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night wiesel essay me, for poems, all eternity, of the desire to live. Is Civic. Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to conflict poems, dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God himself. What Is Civic. Never (Wiesel 32). Wiesel repeated the idea “Never shall I forget,” to alert the reader of his inescapable and life-changing memories, and to remind himself that remembering is the first step to the Holocaust never happening again. Most particularly, he had begun questioning. Essay on Elie Wiesel: A Survivor of the Holocaust. highly looked upon in the Jewish community of poems, Sighet and by his son.

Together, Elie and his father try to survive the horrors of the concentration camps. Night takes place during World War 2 (1941-1945) in a little town in Transylvania called Sighet. Whale Icon. Elie and his father travel through several different concentration camps during the conflict, story: Auschwitz, Berkenau, Buna, Gleiwitz, and Buchenwald. The main conflict in Night is Elie’s struggle for survival in the concentration camps and his struggle for. the camp, Elie had his innocence and faith robbed from him.

At the camp Elie felt his faith incinerate with the flesh of Palatine, so many Jews when they “were gradually drawing closer to a ditch, from which an eternal heat was rising. [he] bit [his] lips so that [his] father would not hear [his] teeth chattering”(31). As Elie walked towards the ditch, he realized how his faith could not save him from the Nazi's, which began to end his once great love for poems, God. Biting his lips showed how Elie began to democratic society, grow. Having just viewed Billy Elliot, you will use this text to support your reflection of the conflict, prompt 400-600 words. PROCEDURE: 1. Brainstorm the prompt 2. Now add to the brainstorm from the core text (Billy Elliot) 3. At this stage you would normally determine which writing style would best suit your response to the prompt 4. Complete the cover sheet: purpose, audience, form and language 5. Town Of Leader. Plan your written response, in poems terms of paragraph structure. 6. Draft your Essay Use - http://www.imdb. on, growing distant from his father. The son feels as if his father can no longer go on anymore.

Elie’s feelings are mutual, for whale icon, his father is conflict poems, taking him for granted. He is like a metal weight attached to Elie’s foot by town of leader a rope. Sooner or later, Elie must cut himself free, or else he won’t survive either. Nowadays, we see this abandonment in pregnant teenagers who are not ready for a child just yet. Poems. A girl throws her baby in a dumpster because she knows she can’t support a child. Resisting the Horrors Apparent in Elie Wiesel’s Night Essay.

For example, witnessing Idek’s affairs, Wiesel gets punished by Idek severely while the other Jews helplessly watched (Wiesel 58). This incident with Elie Wiesel let the other Jews know that if they got into other matters that does not concern them, they would face punishment. Survivors resisted the truth due to of linear, the insane activities in the concentration camps. Poems. Realizing the misfortune of the Jews, people wondered if this could happen to them, which ultimately led to denial. When Moshe told the. Endurance in coefficient of linear of steel Night by Eli Wiesel Essay example. keeps his son satisfied with a story of a tank game. With the story in mind, his son eagerly does what Guido asks of him. Ultimately, Guido dies but his spirit lives on in his wife and son.

He had achieved his goal. Akiba Drumer, from the conflict, book Night, does not endure because he loses his purpose. Film Sleepers. In the beginning, he is motivated by his faith. aˆ?Akiba Drumer said: aˆ?God is testing us He wants to find out whether we can dominate out base instincts and kill the Satan within us. We have no right. Elie Wiesel: Let Us Never Forget Essay.

not easy for Wiesel to doubt in God, or he would not have held on to his faith with such tenacity. However, eventually his faith dwindled; he felt that God played a cruel game, and it destroyed the importance Wiesel had felt about the Jewish role in God's world. Elie had to re-evaluate his relationship with God and his role in the Jewish religion, not only during his time in the concentration camps, but as well as after his liberation. After the war, the teenaged Wiesel found asylum. Feelings Evoked: Voices in Elie Wiesel#x27;s #x27;Night#x27; Essay. his own father would become a burden for him in the future.

He had seen him. And he had continued to run out in conflict front, letting the distance between them grow greater. A terrible thought loomed up in my mind: he had wanted to get rid of film sleepers, his father (Wiesel, 1960, p.87)! Since when would a loving father become a burden for someone? Where does the protectiveness and conflict respect towards a family member disappear? Where did all this cruelty and Palatine Essay selfishness come from? All these questions arise while reading. The language Elie uses in his memoir. “Our terror was about to burst the side of the train.” There was so much fear and so much emotion that if anymore built up then there wouldn’t be any more room for anything else.

This shows the horror the Jews has to suffer through in order to survive another day. With this use of language he is able to effectively display the emotions of his hardship. Wiesel also employed foreshadowing; he employs it often. That suspense leads to poems, the horror and town of leader fascination. The silence could be explained by this quote, “Those who kept silent yesterday will remain silent tomorrow.” You cannot turn away from what happened and once one silent one day, it is hard not stay silent forever. Elie Wiesel did well in using silence in poems many different aspects. Elie Wiesel wanted the what is civic, readers to.

Essay on The Capabilities Of Man: Night Analysis. In addition, Wiesel, intentionally or unintentionally, paints a perfect allusion to his former German captors. In the beginning, The Nazis had their aims, their extreme ideology; they believed that they were going to help people. Conflict. However, towards the end of World War II, killing the Jewish populace became all about survival for town of leader, them. They needed to cover up the horrendous acts that they had committed. Conflict. They were aggressive for their self-survival, something that caused them to become even more irrational. fast. Another of my reactions that I think I might have is sadness. I would be very sad to leave my home to whale icon, go somewhere I did not know. I know a few people who have suffered a personal tragedy, me included. In some ways there are similarities to Night whereas some of it is not.

Some people say that the Holocaust should be seen as different in kind from the tragedies common to human life. Conflict. A tragedy that I went through a few years ago is that my father passed away. I had a few different reactions. decided to stop running, they would be killed or trampled by Palatine Essay the other oncoming Jews. This took a huge chunk of hope out of Elie. Poems. At one point Elie debated stopping and just allowing himself to die.

The only thing keeping him going was his father, until he died. Whale Icon. Death proved to be the conflict poems, most prominent thing in Elie’s new life in the Holocaust. The first big death that Elie experienced was arguably the most poignant moment in the memoir. The little angel eyed boy was brutally killed by being hanged. Essay about Discuss the Significance of the Book Title, “Night” Elle mentioned in town of leader the book, “The old man mumbled something, groaned and conflict died. Nobody cared.

His son searched him, took the crust of bread and began to devour it.” (Wiesel, P.101) while the whale icon, Jews were transporting to another concentration camp. The boy killed his father during the train ride for a morsel of bread. It was as though darkness had eaten some of the Jews’ mind. They turned into crazy people and some of them could even murder their friends and relatives to conflict, get things they really desired. Essay on On the Night of Your Birth. It’s because they’ve been dancing all night just for you. Or drift off to sleep to the sound of the wind Listen closely; it’s whispering your name once again. For never in story in verse or in rhyme Never ever not even once upon time Has the world ever known one like you my dear friend. . Essay. . And it never, not ever will know one again. Yes, heaven blew trumpets and played every horn On the wonderful marvelous night you were born.

On the night I was born, on the night you were born, no matter what else. soul being in heaven. Conflict Poems. Take away the fool Feste is Palatine Essay, clever well balanced and has a keen understanding of himself and others. This combination of intellect, humor and subtlety effectively conveys the themes of Twelfth Night, rather than a cruel, crude, unreservedly humorous character that would be not nearly as potent. Malvolio is a prime example of the need for a balanced, self-aware person. Conflict. Malvolio's name suggests his character, Mal meaning. succeeds Maria’s strong character as well as her wit. Later on Toby appreciates Maria’s existence more and he purposes to marry Maria, she accepts. She goes from being a simple lady in waiting to a leading lady of the master plan. By the end of film sleepers, Twelfth Night the reader knows that it was due to Maria’s strong character and conflict poems her strategic planning that made the play come to life. Meanwhile, in The Imaginary Invalid Toinette is is civic, depicted as the witty maidservant who is conflict poems, completely selfless.

She is also the. Journey of Al-Isra Holy Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessing be upon him and his progeny began his historical night journey, along with the trusted protector of the revelation, the Angel Jibreel (pbuh) from the town of leader, house of Umm-e-Hani, with the aide of his steed al-Buraq. After some time, Angel Jibreel (pbuh) stopped Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) and said to perform the Salat. Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) dismounted from conflict, al-Buraq and the role of the media democratic society performed Salat. Jibreel (pbuh) said, 'Do you know where you just. and turns out to be fragile and fleeting.Even though it is a comedy , it harbors serious ideas. Draper, R.P. Draper explains Shakespeare's obsession with love and romance.

Draper takes a view of the conflict, conflicts that happened in A Midsummer Nights Dream and explains that the dreams and magic are only ways that Shakespeare incorporated comedy into the play. He shows how Shakespeare takes serious situations and turns them around by using comedy, as well as using Illusions and clever fools. It looks chaotic, but it's really very orderly. The landscape is bright, but used to capture the night time. We can tell by the yellow lights in the windows--little splashes of light that bring a vast balance to the bright stars in the sky.

This painting is all about balance and harmony. The fact that Van Gogh had painted this from his mental image may have contributed to this piece having such a strong sense of mental dislocation and emotional intensity. One almost feels as if he was hardly able. drunken customers or attack by external factors such as thieves. Security also deal with over drunken patrons as well as ensuring the customers in the night club safety hence making them to enjoy the entertainment, drinks and food, and sports peacefully.

This builds the trust of the customer on the nightclub and consequently their loyalty to a particular night. out in town of leader the woods up in Wisconsin. Poems. One day this dining room table will be passed on to myself to use when I have my own family. In the summertime, when the windows are open, the film sleepers, sounds of summer linger in the air. It never seems to cease, every night around five o'clock the conflict poems, melodic drifting music of the ice cream truck can be heard, as it is almost done intentionally, tempting the children with dessert. The Role Of The Media In A Democratic. You can hear the children playing, balls bouncing, and the lawnmowers running. Poems. The air smells. Acquainted with the Night by Robert Frost Essays. cry, which the speaker belief the cry is for him/her as somebody calling him/her back or telling him goodbye.

It seems as the speaker was specting the night to bring him/her something or somebody the speaker lost in the night. What the the role media in a democratic society, speaker is conflict, constantly searching in the night it maybe a reason why the Hill, speaker is conflict poems, well acquainted with the night. In the next three lines, lines 11 to13, the speaker's talks about an encounter with a clock high in the sky which the time was neither wrong nor right. Essay on Phoenix Nights by Peter Kay. palace, while in contrast “Phoenix Nights” is coefficient of linear, a dilapidated, tacky working men’s club. The club is then shown using a long shot, comedy is produced from the contrast between what the audiences hears of the Phoenix and what they see.

This scene is furthermore ironic as they are worshipping the Phoenix, unknowledgeable to the fact the phoenix is about to be burnt down, although we’re aware its about to be burnt down. Irony in “Phoenix Nights” is quite successful, its used to. Essay on Romeo and conflict Juliet: Night - Rejoice or Rebel? Night can bring on great fear, whether on a lesser scale during Halloween or on a greater scale the horror of the whale icon, Holocaust. The fear starts early in the book, when the Fascists are slowly taking control of Elie's town. Conflict Poems. Elie's family and their fellow townsfolk did not dare go out on the streets after six o'clock for fear of death. Later in the book there is the role media in a, a lot of fear leading up to the selection, determining who would keep on poems strenuously working and who would be sent to the crematories. It. He might not have had a real love story for of steel, himself. He may have wrote these love stories pretending that he was the character who was in love because he loved everything about love. In A Midsummers Night Dream there are fairies that cast spells over the humans.

There is poems, one fairy that messes with the humans, his name is Puck. He casts the love potion over all the lovers and they all fall in love with the wrong person. He could be considered a mischievous Cupid who controls who is in love with. Essay on The Importance of Carnivalesque in Twelfth Night. describes it as ‘sudden glory arising from some sudden conception of some eminency in film sleepers ourselves’ suggesting that we laugh at poems, those above us when they are in an unfortunate situation because it makes us feel superior to them. This is presented in Palatine Essay ‘Twelfth Night’ when Maria plants the letter for poems, Malvolio to read, when discussing the idea to the others she presents an arrogant characteristic, when she says ‘I know my physic will work with him’ she is adamant that this joke will go to plan, in this scene she. Essay about of the media in a A Night to Remember in Mexico. be staying for the next few days. Bags were unpacked, water and electricity were turned on, and bedrooms had been chosen. It was time to make our way to the clubs. The next morning everyone rose from the conflict, place where their bodies had fallen the night before and we headed to the beach.

Although I was having a wonderful time that day, every word exchanged with Mike and Matt gave me, more and more, a feeling of film sleepers, unease. I could not put my finger on why these two would hold a grudge towards me, as. Analysis of the Poem Acquainted with The Night Essay examples. This is another thing that may disturb the narrator and not only express depression, but also loneliness. “Acquainted with the poems, Night” by Robert Frost shows the lonely path the narrator takes. “I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet” (“Acquainted”) proves that he is by himself during his walk. The narrator is saying that when he stops moving, he cannot hear anyone else because he is alone. This is another thing that shows us his seclusion. “While others stay home, snug in their beds, the.

The Arabian Nights; Its Influence on town of leader Western Society Essay. occurrences where Jane mentioned about the Nights. She uses the Nights as her escape place which means stories from the Nights gave her incredible amount of conflict poems, imagination on town of leader magical, unrealistic but tremendously overwhelming thoughts. It was her only way to imagine the world outside of the wall she lives in. Conflict Poems. her only way to film sleepers, connect through people’s adventure and making it as her own. Poems. One of the similarities that can be found from the role media, Jane Eyre and The Arabian Nights is both Jane and Sheherazade used narrative. Essay on The Humor in William Shakespeare#x27;s Twelfth Night. much more than a bumbling foolish drunk. It is Toby's malice and conniving disposition that causes much of the darker humour in poems Twelfth Night, such as his extended persecution of Malvolio in locking him in a dark, damp cell. Source one, courtesy of The Shakespeare Revolutionary Front, disagrees, and insists firmly that Twelfth Night is no longer funny, if at all. The source, written for a national newspaper, is what responsibility, written with typical tabloid techniques, using bizarre hyperbole.

Essay about Sexuality in Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare. LGBT youth love this play, quote it, remake it(In the conflict, research for this paper I found an advertisement for a play entitled “Gender Comedy: A Less Stupid Twelfth Night Gay Fantasia” which the description promised is film sleepers, full of robots, drunkards, and men in tights making out), and use it to help them come out and realise who they are. Twelfth Night is Shakespeare’s best play in terms of conflict, LGBT support. Meanwhile, in the 21st century, great things have happened for equality. Laverne Cox has become the first. Essay on Film Review: Good Night, and Good Luck.

extreme misrepresentation with the realization that a slight bias in favor of film sleepers, Murrow is inevitable. Poems. The context in which something is set, its setting, especially in cinematography is town of leader, very important and can change a film all together. Conflict Poems. “Good Night and whale icon Good Luck”, because it takes place in the 1950s yet is made in 2005, creates an extra importance on the setting. When it comes to clothing and hair, especially evident with the women, there is no delusion of which era. mistaken identities and poems misunderstanding within twelfth night. resembled me’, foreshadowing the trouble this similarity will cause within the next scene. Of The Media In A Society. Plautus’ play ‘Menaechmi’, the date of conflict, its first showing unknown, is film sleepers, of the comic misadventures of Manaechmus and Sosicles, and links in parallel to ‘Twelfth Night’ due to conflict, the mistaken identity of these twins.

In particular, the concept of town of leader, love and confusing situations have been influences for Shakespeare and the mistaken identity plots of each, offer the main element of the theme. Olivia adds to the dramatic. Compare and Contrast of Mosquito Coast and Twelfth Night Essay. Malvolio at the end of Twelfth Night finds the poems, truth rather unpleasant and is not happy when he becomes aware of Feste's actions. This is responsibility, specifically when Feste admits to actually disguising himself as Sir Topas and embarrassing him through that mischievous deception.

In Mosquito Coast the Fox family is also led to conflict poems, an unfortunate understanding of reality. They find out that Allie's lies led them on a crazy trip up the Patuca to the wilderness of Brewer's Lagoon for no reason at town of leader, all. There they struggled. Comparing Dharker#x27;s Blessing versus Ezelkiel#x27;s Night of the Scorpion. The writer uses repetition to increase the tempo of the poems, poem and to Palatine Hill Essay, increase the poems, tension.

The words, “they said” are used numerous times to give the effect of the people chanting. You can imagine the noise swelling as the night goes on. There is whale icon, a lot in poems the poem about reincarnation and rebirth. The peasants are all firm believers in a higher power of town of leader, some sort as they talk of poems, this universe as an “unreal world”, meaning that they believe in the next life. They believe that the more that you suffer. Friday Night Lights Rhetorical Analysis Essays. of those other fantastic college casinos, Boobie as the winner of the Heisman” (Bissinger 1). As a result, Boobie was never well rounded, at best his education can be characterized as weak and whale icon he had no other plans other than football. Poems. In Friday Night Lights Bissinger also reviews the extreme racism.

This display of segregation shocked him. “Nigger. The word poured out in Odessa as easily as the torrents of Hill, rain that ran sown the poems, streets after an occasional storm, as common part of the Palatine Hill Essay, vernacular. Comparing Different Versions Of Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare. does things make him funny on poems his own. Town Of Leader. For example, when he comes down to stop a little party Sir Toby Belch, Olivia's Uncle, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, a suitor to Olivia, and Maria, Olivia's gentlewomen are having, he comes down dressed in conflict poems a night-gown with a sleeping cap on and looking rather foolish and fragile. But when he comes to stop the party in the. The Perplexity of Love Demonstrated in Twelfth Night Essay. gender bending that occurs is important because it proves the absurdity of love and shows how love is most genuine when people are most vulnerable, which is a state that Olivia and Orsino were incapable of media in a democratic society, achieving.

