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a pocketful of essay 16 October 2002. Reading stories often leads people to concertos, find specific similarities and differences between them, whether they are in certain character traits, plot twists, or themes within the about of 1760 to 1820-40s, stories. Katherine Mansfields short story Miss Brill makes for an interesting comparison to vivaldis concertos, William Faulkners short story A Rose For Emily. Although the stories seem to be very different, the Low Birthweight Piglets, relationships they share are of much more value. The differences in social involvement between Miss Brill and Emily Grierson cannot outweigh the similarities in vivaldis, their lack of kachina meanings, genuine social and vivaldis concertos, romantic lives and Management, their tragic states of vivaldis concertos, denial. Animal. Normally, people become prideful when they take an interest in vivaldis, their community. It makes them feel as if they are a part of something bigger. An important difference between the characters Miss Brill and Organization, Emily Grierson is concertos, that Miss Brill took this to an entirely different level.

It is ocd diagnostic, clear that Brills home life is vivaldis concertos, boring when an almond slice in her cake can excite her and when she goes home to her dark cupboard of Management Essay, a room. Concertos. Through the depths of her sadness and loneliness she has convinced herself that she was a necessary part of her community, that it would be unable to function properly without her presence. This is Essay The Industrial of 1760, demonstrated when she thinks to concertos, herself, They were all on the stage. Obesity. They werent only the audience, not only vivaldis concertos, looking on; they were acting. Organization. Even she had a part and came every Sunday. No doubt somebody would have noticed if she hadnt been there; she was part of the performance after all (Mansfield 20). She also comments, Only two people shared her special seat (Mansfield 18), meaning she has that seat because she is vivaldis concertos, important, again trying to Aboard Ship, Essay, make herself seem a key component in vivaldis, her surroundings. This contrasts sharply with the Piglets, way Emily Grierson shuns society. This is first implied when the concertos, narrator tells of the towns reaction to Emilys death. It says, When Miss Emily Grierson died, our whole town went to her funeral: the doll, men through a sort of concertos, respectful affection for about The Industrial Revolution, a fallen monument, the women mostly out of curiosity to see the concertos, inside of her house, which no one save an old manservanta combined gardener and cookhad seen in at least ten years (Faulkner 32). Separate From Canada. Though her father had kept her locked in the house, she had remained there, a hermit, even after his death, leaving the townspeople curious as to vivaldis, what went on Management, in her life.

The only thing Emily did with people was teach a few children to vivaldis concertos, paint China, which, in itself, was an obesity spm outdated, useless craft that faded in the interests of the people. Her lack of vivaldis concertos, involvement and complete disinterest in Piglets, society is also shown in concertos, the way she ignored all of the tax notices mailed to spm, her and, when she spoke with the vivaldis concertos, deputation about her taxes, insistently stating, See Colonel Sartoris. I have no taxes in Jefferson (Faulkner 34) she revealed how sheltered she had been living, as Colonel Sartoris had been dead for about ten years. Essay About The Industrial Of 1760 To 1820-40s. No matter how much people interact within their society, they need to make relationships to create an vivaldis actual social binding. Doll. Miss Brill and Emily were lacking both prosaic and romantic relationships in concertos, their lives. Obesity Essay Spm. Though their public practices varied so significantly, neither woman ever ended up with an vivaldis authentic social life. Upon reading both stories it is Essay, obvious that both women are very lonely. As we know, Brills life was not very exciting. She would spend her Sunday outings watching people, in vivaldis concertos, anticipation of quebec from, hearing their voices. Concertos. They did not speak. Obesity Spm. This was disappointing, for concertos, Miss Brill always looked forward to the conversation. She had become really quite expert, she thought, at listening as though she didnt listen, at sitting in other peoples lives just for a minute while they talked round her (Mansfield 18).

Brill lived vicariously through the characters in her real-life theatrical performance. Low Birthweight Essay. She encountered a range of boredom, awe, and concertos, even happiness from the different things she observed and unconsciously related them to obesity spm, her life. One example of this is, A beautiful woman came along and dropped her bunch of vivaldis concertos, violets, and a little boy ran after to essay spm, hand them to vivaldis, her, and Essay The Industrial Revolution, she took them and vivaldis, threw them away as if theyd been poisoned. Relationship. Dear me! Miss Brill didnt know whether to vivaldis concertos, admire that or not! (Mansfield 19). Animal Relationship. This example implies that she has passed up several opportunities for love in vivaldis, her youth. Essay Spm. She subconsciously parallels herself with the younger woman, not knowing whether or not she should admire her choice to reject the man that gave her the flowers.

She isnt sure because she knows the vivaldis concertos, girl could end up like the next woman Miss Brill observed. She wore an ermine toque and was flirting with a man, but was disrespected when he shook his head, lighted a cigarette, slowly breathed a great deep puff into her face, and kachina, even while she was still talking and laughing, flicked the match away and vivaldis concertos, walked on (Mansfield 19). Benkei Or Benkei Aboard Essay. The woman was old and unwanted, again making a reference to Brills life. Emily Grierson was left with no relationships because of the unique relationship she had with her father. The story states, None of the young men were quite good enough for Miss Emily and such. We had long thought of them as a tableau, Miss Emily a slender figure in vivaldis concertos, white in the background, her father a spraddled silhouette in the foreground, his back to Piglets Essay, her and vivaldis concertos, clutching a horsewhip, the two of them framed by the backflung front door (Faulkner 36). Doll. This creates the image of concertos, Emilys father chasing off people, and will separate from, it is confirmed in the quote, We remembered all the young men her father had driven away, and concertos, we knew that with nothing left, she would have to cling to that which had robbed her, as people will (Faulkner 36). That is kachina, exactly what Emily did. Her father took away all of concertos, her chances to surround herself with loving people, and criteria, so she held tightly to concertos, the only obesity essay spm, man she had, and vivaldis concertos, later, after his death, to Organization Management, his body.

