correspond. Dans le cas d'un lien dur , la suppression de l'un des deux fichiers n'affectera pas l'autre. Teenage! Dans le cas d'un lien symbolique, la suppression du fichier originel (la cible du lien) rendra le lien symbolique inutilisable car il ne correspondra plus a un fichier valide et sera donc dit casse (pendouillant). Les liens sont utiles si vous souhaitez qu'un fichier apparaisse dans plusieurs repertoires, ou sous un nom different. Contoh Thesis! Si le fichier est encombrant une copie par cp entrainerait un gachis alors qu'un lien permettra de reduire l'utilisation d'espace disque. Essay Water In The Process! Mieux: n'etablir que des liens (au lieu de copier) garantit que toute modification concernera toutes les copies dispersees. Syntaxe: ln nom-fichier-source nom-fichier-lien.

-s cree un lien symbolique. Contoh Penghargaan! Dans la plupart des cas c'est ce qui est adequat, le lien dur est en fait rarement employe. Essay On Behavior Analysis! -b realise une sauvegarde d'un fichier existant et dont nous aurions utilise le nom, avant de l'ecraser. Contoh! -i demande a l'utilisateur, si le lien existe, s'il souhaite l'ecraser. Lorsque l'on utilise les memes commandes avec de nombreuses options fixes il est utile de remplacer le tout par un ordre tres court declare comme une sorte de synonyme. Examples Of Centration! Il est appele alias. Les alias sont declares dans le fichier /.bashrc). Thesis! Voici un exemple classique de declaration d'alias: alias ll=ls -NlF --color=auto , qui cree une commande ll appelant ls avec des options ameliorant la presentation. La variable $* designe tous les parametres communiques lors de l'appel de l'alias: Plutot que de saisir souvent tar -tvzf nom_de_fichier ou pourra ainsi preferer creer un alias: alias montar=tar -tvzf $* , puis employer montar nom_de_fichier. La commande unalias supprime de facon definitive un alias. Pregnancy Tv Shows! Son option -a (pour all ) commande suppression de tous les alias.

Certains alias sont declares dans des fichiers executes par bash lors de son demarrage, par exemple /.bashrc. Penghargaan Thesis! En ce cas il faut commenter la ligne definissant l'alias dans le dit fichier pour le supprimer definitivement, sinon il ne le sera que durant la session en cours. La commande man est utile. Essay On Behavior! Lui fournir en argument le nom de la commande ou du logiciel sur lequel porte la question. Penghargaan Thesis! Exemple: man cp . Rose For Her! Pour quitter le man appuyer sur la touche q.

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A Comprehensive Guide to contoh thesis, APA Citations and Format. Examples! This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is contoh penghargaan, information about Essay in the Biochemical, APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If youre looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machines MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machines homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. When youre writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individuals work to thesis, help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individuals work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism.

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There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when youre adding text, word for word, from another individuals work into your own project. If you dont use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for penghargaan thesis any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for rose for her any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of contoh thesis citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the in the Process, author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information.

Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the contoh, year the examples of centration, source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is penghargaan thesis, a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, youre being a responsible researcher. Youre showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into Essay on Behavior Analysis your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors.

The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to contoh penghargaan thesis, 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and vampires books that revolve around mental health. Contoh Thesis! The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently.

Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to rose for her, form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and contoh penghargaan determine the types of sources that were used to develop the on in the Biochemical, research project! Having a standard format for thesis citing sources allows readers to glance at of centration an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to contoh penghargaan thesis, learn more about why the teenage pregnancy tv shows, American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in penghargaan, 2009.

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If you would like to dominique, cite your sources automatically, Citation Machines APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in penghargaan thesis, their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another authors words are so eloquently written that there isnt a better way to of centration, rephrase it yourself. Other times, the penghargaan, authors words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another authors exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Teenage Pregnancy! Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in contoh penghargaan thesis, your own words.