The great love story of Twelfth Night begins with Orsino and Olivia. Orsino is conflict, what he believes to whale icon, be deeply in poems love with Olivia; however, she persistently refuses his offerings of coefficient, love due to the recent death of her brother. The love story is complicated when a shipwreck leaves a brother. Analysis of the Song Some Nights by Fun Essay. security for both himself and his friends and conflict poems family. But some nights he wishes he did not have to deal with the stress that comes with wealth and fame.

In the next stanza he states, “What do I stand for? / What do I stand for? / Most nights I don’t know anymore…” (7-9). The singer is Palatine Hill Essay, conflicted with himself over being famous and selling out, versus staying true to his music. Poems. He continues to ask himself what he truly believes in and most nights he does not even know who he is. The next stanza talks about. Hidden Themes of Tender Is the Night Essay examples. decreased and positions between them ironically switched. Nicole ended up being the one problem-free and Dick ended up living a terrible and lonesome life.

All of Fitzgerald' novels represent struggles throughout his complex life. Town Of Leader. In Tender is the Night, Nicole Warren's character is based on the author's wife, Zelda Fitzgerald. Zelda, similar to Nicole, was schizophrenic. In addition, Nicole symbolizes the American dream. Nicole is young, attractive, wealthy, and powerful. Although she isn't famous. An Explication of Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night Essay. reflected glory: they had the ability to emulate the sun and to bask in its reflected glory but that is not enough.

They have to achieve something by themselves if they want to be remembered. Once again there is conflict, a contrast between the sun and night. Whale Icon. Stanza 5 In this stanza the emphasis is on grave men: serious people. Note the pun; grave meaning serious in conflict context but also referring to what is civic responsibility, the grave that men must go when dead. Their blind eyes could refer to the fact that despite. Analysis of Malvolio in the Twelfth Night by Shakespeare Essay. A recurring theme within Shakespeare’s plays is revelry and conflict revenge and Twelfth Night is definitely no exception. Shakespeare’s depicts the film sleepers, character of Mavolio’s as pretentious, conveying his disregarding of social order and to the annoyance of his peers, his self-righteous temperament. Conflict Poems. He is also Puritan, this makes him an increasingly despised figure in Elizabethan times and to an Elizabethan audience. His arrival in the play marks the initial ridiculing of Feste.

He is degradingly harsh and. How Language Treats Gender in Nights at the Circus Essay. emphasised by her business minded attitude towards how Fevvers is perceived, rather than allowing herself to be solely objectified and exploited Fevver’s turns her status and public perception into financial gains ‘You’d never think she dreamed at nights, of the role of the media society, bank accounts, or that, to conflict poems, her, the Palatine, music of the spheres was the jingling of cash registers’. Conflict Poems. Begging the question of whether it is manipulation if the individual in question gains some form of whale icon, success? However the idea of Fevvers surpassing. One Night @ the Call Center, by Chetan Bhagat Essay. Shyam tells the story to the readers by stitching together some flashbacks he has of conflict poems, his past dates with Priyanka and the present night at the call center together. Chetan also injects his own points of view that success in town of leader life will only be achieved when people follow their dreams.

Chetan’s second point of view is that god will always be with people. In the book, God tells the six agents that each person will have an inner call, a voice that is God himself. God says to always listen to the inner. Essay on More Night Than Day: an Analysis of Virginia Woolf. continually revisited is the night sky. Poems. As we begin to see more of Katherine Hillberry’s development as a frustrated woman, she looks to the stars for solace from her life. As they reoccur, they represent different parts of her life and the unreachable and limitless occupation for an unfulfilled woman. At one point Henry tells her that he understands “[she] lives her life by the stars”(123), which is true because, she surfaces in and out of terrestrial circumvention, much like the night sky. She is film sleepers, supposed. Romantic Love in William Shakespeare#x27;s As You Like it and Twelfth Night. Even so quickly may one catch the conflict poems, plague?

Methinks I feel this youth’s perfections With an invisible and subtle stealth To creep in at mine eyes. Responsibility. Well, let it be. (Twelfth Night, I.v.285-288) An analogous incident occurs in As You Like It, when the character of Phoebe becomes infatuated with the poems, female Rosalind, who is also disguised as a man. After Phoebe’s first meeting with Rosalind (whom she believes to be the. Comparison of what is civic responsibility, Fellini#x27;s Nights of Cabiria and La Dolce Vita Essay example. The first shot of La Dolce Vita tells us so much about the state of Roman society, about Marcello's life and pursuits. It tells us of the conflict, loose religious and film sleepers moral values that the film follows.

The first shot of Nights Of Cabiria shows us a woman that is taken advantage of and pushed in the river, symbols of baptism and redemption, which constantly reappear in Fellini's films. She is then rescued and instantly becomes aware of what had happened. Both sequences reflect almost the conflict poems, entire story. Cabiria. Husain Haddawy’s The Arabian Nights and Zora Neale Hurston’s Mules and Men. and Men was essentially a rite of passage, instrumental in both Hurston’s personal growth as well as her career as an whale icon ambassador between traditional southern African-American culture and the rest of the world.

Haddawy translates The Arabian Nights for many reasons, but similar to Hurston, by poems translating them he also attempts to reconcile the Arabic culture of his childhood with the English culture in which he comes to live. Coefficient Of Linear Expansion. In Haddawy’s introduction, he recounts to the audience how as a child.

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Topic 9: Safety and conflict, risk management in oil and gas industry. Discussion Topic 9: Safety and whale icon, risk management in conflict poems, oil and gas industry. Present HSE Regulation Regime on faulty Premise. HSE Success in managing major Hazards is not measured by the role media in a, the Occupational Health and Safety Statistics but by poems, measuring the performance of critical systems used to control risks to ensure they are operating as intended. This statement is a very powerful statement and town of leader, i want to stand on the premise that it should form the basis of assessing and poems, formulating regulation regimes. However let us look at the sensitive details of this statement and compare to what has been the safety approach historically. Safety Statistics - HSE says whatever models we have as a measure of of the in a democratic society success in poems, safety appraoch it should not be based on whether an accident eventually occured or not or how many times it occured but on the measurment systems predefined. but if we look at the the film sleepers history of conflict poems safety regulation and Legistion from the First known safety Legislation in what is civic responsibility, 1862 the poems incident of the beam of a pumping Engine at Hartley Colliery in Northumberland land which broke the only mineshaft and means of ventillation, 204 miners suffocated and of the in a society, died. that gave birth to mining Legislation two years later that required every seam in a mine to have two shafts or outlets to the present goal getting (Safety Case) Regime, which is as a result of the piper Alpha incident, it is historically obvious that the only reason why regulators feel that there is a need for reviev is after a major disaster. So in the real sense Legislation has always been on the basis of safety statistics. Measuring the performance of critical control systems : If I try to understand what this means it tries to say that Safety process and conflict poems, systems should adopt PROACTIVE Measures rather reactive measures. Whale Icon! In other words we should be able to estimate the lets says probabilisticaly to effectiveness of the system even before any incident is likely to occur.

This brings us to poems, my main Point if we need to determine the performance of whale icon a safety systems proactively and every single Legislation/Regulation approach in history has always been a reactive approach then the Premise upon which the conflict poems safety Regime has been built though has been quite effective is yet faulty and what is civic responsibility, requires urgent reviews. I am sure that is why these Accidents keep reoccuring and reoccuring even when we think we have made significant progress we still continue to have accident(The Marcondo Well 2010 ) . Proactive measures rather than reactive measures. In addition to conflict, Michael Saiki's point on our current reactive measures to town of leader, safety instead of a proactive one, here are some of the accidents that have occurred and how they continue to poems, show our reactive attitude to town of leader, safety in the industry. March 28, 1980, Alexander Keilland capsized and sank off the conflict poems coast of Norway in the North Sea killing 123 people. After the disaster, Norway changed its legislation to the safety case approach. [1] [2]. February 15, 1982, Ocean Ranger capsized and sank off the coast of Newfoundland in the Canadian waters killing 84 crew members on board. Nobody on the rig survived the accident. Canada also adopted the safety case approach to improve the safety in its offshore operations [1] [3]. July 6, 1988, Piper Alpha exploded in UK waters in the North Sea killing 167 people. The Piper Alpha disaster was the worst offshore disaster in terms of death toll and its impact on of steel the offshore oil industry.

After this disaster, the UK also overhauled its offshore industry and came up with its Offshore Installations Safety Case Regulations [1] [4]. However, not until the recent Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster which occurred on April 20, 2010, the safety legislation in the US has not been reviewed to poems, adopt a mandatory safety case approach instead of the prescriptive approach currently been used [1]. How many more human lives are we going to sacrifice before the regulators and operators alike adopt a more proactive approach? said it right. Though the town of leader HSE regulations have been so far appreciably effective, they are somewhat more reactive than proactive. Over the years it has been obviously. known that there is a need for a step to step procedure in achieving an conflict, effective. proactive HSE culture.

Many efforts towards this have shown that it will also. take personal commitment and self-responsibility on Palatine Hill Essay the part of the HSE. regulators as well as operators to achieve this. The Reactive HSE Culture is. concerned with ‘what went wrong?’ In other words, any improvement in HSE. performance is only due to learning from incidents after they occurred.

This is. still a common approach worldwide despite evidence that with this model it is. not possible to achieve continuous HSE performance improvement. The main challenge. here is with the reporting and conflict poems, monitoring processes. Reporting tools provide. data only after accidents have occurred. These accidents may be health, safety, security and/or environment.

The reportage of these incidents are mostly classified. as ‘accidents’ and ‘near-misses’. However, because the significant potential of. the near-misses can be hardly realized, it is film sleepers, not reported properly and this. can translate into undesired consequences.

To have safe oil and conflict, gas productions, it is expedient that HSE regulations. become as proactive as possible and shouldn’t wait for the occurrence of an what is civic, accident. to revive or review regulations, just like the conflict poems case of the piper alpha incident. Safety and risk management in oil and Palatine Essay, gas industry. In addition to the on going discussion we will observe that safety in the oil and gas industry has never been taken to heart till on conflict the 27th December 1965 when the what is civic Sea Gem Sanked and 13 lives were lost. The major routine before this incident was just to collect a licence from the conflict then government and start exploring and exploiting this mineral resource from the whale icon seabed without knowledge of the implications to poems, Health, Safety and the Evironment.

No measures was put in place until a woke up call of the 27th December incident of 1965. Learning from this, its obvious that this era’s were practically reactive in their approach to safety. What Is Civic Responsibility! A little further into the early 80’s on February 15, 1982, Ocean Ranger capsized and sank off the coast of Newfoundland in conflict, the Canadian waters killing 84 crew members on board. At this time their was again a need for a wake up call because of another reactive approach to safety. It will be taught that a lot of lessons should have been learnt from what is civic responsibility all this reactive approach pertaining to the oil and gas safety measures and their have been a mitigation plan in place to stop reoccurrence.

But instead it was another blow on April 20, 2010 the Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster. T he Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster of April 20, 2010 . Now the question here is that: 1. Why is poems, it that the incident is allowed to whale icon, happen or occur before we start thinking of solution . 2. Are we really learning from the lessons or we are just busy documenting for record purposes. I called this approach a reactive one. A proactive approach should be in place if there is no one available or it should be improved than its current state or measures. It should involve ways of identifying the conflict following:

1. Is Civic Responsibility! Stringent assessment of environmental impacts; 2. A safety system that requires industry to identify hazards, assess the risks and follow best practice to manage them; and 3.Comprehensive emergency response framework. At the same time, their should be a review panel highlighting the importance of continuous improvement and poems, the scope for raising standards through: 1. strengthening mechanisms to assure implementation of Palatine Hill safety and conflict poems, environmental management systems; 2. improving the learning culture and processes for spreading best practice; 3. Of The Media Society! greater integration between the conflict regulatory authorities; 4. a clearer command and is civic responsibility, control structure in the event of a spill; 5. robust arrangements to ensure operators’ level of liability and ability to pay in the event of a spill; and. 6. intensified RD to develop improved avoidance, capping, containment, clean-up and impact monitoring of major. offshore oil spill incidents. Proactive intergrity management approach to conflict, Safety and Risk measures will be the only way safety of the oil and of the in a society, gas industries can be most guaranteed in the nearest future as against reactive approach. Or else we will be learning again. Regulators responsible for conflict poems accidents and fatalities! I see the comments about a reactive vs proactive approach in coefficient expansion, the offshore oil industry but I hate to break it to you that it is not likely that we will move to a more proactive approach anytime soon.

I think regulators and Oil majors would definitely tell us what we want to poems, hear but in principle, it is not likely that anything would change. THE PROACTIVE APPROACH STARTS WITH THE REGULATORS. I will take the Deep water horizon accident for example. We know that on offshore installations, blowout preventers (containing powerful shear rams designed to cut through the drilling rigs’ steel pipe and the role of the media in a society, shut off a well that has gone out of control) are installed to conflict poems, provide redundancy if all else fails. In 2001, the Minerals Management service, commissioned a study that revealed over 100 failures in the testing of blow out preventers and coefficient of linear of steel, were advised by experts to enforce the operation of TWO SHEAR ARMS in blow out preventers for all offshore installations. . Historically as with enforcement agencies (The Energy department ignored recommendations to apply offshore, the CIMAH regulations already in place onshore in 1975, and we know how their ignorance paid off) they ignored the advice and one wonders if this second shear ram was present, maybe, just maybe the deep water horizon accident would have been avoided. Controversial reports alleged that the poems Mineral Management service neglected to enforce a rule that required oil companies to the role media in a democratic society, provide evidence periodically showing that their shear rams did in fact work – (New York Times, June, 20, 2010). What makes it worse is that, the same article in conflict poems, 2010, said that at the time, roughly two-thirds of the rigs in the gulf still had only one shear ram as opposed to TWO as prescribed by experts in 2001. Film Sleepers! I bet if another survey was carried out today, that fraction would be the same and these companies are still in operation). Correct me if I am wrong but I think the regulators are given a free/lenient pass when an accident occurs and it is the oil companies that fact the conflict wrath of the media, public, and the same regulatory bodies.

I think the regulators do not come under enough fire and this is why their lapses are ignored and downplayed. The regulators only react to incidents and accidents instead of being proactive. Whale Icon! And finally to answer the question about how many more human lives must be lost…. My answer is conflict poems, more from more accidents until somebody starts to hold regulators more responsible. I totally agree with the theme of this comment. Who regulates the regulators ? It is not surprising to learn that many of the regulatory agencies / bodies have very close ties to democratic, oil companies or share holdings even but there appears to conflict poems, be a very unclear and uncontrolled policing of the the role media regulators and conflicts of interest aplenty. Is there any examples of successful regulation ? every example i can think of seems to conflict, have failed in a huge way. Banking, Politics, Media/TV/Newspapers. Medicine and Science seem to do it from within almost and appear at first glance to use the whale icon profession to manage the professionals ? Is education, certification and professional memberships the best means of identifying and nurturing the conflict poems best attitudes and cultures that will ensure that industries are policed effectively. The US really uses prescriptive regulation which can result in companies waiting to be caught and punished whereas the UK safety case and of the democratic society, PFEER regs push the conflict poems companies to PROVE their safety and risk management practices. NPD and PSA in Norway employ a similar regime whereby performance based regulations, standards and processes are applied as frameworks for companies to work within, monitoring their own management systems with auditable assitance obtained or periodically enforced by whale icon, the agencies eg DNV.

Who does it best ? Does UK/Norway do it best ? The US is now looking at UK/Norway as they seek to make step changes in conflict, their command and control structures and regulatory systems. Should there be GLOBAL regulations ? to whale icon, protect OUR WORLD and FUTURE ? Is this workable ? SUT event Macondo - Lessons and conflict poems, implications for the North Sea You may like to attend the Hill Essay SUT event Macondo - Lessons and implications for the North Sea on next Wednesday (10 October) and challenge the speaker. Whilst I agree with some of the points raised in poems, this discussion thread, I would like to highlight one of the many proactive programmes that the UK HSE are currently undertaking to tackle issues identified in the offshore indutry. Given a large number of the offshore platforms in the North Sea have now exceeded or are close to whale icon, exceeding their original design life, it is poems, recognised that there is an increased likelihood of equipment and asset integrity failures due to material degradation. This has the potential to lead to whale icon, an increase in major accidents if not addressed. Strategy for KP4 - Ageing and life extension inspection programme 2010 - 2013 [1] is a strategy aimed at conflict poems, promoting awareness of the film sleepers issues associated with ageing plant in the offshore oil and gas industry. The specific objectives of the strategy are: - to conflict, raise awareness within the offshore industry of the responsibility need for specific consideration of ageing issues as a distinct activity within the asset integrity management process and, in particular, of the need for senior management to demonstrate leadership on and commitment to this matter; - to define a programme of poems inspection of individual duty holder approaches to the management of ageing and life extension to ascertain the extent of compliance with the regulatory requirements;

- to identify shortcomings in duty holder practices on the management of ageing and life extension and enforce an appropriate programme of remedial action; - to work with the offshore industry to whale icon, develop a ‘best practice’ common approach to the management of ageing installations and life extension, including the development of poems long-term plans, for implementation in safety cases and thorough reviews, to ensure the continued safe operation of all ageing offshore installations on the UKCS.[1] In support of these objectives the Offshore Safety Directorate are actively undertaking inspections, developing standards and conducting further research into the area. To me this demonstrates an extremely proactive approach to one of the biggest challenges facing the industry over the coming decade. I encourage you to read the KP4 document referenced below and welcome any further discussion. Sure Andrew, the regulations even further demand that the duty holder reviews the safety case to ensure it’s still a live document, sound and applicable to the current conditions. This is another example of how proactive the HSE regulations get. Palatine Hill! For proof of this I quote this from the KP4 strategy that Andrew has touched on in his post; “Regulation 13 of the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (OSCR) requires duty holders to conflict poems, thoroughly review current safety cases within five years of the previous acceptance or review, to whale icon, confirm that the safety case as a whole continues to be fundamentally sound, and continues to demonstrate the effective identification, management and control of major accident hazard risks on conflict the installation, as described in Paragraph 187-190 of the of the media democratic L30 Guide to OSCR 2005.” And again one of the main aims and objectives of this KP4 strategy on ALE is to identify areas of improvement and further encourage these improvements in ALE management. KP4 Strategy, Ageing Life Extension Inspection Programme For Offshore Installations 2010 - 2013. Proactive Approach by HSE Industry.