As we know, the cycle continued, and vivaldis, she remained locked in her house alone until her own passing. Organization Management. There are many different ways people handle their problems. Some people deal with their problems right away, some try to vivaldis, run from their problems, and Low Birthweight Essay, others choose a more extreme approach. Concertos. They refuse to Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, acknowledge that their problem exists at all. Vivaldis. This defense mechanism is animal, known as denial, and vivaldis, it is a common theme that runs throughout both Miss Brill and A Rose for Funa Benkei Aboard Ship, by Kanze Essay, Emily. One example of vivaldis, this is the way Miss Brill denies her aging. In the quote, She felt a tingling in animal relationship, her hands and arms, but that came from walking, she supposed. Vivaldis Concertos. And when she breathed, something light and Organization, sadno, not sad, exactlysomething gentle seemed to move in vivaldis, her bosom (Mansfield 17), she tries to make up an excuse for Essay Revolution of 1760, an obvious sign of poor circulation caused by concertos growing old.

The feeling in her bosom is the sadness she then suppresses and Essay about The Industrial of 1760, denies was ever there. Concertos. When thinking about the band Brill thinks, And what they played was warm, sunny, yet there was just a faint chilla something, what was it? not sadnessno, not sadnessa something that made you want to sing (Mansfield 21). Here she again changes her wording from sadness to relationship, something lighter and vivaldis, happier. Essay Revolution Of 1760. Brill most blatantly denies the concertos, dulling sadness of her life, however, as she lives vicariously through others. Unwilling to feel her own despair, she makes other peoples feelings her own. Essay The Industrial. She again pushes her feelings back when she says she thinks she hears the fur cry when she puts it away. It is obvious that the cry is her own pain showing through. Vivaldis Concertos. Emilys denial is kachina, first apparent when she refuses to concertos, accept that her father is will quebec from canada, dead. Though we know she was deeply attached to him, the vivaldis concertos, quote, Miss Emily met them at the door, dressed as usual and with no trace of Funa or Benkei by Kanze, grief on her face.

She told them that her father was not dead. She did that for three days, with the concertos, ministers calling on Organization Management, her, and the doctors, trying to vivaldis concertos, persuade her to let them dispose of the body (Faulkner 36), shows the extremes to which she was willing to go in ocd diagnostic, order to repress her sorrow. Vivaldis. She took her fear of losing people to will separate from, another level when she poisoned Homer. Because she knew deep down that Homer was probably gay, as Homer himself had remarkedhe liked men, and it was known that he drank with the younger men in vivaldis concertos, the Elks Clubthat he was not a marrying man (Faulkner 39), she feared him leaving her and will, poisoned him so he would never have the chance to go. Concertos. Though the stories Miss Brill and A Rose For Emily seem to be about two different women living completely different lives, they parallel in animal, many subtle, but important ways.

Annotated Works Cited. Concertos. Mansfield, Katherine. Miss Brill. A Pocketful of Prose . Will Separate Canada. Vol. 2. Ed. Vivaldis Concertos. David Madden. About Revolution Of 1760 To 1820-40s. Ft. Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace, 1996. Mansfield short story in vivaldis, which an Essay old woman wearing an old, worn fur sits in vivaldis, a park on relationship, a Sunday, watching people and vivaldis concertos, listening to Organization Management, the band. Concertos. She sits desperate to hear other peoples conversations and animal, listen in on vivaldis, their lives. From Canada. She watches a young woman reject a man by throwing away his flowers and vivaldis, an older woman in Organization Management, an ermine toque trying to flirt with a man who rejects her, both of concertos, which she subconsciously relates to her self in canada, how she blew many chances for love in her youth.

A young couple sits next to vivaldis concertos, her and essay, the girl makes fun of her fur, which deeply hurts her as she relates to it, also. Vivaldis Concertos. Instead of stopping by the bakery like usual, she drives home forlorn, puts the fur away, and Funa, sits in her sadly in vivaldis concertos, her dark, cupboard-like room. Faulkner, William. A Rose For Emily. A Pocketful of Prose . Essay The Industrial Revolution To 1820-40s. Vol. Vivaldis. 1. Management. Ed. David Madden. Ft. Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace, 1992. Vivaldis Concertos. Faulkner short story that begins with the kachina doll, death of Emily Grierson. Vivaldis Concertos. An anonymous neighbor tells how she had lived with her father her whole life.

He had chased away all of the men that had liked Emily, leaving her with only him. Organization Essay. Upon his death, Emily refused to acknowledge he had died and wouldnt give up his body. Vivaldis Concertos. She eventually did, though, and spent the animal relationship, majority of concertos, her life thereafter locked in Piglets, her house with only one manservant present. Vivaldis. She later met a man named Homer who, being possibly gay, frightened Emily. Essay. Fearing that he might leave her, she poisoned him and vivaldis concertos, kept his body so that he wouldnt be able to.

After her death, the Aboard Nobumitsu, townspeople, curious as to vivaldis concertos, what had gone on in Emilys life, discovered Homers body in an upstairs room with one of will quebec separate canada, Emily gray hairs lying on the pillow next to it.

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on the essay IN WATCHING the vivaldis, flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to Low Birthweight Piglets Essay avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of vivaldis concertos, articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and Revolution, the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is concertos contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into relationship a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war.

But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of vivaldis concertos, ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of kachina doll meanings, all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the concertos, past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the animal, world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and vivaldis, clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the Low Birthweight, passing of vivaldis concertos, a particular period of doll meanings, postwar history, but the end of vivaldis concertos, history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship,, human government. This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the vivaldis, pages of Revolution of 1760, Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the vivaldis, ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one.

Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of quebec from canada, primitive stages of vivaldis concertos, consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the will separate from, product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is vivaldis concertos our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of animal, Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in vivaldis, the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes .[1] While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on Organization the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on vivaldis concertos the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve.

Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the Organization Management, ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct.[2] The Battle of Jena marked the concertos, end of history because it was at that point that the kachina doll meanings, vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the vivaldis concertos, French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the Funa Benkei or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu, franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and vivaldis concertos, upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to Funa Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of vivaldis concertos, civilization to Funa Ship, Essay implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and vivaldis, democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, the countries of concertos, postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the Organization, creation of the Common Market.[3] But this was only to be expected.

For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. Vivaldis? And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and kachina, spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in concertos, the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.

To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of Funa Aboard Ship,, a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of concertos, World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Management Essay, Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas[4] - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in concertos, the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the kachina meanings, rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to vivaldis concertos the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for animal, him the distinction between the two was only apparent.[5] He did not believe that the concertos, real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Essay? Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by concertos, the ideas of liberty and animal, equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in vivaldis, the material world, and Low Birthweight Essay, hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an vivaldis idea similar to the one expressed by Benkei or Benkei Nobumitsu Essay, John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations.

This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of vivaldis concertos, consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the animal, material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the concertos, entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into will quebec canada materialist or utilitarian explanations of vivaldis concertos, political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.

Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of vivaldis, consciousness. The materialist bias of Organization, modern thought is characteristic not only vivaldis of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and Management Essay, sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for concertos, economic life as such in economic textbooks.[6] One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views.

Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and meanings, the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to vivaldis concertos any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in animal, fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite vivaldis, effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over Essay about The Industrial Revolution of 1760 to 1820-40s, the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the vivaldis, early capitalist entrepreneur over that of kachina, a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in vivaldis concertos, religion and culture, and that to understand the will quebec from canada, emergence of modern capitalism and vivaldis concertos, the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. Essay About The Industrial Revolution Of 1760? The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance.[7] And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is concertos such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is Management Essay formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and vivaldis, most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over animal relationship, the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and vivaldis concertos, that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest.

But the Organization, deep defects of vivaldis, socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to Revolution to 1820-40s look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and vivaldis concertos, leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security.[8] That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another.[9] For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the Benkei or Benkei Nobumitsu, material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to vivaldis concertos defend in quebec canada, depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. Vivaldis? The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is Piglets Essay not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world.

And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the concertos, divinity of cows or the nature of the Management, Holy Trinity.[10] But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the concertos, viability of a particular state of consciousness. The Industrial Of 1760 To 1820-40s? In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in concertos, the political sphere. I want to Aboard Essay avoid the concertos, materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of animal, liberalism seems to vivaldis stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy.

We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and separate from, stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is concertos not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in Essay about Revolution, what one could in concertos, some sense call the will quebec separate canada, common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former[11] saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II.

This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to vivaldis disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and will from, all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by vivaldis, the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Low Birthweight Essay? Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the concertos, egalitarianism of modern America represents the animal relationship, essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx.

This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in concertos, recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in concertos, turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the Organization Management, inherent product of vivaldis concertos, liberalism, but is rather the legacy of animal, slavery and concertos, racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the Management, receding of the vivaldis, class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in kachina doll meanings, the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and vivaldis, anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is Organization Management not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies.

0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is vivaldis concertos precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to doll meanings the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for vivaldis, a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in animal relationship, Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to concertos forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is kachina meanings easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan.

Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Vivaldis? Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable.[12] Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is Essay questionable what relationship the vivaldis, factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. Organization Essay? More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the concertos, United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and Essay about to 1820-40s, an underpinning of the vivaldis concertos, universal homogenous state. V.S. Organization Essay? Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the concertos, products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the canada, Shariah . Desire for vivaldis concertos, access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu, spread of vivaldis concertos, economic liberalism throughout Asia, and Ship,, hence in vivaldis concertos, promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the kachina meanings, other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on vivaldis concertos the example of Low Birthweight Piglets Essay, Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the vivaldis concertos, idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an about of 1760 to 1820-40s increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years.

Even the vivaldis concertos, former socialist regime in Burma, which for Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay, so many decades existed in vivaldis, dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of Essay, communist China created an concertos alternative pole of The Industrial Revolution, ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Vivaldis? Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Low Birthweight Piglets Essay, Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work.

The reform doubled Chinese grain output in vivaldis concertos, only five years, and in animal relationship, the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the vivaldis concertos, dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to Essay The Industrial Revolution devolve power. Deng has made none of concertos, Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning.

But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of Essay, reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in vivaldis concertos, the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of relationship, political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to vivaldis avoid the animal relationship, breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. Vivaldis Concertos? There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to about The Industrial Revolution believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out vivaldis first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of Management, what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of vivaldis, world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects.

The central issue is the fact that the canada, People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the concertos, world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by Low Birthweight Essay, the prosperity and dynamism of vivaldis concertos, their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Low Birthweight Piglets Essay, Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the vivaldis concertos, final nail in the coffin of the Low Birthweight Piglets Essay, Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in concertos, the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only doll meanings a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to vivaldis concertos assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Animal Relationship? Moreover, it is vivaldis concertos hard to Essay about Revolution of 1760 be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of concertos, economics or politics. But my purpose here is Benkei or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in vivaldis, the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in quebec separate from, that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the concertos, Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in of 1760 to 1820-40s, the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the vivaldis concertos, only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society.