When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Authors Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is dominique, included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when youre simply referring to another source. Heres are some examples of in-text APA citations: Well, youre about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I dont know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52).

Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the authors names in the sentence, only thesis, include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to examples, a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of Essay Water Biochemical Process a research project, the Reference List. While this guides intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about contoh penghargaan, crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by on Biochemical Process, the authors last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the penghargaan, second line of Essay Water in the Process text is indented in half an inch.

See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Authors Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Contoh Penghargaan! Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and in the Process how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of penghargaan authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. On Water! M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Contoh Thesis! Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. Water In The Process! J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the contoh penghargaan, first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last authors name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. Teenage! K. Contoh Penghargaan! , . Lopez, G. Really Exists! S. If you plan on using Citation Machines APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the penghargaan, authors will format properly for you.

Directly after the Water Biochemical Process, authors name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and penghargaan thesis only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for vampires exists no date. Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machines APA generator will add the penghargaan, correct date format for you automatically.

When writing out rose for her, titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the contoh thesis, title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the on Behavior, title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr.

Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and penghargaan chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks.

In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. Vampires Really Exists! They are either placed in italics or not. Heres a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the contoh thesis, title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of Essay Analysis larger wholes.

Citation Machines APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Contoh Thesis! Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to does vampires exists, the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the thesis, title. Water In The Process! Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to on Behavior, the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machines APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you.

The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the thesis, city and country, of the publishers location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is really, not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is penghargaan, acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publishers names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and francois dominique toussaint others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation.

The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. Contoh Thesis! (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the schools information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson.

New York, NY: Perseus Books. Vampires Really Exists! Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machines homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs.

When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the sources URL. For DOIs, include the thesis, number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machines APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA.

APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors.

Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of of centration Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for contoh penghargaan Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial.

Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Of Centration! Last name of contoh penghargaan Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. On Behavior Analysis! (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library.

In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Contoh Thesis! (Year published).

Chapter title. Essay On Water Process! In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. Examples Of Centration! F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of contoh zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp.

65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If youre still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machines APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the rose for her, first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isnt always provided, but if it is, its very important to include it in thesis, your APA referencing citation.

Author Last Name, F. Francois Dominique! I. Contoh! (Year Published). Dominique Toussaint! Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. Contoh Penghargaan! (2007). Analysis! Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the Book form on Citation Machines APA generator, click on Manual entry mode, and contoh penghargaan thesis click the E-book tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines.

Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Teenage Pregnancy Tv Shows! Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet.

This number isnt always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is penghargaan thesis, only necessary if the source is likely to teenage, change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, Retrieved from is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article.

Title of penghargaan thesis Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Brocas area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. Examples! http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an penghargaan APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Francois Toussaint! Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use p. For any article longer than one page, use pp. If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of contoh thesis access for electronic sources.

Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). Rose For Her! First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to contoh thesis, do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL.

Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of on Behavior Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December).

The man who wasnt Darwin. Contoh! National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. Rose For Her! (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from contoh URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3).

How long can a spinoff like Better Call Saul last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. Pregnancy Tv Shows! (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of contoh thesis blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from rose for her URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into contoh penghargaan research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com.

On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and vampires video blogs. Citation Machines APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Contoh Thesis! Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of on Behavior episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel.

Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. Penghargaan Thesis! (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machines APA generator,television and on in the Biochemical radio broadcasts use the same form. Thesis! Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). Vampires! (Year Released).

Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machines APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in contoh penghargaan thesis, your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation.

However, here is an example of an in-text citation for on Behavior Analysis a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. Examples Of Centration! (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on contoh penghargaan, using Citation Machines APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in exists, text. Penghargaan! Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for on Behavior Analysis you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the contoh thesis, recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song.

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by Essay in the Biochemical, First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performers name or the name of the contoh penghargaan thesis, band]. Francois! On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL.

Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. Contoh! (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. Francois Dominique! On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis! If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, Music/Audio, to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to pregnancy, use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Penghargaan! Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Masters thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. Does Exists! xxxxxxx). English, L. S. Thesis! (2014).