I agree with Andrew and Ambrose on the proactive approach of the poems HSE. However, an whale icon, interesting dimension to the work of the Health Safety Executive, even though they are the regulators is conflict poems, that they also sponsor research and provide guidance to the industry through research-oriented papers to advance knowledge for the industry, document their concerns especially in particular areas, and present a focus of engagement between the regulators and the industry. Through their wealth of publication, they engender positive knowledge sharing and encourage use of best practise. Other pro-active measures will have to whale icon, be by the industry itself. Conflict! The industry coming together to help each other by sharing experiences. Media Society! The experiences of most operators are similar in most cases and there are common themes to issues being experienced by operators.

The Step Change in Safety is a forum that provides an opportunity for an industry approach to address such topical issues. An example is the production of the Hydrocarbon Release Reduction Toolkit produced by conflict poems, the Step Change in Safety which contains good practice techniques to what is civic responsibility, assist operations in reducing HCRs . The type of Joint Industry solution to topical issues such as happened post Macondo in the UK for example where there was the conflict set up of the Oil Spill Prevention and is civic, Response Advisory Group (OSPRAG) to fund and procure a well capping device and enhance the UK’s capability to conflict poems, respond to a major, sustained release of oil. These four dimensional risk management parameters, which I. call the necessary evils, are always. in constant interaction in our engineering systems. Film Sleepers! We need to clearly identify. their roles in everyday operations.

The difficulty of. detection brings us to Uncertainties. which begin from ‘known unknowns’ to “unknown unknowns. In our industry, we deal with multi-disciplinary capital intensive facilities/operations which. have many latent hazards. Poems! To ensure safety, reliability and to make economic. sense therefore, we need pragmatic and conscientious approach in confronting.

these challenges, hence a risk management programme which involves risk and. In doing risk analysis, probability. models, reliability theories and Hill, statistical inference (which considers amongst. others the frequency of occurrence) provide. a practical approach in identifying and quantifying the occurrence of poems these.

uncertainties. These tools look at the likelihood of the uncertainties. occurring (probabilities assessment), how often ( frequency ) they are likely to occur and the impact of the undesired consequences should the expansion of steel uncertainties. occur/events fail (consequence assessment). Amongst others, some of the tools.

that help to analyse these four necessary evils in conflict, risk management are the Bow-tie. Analysis model [1] and of linear of steel, Swiss Cheese Analysis model [2]. to further strengthen the discussion i would like to say that we cannot say that we have an effective safety management regime if we put the responsibilty of conflict poems safety solely on the Employers and Industry as is the case in this present Regime. The implication of this is of linear, that the Industry or employers are driven by profit oriented objective and shareholders value chain. In other words as much as safety is a serious issue, with the owners it is only as it affects their operation and profitability. especially in conflict, the subsea sector where every operation is of the in a democratic society, capital intensive.

From the perspective cost Safety, Reliability and Integrity management processes have huge impacts on OPEX and CAPEX. and thus every employer seeks to minimize this cost. Therefore, there should be efforts towards redesigning the regulation/legislation regime to conflict poems, something that would would sorth of share responsibility with the State and other stake holders in every safety model developed for offshore/subsea installation and production systems. Especially now that E P is going offshore. Or should we wait until we have another High impact accident before we begin another Regime. After Deep Water Horizon Incident - Reactive. After deep water horizon incident, several. researches and measurements had been performed.

In UK, Oil Spill Prevention and. Response Advisory Group (OSPRAG) had been organized by industrial personnel. from operators, vendors, and institutions. Film Sleepers! Purpose was reviewing well integrity. in UK continent shelf and emergency response to oil spill. Technical group evaluate.

and review the safety of poems well design and operation in each field. Well capping. device had been developed for whale icon the well control purpose. Emergency response. group review the response system and poems, check whether they have enough material. for use for cleaning operation. UK industry co-ordinated its response to the issues arising from the Gulf of.

Mexico incident by Palatine, structuring OSPRAG’s work according to four priorities: • Preventing the possibility of an. escape of hydrocarbons from conflict a well. • Minimising the length of time and. volume of any escape of well hydrocarbons. • Ensuring effective spill response. • Ensuring sufficient financial. arrangements are in place to cover the response to any spill” [1]

In order to meet their priorities, they are. sharing the best practice and developing new device. The Role Of The In A Democratic! Initiation was reactive. but subsequent action would be effective in preventing or minimizing future. incidents. Proactive measures are the best for minimizing catastrophic. But at. the same time reactive measures would be also required for poems preventing same type. [1] Oil Spill Prevention and Response. Changhwan, I will like to highlight the point you raised above on Minimising the length of time and. volume of any escape of well hydrocarbons.

At a recent event organised by the Society for Underwater Technology (SUT) titled “Macondo - Lessons and implications for the North Sea”, Brian Kinkead, a Consultant and Lead of the what responsibility Technical Review Group which produced the OSPRAG capping device, gave a presentation on the development of the OSPRAG cap [1]. Approximately 6 weeks ? That is conflict poems, approximately half the time it took BP to responsibility, cap the Macondo oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico without any Emergency Response Plan (ERP). What I will like to highlight here is even though we have an ERP in poems, place, it will still take this long to cap a well in the North Sea. How many thousands of barrels of oil would have spilled into the sea, how many marine life would have been lost, what extent would this spill have covered, and what will be the town of leader cost of cleaning up a spill which has been running for about 6 weeks? I’m sure cost will be a limiting factor for the response to take that long. Why don’t we increase the conflict poems cost and reduce the time in order to save lives and protect our environment.

SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT: RANK THE TOP TEN SEVERE ENERGY RELATE. 1 The Chinese Mining Industry : in 2008 there were 3000 deaths these included Zhenghou; 25 deaths, Shanxi 38 deaths…and the whale icon lis goes on. The underlying issue here appears to be lack of regulations and hence less regard for workers well being before profit. Many of the accidents are attributable to poisonous or volatile gases. Chinese government has blamed illegal production and although safety improvements and poems, procedures are being introduced they are still very often ignored.

Until Government can enforce these, the situation is unlikely to improve. The PRC government see the enforcement costly, and difficult due to expansion of steel, geographical problems associated with enforcement. For example many of the mines are located in rural areas that are remote and difficult to access. It appears that this growing economy still has a long way to go achieve safety standards that we in Europe are accustomed to. 2 St Frances dam break 1928 resulting in 450 deaths, and the destruction of the town of Santa Paula. The cause was found to be a result of an conflict, ancient geological landslide on the eastern side of the dam. Town Of Leader! The 1920’s technology was not advanced enough to identify this. The damn collapsed as a result of the full hydrostatic load in the reservoir after a heavy rainfall. Conflict Poems! Thus exerting excess stress to the eastern side.

To put this into perspective; the construction’s foundations were unsuitable on the eastern side of the dam and collapse was certain. The release of the Flood wave said to be in excess of 40m cascaded the town of Santa Paula. Town Of Leader! During the inquiry there was conflict between the Government departments, the geologists and the design and conflict poems, engineering departments. The hearings in the aftermath recommended that the construction and operation of a great dam should never be left to responsibility, the sole judgment of one man, 3 Piper Alpha 187 deaths.

Lead to radical change in regulations for offshore installations. The incident was said to have been caused by miscommunication during a maintenance operation on a Pressure relief valve. This was said to have been moved from a gas compression module and poems, replaced by a blind flange. The flange was only hand tightened as the operations were said not to restart until later in the day. When they did restart the Valve was missing and the flange was still only media in a democratic society, hand tight. Ignition was then imminent. Hence there was no procedural “lock out” or isolation as would be the case today. The Cullen report was issued in the aftermath and a series of recommendations were implemented; including the necessity for Duty Holders to produce a safety case.

The introduction of several Statutory instruments were also introduced which regulated the design and conflict poems, construction of whale icon offshore installations. Initially this was regulated by the Dept of Energy but nowadays it is policed by the Health Safety Executive. The report was also critical of Piper Alpha's operator, Occidental, who were found guilty of having inadequate maintenance and safety procedures. But no criminal charges were ever brought against them. Had these safety procedures been implemented and practiced there would have been a strong possibility that more workers could have escaped, but more importantly; the incident may never had occurred.

4 Aberfan ; Waste coal product that was stock piled adjacent to poems, a primary school. After a spell of poor whether the whale icon waste and deluge had cascaded; as would a normal landslide, and buried the primary school. 116 children and poems, 28 adults were killed. Today we are aware that such a pile would be hazardous but back in 1966 this was not the case. The government appointed Mines Inspectorate were only whale icon, employed to ensure that the mines themselves were safe. Lord Robens the Chairman of the NCB had been seen to be callas by conflict poems, the public and did not visit the film sleepers site until his return from conflict poems holiday. Indeed when ordered to make the site safe he used ?150000 from the public donations fund to film sleepers, remove the waste to safe disposal. Poems! The following Davies Inquiry had found the NCB responsible for whale icon this disaster and the Government had introduced Her Majesty’s inspectorate of mines and poems, quarry’s, along with new legislation. During Tony Blairs reign as Prime Minister the ?150,000 was returned to film sleepers, the fund with an apology but no interest was paid. The disaster itself happened very quickly without any prior warning. The timing unfortunately played a key role as the conflict poems children in Palatine, the school were all assembled in the main school hall, which was directly in the “line of sight” of the land slide.

That day the visibility was said to be 50m but clear at conflict poems, the top of the heap. The previous wet weather had played a big part in releasing the product. 5 Alexander L Kielland : a Norwegian drill rig that capsized due to fatigue fractures on the structures cross braces. 123 deaths. In 1980 the media in a democratic platform had just completed a campaign at poems, EDDA and was anchored offshore when the weather had seen 40 knot winds with 12m waves. Whist the majority of the 200 workers on board were off duty in the cinema, a loud crack was observed and it transpired that 5 out of 6 of the anchor chains had broke and the platform started to capsize.

The list increased during which time the film sleepers workers had tried to evacuate but experienced major difficulties releasing the conflict poems life crafts. The Role Of The! In fact of the 50 life crafts on board only one was successfully launched. Whilst the evacuation was in poems, progress the final anchor had gave way, and the structure capsized. Investigations found that a small fillet weld to attach a hydrophone bracket to a cross brace was incompletely welded and thus caused a stress point in the cross brace. This had failed causing the whale icon bracing to collapse in the attributed storm. It was later found that the design of the platform had not allowed for any redundancy in its structure. Conflict Poems! Furthermore the evacuation procedures were criticised and the lessons learned from coefficient expansion of steel this had been implemented in the OPITO type safety training we know today. Finally the one contribution that may well had been the route cause of the accident, is that the platform was originally built as an accommodation module only and had makeshift modifications applied to it for oil exploration. 6 Greymouth Pike River Mine New Zealand, underground explosion resulting in 29 deaths.

A total of 4 explosions were detected. The cause of the explosions are still unclear but were there is poems, definitive evidence of an abundance of Methane Gas present. The possible safety measures not used in the Pike River Mine were; a tube bundling gas measurement system, stocks of town of leader food and water, breathing apparatus, and a second entrance. These are mandatory requirements in UK mining but it is conflict, still unclear whether this was a key factor in the loss of whale icon these lives. The Investigation is conflict poems, still ongoing. 7 Deep Water Horizon / Macondo Gas blow out. Appears to be failure of safety equipment to function in what, an emergency resulting in poems, 11 deaths and a catastrophic environmental disaster.

Investigation is still ongoing. Latest reports suggest that procedures were not followed and Safety equipment such as blow out preventers were not fully tested before use. The Whitehouse oil spill commission leading the inquiry has collectively blamed Halliburton, Transocean and BP for what making time and money savings whist compromising the integrity of the well. Some of the failures in procedures included failure to run cement bond tests , the use of conflict poems a cement diagnostic tool, ignoring failed pressure tests etc. The committee did not, however, place the blame on any one of these events. More so it concluded with the following statement blaming the management of Macondo “Better management of decision-making processes within BP and Palatine Hill Essay, other companies, better communication within and between BP and its contractors and effective training of key engineering and rig personnel would have prevented the Macondo incident” The jury is still out with this incident and poems, I can only assume that more evidence will be revealed as the litigation process continues. 8 Fukushima Nuclear power station . Japan’s coastline was exposed to an unprecedented Tsunami resulting in the meltdown of 3 of the reactors and widespread radiation leakage. There were 37 injuries at the time of the incident although it is too early to establish the full extent of long term effects. Even though this was a disaster caused by a natural phenomena, lessons can still be learned from the what is civic event.

9 Chernobyl ; Ukraine former eastern block nuclear explosion in reactor 4 resulting in an initial 31 deaths and a radioactive leak that has lead to illnesses and fatalities including thyroid cancer. There was a sudden power output surge, and when an emergency shutdown was attempted, a more extreme spike in power output occurred, which led to a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. The INSAG (The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) had concluded that there were gross violations of regulations but the USSR state committee had disagreed and reassessed the causes. Conflict Poems! They state that the INSAG’s assessment was too erroneous and stated that items such as the turning off of emergency systems is not a violation. The Role Of The Media! Following the accident, questions arose about the future of the plant and its eventual fate. All work on the unfinished reactors 5 and 6 was halted three years later. However, the conflict poems trouble at the Chernobyl plant did not end with the disaster in reactor 4. This reactor was sealed off in concrete whist the other reactors were still in service due to the energy shortage created by the disaster. 10 Iraq gulf war . Environmental tragedy deliberately induced by the Saddam Husain Regime where the onshore oil fields were set alight.

The disaster is man made as a result of a political war that today is seen by many as illegal. Husain had ordered the wells to be set alight to of linear expansion, ensure the poems oil was not taken by his enemies. Apart from the odd exception in the above top ten; such the Fukashima disaster (which was the product of a natural phenomena), the remaining disasters have one thing in common. They were all avoidable. The avoidance of these disasters can be attributable to people’s behaviour. For example, if correct procedures or even best practice was executed on Piper alpha the platform may have still been producing today. Film Sleepers! If the Chinese mining regulations’ were followed maybe many of the fatalities would have been averted. Today many of the Energy Company’s and Main Contractors are focusing more on Behaviour Safety. The thought behind this is to encourage employees to alter their unsafe habits regardless of how great or small the consequences may be. Conflict Poems! This may be as simple as holding the hand rail whilst ascending or descending a stairwell. The concept here is Palatine Essay, that; whilst tools are available such as procedures, risk assessments, correct equipment etc, there is a need to focus on correct use; ie follow procedures, use equipment as instructed by manuals etc.

To put this concept in conflict poems, perspective consider a situation where you have just put your new shoes on film sleepers for a night out. Your lace is undone and unnoticed. You are then descending a stairwell and you trip. Case 1: you are not holding the hand rail, and conflict poems, the likely consequences from an inevitable fall could be anything from a minor injury, serious injury that may have lifetime affects or even death. Case 2 you are holding the hand rail and Palatine Hill Essay, you trip. Conflict! The natural body reaction would be to tighten the grip on the hand rail reducing the likelihood of a fall. Indeed the likelihood is whale icon, that you would probably end up in a sitting position on the stair with a few bruises or a sprained wrist from the grip. The same concept can be applied in any work or play situation where our behaviour is changed to reduce or eliminate the risk.

Safety and Equipment Management In Oil and Gas Industry. Oil and gas industry is a broad industry that is divided into two sector namely upstream and downstream sector. While upstream sector is marjorly offshore base and deals in exploration and conflict, process of film sleepers crude oil and poems, gas, it poses equal amount of risks to human in comparison to downstream sector which is onshore base in most cases and engages in further processing and refining crude oil and gas. In oil and gas industry, the the role in a democratic society most highly rated hazards in term of severity of consequencies are highly combustable and conflict poems, toxic hydrocardon gas and flammable liquid, the crude oil itself. The concept of safety in town of leader, design make provisions for these hazards to be safely confined in conflict, their paths of movement and containments without or with control exposure to environment. Some of the whale icon accidents that have occurred on offshore facilities includes: - 2001 - P36, sinking of semi-submersible, 11 fatalities. -2005 - Bombay High, ship collision with platform and conflict, riser fire, 22 fatalities. -2007 - Usumacinta, jack up collision with platform, 22 fatalities.

Similar events have also occurred on onshore facilities. Recent examples include: -2003 - Chongqing, sour gas blow out, 243 fatalities. - 2004 - Skikda, explosion on film sleepers LNG plant, 27 fatalities. -2005 - Texas City, explosion on refinery isomerisation unit, 15 fatalities. - 2009 - Nigeria, pipeline explosion, 100 fatalities. -2009 - Jaipur, explosion in conflict poems, gasoline storage area, 12 fatalities.

- 2010 – Congo, gasoline road tanker overturned, 230 fatalities. (source: RPS Energy, Preventing Major Accidents in film sleepers, Oil and Gas Industry, Nov 2010) However, the integrity of conflict these hazard containments are compromised by a number of factors that cause their unplanned release to environment with undesired consequencies. Some of these factors include: - Human interference while carrying out day to Hill, day activities on these containments. - Equipment failure or malfunctioning. - Deterioration of fixed equipment due to ageing. In broader view all other factors are embedded in conflict, these four main factors. Human error is a major factor while interfacing with these containments. Major oil and gas companies have put in place a number of behavioural base safety program incorporated into their overall HSE program, behavioural base safety programs are geared towards educating the workforce the consequencies of their actions when dealing with these equipment. Whale Icon! Also, commonly used is poems, a system of work permit system and equipment isolation procedure to prevent unplanned release of hazrds from their containment.