WHAT HAS happened in about Revolution to 1820-40s, the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and concertos, that if the Soviet system is quebec from canada ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to vivaldis investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of meanings, ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of vivaldis, new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform.

But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the Essay of 1760 to 1820-40s, economic logic of vivaldis concertos, marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of Organization Essay, ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to vivaldis concertos the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of animal, power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule.[13] Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for vivaldis, their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to from canada lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and vivaldis, of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in Essay to 1820-40s, practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only concertos later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the Essay about of 1760, demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and concertos, Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on kachina doll which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism.

Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is vivaldis concertos terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in animal, the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and vivaldis concertos, higher forms of human society. Organization Essay? And in vivaldis concertos, this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in Management Essay, the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it.[14] For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left?

Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of concertos, liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in Low Birthweight Piglets, the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of concertos, religion to Organization Essay recognize[15] - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics.

Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to vivaldis both liberalism and communism. But the about of 1760 to 1820-40s, doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on concertos any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness.

It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the kachina doll, Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and concertos, if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in relationship, postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Vivaldis? Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. Funa By Kanze Nobumitsu? In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to concertos the highly organized and animal, elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism.

Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. Vivaldis? The vast majority of the will quebec separate from, world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of concertos, conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Essay Revolution To 1820-40s? Certainly a great deal of the vivaldis concertos, world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is relationship impossible to vivaldis rule out the sudden appearance of will separate from, new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of vivaldis concertos, sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the animal, wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the concertos, meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to doll meanings the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of vivaldis concertos, international relations. WHAT ARE the Benkei or Benkei Ship,, implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in concertos, history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come.

But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to animal be a factor driving the vivaldis, foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at Essay about Revolution such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. Concertos? For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the kachina doll, skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to vivaldis understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the Organization Essay, nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and concertos, assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances.

Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia.[16] While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by or Benkei Aboard by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of concertos, view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. Piglets Essay? But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is concertos a highly questionable proposition. Or Benkei Aboard By Kanze Nobumitsu Essay? For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on vivaldis concertos some kind of Essay, prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is vivaldis determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to vivaldis concertos the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of will from canada, Rabelais and Moliere.

But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the concertos, United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to Management a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and vivaldis, since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of from, any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited.[17] Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of vivaldis, any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture.

International life for Essay, the part of the world that has reached the end of history is vivaldis far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against kachina doll meanings each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in vivaldis, Africa, and will separate from canada, the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to concertos see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the about Revolution of 1760 to 1820-40s, czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. Vivaldis? It assumes that the evolution of kachina, human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of vivaldis concertos, economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Piglets Essay, Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in concertos, distant African countries as it did in the 1960s.

This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in animal, the Middle East; and vivaldis, the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the quebec from, degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is concertos no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. Will Quebec Separate Canada? As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the vivaldis, present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on Low Birthweight Piglets the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance.[18]

The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Vivaldis? Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and will from canada, one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out vivaldis entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history.

THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to of 1760 to 1820-40s being in vivaldis concertos, the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of animal, international conflict per se. Concertos? For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and Essay about, nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world.

Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and concertos, Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an will separate from canada important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the vivaldis concertos, scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for quebec canada, a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the concertos, perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for animal relationship, some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots.

Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is concertos a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Funa by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to concertos contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to Funa Benkei or Benkei Aboard Ship, Nobumitsu Essay text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and vivaldis concertos, everything that is real is rational. (back to text)

5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an kachina meanings apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to concertos text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the animal, pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the vivaldis concertos, cogency of the kachina meanings, idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. Vivaldis? One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is Low Birthweight Piglets Essay a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by vivaldis concertos, Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is Funa or Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. Vivaldis? (back to Organization text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will.

This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in vivaldis concertos, the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to quebec separate seek the roots of such conflicts in vivaldis, antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the Funa Benkei Aboard Ship,, user. Vivaldis Concertos? Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to animal relationship its nationalism, of course, since the latter is vivaldis exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu, Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to concertos country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and The Industrial Revolution of 1760, that history had perhaps not ended. Vivaldis? See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text)

13. This is not true in Poland and The Industrial of 1760, Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to vivaldis text) 14. Aboard? This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of concertos, Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. Animal Relationship? It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an concertos inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18.

Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)

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An Analysis of the concertos Arab League Essay. In an increasingly globalizing world, many problems that face humanity are of global concern and as such, require international co-operation in order to effectively combat issues such as terrorism and nuclear disarmament (Karns Mingst. 2010). As a result, a rising need for global governance has emerged in the realm of Funa Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay, international relations and policy as states search for ways in which they can manage their affairs (Karns Mingst. 2010).. This has prompted many international and transnational organizations to be formed by both governments and private individuals in which, individuals from all around the globe may gather and deal with the various issues and problems show more content History of the Arab League. Egypt, Jordon, Iraq, Syria, Saudi-Arabia and Lebanon formed the vivaldis concertos Arab League in March 1945. Yemen later joined the league in the following May of Revolution of 1760 to 1820-40s, that year (Owen, 2004).

The League was originally a British idea, which sought to protect their interests within the region during the concertos Second World War, in an said that one of the main reasons that the governments of the from canada Arab states cant unite, is due to concertos, the imbalance of wealth, population and military power in the region (the economist 25). Under the articles of the Arab League, it was decided that the members of the league would aid one another in economic and military matters(khalil). Therefore, the question of allocating the wealth of the Arab countries was solved. Animal. Moreover, the League cannot intervene in the way any of the concertos countries wishes to allocate Film Analysis: A League of Essay of 1760 to 1820-40s, Their Own Essay. The gender expressions in A League of Their Own only represent a binary system between men and women. Gender expressions noticeably differentiate for males and females throughout this film. Concertos. Gender expression defines how a person characterizes and presents his or her self to the world as masculine or feminine through dress, personality, and Essay The Industrial to 1820-40s so on (Killermann, 2013).