The influences of francois community college library characteristics on penghargaan, institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is francois dominique toussaint, a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from contoh thesis URL. Goodwin, G. Essay On Behavior Analysis! (Producer). (2016, February 11).

History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machines APA format generator, choose the Blog/Podcast, form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10).

Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, Film to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for penghargaan thesis a source type that is francois, not on penghargaan thesis, this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the on Behavior, full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source.

When creating your citations, there is a field at thesis the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an pregnancy tv shows APA format title page? Head to Citation Machines homepage and choose Title Page at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject.

A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.

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clever essay title A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and contoh thesis stealthy ninja assassins.

These figures, often seen in popular movies and games about pre-modern Japan, are only teenage, loosely based on reality. In fact, many different types of contoh penghargaan thesis people helped shape the medieval period. Over 400 years, from the late twelfth to francois dominique, the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and priests, women and merchants, poets and playwrights, and, of course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. Samurai governments administered the country in tandem with the older imperial administration. Warriors’ rise to power led to contoh thesis, an increase in toussaint violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant. Contoh. But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the breakdown in civil order. Buddhism enjoyed the strong support of both samurai and commoners. Such new cultural traditions as the tea ceremony became popular.

The arrival of Europeans in vampires really exists the sixteenth century forced the penghargaan Japanese to change their view of the world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to European history. It described a “middle” period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance. During this period, central government was weak and vampires really exists society was divided among feudal rulers. Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and Europeans who visited Japan at penghargaan that time felt it resembled medieval Europe.

Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the term medieval to describe the period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and warriors played an important role in governing society. Rose For Her. These were the years of Japan’s first two warrior governments: the Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates. What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in Japanese history? To answer these questions, we must turn to the creation of Japan’s first warrior government in contoh the 1180s. As late as the 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on private estates ( sh#333;en ). They owed their positions to central government aristocrats and does vampires powerful temples. Thesis. If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and his lands given to rivals. On Water In The Biochemical. Thus, for most of the twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator.

In 1180 he forced the imperial court to make his grandson (the child of his daughter who had married an emperor) the next emperor. Contoh Thesis. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for does the throne, issued a call-to-arms. Yoritomo, exiled head of the Minamoto clan (and now an contoh thesis, adult), mobilized warriors to join him in attacking the Taira. The Minamoto and vampires really exists Taira fought the length of the country for five years in a conflict known as the Genpei War. When the Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on to found Japan’s first warrior government.

The real significance of the war, however, was the warriors’ first steps toward independence from the imperial government. Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to follow him by promising to guarantee their lands and jobs. Contoh. As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the old system chose to join the Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the Minamoto clan. In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the Taira family) just to oppose them. So the Genpei War was, more than anything, about warriors asserting themselves against neighbors and does vampires exists the central government. The imperial court, at a loss to stop such violence, turned to contoh thesis, the only warrior capable of restoring peace: Yoritomo. In exchange for helping to bring order to pregnancy tv shows, the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for contoh his own warrior government in the eastern city of of centration Kamakura. Thesis. His government is francois toussaint known as the Kamakura bakufu or shogunate.

Its primary duties included supervising warriors and deciding lawsuits. Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. These jit#333; served as police and contoh penghargaan thesis tax collectors. While jit#333; worked on examples individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over entire provinces. Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for guard duty, and collected information for Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun. Later that title would be passed on to the head of the warrior government. When Yoritomo died in 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to be weak leaders.

Real power was maintained by the family of thesis Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Essay On Behavior. Together with her father and brother, Masako created the position of regent for the shogun. Male members of the H#333;j#333; family served as regents from 1203 until 1333. Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in Kamakura. For much of the contoh penghargaan thesis thirteenth century, the Kamakura government kept the peace. It never eliminated the imperial government in Kyoto, but instead shared power. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the dominique aristocracy, temples, and civilians.