Also standard equipment repair procedure should be in film sleepers, place, if properly followed, the likelihood of making fatal mistake by personnel while working on these equipment would be reduced. Adequate training for all equipment operators play importantly role in safe operation of facilities. In most cases, accidents occur as result of monitoring equipment malfunctioning, adequate preventive maintenance program should be a major focal point of top management to conflict, ensure that all the control and measuring devices are functioning as designed and what is civic, function within normal operating range. Also, a program like SERIP (Surface Equipment Reliability and poems, Integrity Process) enhances close monitoring of pressure vessles and other static equipment. Kareem R. Saheed. Still on what is civic the theme of the obvious lapses in the regulations guarding health and safety in the offshore oil and gas industry today, i want to highlight a new perspective to it.

Do the oil companies truly have value for the lives of conflict employees, third party contractors and the environment?? The answer is NO. What Responsibility! These companies are required by law to have in place the fanciest HSE policies and procedures, HSE deprtments, draw up safety cases and poems, mitigation methods, all these requirements they fulfill, but the bottomline remains that these companies push the limits of nature and whale icon, technology to squeeze out ALL resources possible from the poems noth sea(oil and natural gas) to satisfy shareholders and various boards of what responsibility directors. Various reports have shown that the oil rigs in the North sea are FALLING APART with most of them having exceeded their design lifespans(most installed in 60's and conflict, 70's) and even the more recent ones lagging behind in scheduled maintenance programmes. these companies are rolling out funds to of linear expansion of steel, push the limits of technilogy to extend even further ALREADY EXPIRED INSTALLATIONS and in the process jeopardizing the lives of conflict employees, third party staff in the pursuit of continuous production. It is not rocket science, you can only push equipment so far(maintenance, extending useful life) at some point, equipment would FAIL. In my reading about the TOTAL Elgin gas leak earlier this year, an artile in the daily mail revealed that employees on the platform had expressed safety concerns predicting a gas leak less than a month before the accident bu employers had assured that should a leak occur, there were adequate safety systems to protect lives of employees at risk. Whale Icon! Thankfully no lives were lost as all employees on the platform were evacuated on time, but my point is this. Operations in the area are risky by default, why knowingly expose employees to even higher risk profiles and hope that safety systems would protect them in the event of an accident? I think regulators have a lot to do in terms of ensuring oi majors reduce risk exposure of employees to the barst minimum regardless of revenue sacrificed or safety systems in place.

Personally, I think the UK offshore safety system places too much. trust in oil companies and contain risky assumptions like, “an allowable death. rate of conflict one in every thousand workers”. Recent statistics from the HSE has. shown a major decrease in the fatality and major injuries of responsibility workers for. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon Rig, which killed 11 workers. and disaster to poems, the environment, it was not just to oil companies that were to. be blamed. Town Of Leader! Fingers too were pointed at the enforcement and regulators. The US.

after the conflict deepwater incident has considered adopting a safety system like the. UK, particularly as there have not been any major catastrophes since the 1988. Piper Alpha. It is obvious the system which the UK use is working but lets not. forget Oil rigs are practically apartment houses sitting on unpredictable. volcanoes. So rather than relying on facility specific and abstract. demonstrations that risk levels in certain circumstances will result in deaths.

of a number of workers, more emphasis should be based on the installation of. the best available “fail safe” technology and teaching the workers to whale icon, use them. Okechukwu Chukelu (51231798) Safety and risk management in Oil and poems, Gas Industry. The oil and gas industry. throughout all these years since its early days is whale icon, considered one of the conflict most. daring and among the is civic most dangerous occupations of conflict poems all time. Safety and whale icon, risk. management is considered vital in the oil and gas industry in order to avoid. and limit undesirable accidents. These accidents very often may conclude into.

serious injuries of the workers involved and also fatal in conflict, many occasions like. the history taught us throughout these years. In other words, safety and risk. management is to prevent undesirable disasters such as: The Piper Alpha disaster on 6 July 1988 in the.

North Sea, killing 167 workers. Gulf of Mexico oil spill on 20 April 2010, 11. people killed and huge environmental catastrophe occurred due to a well blowout. Texas City refinery explosion on 23 of March. 2005, 15 workers killed and more than 170 injured after an explosion.

Common factors in major accidents: Gaps in the industry’s safety culture. Lack of real commitment. to safety by leaders. Differentiation in management procedures may not. Insufficient analysis, design and optimization for. safety and hazard.

Gaps in communication while significant events. Insufficient learning from prior events and. The illusion of the low probability of an. accident to occur. In order to ensure the maximum. possible safety in the oil and gas industry, engineers and any other engaged. members in the oil and gas industry must perform in their highest level of.

engineering, operating and maintenance practices. Moreover, in order to prevent. major incidents from happening we must learn from the film sleepers past. Data and facts from. previous incidents must be analyzed in depth in order to uncover shortfalls and. gaps in conflict poems, the management system performance. Finally, monitoring is also very. important especially in multi-level barriers in order to prevent any possible. setback or incident from happening. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. COMMENT ONE:SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY.

In discussing health and safety in the oil. and gas industry as well as all other industries in general, I believe there. are a few inherent factors that need to be discussed. Factors such as the film sleepers purpose and conflict poems, procedures. for investigating incidents, and as has being point out by previous discussion. about the film sleepers reactive nature of the health and poems, safety system in general, ensuring. that lessons learnt can used to improve. Health and safety in the oil and film sleepers, gas industry. Emphasis needs to be placed on ensuring an.

effective system is in conflict poems, place to investigate incidents and near misses to. determine the root cause. This system Is. especially lacking in developing countries where most incidents are not properly. investigated. Also, it is pertinent to. ensure that all actions identified through investigations or shared incidents. are acted upon in a timely manner.

Regular reviews should always be done to Palatine Hill, not only ensure that. appropriate actions have been taken, but to also determine if any new finding will. manifest with new improvements in technology. All statistics and poems, data is properly recorded and town of leader, kept and conflict poems, last but not. least, ensure that information obtain from such incident investigation are.

shared to everyone to ensure a repeat of such an incident does not occur the. world over. One way of ensuring. uniformity and safety especially in developing countries is for world governing. bodies like OPEC (from an oil and gas perspective) to adopt a health and safety. management system and insist on all member states adopt that system. MSc Subsea Engineering.

COMMENT 2: SAFTEY AND RIST MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY. In discussing the above topic, I feel it would be beneficial. to identify some of the hazards inherent to the Oil and Gas industry. Some of these hazards include: Hazards associated with temperature and whale icon, flammable materials, taking special note of poems terminologies such as Flash point (lowest temperature at. which vapour above a volatile liquid form a combustible mixture with air); Flammability. and flammability limits (i.e. the film sleepers proportion of combustible gases in a mixture. with air.

This is usually categorised. into Upper flammable limit and Lower flammable limit. Other hazards worth mentioning include. Toxicity (which is the conflict poems degree to film sleepers, which a substance is able to damage an exposed. organism).

Toxic entities can be chemical, biological or physical. There are Skin Irritants which are stimuli or. agents which induce a state of irritation. Irritants are usually thought of as chemical agents but mechanical, thermal and radioactive stimuli (such as ultraviolet light or ionising. radiation) can also be irritants.

Also. substances with Carcinogenic properties such as asbestos, certain dioxins and. tobacco smoke are hazards which act as agents directly involved in causing. There are a host of other hazards such as Hydrogen, Methane, LPG, Nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide,

oxygen, additives (such as anti-foaming, anti-wetting agents), micro-biocides, corrosive preventatives, refrigerants, water/steam, the list goes on and all. contribute to hazards inherent to poems, the oil and gas industry. In the design of oil and gas plants, emphasis. is always placed on designs which either eliminate or minimise exposure/risk to. all/most of these hazards as low as is reasonably practicable. Source: HSE website and NEBOSH international Health and.

uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. SAFETY IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. Safety in the oil and town of leader, gas industry has been a concern to the world. Most of the concerns result from handling oil and gas industry and safety has. been a priority in conflict poems, this industry, major concerns have been raised because most. of the town of leader laws and regulations are driven by accidents happening e.g. the piper.

alpha in poems, 1988 had proper regulations been in place it would not have happened. UK offshore oil and gas industry is whale icon, a. major hazard industry; the sector demonstrates a relatively low lost time. injury rate and has, for many years, outperformed a number of comparatively lower. hazard industrial sectors in the UK. A report states that there were just two. fatalities in the UK offshore oil and gas industry and that was at conflict, the first UK. continental shelf fatalities in a four- year period. Human safety has been. given priority hence the reduction in the number of the role media society fatalities and injuries. Hydrocarbon release has also reduced drastically since the.

introduction of the conflict regulation on Palatine Hill their emissions.in 2010 , HSE started a. program to look into the reduction of hydrocarbon releases , in April 2012 HSE. published data to poems, show that the was a continued improvement in film sleepers, the reduction of. these emission. The reduction target was set for all hydrocarbon releases, it.

was noted that there was 40% decrease in major and significant releases and. this was attributed to the program. Another factor attributed to improvement. in safety in the sector was proper maintenance and repair of offshore plants. The. safety-critical parts of offshore installations are subject to a verification process. to ensure that they are suitable for their intended purpose and remain in conflict poems, good. condition and repair. Hill! These verifications are done by independent competent. FACTORS THAT FACILITATE MAJOR ACCIDENTS IN OIL AND GAS SECTOR. Common Factors in Major Accidents.

Major accidents share some common factors: Flaws in the safety culture of the organization and sometimes the whole industry: Organizational culture is the set of poems shared values and norms upon which decisions are based. What! Safety culture is simply that subset of the conflict overall culture that reflects the general attitude and approaches to safety and risk management. Safety culture is primarily set by the leaders of the organization as they establish the basic values upon which decisions will be based.Lack of real commitment to what, safety by leaders: Management commitment to safety has been found to be the most important factor in conflict, distinguishing between organizations with high and democratic, low accident rates [Leveson, 1995]. Nonexistent or not followed management of change procedures: A large percentage of major accidents occur after some change in conflict poems, the system or in coefficient of steel, the way it is operated. While most companies have management of change procedures on their books, these procedures are not always followed. Inadequate hazard analysis and design for safety: Instead of putting the conflict emphasis on designing safety into the system from the Palatine Hill Essay beginning, the major emphasis is instead placed on recovery from adverse events or investigating them after they occur.

Flawed communication and reporting systems: In a surprisingly large number of accidents, unsafe conditions were detected prior to the actual loss events or precursor events occurred but were not adequately reported or investigated so that the loss event could be prevented. Inadequate learning from prior events: Prior incidents and accidents are very often only superficially investigated. The symptoms of the underlying systemic causes of the accident or incident are identified as the cause of the events but not the underlying flawed processes or culture that led to those symptoms. Sidney Dekker, The Field Guide to Understanding Human Error, Ashgate Publishing, 2006. Charles Haddon-Cave, The Nimrod Review, HC 1025, London: The Stationery Office Limited, Oct. Conflict Poems! 28, 2009. Nancy Leveson, Safeware, Addison-Wesley Publishers, 1995. HOW TO MANAGE SAFETY IN THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR. Given this system and control view of safety, we can identify the flaws in the safety control structure that allowed the Deepwater Horizon accident to occur and what can be done to strengthen the overall offshore oil and whale icon, gas industry safety control structure. The general key to preventing these occurrences in the future is to provide better information for decision making, not just for the government regulators but for those operating the oil rigs. There are many changes that would be useful in strengthening the safety control structure and preventing future oil spills, these changes are:

Providing appropriate incentives to change the safety culture: Participants in industries like commercial aviation understand the direct relationship between safety and their profits and future viability. The relationship is not so clear in the off-shore oil industry.there also need to conflict, be incentives to update safety technology. The standard BOP design was less effective as exploration moved into deeper water and other technology changes occurred, but the industry ignored the many previous BOP failures and insisted that the design could not be improved industry standards: One of the film sleepers surprises that emerges in the investigation of an accident is the lack of standards in the industry, for example standards for cementing operations improved. Industry self-policing: Any government regulatory agency is limited in what it can accomplish. After Three Mile Island, the nuclear power industry created an industry organization, called INPO, to provide shared oversight of safety in the nuclear sector Certification and training: Another lesson learned from the poems investigation of the Deepwater Horizon accident is that some workers have minimal training and little certification is required. The changes needed here are obvious. Learning from events. A systems approach to accident and incident investigation needs to be implemented by everyone in the industry in order to improve the film sleepers learning and continual improvement process [Leveson, 2011]. Poems! we need to do the following: Hazard analysis: While the process industry has a very powerful hazard analysis technique, called HAZOP, the use of this technique is not as prevalent as it should be.

The results from is civic responsibility HAZOP need to be used to improve technological design and also passed to operations to poems, guide maintenance and performance audits. Film Sleepers! Maintenance: For the Macondo well, maintenance of safety-critical equipment, for conflict example on the BOP, was not performed as required for safety and as specified in the equipment standards. Regulatory agencies can only spot-check compliance. Ensuring that proper maintenance activities are performed is an town of leader, important activity for the company Safety Management System Integration of safety engineers into operational decision making: One of the surprises to me personally in the Deepwater Horizon investigations was the lack of conflict poems any operational safety group advising the decision makers on the platforms. If such a group existed, it did not play an important enough role to be mentioned in the description of the Hill Essay events that occurred. Industries with strong safety programs include a person or group that is poems, responsible for town of leader advising management at all levels of the organization on both long-term decisions during engineering design and development of new platforms and on poems the safety implications of film sleepers decisions during operations. In most other industries, a safety engineer would have been resident on the platform and involved in all the real time safety-related decision making.

this steps however should be followed to ensure an conflict poems, effective safety management system in the oil and gas sector to reduce the risks of accident occurenc. Nancy Leveson, Engineering a Safer World, MIT Press, to town of leader, appear fall 2011. Poems! In the meantime, a final draft can be downloaded from http://sunnyday.mit.edu/safer-world. Mike Martin and Roland Schinzinger, Ethics in Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1989. SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. Every day, the oil and gas industry contends with an array of safety concerns throughout its range of operations.

In the face of increasing regulatory oversight, as well as increased public scrutiny, oil and gas industries have implemented and are still implementing effective safety management systems to help protect their workers, the film sleepers general public and the environment. Poems! Oil and coefficient expansion of steel, gas companies have established specific systems, programs and processes to manage and monitor activities that affect their safety performance, management systems that support safety sustainability and business performance throughout the full life cycle of their assets. The following are some of the programs and systems used by oil and gas companies, to manage their safety performance:- 1. Integrated HSE management system design and conflict, development. 2. Incident and near-miss investigation. Companies adopt different tools for what is civic responsibility their near-miss and incident investigation. Conflict Poems! Root cause analysis (RCA), five (5)- why, are some of the tools used by oil and gas companies. 3. Management of change (MOC) system design. This is a system that is put in place to manage change –which may be a temporary or permanent change, especially if what to be change has a safety concern. 4. Permit to work system.

This is a system that is put in place to manage and control the day to day tasks that are carried out. Tasks that are likely to impact the safety of the personnel’s are further reviewed, so as to have more controls in whale icon, place and conflict poems, done in a safe manner. 5. Lock out and Tag out (LOTO). This is used to control personnel exposure to the various energy sources they are working with. Locks are fitted to either a mechanical or electrical isolation and can only be removed, when the tasks have been completed.

Tags are also used to create the same awareness as a lock. 6. Responsibility! Regulatory compliance audits. 7. Safety culture evaluation and conflict, training. 8. HSE training programs. Risk are inherent in every forward-looking business decision. As a result, there has been a great deal of is civic work done and resources invested in risk management in the oil and gas industry in conflict poems, recent years. Financial and the role in a democratic society, regulatory risks have been the focus of much of conflict this effort. Film Sleepers! But more recently, companies have started including operational risks, process safety risks, prioritizing them, and thinking about how they can manage and conflict, monitor all risks in a coordinated way. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to the specific company and the sectors in which it operates.

1. Hazard Identification and Hill Essay, evaluation. Conflict Poems! 2. Quantitative risk analysis. 1. Top 10 risks for what responsibility the oil and gas industry. www.spe.org . Oluwaseguu, I agree with the point that an conflict, effective risk management system must offer solution that is not only tailored to fit the Hill industry but must also be company specific. Leading Oil and Gas Companies like shell, Chevron etc have well established safety and Risk management systems that ensures that the safety of their operations are guaranteed. These companies most often have invested billions over the years in safety related matters. For such companies the measures you have outlined is easy to comply with. But what about smaller or emerging companies with smaller oil fields? The drive to make profits for shareholders may often override investment in Safety because it is expensive. In addition, more research must be put into improving the reliability of materials and conflict poems, systems used in the Oil and of the democratic society, gas industry. As efficiency of systems improve, safety also will improve.

I would like to add detail regards with HSE. Offshore industry had developed HSE training as part of safety management. Basic trainings are basic offshore safety induction and conflict poems, emergency training ( BOSIET ) and helicopter underwater egress training ( HUET ). As you know, helicopter. transportation is one of major risk in town of leader, the offshore work. These trainings are designed and. standardized by Offshore Petroleum Industry Training Organization ( OPITO ). Normally. training from center certified by OPTIO is accepted.

Certifications may be. required for poems offshore crew by town of leader, each company’s HSE policy, and then no one can. inboard without certifications if HSE policy is strictly complied. Also it. should be renewed every 3 years through re-training. In BOSIET participant will take class and exercise. for sea survival including evacuation, fire fighting and etc. In HUET, participants. will exercise escape from emergency landing at sea.

Of course, making a safety system is the. best but personnel should be well aware of coping skills in the emergency . I. believe safety training should be repeated more often not only from training. center but also from conflict site. Attention and training will lead minimum loss at.

COMMENT 3: SAFTEY AND RIST MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY. When talking about Health and safety in the oil and gas. industry, one major regulation comes to mind which is the Offshore Installation. (Safety Case)Regulation 2005 (SCR05)1. Extracting from the regulation, r.12 states: “Among other things, a duty holder is required to ensure; All hazards with the potential to cause a major. accident have been identified. All major accident risks have been evaluated; Measures have been or will be taken to control. the major accident risks to ensure compliance with the whale icon relevant statutory.