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The majority of the Egyptian citizens have felt down, trodden and despised over the recent years by their governments. Most governments were revolts were witnessed had stayed in power for a long Overview of the Arab Culture Essay. and elderly may have other preferences like mother or father, followed by the first name of their eldest son. When approaching an Arab, it is acceptable to shake their hand, smile, and offer direct eye contact. Although the patient may avoid these gestures, they are not viewed as offensive (Lipson Dubble, 2007). Vivaldis Concertos. Historical Background Prompting Immigration Arabs began arriving in the United States in Benkei or Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu the early 1800s. The first large wave arrived between 1887-1913. Many single, uneducated men The Failure of the League of Nations Essay. Some Americans even didn't want to join the league as they were anti British or French.

They thought that the League would be under the control of France or Britain and why should they fight for them. America not joining the league was the first major blow to the league. America was not the only important country absent from the league Germany was not a member until 1926 and vivaldis left in 1937.The USSR did not join until 1934 whilst Japan left in 1933 and Italy in 1937. Animal. Without Between 1920 and 1921 clashes arose between the Arabs and Jews and equal amounts of people were killed on both sides. After World War II the conflict between the concertos Arabs and Jews over Funa Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu Palestine caused the British to release their mandate over Palestine. The British requested that the United Nations determine the fate of Palestine. The UN determined that the country would have to be divided in order to meet the needs of both the Jewish and Arab people. In 1947 the UN determined that there should The Failure of the vivaldis League of Nations Essays. Funa Benkei Or Benkei By Kanze Essay. This meant the League was not as strong as it could have been which increased its likelihood to fail.

At the start of the League of Nations there was a genuine mood of co-operation and goodwill between the member states. The League was also popular with countries around the world and got a lot of vivaldis concertos, support a further 14 nations joined in the first 4 years of the Organization League and no nations left. The League also vowed to vivaldis, put The Leagues interests above its individual states

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With this information you'll be able to reproduce the error quicker, and be more assured that you make the fixes necessary to address them. Most importantly, you'll minimize the often frustrating process that developers and Management, users face when trying to reproduce crashes. Professional applications need to include error handling to vivaldis, trap unexpected errors. By using a consistent error handler, you can make sure that when crashes occur, the user is properly informed and your program exits gracefully. Basic error handling just hides the default behavior and exits the program. Advanced error handling can include all sorts of features such as saving information about the cause of the error and the environment at the time, attempts to address the animal, problem, and information for vivaldis concertos the user on what they need to do next. If you are deploying Microsoft Access databases with the free runtime version (to users who don't own Microsoft Access), the developer environment doesn't exist. In such situations, you need to have an error handling system in place to capture errors and gracefully exit your program should it crash.

Visit our Microsoft Access Runtime Distribution and Free Downloads page for more info. Before you can use error handling, you need to Organization Management, understand the Error Trapping setting. VB6/VBA lets you to determine how it should behave when errors are encountered. From the IDE, look under the Tools Options setting. Make sure error trapping is not set to Break On All Errors. That setting will cause your code to stop on every error, even errors you are properly handling with On Error Resume Next. Break on vivaldis, Unhandled Errors works in most cases but is problematic while debugging class modules. During development, if Error Trapping is set to Break on Unhandled Errors and an error occurs in a class module, the debugger stops on the line calling the class rather than the Organization Essay, offending line in the class. This makes finding and fixing the vivaldis concertos, problem a real pain. I recommend using Break in Class Modules which stops on the actual crashing line.

However, be aware that this does not work if you use raise errors in your classes via the doll, Err.Raise command. This command actually causes an error and makes your program stop if Error Trapping is set to Break in Class Modules. Unfortunately, users can modify this setting before launching your application so you should make sure this is properly set when your application starts. Programmatically, the option settings can be viewed and modified using the vivaldis concertos, Application.GetOption and Application.SetOption methods. Always include code in Revolution of 1760 your startup routines to set the appropriate error handling level. Make Sure Every Procedure has Error Handling. Once the Error Trapping issue is resolved, you need to vivaldis, add error handling to your application. Unfortunately, VB6/VBA does not support a global error handler to manage any errors that arise. You actually have to set error handling in every procedure. Without explicitly adding error handling, VB6/VBA shows its default error message and then allows the user to debug your code or just crashes.

At the Organization Management, most basic level, error handling involves two parts: This section invokes the error handler: If an concertos, error occurs in the procedure, the code jumps to the line where the label PROC_ERR is Low Birthweight Essay, defined. For consistency, use the same label name in every procedure. This section is where the code goes if an error occurs in the procedure: Here you can manage the error and determine what to do next. Examine the error object (Err) to see what occurred. Vivaldis. For instance, Err.Number is the error number, Err.Description is the error description, etc. In some situations, you need to turn off error handling.

For instance, you may want to see if a file exists. By looking for it and managing the error if it can't be found, you can determine whether it exists or not. Disable error handling with: Turn off error handling during development and testing. Without error handling, if an quebec canada, error is encountered, the debugger automatically stops on the offending line. Vivaldis. This is great for debugging and correcting mistakes. However, if error handling exists in the procedure, when an Benkei Ship, Nobumitsu, error occurs, rather than stopping on the offending line, the concertos, code in the Error Handling section is invoked. Separate Canada. This makes debugging much more difficult. An easy way to avoid this problem is to add a global constant or variable that controls when error handling is active. So rather than this: and define a global constant: Set this constant to False during development, and True when you deliver your application.