The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Trials relied on testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and precedent. Outcomes could be appealed. Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into contoh thesis keeping warriors off the battlefield. In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to muster an on Behavior, army to destroy Kamakura. His forces were defeated and he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger. Penghargaan. Another threat came in the late 1260s, when the Water in the Process Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the Japanese into submitting to his empire.

Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to invade Japan in 1274 and 1281. Contoh. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from typhoons. Because the Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds). Samurai of the vampires really exists Kamakura Period. Medieval war tales and other accounts tell us a lot about the early samurai. Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Although they carried swords, they valued the bow and arrow over other weapons. These samurai were quite independent. They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and attendants. There was no “samurai code” at this time, and you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in order to earn fame and rewards.

For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and clothing to enable others to easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for each other so that reports of contoh battlefield valor could be confirmed and brave warriors rewarded. Consider, for Essay on Behavior Analysis example, the personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against the Mongols. In his version of events, he makes no mention of penghargaan thesis fighting to pregnancy, defend Japan. Instead, he fought to make a name for penghargaan himself, be witnessed, and earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to reward the winnersthey would receive the property or positions of the losers. But the teenage Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Kamakura’s samurai fought off the contoh penghargaan thesis invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Meanwhile, the economy started to expand, and many warriors found themselves in on Behavior financial difficulties. Thesis. Some had to use their lands as collateral to borrow money.

If they failed to repay loans, they had to forfeit their property. At the teenage pregnancy same time, the H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the invasion crisis to further solidify its own hold on government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. These problems led many samurai to become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by the early fourteenth century. New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and change during Japan’s medieval period.

The major Buddhist temples and Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in the provinces. In earlier times, they relied on the taxes from those estates for penghargaan thesis much of their income. Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to collect tax income. Essay. As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to find additional sources of income. Contoh. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to of centration, appeal to penghargaan thesis, the common people. Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors. Of course, religious thought also played an teenage tv shows, important role in the evolution of contoh thesis Japanese Buddhism. Many people believed in the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of cosmic justice. Depending on how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into teenage better or worse circumstances.

The goal was for contoh each person to attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and francois dominique toussaint be freed from the cycle of rebirth. However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the final days of the penghargaan law. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the teachings of the historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to fully comprehend them. Therefore, it was almost impossible for individuals to achieve enlightenment on their own. For many Japanese, medieval warfare and the breakdown of civil order were proof that they were living in teenage degenerate times. One response was Pure Land Buddhism. Pure Land came from the teachings of contoh a religious reformer named H#333;nen. Essay Water In The Process. Unlike the contoh Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to study in the age of of centration mapp#333; . He taught his followers to place complete faith in the Buddha Amida.

Amida had vowed to penghargaan, save others before achieving enlightenment. Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by repeatedly expressing their faith in him, they would be reborn into examples of centration Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the phrase (known as the nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Shinran, one of H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further. He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on individual effort. True faith in Amida’s mercy was the only hope for mankind. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis. Therefore, according to dominique toussaint, Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of penghargaan thesis belief was all that was necessary. His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and gained widespread acceptance, especially among the peasantry.

Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith. A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in India, it would achieve its highest form in Japan. He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and was very dogmatic; this led to his eventual exile. Essay. But his conviction won him followers, and penghargaan thesis his sect remains popular in Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in does really exists Japan during the medieval period. It was based on Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and D#333;gen both trained in contoh China.

The faith they brought back to Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and the contemplation of questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to enlightenment. The emphasis on self-reliance and discipline appealed to many warriors, and exists the samurai became some of Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of which still stand today. A major shrine, dedicated to penghargaan thesis, the Shint#333; war deity, was built at the heart of the rose for her city. Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thirteenth century. Women were just as involved as men, and one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of refuge for women seeking divorces. Penghargaan Thesis. The proliferation of temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of a bronze Buddha figure over 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in Nara. The building that housed the Kamakura Buddha was swept away by on Behavior, a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since. Poetry remained the most important literary form. Members of the imperial court were the best educated and most skilled, but samurai also began to penghargaan thesis, take an interest.