This also relates to our argument in class about who is to. blame when accidents/incident occur. Further to this, I thought it might to conflict, mention some of expansion of steel the. other relevant statutory regulations in the oil and gas industry. Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (HSWA). Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and. Explosions and conflict poems, Emergency Response) regulations 1995 (PFEER). Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and. Construction, etc) Regulations 1996 (DCR) Control of Major Accident Hazard Regulations.

EC Directive 96/82/EC on control of major. accident hazards involving dangerous substances. (Seveso II Directive). Chemical (Hazard Identification and Packaging for. Supply) Regulations 1994 as amended (CHIP2008). Control of Substances Hazardous to Health. Reporting of Injuries, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences. Regulations 1995. (RIDDOR) Please note this regulation buttressmy point in my earlier comment about the need for systematic approach to recording and reporting of incidents in the workplace. Please note my list might not be exhaustive and I welcome. any colleague to add to this list if aware of any other. uchenna onyia 51232632 MSc subsea engineering.

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Risk and safety management is becoming. increasingly important in film sleepers, oil and conflict poems, gas industry, especially many disasters happened. worldwide. In view of the higher risk of of the media society offshore oil gas compared with. that of onshore, I would like to focus more on offshore safety and risk. management. Poems! Generally, in technology management, it can be classified as six. steps: prevention, detection, control, prevention of escalation, protection and. EER (Evacuate, Escape and Rescue).

Meanwhile, other factors also can have. negative effect on safety and risk management, like wars, geopolitical reason. and natural disaster. In technology, prevention should be put a. lot of emphasis. The offshore facilities need to be designed according to coefficient of linear expansion, design. codes and standards. Measures.

taken both before design and construction as well as during construction should. prevent components from breaking down or failing to perform their design duty. Besides, hazard areas should be clearly categorized. Fire, explosion and. flow-over should be detected in time through detectors on platform. Once. hazards are detected, relative instruments, like fire protection, blowdown valves,

and ESD, should be activate immediately. In general, it is imperative for oil companies. to build and be operated under a comprehensive system which covers the whole. life cycle of oil and gas fields. If the system can not be executed strictly, it could result in disasters. Take BP’s oil spill in 2010 for conflict example, the.

horizontal deepwater accident killed 11 workers and. injured 16 others, as well as billions dollars loss for BP. extent, the above interior factors can be avoided or controlled if appropriate. measurements are taken. Nevertheless, some exterior factors like asset nationalization. by the government can hardly be anticipated and manipulated by companies.

In. 2007, Exxon-Mobil and film sleepers, ConocoPhillips lost billions. dollars in conflict, Venezuela. The identification of `safety culture' as a major contributor to industrial accidents. is beginning to responsibility, have a profound effect on conflict the way risk and safety are managed. within organisations. It suggests that the what is civic occurrence of accidents can be predicted on. the basis of certain factors that are indicative of the organisation's `state of safety'.

The oil and gas industry now faces its strongest set of challenges in terms of risk and compliance regulations. Conflict! Recent events such as the Essay BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico have further brought to light the presence and relevance of such regulations. Companies in the oil and gas industry must deal with their own unique set of risks, whether natural, man-made or operational, as part of their daily operations. Poems! The approach that works well at town of leader, an offshore installation may not be the best option for a refinery. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to the specific company and the sectors in conflict, which it operates. What dangers drilling operation occurs? What dangers drilling operation occurs? In this post I want to mention about the dangers that.

drilling operations occur. Drilling operations has one of the town of leader highest levels of. difficulty and workers are in a continuous danger. The personnel often make. mistakes during offshore drilling activities, including rotary drilling, well. servicing and use of oil field explosives. Those mistakes can result to. injuries or even to fatal accidents, but also could let to an oil release to.

the marine environment. Another problem that occurs in the drilling operations. is when the mud which is conflict poems, produced by of linear expansion, the drilling is disposed in the ocean. The. mud contains mercury and lead which can harm the subsea environment. A big. problem with the poems offshore and expansion, onshore drilling operation is the natural.

phenomenon. A tropical storm or hurricane can damage rigs (especially those constructed. prior to the 1990s when safer construction practices were instituted) and move. platforms great distances, releasing greater quantities of oil and dispersing. oil over wider geographic areas. Storm events are high-risk, low-probability. events but do create dangerous scenarios because safety precautions are.

hindered during the event. Msc Oil and Gas Engineering. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. A few people have questioned the level of responsibility or. trust placed on operators in the North Sea, but I think this fails to conflict poems, credit to.

the checks and balances in place. As has been discussed previously in this forum, the operator has to identify the hazards, assess the risks and implement measures to remove or reduce the risk to as low as reasonably practicable, all of which is the role of the in a democratic, documented within the installation's safety case. The safety case then has to be accepted by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) which involves it being reviewed by multiple HSE personnel including specialists with technical expertise in specific areas. Six months is allocated to this process to allow queries to conflict, be resolved and revisions made. Operations cannot start until the safety case is Hill Essay, accepted. In addition, the operator must identify all the safety-critical elements (SCEs) of the installation and prepare a written scheme of verification to test and examine the SCEs to ensure they are and remain fit for purpose. An independent competent person (ICP) must review the selection of SCEs and scheme of examination and is involved in verification process.

The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (Great Britain, 2005) defines safety-critical elements as: such parts of an installation and such of its plant (including computer programmes), or any part thereof- (a)the failure of conflict poems which could cause or contribute substantially to; or. (b)a purpose of which is to prevent, or limit the effect of, a major accident; These are just two examples of where checks are placed on the operator in key areas of safety. Reference: Great Britain. The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 [Online]. 07 October 2012]

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. To build on my previous post about the the role of the media in a democratic checks and balances. within the safety case regime, consider the case of a well being drilled. Conflict! The operator will plan and design the well. taking into film sleepers, account the hazards and conflict, reducing the whale icon risks to as low as reasonably. practicable as required by the Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and. Construction, etc.) Regulations 1996 (Great Britain, 1996).

The operator must submit a notification of well operations. to the HSE which will be reviewed by a specialist well inspector and any. queries should be addressed. Although no. acceptance from the HSE must be received, the HSE can take proceeding to conflict, halt. the operation if not satisfied with the operator’s plans.

The design must also be reviewed an expansion of steel, independent well. examiner, so there are two separate assessments of the planned well. On top of this are the requirements for a safety case and the. written scheme of conflict verification for safety-critical elements (such as the. blowout preventer), as previously discussed.

In addition, the operator must provide weekly reports to the HSE. detailing work carried out on the well and its current state. So although the responsibility for safety lies with the duty. holder, the state does have oversight of key risk areas such as drilling – both. before and responsibility, during operations – and conflict poems, requires the of the democratic use of independent bodies to. provide and additional review of critical safety matters. Reference: Great Britain. Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and Construction, etc.) [Accessed 08 October 2012]

***Apologies for formatting*** Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. To follow on conflict from my previous posts regarding checks and. balances in the UK goal setting regime, I think it is important to consider the. relationship between the regulator and the operator. The regulator gathers information about an operator’s. assets, management systems and operations built up through review of statutory. submissions such as an of steel, installation’s safety case and notifications including. those required for combined operations, well operations and conflict poems, changes to. production pipelines.

On top of of the in a democratic society this are. proactive measures including routine inspections and poems, meetings, and inspections and. work as part of focused campaigns, such as KP4 mentioned by Andrew Allan. Then there are the film sleepers reactive measures through the reports. required by RIDDOR (The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous. Occurrences Regulations 1995) – which not only requires reporting of serious.

injuries and fatalities but specified dangerous occurrences associated with. wells and production pipelines – and subsequent follow up investigations and. Through these various means the regulator can build a. picture of the conflict poems issues of each operator and each platform (for there can be. variation within an operator) and work with them to the role of the democratic society, improve weak areas.

The operator should be allowed to work on recognised issues. so long as progress is being made and the risks are adequately managed. It must be borne in mind that many issues. cannot be solved overnight. Most. installations in the North Sea were not designed to the standards that prevail.

today, often making it difficult or impractical to poems, directly apply current best. practices. Even changes in film sleepers, management. systems or programmes take time to be implemented properly. That is not to say that regulator should not take action for. gross breaches of safety management or when the poems risk to personnel is. intolerable. It can and does, either by. issuing improvement notices that require specified action to town of leader, be taken within.

the given timescale, or issuing a prohibition notice that shuts down an. The regulator must balance the carrot and stick approaches. to maintain an open dialogue and effective working relationship with the. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. It has been suggested by several people in poems, this discussion that the UK’s goal setting regime places too much responsibility place, but I believe it is important to consider the risks of a prescriptive regime and also the flexibility of the town of leader goal setting regime. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and poems, gas industry. In my recent posts I have tried to film sleepers, highlight some of the. benefits of the UK’s goal setting regime, but, of course, no system is perfect.

Below are some potential weak points in the. As mentioned previously, an independent competent person. must be involved in the written scheme of examination of safety-critical. elements. Although provision is made to. define independence, the ICP is chosen by conflict poems, – and paid by – the operator, so can.

they truly be independent, particularly when competing for contracts? Furthermore, how can competency of the ICP, crucial when. assessing critical safety systems, be guaranteed? This is another case of film sleepers ‘who checks the. checkers’, similar to the concern raised by Tony Morgan. Moving on to safety cases, the operator is required to. describe the management systems and procedures in place to manage risk, but are.

there any tests to ascertain that these are effective or even applied? How robust are the checks and reviews. conducted by the regulator? Overall, the nature of the conflict poems goal-setting regime will lead to. a variety of approaches to meeting the legislative requirements. While this may create good practice, it also.

allows sub-standard performance to exist. Though underperformance may in some cases be. identified and stopped by the regulator, it could also take an incident to. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and what is civic, gas industry. I'd like to illustrate my previous post on poems the weaknesses of. the UK's goal setting regime with the examples from the HSE's last focussed. offshore programme, Key Programme 3 (KP3) Asset Integrity (HSE, 2008). Between 2004 and 2007 HSE Inspectors.

visited almost 100 installations across 33 duty holders to investigate and. evaluate management and maintenance of safety-critical elements (SCEs). A standardised survey was conducted that. assessed 17 management elements and tested a selection of SCEs. The performance of each installation in each management. element and test was marked using a traffic light system. Of Linear Of Steel! In this classification a red traffic light. was defined as: Non-compliance with. legislation; Major failing of system (hardware or management) or partial.

failure with a history of failure; Minded to serve notice Overall, across all installations. and management elements, 8% fell into the red category of non-compliance and. further 31% were classed as amber, defined as an isolated failure or incomplete system . The element with the poems highest. non-conformance for all installations was ‘maintenance of SCEs' where 22% of installations received a red traffic light. grade and less than a third were given the green mark of compliance.

It is is civic responsibility, a serious problem that the equipment identified. as critical in preventing a major accident is not being maintained properly. across the majority of installations inspected. It is also concerning that the. lessons from past incidents do not appear to have been heeded. When safety critical systems were tested by. the HSE, a significant number were classed as non-compliant (red traffic light) including those identified as key safety systems in the recommendation from poems the.

public inquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster. HVAC systems had the greatest proportion of non-compliances at 35% of. those tested (Health and Safety Laboratory, 2009). Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and town of leader, gas industry. There were some interesting. findings in the HSE’s KP3 Asset Integrity Programme described in my previous.

Although there are no identifying. company data in the research report produced by the HSE (2008), companies with assigned. codes so that the ratings of poems companies and their installations could be. As might be expected, some. companies outperformed others: three companies achieved over 90% green ratings. while three has less than 40% green. More surprisingly perhaps is that, when looking at the performance of coefficient of linear individual installations, there was. generally marked variation within companies. For example, one of the worst performing installations in terms of management. elements (zero green, 6 amber, 10 red) was part of the same company as one of.

the top-ranking installations (15 green, 1 amber). I believe this hints at conflict poems, the. complexity of town of leader managing SCEs – if it was simple each company would likely have. more consistent results across their assets. Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Looking at conflict poems, some of the issues. raised during KP3 (HSE, 2008) may go some way to explain the complexity I. mentioned in a previous post. Maintenance of SCEs was found to.

be poor with work overdue or deferred often due to resource constraints and the. resources directed to drilling and Essay, project programmes. This could be seen as the. operator wishing to focus on profit rather than safety, but consider that it. was also found that in the reporting of maintenance backlogs, etc to senior. management it was not clear regarding safety critical equipment. Furthermore, a general lack of understanding. of the role of SCEs in preventing major accident hazards was also. uncovered.

In addition, the engineering. function within companies was found to poems, lack authority. Essentially then the message that. something needs to be done is not getting through, when it is the implication. is not necessarily understood and the people who do understand are not in a. position to is civic, insist it gets done.

While this is a major simplification. of just some of the conflict factors at work, but I hope it illustrates that there are. multiple, interlinked causes behind the poor performances identified in the KP3. Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.

I mentioned in a previous post. that in the UK the HSE can and whale icon, do take action when an operator is failing in. their responsibility to manage safety offshore. In 2010, the conflict poems HSE issued 33. improvement notices and 4 prohibition notices (HSE, 2012) to oil gas. companies (operators, facilities management companies and drilling. companies). Coefficient! A similar number were issued. in 2011: 39 improvement notices and 2 prohibition notices. This data can be viewed in poems, two. ways.

It’s concerning that duty holders. are failing to comply with their safety responsibilities, especially when the. failure has been so significant that they must be forced to stop. operations. On the what is civic other hand it’s. positive to see that the regulator will step in poems, when is sees those failings and. will take action when there is a risk to the safety of whale icon offshore personnel. Some posts in this forum have. suggested that the UK’s goal setting regime gives operators too much. responsibility for poems safety, but I believe this shows that the state does play an.

active role and will take action when it does not think the operator is. adequately managing the risks offshore. Reference: HSE (2012.) HSE Public Register of the role of the in a Enforcement Notices. Available at http://www.hse.gov.uk/notices/default.asp. [accessed 09 October 2012].

***Apologies for the formatting in these posts. It cannot be helped at this time but I will try to sort it later*** Claire, I am glad that you brought up your point about Independant Competent Person(s). I would very much like to add to the discussion on this point. I have found, and been told, that many of the ICP's, or at least many people that are ICP's may not be wholly competent in the role they are trying to asses. Lots of ICP's are in fat just going by the regulations they have written down in front of poems them instead of using the experience of the people they are working with, or indeed the whale icon people they are auditing (or similar), to figure out conflict whether a practice is film sleepers, safe. For example, if someone was to be assesing the safety of a vessel, they would go on board the vessel during a mobilisation or during it's down time and observe the conflict conditions. However, the better way to observe the expansion safety of poems a vessel is to be on board during operations. Watching the what responsibility people go about their jobs as if you weren't there. However, the poems old adage of 'Never judge a man until you have walked a mile in town of leader, his shoes' may be applicable here.

Someone who has never done a specific job can be the judge of someone who has done the job for years. The person who has done the job for conflict poems years has built up all of these ways of making a job easier for himself, and then an ICP can come along and destroy all of his methods due to safety concerns. On another point, I have always found the process of 'Safety Inspections' to be quite flawed. As with any type of inspection, generally people are warned to be on whale icon their 'best behaviour', so I feel the true way to inspect for safety is to conflict, use some sort of remote system, ie cameras etc which can observe without people thinking they are being observed, only then do you get true behaviours. Benefits of Independent Competent Person.

Richard, you have raised a very good point on the ICP which is a reality from those experiences. There exists the frustration of the ICP simply going by town of leader, the letter of the regulation. I guess the moot point, though, is does that mean that the conflict operators are running foul of regulations? That said, I feel there is still a positive to Essay, having the conflict ICP especially if they can engender the the role media quality discussions that should go on between the poems ICP and the dutyholder on the condition of town of leader each Safety Critical Element. The responsibility for operating safely still sits squarely on the shoulder of the Duty Holder so a decision to conflict, either accept, consider or reject any ICP recommendation will need to be taken by operators as the duty holder. Duty Holders have personnel known as Technical Authority who must be technically competent and are responsible for evaluating and making engineering and other technical judgements on the operations of safety critical elements . In my opinion, the best way to obtain an advantage from Palatine Essay this relationship is to have a sort of “constructive tension” between the ICP and the Duty Holder to conflict, ensure there is coefficient expansion of steel, a continuous challenge both ways. With regards to the issue of competency, this is quite a big issue which applies to poems, not just the ICP but the oil gas industry as a whole and will take not only the operators and regulators but all stakeholders to establish competency frameworks for the industry. To further comment on the issue of “Safety Inspections” raised by Richard, it is evident that having a third party outside of a task with oversight on the task helps to highlight issues the team working on what is civic the activities are blindsided to which is where the conflict concept of supervision comes from. The level of awareness to an unsafe condition is town of leader, usually diminished due to the focus on the task at conflict poems, hand. Whilst safety inspections may not be totally effective for the reasons mentioned, I think the film sleepers idea of poems snooping-in on people remotely on cameras whilst at work may not go down so well with a lot of offshore workers.

I feel this “big-brother” approach will not encourage the whale icon sort of open and honest behaviours and just culture needed for a safe organisation. On the other hand, safety inspections being conducted by another member of the team rather than a safety personnel may help in simulating the work circumstance is as close to reality as possible or the use of a buddy system that allows Safety Interventions from within the team may be a more effective means of preventing personnel from taking short-cuts. SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. I agree with Claire's comment on offshore installations (Safety Case) regulations with respect to conflict, safety-critical elements. It has been well researched that major offshore accident and hazards could have been avoided if strict compliance and best industry practice were observed and implimented to detail and specifications but the challenge is often cutting corners and human factors. Attending the last GASECH 2012 CONFERENCE in of linear, London where I listened to a presentation of LNG Shipment and Bunkering risks and challenges by the Llyods Register, I then appreciate the need for stringent compliance to offshore HSE regulations. There are always releases of hydrocarbons during tieing in via loading and offloading of gas, fuel or diesel and this a major challenge to the industry.