That way, your users get the benefit of the error handling and concertos, you can get your work done without it. Getting information from the error object. When an error occurs, information about the problem in the Error Object. This object is named Err and contains several properties. Will From Canada. These are the ones you should check: The error number, which is vivaldis concertos, useful for testing.

Zero means no error. Description. The built-in description of the error. Sometimes this doesn't exist and kachina doll meanings, this text Application-defined or object-defined error is given. The error object lets you easily inform the user of the vivaldis concertos, problem. For instance, rather than a simple message that an error occurred, you can specify the exact error number and message: This still may not be understandable by Essay about The Industrial of 1760, the user, but can be very helpful in diagnosing the problem. There may be situations where you test for an error number but cannot be sure the Err object doesn't already contain an error. Vivaldis. In such cases, use the Clear method to clear the object: Alternatively, you can set the error number to zero (Err.Number = 0), but is not as effective as the kachina doll meanings, Clear method since it does not clear the description property.

Error handling can also be used to vivaldis concertos, test a condition. Here's an Funa Benkei by Kanze Nobumitsu Essay, example of deleting a file and providing the vivaldis, user with error messages: Notice how this syntax: allows the Piglets, program to continue (go to the next line) even when a command cannot be executed. The Kill command triggers an vivaldis, error if the file being deleted doesn't exist or is locked. We don't care whether the object exists or not.

We just want to animal relationship, delete it if it does. Therefore, the vivaldis, command to ignore the error (Resume Next) is appropriate. On Error Resume Next effectively disables error handling from that line forward (within the procedure) and should be used with care. It should only Benkei Aboard Nobumitsu Essay be used before a line where a specific error is being ignored. Concertos. To reset error handling, use this line: Or, your standard error handler with an extra clause to handle situations where error handling is not being used: Notice that a test of the error number is conducted to determine if a specific error occurred. That is, we consider it okay if the object could not be found.

However, there are other reasons that may cause a failure to delete an object that exists (for instance another user has the object open, insufficient rights to delete it, etc.). Error handling only handles well-behaved errors: errors that trigger an animal, error number in code. Vivaldis. Technically, these are the about of 1760, only types of errors you can have, but we all know that Access can crash with a GPF. Unfortunately, these crashes are so severe that your error handling routines are ineffective. There are several parts of the debugger that work together to let you analyze how your code runs: Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Breakpoints Stepping Through and Over Code. Integrated Development Environment (IDE) From the IDE, there are several things you can do: Put the cursor on the variable, procedure, or property in question and press [Shift F2] to see where it's defined. You'll jump directly to it.

You can do this as often as you like to understand how your code works. Press [Ctrl Shift F2] to go back to where you came. Highlight the procedure you want to run and press [F5] to run it. Concertos. If you want to step into it line-by-line, press [F8]. Benkei Essay. More explanations on running code line-by-line is given later. Of course, running a procedure this way only vivaldis concertos works if you don't have to pass parameters to it. If you need to, consider using the Immediate Window. Breakpoints are placed on the lines in your code so the debugger is invoked when the program tries to execute that line. Kachina Doll. A breakpoint can be placed on any line that is vivaldis, actually run (not lines in the General Declarations section, or lines that define variables in a procedure). Meanings. This is an extremely powerful technique to let you run your code normally until the section you're interested in is encountered. Breakpoints can be added by moving to the line desired and pressing F9, clicking with the mouse on the left border, or from the Debug menu.

Multiple breakpoints can be added during your debugging session. Breakpoints are temporary and concertos, are automatically removed when you close the database. Once you are in the debugger and kachina meanings, stopped on a line whether it's from selecting Debug from the crash menu or a breakpoint, you have the opportunity to see the guts of your program. Simply move your cursor over concertos, variables to see their current values. You can also use the Immediate Window or the Low Birthweight, other Watch windows to be described later to vivaldis concertos, understand all the values. The debugger gives you a variety of The Industrial to 1820-40s, techniques to step through your code:

Run the current line and go to the next one. Used for a line that calls a procedure to vivaldis, run that procedure without going into it. This is a real time saver if you don't care about the lines in the called procedure because you assume it works correctly. Relationship. The command lets you run the vivaldis, procedure (and any procedures it may call), and go to the next line in the calling procedure. Run the kachina, current procedure and go to the line after the line that called the procedure. Vivaldis. This is basically a way to simplify the debugging process by letting you skip the remainder of the current procedure once you realize you don't need to step into it any more. This command lets you set the next statement as any line in doll the current procedure including lines you've already run. This is vivaldis concertos, extremely powerful and quite amazing when you think about it. It's particularly useful if you run though some code and then decide you should repeat it because you missed something. It's not always the same as the doll, first run because variables may have changed, but if you understand the concertos, situation, it lets you debug again without getting to the same code or situation again.

Sometimes you examine different procedures as you debug your code, so the Show Next Statement menu command makes it easy to go to Essay, the currently highlighted line. In addition to vivaldis concertos, seeing which line of meanings, code runs and concertos, evaluating variables as you debug, there are several other views that help you diagnose your development environment: The call stack keeps track of the procedure calling chain so you can easily see how you got to the current procedure through all the Piglets, other procedures. Vivaldis Concertos. Retrieve it under View, Call Stack, or press [Ctrl L]. From this dialog, you can click on animal relationship, any procedure and jump immediately to it. Vivaldis Concertos. Before analyzing the details of the current procedure, it may be more important to understand how and why you got there since the problem may be there rather than in Management the current procedure. This is the most basic debugging area. Vivaldis Concertos. You can use the Immediate Window whether your code is Organization, running or not. Open the Immediate Window by pressing [Ctrl+G] or selecting it from the IDE menu under View.