The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. His teacher, the courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the Shinkokinsh#363; . Really. Prose literary works reflected the Buddhist influence of the medieval age. The Tale of the Heike was the most popular. It described the Genpei War and the Taira clan’s downfall. Thesis. Its stories are quite exciting and seem to offer an intriguing view of twelfth-century warfare. But the tale cannot be read as an accurate account of the war. Buddhist chanters composed the tale many decades after the war had ended. They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to lutes) to illustrate Buddhist themes of impermanence and rose for her show how the mighty will fall. Contoh Penghargaan. Similar themes can be found in Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of My Hut.” Few works by rose for her, women have survived. A notable exception is the memoir of Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant.

Her work is contoh lively, frank, colorful, and offers a valuable view of life in Kyoto and rose for her the provinces. Painting and sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and the samurai in society. Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to show how temples were founded and how violent conflicts destroyed parts of Kyoto. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis. Takezaki Suenaga, the samurai mentioned above who fought against the Mongols, even commissioned an illustrated scroll to dominique toussaint, tell his tale. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis. Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to really exists, his western paradise. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in their work. Their famous guardians at T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and crystals set in the eyes to make them look real.

Kamakura’s Demise and contoh penghargaan thesis the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. The shogun was not powerful enough to rule the country by his own force of arms. Eastern Japan and the island of teenage Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous. The shogun’s authority was contingent on his maintaining the support of a strong coalition of shugo . These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors. Their posts were now hereditary, and one individual could rule more than one province at a time. They also had the right to levy special taxes on estates to cover their military expenditures. Three of the most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and Shibaalternated in contoh penghargaan thesis serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to help mediate between the shogun and his shugo . Yet the shugo needed the legitimacy that they gained from the teenage shogun’s support to help them fend off local warriors in the provinces under their control. Yoshimitsu is widely recognized as the strongest and most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the divided imperial court and crushed those shugo who opposed him. He reopened diplomatic relations and official trade with China.

Yoshimitsu was an accomplished poet and a great sponsor of the penghargaan arts. Water Biochemical Process. His patronage of a particular performing troupe helped give birth to Noh theatre. Contoh. He also is credited with constructing the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings. Yoshimitsu took it over as a retirement villa in the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is part of a Zen temple today). His other great construction project, the Palace of Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to rose for her, outdo, and perhaps replace, the emperor. The shogun’s palace was built across the street from the imperial palace but was twice as large and far more sumptuous. Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to accept the title “king of Japan” from the Chinese emperor. In the Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the title “emperor,” and contoh thesis that was the emperor of China. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. When Yoshimitsu attempted to re-establish formal relations and trade with China, he agreed to take the title king of Essay on Behavior Japan. Many Japanese of the time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to China.

Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear. Some suggest that he did this in order to bolster his legitimacy at home. Others think that he was so eager to trade with the Chinese that he ignored the political implications of the title. Another theory is that he hoped to monopolize foreign relations as part of his plan to replace the Japanese imperial family with his own line. Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to contoh, replace the imperial family, and his son backed away from his father’s bold policies. But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out as a memorable figure. He ruled for over 20 years and was a great sponsor of the arts, including Noh theatre and the tea ceremony. He built the Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in Essay on Behavior Kyoto, but plans to cover the villa with silver leaf were never carried out. Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for architecture and the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at contoh penghargaan thesis politics.

It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the end of strong central government in Japan for over a century. Muromachi Arts and Culture. In earlier times, the arts were dominated by the emperor and his courtiers. Does Vampires Exists. This changed in the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to the cultural landscape. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis. Many samurai, now living in Kyoto, developed a taste for the arts. Elite warriors joined aristocrats in sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and Essay Water in the other men of talent. Penghargaan. The growth of trade and the economy enabled merchants to participate in the world of rose for her culture too. As the unstable political situation brought men of different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and merchants interacted to create new cultural traditions. Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of humble originsled to some of the contoh thesis great art of the Muromachi period. Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the rose for her arts.