However, operations are faced with no choice than to poems, keep the environment safe by what responsibility, managing the inherent hazards in all their operations. With the golden era of SHALE GAS and Floating Liquidified Natural Gas (FLNG), the risk level will ultimately rise and call for critical survelliance by regulators and coastal agencies to checkmate the conflict poems activities oil and gas bunkering. Safety and Risk Management in Oil Gas Industry. The UK Oil Gas industry has witnessed. some significant disasters such as Piper Alpha. Despite this, it is a global. leader in safety management. The need to reduce the number of accidents and improve. safety standards is well understood throughout the industry if a repeat disaster.

is to be avoided. At the core of the industry’s safety. management campaign is the goal setting regulatory framework which tackles. responsible and effective major hazard management. Joined-up working and information. are tools also used to openly report on safety performance and learn from past. Given the UK’s ageing offshore. infrastructure, appropriate attention must be given to ensure asset integrity as.

the industry pushes for life extension of these assets. Film Sleepers! Hydrocarbon releases. must also be lowered in order to poems, achieve the industry-set reduction target (cited. MSc Oil Gas Engineering. Safety and Risk Management in the oil industry. At Jesse (Geographical coordinates 5.870? N, 5.750?E) a town in town of leader, the Oil rich Niger Delta Region of Nigeria on the 17th of October, 1998 an oil pipeline belonging to the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and served as a link between an conflict, oil Refinery in the south. eastern town of Warri and the Kaduna Refinery in the Northern part of the country was engulfed by the role of the media, fire. The fire could only be extinguished after five days by a United State company with Nitrogen-rich foam. It took the life of over 1200 people including children, youths, and. adults.

It is indeed a great disaster. It was found out that the cause of the fire was as a result of leakage from a pipeline. The pipeline was laid in the early 70s and ought to have been changed. It was also discovered that there were no safety devices on the pipeline as it was designed with old technology. It was finally concluded that the cause of the fire was due to ageing of the conflict poems pipeline and lack of maintenance by film sleepers, the company involved. This is a clear result of conflict poems lack of Risk and coefficient of linear of steel, Safety management if the pipeline has been properly maintained and replaced by the required time this disaster would have been averted. Conflict! After the incidence it was recommended that the pipeline be replaced and remidiation be carried out on the spilled area of land and the families of the victims be duly compensated. Wasting Lives [Reports by Doifie Ola and David Eighemhenrio] The importance of facility layout in town of leader, managing risk. I would like to conflict poems, generate some discussion around the issues to be considered in the layout of a new facility so as to minimise the risk to personnel working on the facililty. Hill Essay! Below are a number of considerations, please expand on my discussion thread with other issues you think should be considered:

Physical separation of safe areas from high risk areas. It is important when designing a new facility that you maximise the separation distance between areas where personnel will regularly be stationed, and high risk process areas. On an offshore platfrom this often means having the drilling/wellhead area at conflict, the opposite expansion of steel end of the platform (or on a separate bridge linked platform) from the Accommodation module. In doing so you minimise the likelihood of major accident events in the wellbay area from conflict impacting personnel within the accommodation module. The required separation distance can determined through the use of fire and explosion modelling softwares to determine potential jet fire distances and blast overpressures. Siting of large volumes of hazardous liquids. In designing an offshore platform, large process vessels and containers for Hill storage of hazardous chemicals should preferrably be situated on a lower deck, such that in the event of a loss of containment, the liquids drain to conflict poems, the sea rather than cascading onto equipment below. In the event of a fire, having a large vessel leaking flammable liquids onto equipment below greatly increases the likelihood of escalation and should be avoided if possible. If this is not possible then installation of film sleepers a plated deck with appropriate bunding and hazardous closed drains can be used to safely transport any flammable liquids away from an area, thus reducing the likelihood of fire.

One such example of a hazardous inventory would be the flare knock out drum, this is conflict poems, a vessel which collects flammable liquids from the film sleepers flare system. This vessel is usually situated on a lower deck of a platfrom such that the liquids can freely drain to the vessel, and so that in the event the vessel leaks that the inventory is poems, released to sea rather than dripping down onto process equipment below. Congestion and confinement in offshore installations. Whilst in onshore oil and gas facilities the designer often has the luxury of having a large land area upon which to layout the required equipment, for offshore platforms the emphasis is very much on minimising the footprint to remain within the limits of the jacket structure. To do this requires the stacking of multiple decks to house the required process and responsibility, utilities equipment. In doing this you greatly increase the conflict poems level of responsibility confinement as you essentially box in volumes of space which have the potential to fill with flammable vapours in conflict poems, the event a leak occurs.

Fitting all of the media in a democratic required equipment in a small area also increases the conflict poems congestion within the area. These two factors, confinement and congestion, have an coefficient of steel, impact on the explosion overpressures experienced in the event of delayed ignition of conflict poems a flammable gas cloud. Film Sleepers! Confinement and congestion aid in accellerating the conflict poems blast overpressure wave, increasing its destructiveness. This can have a devastating effect on the immediate area and lead to escalation due to damage to surrounding equipment. In offshore facility design it is important to coefficient of steel, maximise the natural ventilation of a space in order to poems, minimise the likelihood of flammable gas clouds forming. Whale Icon! This can be done through a number of poems means including:

- use of the role of the in a grated decks rather than plated decks to reduce confinement and encourage natural ventilation. - Orientation of equipment to minimise congestion. - Use of forced ventialtion in enclosed modules where natural ventialtion is not possible. These are just an example of the steps which can be taken to reduce the likelihood, and consequence of an explosion offshore. Given the small footprint of an offshore platform it is often not possible to provide physical separation between process equipment in order to reduce the poems likelihood of escalation. Instead, fire and blast walls are often used to segregate areas and film sleepers, reduce the impact of a fire or explosion in conflict, an area.

Fire and blast walls are structures which are designed to withstand the effects of a fire or explosion for a specified load and/or time period. In the design of an offshore facility it is of the media in a, imperitive that all hazards identified within an area are assessed. This is often done through the use of fire and explosion modleling softwares to predict the magnitude and duration of an event given certain process conditions. This modelling then allows the designer to select an appropriate fire/blast wall design to ensure the conflict wall remains intact for the required duration, thus minimising the likelihood of escalation. One example of the whale icon use of fire/blast walls is in the design of an offshore temporary refuge. Conflict! The purpose of a temporary refuge is to what is civic responsibility, provide an area for personnel to muster to conflict poems, assess an event and decide on the appropriate means of escape or evacuation if required.

To enable personnel to take refuge the TR must be adequately designed to withstand the coefficient expansion of steel effects of foreseeable fires or explosions for a sufficent period of conflict time for personnel to whale icon, take the required action. The survivability of the TR is conflict poems, ensured through the film sleepers use of fire/explosion proof cladding along with HVAC design. Evaluation- Performance monitoring and importnace. An important aspect of Health and Safety Management is. Performance monitoring. Procedures to. monitor, measure and record OSH performance on poems a regular basis should be. developed, established and periodically reviewed. Responsibility, accountability and authority for whale icon monitoring at conflict poems, different levels in the. management structure should be allocated.

monitoring and measurement should: means of determining the town of leader extent to conflict poems, which OSH policy and objectives are being. implemented and Palatine Essay, risks are controlled; active and reactive monitoring, and not be based only upon work-related injury, ill-health, disease and incident statistics; and. to determine whether the day-to-day arrangements for hazard and risk. identification, prevention and control are in place and operating effectively; for decisions about improvement in hazard identification and risk control, and. the OSH management system.

uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. Evaluation - Performance Monitoring and Importance. up to my earlier comment, I thought I would talk more on Active and Reactive. monitoring should contain the elements necessary to have a proactive system and.

of the achievement of conflict specific plans, established performance criteria and. systematic inspection of work systems, premises, plant and equipment; of the working environment, including work organisation; surveillance of workers' health, where appropriate, through suitable medical. monitoring or follow-up of workers for early detection of coefficient of linear of steel signs and symptoms of. harm to health in order to determine the effectiveness of prevention and. control measures; and. compliance with applicable national laws and regulations, collective agreements. and other commitments on conflict poems OSH to which the organisation subscribes. monitoring should include the identification, reporting and investigation of: injuries, ill-health (including monitoring of aggregate sickness absence.

records), diseases and incidents; losses, such as damage to property; safety and health performance, and OSH management system failures; and. workers' rehabilitation and health-restoration. Safety and Health.

Management Systems (ILO-OSH 2001). and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS 18000). and Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001/18002), BSI. uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. While I completely agree that more work needs to be done. about the industry’s response to the subject to whale icon, be more proactive than. reactive; we need to keep in mind that it is humans like us that design, operate and maintain these systems. I attended the LRET lecture by Prof Torgeir Moan this.

evening and have a new found respect for all the work that goes into. ascertaining that these structures are safe. An accidental limit state is. factored in during the design phase. That is proactive. But there is only so. much man can do. Factors of safety will be incorporated but the welder might. have had a bad day and forget to tighten a screw… These things cannot be. Ofcourse Inspections have got to be as regular as possible.

but these are still done by conflict, man. HSE has regulations that these companies. adhere to as their licences depend on it. As we blame the coefficient of linear of steel operators, regulators, the government and so. on, may we remember that some things can just not be anticipated. The industry. learns from poems previous mistakes to make the future operations safer.

Safety Environmental Management System. Safety Environmental Management System (SEMS) In United States, BSEE regulates how safe and environmentally sound are the Operator's method to expansion, extract oil. The Macondo blowout resulted in certain improvements to system, particularly that contractors must comply with SEMS. Poems! (We all know that Halliburton and coefficient of steel, Cameron were critically blamed along with BP and conflict, Transocean). In general, SEMS applies to all drilling, production, construction, well workover, well completion, well servicing, mobile offshore drilling units, and Department of Interior pipeline activities and is based on the following element of previously voluntary API RP 75: - Safety and environmental information. - Management of town of leader change. - Safe working practices.

- Assurance of quality and mechanical integrity of critical equipment. - Emergency response and control. - Investigation of incidents. - Audit of SEMS elements. - Records and Documentation. Offshore Magazine, August 2012, p46-48. Safety Environmental Management System (SEMS) To further elaborate on the SEMS, Operators need to pass SEMS audit within two years of conflict November 2011 and every three years thereafter. SEMS plans are to be audited be an Palatine Hill, independent third Party. Needless to say that there is a number of companies providing such services (Lloyds Register, for example). BSEE's position is that continual improvement in safety requires best practices followed by conflict, implementation and evaluation.

It is the responsibility of whale icon operator management to ensure the goals and performance measures are established for conflict their SEMS. (a good example of goal-setting legislation). Specifically operators must: - Verify that personnel, including contractors, have received proper training and have the skills and knowledge to perform their assigned duties* - Conduct design suitability studies when the original mechanical or process design information no longer exists** - Ensure a contractor's hazard assessment and JSA documents are revised and updated to reflect changes in their SEMS program. - Have a copy of all of the contractor's Safe Work Practices and ensure they cover all SEMS covered tasks and town of leader, operations. * Side note. Poems! 10 out of 11 people responsible for Essay well control and who failed to detect gas kick on 8 March 2010 (blowout averted, however) were on duty on 20 April 2010 when Macondo blew out.

** Side note. Poems! Before 20 April 2010 BP engineers changed the steps of is civic responsibility well temporary abandonment procedure several times . Offshore Magazine, August 2012, p46-48. And final note in regards of SEMS: If SEMS audit shows any non-compliance to conflict, the safety program, there could be fines imposed on the operator up to $35 000 / day until the subject is media in a democratic, closed and, in severe cases, the whole facility could be shut down. Since it is obviously an Operator's nightmare, Safety and Environmental Management Program is conflict poems, a great risk mitigation incentive. There are six stages in the life of a structure and all six. stages require inspection management. They are: Fabrication of the structure. Launch and installation.

In the design stage, previous designs will be reassessed to. ensure the same mistakes are not repeated. This include material selection, fabrication methods, installation. techniques, service life conditions and as part of integrated corrosion. management. Computer and film sleepers, often scaled. models are used to demonstrate and simulate conditions. Designs are made to accommodate lessons. learned from previous mistakes.

As. development continues, the amount of mistakes made should naturally reduce. however as has been mention during the lecturers, we also increasingly push the. boundaries and more complex designs are created which always keep us in. pioneering environment where mistakes can and do happen. Designs have to poems, consider codes and statutory rules. (instruments) in the UK for example. DCR SI 913 (1996) Design. and Construction Regulations. PSR SI 825 (1996) Pipeine. PFEER SI 743 (1995) Prevention.

of Fire, Explosion and Emergency Response. MAR SI 738 (1995) Management. and Administration Regulations. PUWER SI 2932 (1998) Provision. and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (Plant and Equipment). The main aim of these design considerations is to reduce. risk to being ;’As Low As Reasonably Practicable’. uchenna onyia 51232632.

MSc Subsea Engineering. Safety issues for the LNG industry. Safety issues for the LNG industry – Storage of the LNG and conversion. to its gaseous phase. Throughout the history of the LNG industry, there were no. major hazards, and the role media, mainly that is because of the reduced dangers that the. liquid has while it is poems, stored and transfer. LNG is stored in special storage.

tanks at -160 oC, (the liquefaction temperature of the natural gas), without putting any pressure. Whale Icon! So the pressure that is safely kept in its liquid. form is 1 atm. This results that, if a storage tank brakes or cracks and the. LNG liquid leaks to the environment, there will be no ignition or explosion,

and thus there will be no danger to the surrounding environment. Also, when the LNG is going to be converted in to gas, it is. transferred from the special storage tanks of the ship to the tanks that the. natural gas can be stored to its gaseous phase. While the LNG is stored in the. tanks, there is natural convection from the environment and the liquid is been. heated up until it becomes gas. When this.

procedure takes place and the liquid starts to become gas, it creates a fog- a. vapor cloud- which can be igniting only if there is an ignition source. For this, safety devices and operational procedures are intended to conflict poems, minimize the. probability of a release of a vapor cloud. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. and Risk management in oil and the role of the in a, gas industry. In the conflict oil and gas industry. finding oil and supplying it is not the only concern companies have. Safety is.

also a very important issue. Every day accidents occur on. the oil rigs and also while oil and whale icon, gas is being transport. environmental issues must be concerned also. Steps should be taken for any. instrument malefaction because if any problem will take place oil and gas leak. is very pollutant. Companies nowadays are using.

a system for conflict managing safety issues for film sleepers the safety of their workers, the. company it’s self and of course the environment. There are several ways to. ensure safety in the industry. Trained staff should be in. charge for safety issues and conflict, monitoring the working environment. What Is Civic! There must be. a frequent maintenance and emergency plans on oil rigs. A good way to avoid any. accidents is to learn from previous disasters and some mistakes should be.

Safety issues for the LNG industry. Safety issues for the LNG industry – Storage of the LNG and. conversion to conflict, its gaseous phase. Inside the LNG storage tanks, the liquids that are introduced. sometimes are from different densities and for that, several layers of the liquid. are created.

The liquid with the higher density goes to the bottom and the. lighter to the top. The heat from the side walls leaks inside to the top layer. and the heat from the side walls and from the bottom walls warms up the heavier. liquid. Whale Icon! Once the heat warms up the bottom liquid, it starts to evaporate and. because of the hydrostatical pressure the vapor is conflict poems, superheated and may cause sudden. increase of pressure in the tank. This phenomenon is called rollover. This excess.

pressure may result to crack or other structural failures of the tank and to. avoid this to happen; the density of the liquid that is introduced in film sleepers, the tanks. is always measured and if the density is conflict poems, different the what responsibility liquid is poems, unloaded. accordingly. LNG tanks have rollover protection systems, which include. distributed temperature sensors and pump-around mixing systems. MSc Oil and what is civic, Gas Engineering.

Is training of offshore rig personnel always adequate? We all know how important training is for the operation of complicated and sophisticated piece of equipment. Especially when mishandling it might result in catastrophic damages. There is no doubt offshore rig personnel undergoes extensive training and get numerous internationally recognized certificates. Huge number of companies provide training up to IADC standards, which are set to give Operators and contractors confidence in the knowledge that every program is subject to review and poems, evaluation by independent parties. Whale Icon! [1]. Transocean, as the world's largest offshore drilling contractor, probably has the best and conflict poems, most extensively trained people in charge of of the media in a democratic well control. It known for a fact, however [2], that on March 8, 2010 The Deepwater Horizon crew had experienced a kick that went undetected for conflict approximately 30 minutes. A kick is result of wellbore pressure that may suddenly force mud back up the wellbore with considerable. Early kick detection is critical to maintaining well control and obviously crew members monitor various sensors on the rig that show fluid volumes and well pressures and analyze the data on electronic displays to identify potential kicks, among other things. BP did not conduct an investigation into the reasons for the delayed detection of the kick.

Transocean personnel admitted to BP that individuals associated with the. March 8 kick had screwed up by not catching the whale icon kick. Moreover, ten of the 11 individuals on duty on conflict March 8, who had well control responsibilities, were also on duty on April 20 during Macondo blowout. On the top of that, everyone on film sleepers board the Deepwater Horizon was obligated to follow the Transocean stop work policy that was in place on April 20, which provided that each employee has the obligation to interrupt an poems, operation to prevent an incident from occurring. There were a number of reasons that the rig crew could have invoked stop work authority, yet no individual on the Deepwater Horizon did so on April 20 [2]. So the question remains - is training sufficient and adequate? 2. BOEMRE report on Macondo Blowout. Oil and Gas industry has evolved from a very basic setup. As the product cost was very high,it lead to furious development of the industry. Keeping these things in expansion of steel, mind industry has also framed various standards to make sure that the design, manufacturing, processes, installation,maintenance etc are safe. There are organizations like DNV, API, ASME, IS etc which keep the data of them and update the standards regularly.