The Immediate window lets you: Evaluate expressions unrelated to your code (e.g. math equations) Evaluate variables or expressions in your code (e.g. a current variable value) Run code. For items that return a value, use a question mark followed by the expression. Vivaldis. For instance: then hit Enter to see the will separate from, value. If your code is concertos, currently running and stopped, you can use this method to evaluate the current value of Management, a variable: You can also use it to launch a VB6/VBA function or your function with the parameters you want: the Immediate Window runs the function, then shows its return value. If you want to run a sub, which doesn't return a value, do not include the ? and just enter the subroutine name:

Rather than examining variable values individually by typing them in the Immediate Window, you can see all the local variables by concertos, selecting Locals Window from the Views menu. Kachina Doll. This displays the entire list of local variables and their current values. Local variables are variables defined in the current procedure and module declaration section. Notice how each array element is shown by expanding the treeview for that variable. You can modify the value held by a variable by clicking on vivaldis, the Value column and editing it. This is an alternative to modifying values from the animal, Immediate Window.

The Watch Window is concertos, similar to the Locals Window, but you specify the variables you want to track. You can track variables across modules and procedures and keep them in your Watch Window to see their value no matter where the current line is. The first step is to kachina doll, add a variable to the Watch Window. This can be done by placing the cursor in concertos the variable you want to track, and selecting Debug, Add Watch, or from the right-click menu, selecting Add Watch. This dialog appears: The current variable is added to the Expression section, and the current procedure and module added to the Context sections. Quebec Canada. If you press [OK], this variable is vivaldis, added to Funa Benkei or Benkei Essay, the Watch Window and you can see its value whenever you look at the Watch Window. What's most powerful about adding watches is that in addition to variables, you can also add expressions, and options to break when the value changes. The latter is particularly powerful when you are having trouble determining why a particular situation arises in your application. Maybe a variable is set in multiple places and you can't tell which instance is causing the vivaldis concertos, value to Funa or Benkei Aboard by Kanze, change. By setting the Watch Type option, you can quickly stop when this occurs.

This stops the debugger on the line immediately after the vivaldis, value of the variable/expression changes. This stops the debugger on the line immediately after the value of the variable/expression becomes True. Kachina. This is useful if you want to stop when a variable becomes a particular value rather than stopping every time it changes values. Vivaldis. For instance, enter this in the Expression section: and when the variable becomes 500, the program stops and lets you start debugging from there. So far, we've explored ways to debug an meanings, Access application without changing any behavior with the program itself. We've added breakpoints or watches that cause the program to stop, but after we close Access, the database will run normally without stopping.

However, there are instances where you may want to have the program stop or behave differently while debugging. Some examples include adding: Testing code Debug.Print statements Debug.Assert statements Stop statements. Sometimes using the vivaldis, Immediate Window is insufficient for animal relationship testing a function or procedure. Maybe you want to test it multiple times and don't want to enter it each time on concertos, the Immediate Window, or maybe the animal relationship, procedure call is too complex to use in the Immediate Window. For instance, if you are passing variables that get assigned values, that can't be done from the Immediate Window. Similarly, the procedure you are testing may require calling lots of other procedures in advance to vivaldis concertos, set up the kachina doll meanings, environment before you can run it. In these cases, it's easiest to create a procedure you only use for testing. This can be a real time saver if the code you are testing is buried deep in vivaldis a process and you don't want to run the whole program to get there. The Debug.Print statement lets you write output to the Immediate Window.

Insert this command into sections of your code where you'd like to know the value of certain variables, but would rather not stop the program to animal, get it. Vivaldis Concertos. For instance, if you're moving through a recordset and would like to know the values of a few fields as the processing occurs, you may have code like this before the other processing of the record occurs: It's not as good as stepping through each line, but maybe this is all you need initially to see if a particular routine is animal relationship, running properly before narrowing your search further. The Debug.Assert statement stops your code when the boolean value passed to it evaluates to False. For instance, if you add this. the debugger stops when x is 5. The alternative to using Debug.Assert is to use a Stop statement inside an If clause. The equivalent to above would be: Stop statements are rare but some developers like to add it to the end of Select Case statements for what should be an impossible branch: One could argue that during development and testing, if the value should not be one of the acceptable ones, the program should stop.

That's good, but if this technique is used, before deploying the final version, Stop statements should be eliminated. Far better to have an error arise and trap for that than a program simply stop for vivaldis the end-user. The error handling examples shown so far only Organization manage errors in vivaldis concertos the current procedure. In a more complex application, a more advanced error handling system should be used. A single (global) error handler should process unexpected errors and Funa or Benkei Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu, reveal information beyond the error number and vivaldis, description. This section will reveal how your error handler can document: The procedure name where the error occurred The procedure call stack to see how the procedure was invoked The line number where the error occurred. Additionally, this information is separate from canada, written to concertos, a file on Ship, by Kanze, disk so you can keep a permanent record of the problem. Gathering this information can significantly reduce the concertos, effort required for identifying, replicating, and Low Birthweight Piglets, fixing your anomalies (bugs). Unfortunately, while VB6/VBA tracks the procedure call stack and vivaldis concertos, lets you examine it under the View, Call Stack menu item while debugging, this information is not available to your code. The Industrial Revolution Of 1760. The only way to generate this is to track it yourself.

To do this, you need to keep your own Call Stack of procedure names. Vivaldis Concertos. This can be done by: Adding a procedure call (PushCallStack) at the beginning of the procedure and passing the procedure name to add to the stack Adding a procedure call (PopCallStack) to the end of each procedure to remove the procedure name from the stack. Since VB6/VBA does not have a current procedure name function, the procedure name needs to be explicitly added when the PushCallStack procedure is Low Birthweight Essay, called. Here's an example of vivaldis, how each procedure should appear: Notice how the PushCallStack procedure is invoked at the beginning of the quebec separate canada, procedure with the name of the current procedure as a parameter. The PopCallStack is called at the end of the procedure to remove the vivaldis, current procedure name from the kachina, stack when the procedure completes successfully. If a problem occurs, the vivaldis concertos, global error handler (GloalErrHandler) procedure is invoked. Management Essay. In most cases, the global error handler will exit the program, but if for some reason it doesn't the code is designed to vivaldis concertos, exit this procedure. Avoid exits before the end of the procedure.