They hosted lavish parties at which the attendees participated in thesis linked verse poetry competitions or contests to distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Tea was also quite popular. Eisai, who founded an important Zen sect, is credited with having made tea popular in Japan. By the fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in order to display their prized Chinese tea implements. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. The grass-hut style of Analysis serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century. It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He and contoh penghargaan thesis other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices. People began to speak of a Way of Essay Analysis Tea. The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from contoh thesis, a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Riky#363; served tea in a small, rustic hut. The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of status, had to crawl inside. All participants were required to prepare and serve the Essay tea. Penghargaan Thesis. Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. Francois Dominique Toussaint. Eager to display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from samurai patronage.

It drew upon many performing traditions, including court comics and peasant farm songs. In the late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the notice of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Kan’ami and his son, Ze’ami, became two of Noh’s most important playwrights. Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and music. Few props are used. An actor might simply state that he is leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of thesis pride or lingering attachment.

The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the ghost of a warrior who cannot let go of his military glory. Other plays centered on Buddhist priests overcoming demons. Often several plays were performed over the course of Essay a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the major Noh plays. The Medieval Japanese Economy. The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the thesis medieval period. Markets began to develop around the country. These were often at crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to the markets.

They also were often located near temples in hopes of avoiding interference from political or military figures. In the Kamakura period, markets met infrequently. Examples Of Centration. For example, they might be opened only on days ending in fours (i.e., the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month) or another number. But over time, markets became increasingly common and were open on more days of the contoh penghargaan thesis month. Improvements in of centration agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. New strains of rice better resisted drought and disease. Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of contoh fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more. In addition, the spread of metallic money made it easier for estates to sell extra produce in the marketplaces. Starting in dominique the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from China. The round coins had square holes in the middle so they could be strung together in units of 1,000 for large purchases.

Metallic money had several advantages over rice, silk, or other goods the Japanese used as money in Heian times. Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and rarely led to penghargaan, disputes over quality. By the Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. Even many rural estates paid their taxes in cash. The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for more coins played an important role in the re-opening of formal relations with China in the fifteenth century. The Muromachi bakufu , and later several major temples and daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to China in hopes of obtaining copper coins. In exchange, the Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and swords and armor. On Behavior. Chinese officials regulated the trade by contoh penghargaan, requiring Japanese boats to carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the tallies were turned away from Chinese ports. On the whole, merchants did well during the Essay on in the Process medieval period.

The breakdown in central authority may have reduced the power of political authorities to tax and regulate them. In some cases, such as the contoh penghargaan thesis city of Sakai, merchants were able to form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of self-government. Women’s Status in Medieval Japan. Over the course of the medieval period, women seem to have lost many rights. In ancient times, women served as rulers. Of Centration. By the Heian period, women had few official roles in government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and manage property, and could choose their own heirs. Married couples often lived at the home of the penghargaan wife’s family or maintained two residences; the wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Female writers of the Heian period created some of pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and poetry. But conditions gradually began to change. In the early Kamakura period, women of samurai families held jit#333; posts.

As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to teenage pregnancy, hold warrior posts or manage their own property. And as land became increasingly difficult to acquire, families began bequeathing property to only one heir, usually the eldest son. Married women were expected to join the family of penghargaan their husbands. Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the early fourteenth century is one of the last important literary works by a woman of the examples of centration medieval period. Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. Contoh Penghargaan Thesis. By the end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the examples rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and thesis the Age of Warring States.

From 1467 to 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War. The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for some other important posts). The violence centered on Kyoto, and much of the city was destroyed during the war. After some time, the issues became irrelevant, as seen by rose for her, leading warrior families on each side switching to support other candidates. Contoh. Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to stop the conflict, he retired to teenage tv shows, his villa to enjoy the arts. The war solved nothing and left all central government institutions extremely weak. By the late fifteenth century, the shogun had little real power outside of the central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the Muromachi period, from the #332;nin War to 1573, is known as the Age of Warring States.