It can also be obseved that industry updates there standards after every 3-6 months, which prove that we have not learned everything. It can be arguemented so because in conflict, well furnished industries like automobile or aerospace the industry standards are now the bible in the sector. Eg. DNV 2.22 has been updated regularly after 3 months in lasttwo roll outs where as Society of what is civic responsibility Automotive Engineers (SAE) have there standards fixed since 1987 in terms of automotive field. The point where I want to throw the light is that since the STANDARDS which are supposed to control the Oil Gas activities from conflict concept to installation and then to decommissioning are still floating, which proves that all the aspects of safety and health are not fully in practice. Hence its a responsibility of the Palatine Hill Essay companies to carry out third party verification for them to ensure HS. Potential health hazards due to exposure to mercury. Potential health hazards due to exposure. to mercury in the oil and gas industry. Mercury is an element that can be.

found by the oil and gas process. This element can cause health hazards to anyone. that is exposed on it by inhalation, injection, ingestion or absorption through. the skin. In the oil and gas industry the mercury is removed from the other.

liquids and it is conflict poems, carefully treated so that it can be used for other uses like switches. (such as thermostats), Transmitters, Paints and fungicides. The mercury that is. coming into is civic responsibility, the process stream can be trapped from engineering controls – which. are chemicals that absorb this element and do not let it proceed into the. As we mentioned before, the mercury. had potential health hazards and to avoid contact with mercury, the workers that. are unprotected must be kept far from the poems places where mercury vapor is. gathered in high levels.

Furthermore, the workers must be educated in order to. know how to use the film sleepers protective equipment from conflict mercury and must be taught on Palatine Hill Essay how. they should prevent the exposure on mercury. Finally, special equipments measure constantly. the levels of mercury in the air. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. Probabalistic approach to fire safety. I read a very interesting article the other day in October’s issue of “The Naval Architect” which, I think closely relates to reliability concepts we are reviewing in Safety Engineering course. There is a Research project called FIREPROOF which intends to change approach to fire safety as it is currently addressed in the main document promoting safety of life at sea (SOLAS convention). SOLAS, which is applicable to Passenger / Cargo ships, Drill ships and poems, Mobile Offshore Drilling Units uses probabilistic approach for calculation of damage stability in its Ch.

II-1 , but deterministic in Ch II-2 which deals with fire safety. The project’s objective is to develop a Risk-Based approach to fire safety, taking into consideration a number of novel designs for ships and drill ship which will emerge due to global economy downturn and resulting competition of what is civic responsibility shipbuilders. In a nutshell, the Risk can be summarized by the formula: fr(N)=SUM OVER n SPACES of fr(space i) x pr(space i) x pr(N/space i), where. fr(N)-frequency of N fatalities per ship-year. fr(space i) – frequency of ignition in a space i per ship-year. pr(space i) – probability of fire escalation. pr(N/space i) - probability of experiencing N fatalities due to fire in conflict, space i.

Risk can therefore be represented in conventional Potential Loss of Life or F-N curves. The researchers used a number of town of leader modern software to account for various scenarios of high and low consequences of fire ignition and escalation. Ultimately, FIREPROOF framework will be submitted to IMO subcommittee for discussion. can be good. Without risk, there would be no reward ”. The purpose of the. risk management is not to eliminate risk, but to understand it so that you can. take advantage of the upside and minimise the downside. exploration and production activities have many hazards and conflict, hazardous events. associated with them. “Safety first” is the most common phrase used in this.

industry. The oil and gas industry invests a lot of money in safety and Hill, these. investments have resulted in a steady improvement in conflict poems, safety performance. Of. course, accidents still happen despite this. The attention of the risk. management in town of leader, oil and gas industry is conflict, focussed on safety of the personnel and. the installation, prevention of environmental damage and production regulatory. Risk assessment, which include: risk identification, risk analysis and risk.

evaluation, is a key element in a risk management process. For offshore. operations in what, the North Sea, performance of conflict poems risk assessments is of steel, required. In. Norwegian waters, this is covered by regulations issued by Norwegian Petroleum.

Directorate (NPD) and Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD), and in UK waters by. HSE’s safety case regulations. Helicopter Accident 22/10/2012 (two days back) Two days earlier an unfortunate incident took place. A CHC helicopter flying from Aberdeen to West Phoenix Oil Platform collapsed in to the water. The incident took place when helicopter was performing ditching operations. Poems! It is assumed that the reason was low flying and rough sea or fuel error or anything else. The location of crash was 32 miles South-West from Shetland.

There were 19 people aboard and 3 were from town of leader Oceaneering. All the people were extracted from the helicopter and were transfered on life shafts. Luckily there were vessels nearby which helped in conflict poems, rescue mission, also the rescue helicopters were operating appriciably. All the people were safe including pilot and co-pilot and reached the whale icon mainland safe and sound today evening (24th October 2012). Conflict! Oil and town of leader, Gas Union is now raising question for the safety in north sea. Agencies are actively looking into the issue and conflict poems, helicopter is film sleepers, getting towed to the mainland, investigation will follow once its on the aberdeen land. More information on conflict poems 22/10 helicopter incident. Some further information on the CHC helicopter incident. A controlled ditch was performed by the pilots of the whale icon G-CHCN Super Puma EC225 LP after warnings that of poems a failure of the lubrication system of the main gearbox (AAIB, 2012a). First an indicator light came on warning that the duty and standby lubrication pumps had failed, then, shortly after the pilots initiated the is civic responsibility appropriate procedure to engage the emergency lubrication system, the warning light came on that indicated the failure of the conflict emergency lubrication system. The investigation being carried out by the Air Accident Investigation Branch (AIBB) is still in the early stages, but initial investigation of the gearbox components has found a full 360 degree circumferential crack on the bevel gear vertical shaft within the main gearbox, near the weld joining the town of leader two parts of the conflict poems shaft.

This type of shaft is found in all EC225 as well as some AS332 L1 and L2 helicopters. What is whale icon, particularly important to note is that a similar ditching of the same type of Super Puma helicopter in May 2012 occurred after warnings that both the conflict main and emergency gearbox lubrication systems failed (AAIB, 2012b). The early investigation into that incident also found a 360 degree circumferential crack on the bevel gear vertical shaft within the main gearbox (the cause is still being investigated). Following the May incident the coefficient expansion of steel European Aviation Safety Agency issued an emergency airworthiness directive on AS 332 and EC 225 helicopters that required helicopter operators to conflict poems, check vibrational health monitoring data related to the gearbox. However, this only applied to specific part and serial numbers - which did not include that of the G-CHCN. The airworthiness directive is being urgently reviewed, but this could have been too late for the 19 people on board the film sleepers G-CHCN helicopter. Is should be critical to conflict, the on-going investigations that the reasons for limiting the most stringent vibration monitoring to film sleepers, certain part numbers is conflict poems, reviewed.

AAIB. Film Sleepers! (2012a) Special Bulletin S6/2012 - EC225 LP Super Puma, G-CHCN [Online]. Available at http://www.aaib.gov.uk/cms_resources.cfm?file=/S6-2012%20G-CHCN.pdf [Accessed 28th October 2012] safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. and risk management in the oil and gas industry has always been a major issue. and a stand-point for conflict poems major oil industry disasters. Ranging from the deepwater. horizon to the famous piper alpha accident, it has always been one of reactive. rather than proactive approach. After the keep it flowing people. incident, the later regulations demanded that for every installation, there. must be a document to demonstrate how risks had been identified, the nature of.

the control measures to be employed and the adequacy of these measures in. providing safe working conditions. Now, the point is that the regulator who has. certified these documents will not be on the platform on daily basis to see to. the effective implementation, thus, it lies on the duty holder and its. me i would rather that these measures be carried out with all sincererity of. purpose for it is only by adherence to the principles and technologies in place.

that accidents may be prevented as employers always blame major accidents on. Reactive and proactive risk reduction. It is easy to say that companies and Essay, regulators are reactive and not proactive. However it is immeasurable to quantify the number of accidents that didn't happen due to a piece of proactive legislation or implemented safety procedure. Much of today's safety barriers and procedures result from conflict poems risk based analysis using probabilities of coefficient of linear of steel accidents occurring. Previous accident statistics will be used to conflict poems, calculate probabilities.

Unless an accident happens, if it is already perceived to be highly unlikely, there is no motivator to increase risk reduction measures. If the film sleepers unthinkable occurs due to a sequence of conflict unlikely events the risk must be re-evaluated as the the role of the media society probability has changed. Be responsible for your own safety. Many of the conflict poems authors within this thread seem to believe that safety can somehow be prescribed or legislated. There seems to be an underlying belief that a few more laws or a few more regulators will keep us safe. It appears as if there's a desire to have an army of regulators looking over each workers shoulder ready to correct them should they stray into unsafe behaviors. The fallacy with this argument is that laws and even regulators are not responsible for our safety. We are all responsible for what responsibility our own safety and the safety of those around us. Poems! Though it may seem a bit cliche, I found it to be true no matter what industry you work in.

It is normally fairly easy to spot a safety minded company. They are normally the ones in which the employees drive safety from the bottom up rather than management droning on town of leader and on about their latest safety initiatives. Conflict Poems! The employees are empowered to make changes and even stop production should the need arise. Excellent point on personal responsibility in assuring safety. I work in Classification Society and my site office is located inside a major South Korean Shipyard. HSE policy here is of utmost importance and safety record for lost time incidents is almost perfect, which is one of the reasons why customers like Stena Drilling, PDC, Maersk Drilling, Chevron, Shell and others praise it so much. But one of the coefficient of linear expansion of steel key contributors to safety in all the major Korean shipyards is people mindset. Full PPE at all times is a must (Safety shoes, overalls, gloves, goggles, hard hat, ear plugs and even full body harness always). Scaffolding constructed with highest level of integrity. Everyone, from welder to foreman will clean the conflict working area regularly to avoid accumulation of residues on which person could trip. And of whale icon course the Stop policy - should anyone spot even possibility of danger it will be immediately reported.

Be careful, diligent, attentive, think about yourself and others - that's the key. Safety and Risk management in oil and Gas Industry. Safety and risk management should be legislated to ensure standard in our working Environment. This is done by carrying out risk analysis of the system in all stages of operation: Design, Fabrication, Installation, Operation /Production and decommission. It helps to ensure that all possible failures are identified and mitigated as low as reasonably practicable, ALARP before commencement and poems, during operation for safe and smooth running of the system. While agreeing with Mr Adavis that employees are responsible for of steel their safety and that of others around them, his opinion to do not take into consideration systemic failure of the system due to poor design, failure of component as a result of conflict sharp practices or standards not being adhere to. Corrosion is another major challenge of oil installation in the sea, how does one manage such safely if not adhering to legislation be it prescriptive or safety case. In conclusion, Legislations like the Hill Offshore Safety Case Regs.2005, Health Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 and the PFEER Reg. 1995 are meant to guide our activities and the Integrity of Installations or equipment used while Working safely help reduces occupational hazard and fatalities. It's true that I didn't address the methodology behind how we as engineers ensure that our designs are safe for the public in general.

However, I believe you're missing the point which is laws and conflict poems, regulations don't make us safe. When I design an what, apparatus or a piece of conflict equipment, I review the safety aspects not because it's legislated but because its the right thing to do. Is Civic Responsibility! It's the way I was taught and I truly would be horrified if something I had designed harmed someone due to my negligence. Conflict! There are many tools I use to ensure a safe design. However, very few of those tools are regulations or laws. Most are simply good engineering practices. Don't get me wrong. I do believe legislation has a place in the world. I wouldn't want to live in anarchy.

Laws, Regulations, Industry Specifications are all useful tools to film sleepers, help us keep safety in mind. However, they do nothing to poems, ensure safety. Words on whale icon a piece of paper or computer won't keep you safe, unless someone chooses to review and follow them. Individuals have to decide to be safe and conflict poems, keep others safe. In fact, I could argue that too many regulations can be detrimental to safety. I'm sure we can all think of Hill Essay examples of regulations that have grown to the point of conflict being incomprehensible. A regulation or law can sometimes grow to the point where it takes a team of people just to the role democratic, understand it. At that point, it's not much use to conflict poems, us as engineers.

I truly believe every accident/injury can be avoided. However to accomplish this, we all have to change the expansion way we view safety. Conflict Poems! We have to think about safety at whale icon, home, at work, as we walk through the conflict airport. US/Canada regulatory framework comparison. It touches upon risks and town of leader, regulations in deepwater drilling. Two authors from United States and two from Canada review current legislation in US and Canada and have a debate in the end of the paper. Poems! Both groups, however recommend (surprise-surprise) a move towards more goal-setting regulatory system in the US . Particularly, they emphasize significant differences between these two countries in national versus regional control, in prescriptive versus goal-based regulation, in penalties imposed on companies for infractions, and in the degree of independence granted to the safety regulator. So first off - US regulatory system. Significant changes were introduced into is civic responsibility, the regulatory framework post-Macondo. The late Mineral Management Service (MMS), which was understaffed, having only one inspector for conflict every 54 offshore facilities in the Gulf of Hill Mexico Region and didn't even have a comprehensive handbook addressing inspector roles and responsibilities, was replaced by three separate federal bodies , each with clearly defined responsibilities: to collect revenues (the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR)), to manage development (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)), and to conflict, enforce safety precautions (Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE)).

Offshore regulation by the Mineral Management Service (MMS) had generally been highly prescriptive. There were hundreds of pages of technical requirements that offshore operators were supposed to follow on specific issues, yet with advance of drilling technologies these specific prescriptive regulations became increasingly outdated. MMS failed to keep up with industry changes and, where possible, took shortcuts. There was also a historical weakness as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978 which exempted leases in the western and central Gulf from the Palatine Hill Essay development and production plan requirement and, therefore, the environmental review. After DWH, BOEMRE introduced the poems Workplace Safety Rule, which requires offshore oil and gas operators to create and maintain Safety and Environmental Management Systems (or SEMS). This rule introduces p erformance-based standards which move away from emphasizing prescriptive regulations and toward a regulatory environment more similar to film sleepers, the safety case requirement in the United Kingdom. BOEMRE also has instituted a Drilling Safety Rule and the Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee was created as a permanent body of experts to provide guidance on offshore safety, well containment, and spill response. To better prepare its employees, BOEMRE has established the National Offshore Training Center and has developed its first formal training curriculum for new inspectors. However, authors emphasize that unlike in other major developed nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and Norway, the poems U.S. Hill! system still basically constitutes a prescriptive, top-down regulatory system . While this prescriptive system has some benefits, particularly as it gives the federal government the authority to specify exact requirements, it has trouble staying current in conflict poems, light of the of steel rapidly changing nature of the offshore industry. Also, a strictly prescriptive approach discourages any innovation.

By contrast, a goal-based system encourages operators to find better, more innovative ways to achieve safety standards. Another issue is the liability cap for the United States which remains at $75 million. Poems! By contrast, in the United Kingdom, for town of leader example, where average penalties are also relatively low, the potential penalty for a breach is unlimited. Conflict Poems! In addition, in both Norway and responsibility, the United Kingdom, serious non-fatal safety breaches can be criminal charges punishable through imprisonment of key executives. Authors concluded that the United States has made strong progress in strengthening the framework for offshore drilling but suggest that further improvements could be made.

Canadian system, which allows the provinces and conflict poems, territories to collect royalties; gives developmental, regulatory, and safety responsibilities to joint federal-provincial boards; and allots major decision-making power to local populations. The boards generate guidelines, while the provincial and responsibility, federal governments work together to draft amendments to legislation and regulations. Each of the poems National Energy Boards is tasked with the regulatory responsibility to ensure safety, protection of the environment, and proper exploitation of the Palatine resources. The Board has no part in the establishment or administration of royalties or taxes for any offshore activity and poems, therefore does not promote the Industry. After the Deepwater Horizon incident in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010, the Senate of what Canada concluded that the regulation of the industry is more than adequate . It specified three Canadian advantages in particular: - Effective January 1, 2010, Canada moved from prescriptive to goal-oriented regulation, which involves the regulator setting goals and specifying outcomes, but not the means of conflict achieving compliance.

- The shared federal and provincial jurisdiction over the boards means that the persons most affected by drilling (the residents of the adjacent provinces) have a significant voice in decisions. - The boards have no role in the collection of royalties. Also, a Certificate of town of leader Fitness issued by a third-party certifying authority is to operate all the equipment on a drilling installation. If a single underlying certificate or permit cannot be obtained, the Certificate of Fitness is canceled. In final argument authors point out how difficult it will be for the US to roll-out goal setting approach. They mention that any rapid increase in the size of a regulatory bureaucracy presents a number of risks. More staff and the fundamental restructuring of multiple departments can easily lead to organizational chaos. Important questions are: How difficult will it be to conflict, staff and train three bureaus rather than one?

How will these regulators establish boundaries among their separate authorities? How to balance potential conflict of interests with multiplicity of regulators? Authors cast doubt on the idea of creating more regulators and emphasize, that without a structured process , there is a considerable risk that the objectives in the new goal-oriented regulation will follow the old prescribed regulations, or even change for the sake of change. Risk Management in the Oil and Gas industry. Risk is an essential part in the oil industry. Failure to manage risk can bring an end to a Project. Risk is any potential future event that may influence the achievement of a Project.

The main aim why we focus on Risk is to eliminate the Unfavourable downside risk. examples of Negative Impact are : Increased cost, Disruptions to schedule,Reduced quality,Reputation damage,Financial Penalities,Late Delivery and many more. There are alot of Benefits to whale icon, Risk Management: Example, Fosters clear understanding of challenges ahead.Mitigation of risk is all about taking the right step at the initial start of the Project. HSE goals should be : NO ONE GETS HURT AND NOTHING GETS HARMED . prevention of accidents in oil and gas sector. Oil and gas industry is vast very complex sectorand development is not easy there are many risk involves like technical risk ,construction risk,technology risk, operational risk ,regulatory risk,workers risk including various types working at height, chemical exposure etc and it iscomplicated to conflict, prevent the occurrences of incident/accidents. Film Sleepers! owner, operators,contractors, and conflict, suppliers working in town of leader, petroleum industry all must find innovative solutions to minimize complexity and risk in these massive undertakings, as it becomes a top priority to have all players on a project team work more closely together. to prevent the occurrences of accidents If we Compared Incidents/accidents with past we can see that there is rapid industrial development it reflects less awareness of safety measures to workers has led to a high rate of incidents/accidents. Faiza khatri M.Sc oil and gas engineering.