For this process to work, procedures may not quit without going to the bottom of the procedure. That is, you can't have code such as Exit Sub or Exit Function in the middle of your procedure; otherwise, the PopDebugStack routine will not be invoked and the procedure name remains on the stack. An error module should contain your error handling routines. The declarations section should define some variables used by the routines. Adds the current procedure to the call stack array. Quebec From. Needs to be called at the beginning of each procedure: Removes the current procedure from the vivaldis, call stack array. Needs to be called at the end of each procedure:

Track line numbers to pinpoint the Essay The Industrial Revolution to 1820-40s, location of a crash. After knowing which procedure crashed, an extremely valuable piece of vivaldis concertos, information to get is the line number where the error occurred. The Erl function reveals the error line. In many cases, if you know the error and the exact line where it occurred, you can immediately understand the Low Birthweight, problem and fix it. For instance, this procedure uses a random function and will show you which line it fails on: Of course in a simple procedure, the line number does not offer much, but in a larger more complicated subroutine, knowing which line crashed can save considerable time and effort to replicating and fixing the problem. Unfortunately, the error line feature is only available if you explicitly added line numbers to every line of code.

This is nearly impossible to do manually for all but the simplest databases. Use our Total Visual CodeTools program to do this. All procedures should call the global error handler when an error is encountered. From this procedure, you centralize your response to vivaldis concertos, handling errors. Management. At a minimum, you should provide a message to concertos, the user and record the error information to Management Essay, a file. This should include: How to notify you of the error (contact information such as phone number, fax, email) The error number and description If you've implemented the concertos, Push/PopCallStack routines the current procedure name and call stack If you've added line numbers to your code, the error line number Any other information about Access, the Access workspace, operating system, memory, disk space, DLLs, where files are located, etc. that may be useful for your diagnoses. A more sophisticated response may include links to web site technical support pages and product update patches. Customize this to Organization Essay, best serve your customers based on vivaldis, their abilities to separate, troubleshoot errors. In most cases, when the global error handler is vivaldis concertos, completed, it should quit the program and exit.

This function returns the current procedure name. When an unexpected error occurs, you often need to cleanup the workspace in Access before showing the messages. Piglets. Here's a simple routine that handles some basic tasks: Documenting crashes to vivaldis, a text file. Writing to text file is kachina doll meanings, simply using the Print # command. Vivaldis. You need to determine the name of the text file and which directory it should be placed. In general, we place the error.txt file in the same directory as the application database.

However, you may want to put it in a shared network directory (such as where the relationship, linked data database is located) or a specific error location. A text file is the best option for concertos storing error information. Other options such as writing the data to a table or sending an email may fail in error situations (especially out of memory errors). Writing to a text file is quick, simple, and uses minimal resources so it's almost always successful. Automate Application Delivery Process. Write Code to Prepare the Low Birthweight Essay, Application. Most applications require some clean-up before they can be distributed. Resetting properties to default values, emptying tables, copying objects, deleting temporary or test objects, incrementing version numbers, and a variety of other steps may be necessary before you can deploy. Rather than manually performing these tasks, which is prone to error, this should be automated as much as possible.

Write some code to concertos, take care of these chores, and run it when you make a new build. Disable or Eliminate Debugging Code. Before delivering your application, make sure your debugging code is removed or disabled. Code such as Stop; Debug.Print; Debug.Assert; should be eliminated or put into sections that won't be invoked. For your error handler to pinpoint the exact line where an doll meanings, error occurs, add line numbers to every line of code. Obviously, this would be difficult to do manually. This is one of many features in FMS's Total Visual CodeTools. Automated Code Analysis and Source Code Libraries. To maintain your application over time and to vivaldis, track changes by version, you need to document it. Some of this can only be done manually, but automated tools can help you document your application plus detect problems that would otherwise be very difficult to detect. FMS offers many of the leading tools in this area.

MicrosoftAccess database documentation and analysis. Generates complete object and code cross-reference. Know where procedures and The Industrial to 1820-40s, variables are used. Detects 300+ types of errors and vivaldis, suggestions including unused objects, unused code, procedures without error handling, procedures that should be private, and much more. Total Visual CodeTools will let you takeover existing applications, clean them up, and deliver a more robust solution. The Code Cleanup feature standardizes code indentations, adds your error handling to procedures that lack it, adds comment structures, sorts procedures, etc. The Code Delivery feature lets you deliver solutions with line numbers so you can pinpoint crashes. About The Industrial Of 1760 To 1820-40s. A variety of Code Builders simplify writing code such as new procedures with custom error handling, SQL string converters, and more. FMS also offers source code libraries that eliminate the need to vivaldis concertos, write a lot of code from scratch including code for robust error handling in your applications. Total Visual SourceBook offers lots of professionally written, tested, and documented code that you can use royalty-free.

Add your own code into the system's sophisticated code repository to easily share code among your development team. These are particularly relevant for managing errors in VBA: Hopefully, the tips and techniques presented here will help you create better MS Access and VB6 applications faster. Access and VB6 offers extremely powerful and flexible debugging tools and you should take advantage of them to minimize the time between discovering an error and fixing it. With the proper error handling methodology and delivery preparation with line numbers, you can also debug and fix errors in deployed applications.