During this time, provincial and regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan. Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and some were truly self-made men who had risen through the ranks. These new warlords differed from penghargaan thesis, shugo in that they did not owe anything to pregnancy, the shogun or emperor. During the contoh penghargaan thesis Warring States period, warlords could only claim authority over lands they could actually defend. They had to be continually vigilant against does vampires their neighbors as well as their subordinates.

The age is sometimes characterized by the term gekokuj#333; , which means the lower replacing the higher (or those of humble origins replacing their superiors). Contoh Thesis. This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to resemble the feudalism of medieval Europe. Central authority was weak and divided, men survived by strength of arms, and Analysis warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and lands. Portuguese sailors blown off course in the mid-sixteenth century were the first Europeans to set foot in Japan. The Spanish soon followed, and eventually the Dutch and thesis the British found their way to Japan too.

European merchants established a flourishing trade by buying and selling goods amongst the various Asian nations. Missionaries also came to rose for her, Japan, hoping to convert the contoh Japanese to Christianity. They enjoyed some success in the southwestern island of Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and ordered those living in their domains to convert as well. The Europeans were strange curiosities to the Japanese, and folding-screens of themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and people of color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in francois toussaint Japan. Opposition by Hideyoshi and Ieyasu (see below) led to the persecution and elimination of most Christians by the early seventeenth century.

But the Europeans did affect Japanese society. First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and other devices. Contoh Thesis. Second, Europe’s existence forced the Japanese to dominique, change their view of the world. Maps from the time reflect the penghargaan thesis shift from seeing a world including only Japan, China, and India to seeing one extending far beyond Asia. Dominique Toussaint. Third, interest in thesis that world led Japanese merchants to teenage pregnancy tv shows, begin trading in Southeast Asia. Penghargaan. Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam). From Medieval to Early Modern Japan.

Three warlords succeeded in unifying the country and really bringing an end to the violence of the Warring States period. They are often referred to as the “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Nobunaga ruled a small domain in central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to defeat much larger armies. He was the first warlord to successfully use firearms to win a battle. His innovations in castle development also led to the emergence of grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and more. In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end. Many believe that only Nobunaga’s assassination at the hands of a vassal in 1582 kept him from bringing the penghargaan whole country under his rule.

Hideyoshi came from a peasant family, but rose through the ranks to become one of Nobunaga’s top generals. He avenged his lord’s death and finished the teenage pregnancy job of unifying the country. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and other means to contoh, secure his position and bring peace to the country. Many of his policies paved the way for Essay Analysis early modern growth and stability. For example, he carried out new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined. He also ordered all peasants to turn over penghargaan their weapons, creating for rose for her the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and farmers.

In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to conquer China. When the thesis King of on Behavior Analysis Korea refused to help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of samurai to invade Korea. Penghargaan. The result was the devastation of the Korean peninsula. The Japanese invasion was only called off upon rose for her Hideyoshi’s death in 1598. Ieyasu had been allied with each of the two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. Thesis. In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to Hideyoshi’s young son into a major battle at Sekigahara. Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan. In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and teenage established the last of Japan’s major warrior governments, the Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . Thesis. The unifiers’ policies, and the peace that followed in the seventeenth century, led to profound changes in Japanese society and the start of what most scholars refer to as the rose for her early modern period.

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Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work. Performing for or Working Directly with the Public Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in contoh penghargaan, restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests. Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events. Teenage Pregnancy Tv Shows? Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings Monitoring and penghargaan thesis, reviewing information from rose for her, materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems. Documenting/Recording Information Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form. Contoh? Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of Essay Water Biochemical Process, Products, Events, or Information Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to penghargaan, perform a work activity. Handling and Moving Objects Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, and moving materials, and manipulating things. In The? Judging the contoh, Qualities of Things, Services, or People Assessing the does vampires, value, importance, or quality of contoh, things or people. Monitoring and Controlling Resources Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the toussaint, spending of money.

Performing Administrative Activities Performing day-to-day administrative tasks such as maintaining information files and processing paperwork. Contoh? Performing General Physical Activities Performing physical activities that require considerable use of your arms and legs and moving your whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling of materials. Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job. Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others Handling complaints, settling disputes, and does, resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others. Contoh Penghargaan? Interacting With Computers Using computers and dominique, computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information. Confer with clients to determine needs. Select materials or props. Arrange delivery of goods or services.

Maintain inventories of materials, equipment, or products. Develop artistic or design concepts for contoh penghargaan thesis decoration, exhibition, or commercial purposes. Construct distinctive physical objects for francois toussaint artistic, functional, or commercial purposes. Contoh? Maintain records, documents, or other files. Dominique Toussaint? Provide educational information to the public. Arrange artwork, products, or props. Train others on work processes. Telephone Deal With External Customers 86% responded #x201C;Extremely important.#x201D; Face-to-Face Discussions 86% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Structured versus Unstructured Work 75% responded #x201C;A lot of freedom.#x201D; Contact With Others 78% responded #x201C;Constant contact with others.#x201D; Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls 61% responded #x201C;Continually or almost continually.#x201D; Work With Work Group or Team 68% responded #x201C;Extremely important.#x201D; Electronic Mail 72% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Freedom to Make Decisions 56% responded #x201C;A lot of freedom.#x201D; Coordinate or Lead Others 47% responded #x201C;Extremely important.#x201D; Spend Time Standing 20% responded #x201C;About half the time.#x201D; Indoors, Environmentally Controlled 64% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Time Pressure 52% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Responsibility for Outcomes and Results 56% responded #x201C;High responsibility.#x201D; Physical Proximity 92% responded #x201C;Moderately close (at arm's length).#x201D; Responsible for penghargaan thesis Others' Health and Safety 41% responded #x201C;High responsibility.#x201D; Letters and Memos 46% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People 44% responded #x201C;Once a week or more but not every day.#x201D; Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions 60% responded #x201C;About half the Water in the Biochemical Process, time.#x201D; Frequency of contoh, Decision Making 39% responded #x201C;Once a week or more but not every day.#x201D; Outdoors, Exposed to Weather 27% responded #x201C;Every day.#x201D; Spend Time Walking and Running 35% responded #x201C;About half the time.#x201D; Importance of Being Exact or Accurate 43% responded #x201C;Fairly important.#x201D; Percentage of Respondents. Interest code: AER.

Artistic Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules. Enterprising Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business. Realistic Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. Analysis? They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others. Dependability Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.

Attention to Detail Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks. Integrity Job requires being honest and ethical. Cooperation Job requires being pleasant with others on contoh penghargaan, the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude. Concern for Others Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on toussaint, the job. Independence Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to contoh penghargaan thesis, get things done. Innovation Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems. Adaptability/Flexibility Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace. Initiative Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges. Self Control Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in does vampires really exists, check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations. Persistence Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.

Achievement/Effort Job requires establishing and contoh penghargaan thesis, maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks. Teenage Pregnancy Tv Shows? Analytical Thinking Job requires analyzing information and contoh penghargaan, using logic to address work-related issues and problems. Stress Tolerance Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations. Social Orientation Job requires preferring to work with others rather than alone, and being personally connected with others on the job. Teenage Pregnancy? Leadership Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction. Achievement Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement. Relationships Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to contoh penghargaan, others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Examples? Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and thesis, Social Service. Independence Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and does really, make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 2016 wage data and 2014-2024 employment projections . Projected growth represents the estimated change in total employment over the projections period (2014-2024). Projected job openings represent openings due to contoh, growth and toussaint, replacement. Sources of Additional Information. Disclaimer: Sources are listed to provide additional information on contoh penghargaan, related jobs, specialties, and/or industries. Links to non-DOL Internet sites are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an tv shows, endorsement.