I agree with this topic motto need, and by conflict, saying that i would like to share a recent development on town of leader the Statoil Norwegian North Sea Njord field platform that was evacuated this afternoon. Conflict! http://www.newsinenglish.no/2012/11/07/hundreds-airlifted-off-tilting-platform/ Instead of trying to fix the problem with all onboard, statoil considered to what, be a serious matter and in my view correctly opted to minimise its risk by maintaining strictly needed personel on board to try and stabilize the problem. We cant forget that the poems main issue in whale icon, the Nort Sea is the water temperature, which for poems a normal person with those temperatures should only last for 5 or 10 minutes, therefore a quick moving fleet to evacuate was taken. The platform started tilting because one of the tanks an acnhor ruptured on of the balast the pontoons in the quarters area ruptured and starting filling up. Safety and risk management in industries. term safety has been used to of the society, an extent that means to preclude the event of. failure. But in our world, every device, and conflict, even human life, is bound to fail.

No matter how long it takes, the life of the role of the in a society everything comes to an end. Thus, it. has become a necessity that when one event is about to fail/end, it should not. lead to conflict, the end of Palatine Hill Essay other events which had a, perhaps, longer time before its. In the oil industry, much care. has been taken to ensure that certain known factors do not cause events that. are likely to bring to an end, an otherwise long-living event. There have been. major failure events that have happened in the past and these are what have.

shaped the oil industry. Some of the hazards have been prepared for conflict poems because. according to town of leader, human and computational estimates, those were likely to happen. But. for those that there have been no previous knowledge, they are likely to be a. huge burden and more likely to happen. events are more likely to have able bodied resolutions to them than others. Conflict! But.

the oil and film sleepers, gas industry is more reactive to major incidents. Although the. industry is quite old, it has not faced all possible hazards that are likely to. occur. In this regard, all institutions in charge of generating ideas to solve. major risks have resorted to conflict poems, not being “prescriptive” in the role media in a, their ways of poems handling. safety and risk.

is usually the duty of business owners to evaluate every possible hazard and. risk at a worksite so as to inform their employees the possibility of danger. This directive is very well advised. It goes to benefit the government and also. help managers and owners of businesses to correctly protect those who are. helping them generate wealth. from HSE Lectures, EG50S1 and EG501D.

Safety and Risk Management in the Oil and gas Industry: The Oil and gas industry can be. said to be divided into three different sections i.e. upstream (exploration and. appraisal), midstream (production and transportation) and downstream (refining, petrochemical and decommissioning).From the town of leader early days of till date, this. industry has faced and still facing various safety and risk concerns in its. various sections. Over the last four decades several accidents have occurred as. a result negligence, equipment failure, improper training of staffs etc. As a result.

of these accidents, several laws have been passed in different regions in poems, the. hope to prevent and eliminate these occurrences, despite these laws put in. place by the governments of what is civic different nations these events keep occurring e.g. the Gulf of Mexico Oil spill in 2011 resulting in the death of 11 personnel’s. Comparing the UK Health and. safety Legislation to that of the Norwegian government, that of the UK. government is built on a prescriptive approach i.e. it specifies the safety. measures to be carried out but does not give room for improved safety, innovation, changing industrial processes and it requires constant updating. But that of. the Norwegian government is more of a goal setting approach i.e. it gives room.

for the conflict poems identification of hazards, risk assessment and taking steps to. eliminate them. This other approach has its advantages and disadvantages but it. has been a better method used to prevent the occurrence of accidents in various. industries and it has given a better result than the prescriptive method.

Going through several papers. before writing this piece, I noticed other sectors of the oil and gas industry. were neglected, there was more focus on town of leader the offshore section of the upstream. section, but this doesn’t leave out the fact that there have been several accidents. in other sections which have occurred onshore. Due to recent accidents in this. industry, I feel more countries should use the goal setting approach. legislation currently in use by the Norwegian government to reduce the amount. of accidents occurring in this industry. 1) November 2008, J.S. Munro,

An Overview of Regulating Offshore and conflict poems, Onshore Major Hazards. 2) March 2011, ERM, Sustainable. Solutions for the Oil and Gas Industry. Today's risk management system is HSE which assesses companies' performance on managing different types of risks. However, a new system may hopefully replace HSE in the future according to the report of International Association of Oil Gas Producers (OGP).

The Operating Management System (OMS) is currently been developing by a joint OGP-IPIECA Task Force. It is updating and expanding the guidance which had already been published in 1994. The OMS aims to decrease the probability of adverse consequences by providing a consistent approach to risk management by: Consolidating, in film sleepers, one place, the company's knowledge and requirements to safely and responsibly manage its assets and activities. Setting out a systematic process to be used throughout a company, with clear accountability, so that planned activities are carried out as intended. Measuring the conflict success in whale icon, implementing these activities. The revised OMS guidance is planned coming out at the end of this year. It will provide a flexible framework that companies can adopt, in a manner appropriate to their risks and business approach. OMS and poems, the iied: shared value, shared resposibility.

A very relevant comment Liu Yishan: I clicked on your link and found a mountain of information about the is civic responsibility OMS and an iied report. I particularly found the conflict iied document: “shared value, shared responsibility” of media interest. It highlights that employee and contractor influence towards safety is increasing within the oil and gas industry affecting the environmental and social responsibilities of large organisations. The future vision of this document aims towards removing the “tick-box” mentality which hinders the implementation of good practice standards. However, I imagine that it would be very difficult to change many opinions away from thinking and operating the “tick-box” system.

This organisational change of behaviour would have to conflict, extent all the way down to the individual employees and Palatine Hill, contractors who (I have already mentioned) have a growing influence in conflict poems, their own methods of working. The Role Of The Media! Change would be a slow process, even with our current safety culture. MSc Subsea Engineering. Preventative measures are the most effective means of minimizing the probability of equipment failure and its associated risk. Protection systems are not substitutes for well-designed and well-maintained detection, warning and shutdown systems. However, they can protect the structure and process equipment, limit damage to these facilities and prevent escalation of fire.

Examples of Risk reduction measures implemented on existing installations include; prevention, detection, control, mitigation, and EER (Evacuate, Escape. For risks lying below the maximum tolerable, but above the broadly acceptable level, it is expected that: 1. the nature and level. of risks are properly assessed and conflict poems, the results used properly to determine control measures; 2. the residual risks are not unduly high and kept ALARP; and. 3. the town of leader risks are periodically reviewed to ensure that they still meet the ALARP criteria. Duty holders should not assume that if risks are below the conflict poems maximum tolerable level, they are also ALARP. This should be demonstrated through: 1. application of relevant good practice and sound engineering judgment; and. 2. consideration of of steel what further measures can be adopted to reduce risks ALARP.

In essence, the duty holder’s ALARP demonstration should address the conflict question “What more could I do to what responsibility, reduce risks, and why haven’t I done it?” The degree of rigor of the poems ALARP demonstration should be proportionate to the level of risk associated with the installation. In choosing between design options, duty holders should: 1. consider risks throughout the whole life-cycle of the Hill Essay project; 2. choose the option which achieves the lowest level of conflict residual risk, provided grossly disproportionate risks are not incurred; and. 3. confirm that the residual level of risk is no greater than that achieved by the best of existing practice for comparable functions. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. Barriers to the development of a safety culture. management of safety and risk in the oil industry is an film sleepers, issue of great concern. With public concerns and activities of various pressure groups; there has been.

a drive in the industry to achieve near to perfect safe operations. This I believe. can happen by practicing a safety and maintenance culture. Safety Culture is. seen by many as a way of ensuring high levels of safety performance in. organisations, in conflict poems, contrast to the systematic engineered management of hazards. and effects. They are mostly defined by values, beliefs, common working. practices and response to unusual situations. What Is Civic! However, the development of.

safety culture experiences so many obstructions and I discuss a few of them. CULTURES: The levels of bureaucracy and red-tapes that exist in the oil. industry and conflict poems, health and safety regulations pose a great challenge which most. people are oblivious of. An organisation that has struggled to become proactive. may easily revert, especially in the face of success. At such levels of success. and development, hierarchical structures begin to break down under high tempo. operations.

This is mostly experienced when an organisation tries to transit. from ‘reactive to generative’. AND THE LAW: This may come as a surprise to most of us but the regulator is. also a form of barrier. Regulators are more inclined to the ‘letter than the.

spirit of the law. This can mean that regulators will not support experimental. improvements, which is typical of a proactive industry. Rather, they may set. high standards which are hard to meet and this can be an of linear expansion of steel, obstacle for safety. FAILURE: A cultural change is very drastic and doesn’t happen overnight. Changes in top management may prevent the advancement of safety culture in an. organisation as priorities may also change. IS HARD: It is very difficult for personnel to accept new situations which are. different from the normal standard procedures of poems operation.

This makes it. impossible for a new convention or code of practice to implemented or enforced, or in the role, most cases take longer periods before they are incorporated into poems, the. practice of a well organised safety culture will to what responsibility, a very large extent manage. risk in the oil and gas industry.

Though this may at times prove difficult and. costly, a good management practice can ensure they are well enforced. I recently attended an poems, SPE. organised event where one of the Rig Managers at Archer Ltd. shared some of the. practices the operators emphasise to the role media in a democratic, improve safety and reduce risk in the. risk-prone environment that they work. Below are the points he. highlighted and referred to as ‘Focusing on Tempo’ Adjust the pace of operations to fit the least. proficient member Operate within the limits and capacity of conflict poems the.

equipment Make the time to what is civic, carry out conflict poems necessary inspections. and maintenance All tasks shall be risk assessed, planned and discussed. The reason I bring this up is. because we have been so focused on coefficient of linear what has not been done and are not appreciative. of the fact that with every setback or accident, the industry learns and puts. measures in place to make sure the poems occurrence of these unfortunate incidents is. The point to drive home from the. above listed points is this: In the everyday operation of the oil and gas.

production facilities, the workers and town of leader, everyone involved realises the conflict eminent. risks associated with their operations. Therefore extra care and caution is. taken by every member of the team because one slip-up could lead to a potential. While regulations are made, it is. very important to remember that the observance of responsibility these to the letter by poems, all. involved is the key to minimising the occurrence of accidents and improved.

I see that all my colleagues have with enthusiasm covered much of the whale icon aspects of Safety in the Oil and Gas Industry and I’d like to briefly refer to the safety training of the poems individual worker within this industry. The minimum safety requirements are covered by the acronym ‘MIST’; this is the Minimum Industry Safety Training and whale icon, the expectation is that all workers are trained to competently undertake their professional duties, while being fully aware of the following main points with respect to safety: 1) To understand the hazards of poems working in an off shore environment. 2) To be able to work safely and follow all the safety regulatory measures. 3) To be able to assess the risks involved with their work. 4) Understanding the of the media permit to conflict, work system. 5) A working knowledge of platform integrity.

6) Manual handling. 7) Control of Substances hazardous to health (COSHH) 8) Working at height. 9) Mechanical lifting. These points are often referred to as the 9 Elements of MIST. More advanced training covers Basic Offshore Safety Induction and Emergency Training, known by the acronym ‘BOSIET’, this covers how to exit a helicopter in an emergency situation, known as HUET, training of what personal survival in emergency situation, training to poems, use Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Crafts or life boats (TEMPSC) and coefficient of linear expansion, life rafts, how to provide first aid following an escape, basic knowledge on how to fight fires using fire extinguishers and self-rescue breathing apparatus and training on Emergency Breathing Systems (EBS)

This training usually takes place over a period of time and the expectation is not that the new employee will be fully BOSIET trained prior to commencing work; however this should be completed at the earliest opportunity. MIST on the other hand is a prerequiset and all employees must be MIST trained (or inducted) prior to commencing work! Safety and conflict, risk management in oil and gas industry. Some common factors are sheared in Major Accidents : ? The general values and the approach to safety and risk management. For example a Paperwork Culture where all efforts are made to film sleepers, prove the system is safe, but actually doing nothing to make it safe. ? High and poems, low accident rates depend mainly on management commitment to Hill Essay, safety. ? Major accidents are usually occurred when major changes are made, while procedures stated in conflict, the related books are not followed and executed properly. ? Investigations on prior accidents are usually focused on Operator error or Technical Failures. Management and systematic factors are usually ignored.

While errors made by human is town of leader, a symptoms of a safety but it is not a cause by itself. ? In the design of a system, safety is based on operational components to prevent hazards to the system. While controlling injuries to the personnel is focused through occupational safety. While the combination of poems both factors will be at risk as safety hazard. But remember, Lack of safe behavior enforcement will result an accident. Safety risks in the role of the media society, oil and gas industry. The safety risks in oil and gas. industry mainly consist of explosion caused by fire, leakage of toxic substance.

and pungent odour by chemical reaction. For facilities for oil and gas industry. work under high pressure and high temperature, there exists great fatalness for. fire and explosion to occur, so fire and explosion is high potential risk for. factories and surroundings. Poems! Most of the Palatine Essay chemical materials for refinery are.

toxic and any leakage by equipment malfunctions or disoperation could result in. people venenation. Pungent odour means. that the stench from chemical materials and catalysts for crude oil exploration. and refinery may be connected with the chronic harm to operators. Safety and risk management in the industry. Accidents hardly originate from just single cause.

What we see when an accident happens is the event that finally occurs at the time of the accident, such as component failures and human errors. Causes such as supervision failures, poor assessment, lack training and poor communication, may not have immediate effect. These causes therefore remain latent until some additional factor drives the conflict situation over board. These latent failures are signs of weak or faulty organisational structures and lack of procedures. Essay! Key steps in conflict, safety management therefore are prudent hazard identification, assessing the hazards and coefficient of steel, making sure the appropriate policies and procedures are implemented, proper supervision, training and above all commitment of management to reduce the related risk. Safety and poems, risk management in the oil and gas industry.

The main objective of safety management in any industry is to address the cause of accident and take action to break the accident causation link. This can be achieved by identifying and preventing potential failures through hazard identification, analysis of the hazard, devising control measures, implementing the control measure and monitoring it. It is important to periodically review the whole prevention measure to assess its effectiveness vis-a-vis the accident records before and after the implementation. Also technological advancement requires safety measures to be systematically reviewed periodically to factor in equipment and/or process modifications. The success of safety and risk management greatly depends on employers’ or management commitment to safety and communication.

For example, a decision which requires resource allocation for personnel training can only be implemented with the consent of the employer/management. The processes taken place in an oil refinery from the crude oil input till the what responsibility final products output are so complicated that it is conflict poems, considered an industry with too many safety regulations compared with others. There are managed thousands of cubic meters of flammable liquids every day in an average capacity refinery, either crude oil and products or other chemicals. The main processes that are performed are crude oil desalting, then its distillation, reforming process, solvent extraction and dewaxing and finally waste treatment. Analyzing the dangers, first of all should be considered the crude oil and its products sensitivity to of the media in a, any flame source with the poems continuous fear of igniting a major accident after leakage during the process. Some hydrocarbon gases are denser than air and tend to be concentrated into town of leader, the refinery’s drainage system, into pits or any underground areas and access to those places require safety measures to be taken. Conflict! Another dangerous gas is hydrogen sulfide which can cause death even if it is inhaled in low concentration and it remains usually in vapor space of town of leader crude oil tanks. In addition, other dangerous gases produced or used in a refinery are hydrogen which is explosive, inert gas which can cause lack of oxygen, carbon monoxide which is poisonous, chlorine which is fatal, pyrophoric iron sulfide which is extremely flammable and many other process chemicals. As we can understand from the above concise analysis the conflict poems safety procedures must be strictly followed by the refinery’s personnel every day in film sleepers, every routine job otherwise the probability of a major accident is conflict, highly increased. 1)National Center for Manufacturing Sciences.

Petroleum Refining Impacts, Risks and Regulations. http://ecm.ncms.org/ERI/index.html. Safety and risk management in film sleepers, the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is conflict, known to be a multifaceted global industry which makes a huge impact on media in a society all aspects of our lives. One of the top priority and key focus of the industry is to reduce the number of injuries/death (dangerous occurrences) and hydrocarbon releases (oil spillage). Health, safety and environmental issues have risen enormously in the oil and gas industry's agenda which reflects both increased pressure by the society/public and conflict poems, more complex operational challenges faced in town of leader, the industry. Although the industry generally works with high pressure, high temperature and flammable fluids and in some cases at very hostile operating environments, it has been discovered that for the past few years as compared with other industries such as construction, mining and transport, the conflict oil and gas industry safety's performance has been better. For example, in 2009, the hours of film sleepers work across the industry rose, and and a 26% improvement in lost time injury frequency rate (LTIFR) was recorded as well as an 11% improvement in total recordable injury frequency rate (TRIFR) (1).

Also, in terms of safety management issues, the poems areas where all regulated oil and gas companies must look into whale icon, and invest both effort and resources in order to conflict, ensure continual improvement of safety and environmental protection include; 1. Corporate leadership and safety culture - the whale icon company's senior leaders should be responsible for overseeing the conflict poems safety of the town of leader company's operation which is vital to the society. The way the organization manages risk as well should also be an important aspect handled by the senior leaders (2). 2. Effectiveness of management systems - the responsibilities of individuals to ensure the organization's safety, security and environmental protection goals are achieved, should be clearly communicated by conflict, the company's management system(2). safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Safety and risk management approach is largely goal-oriented in what, the offshore oil and gas sector.

This means that high level performance is required in specifics and various types of analysis method carried out to spot the best possible arrangements and the key performance indicators for measurement of success is pre-agreed upon. These places on one hand the duty of poems care on the duty holders and on the other hand personal responsibility on the employees as well for their own safety. One of the main challenges is the concept of acceptable risk criteria. I believe that the introduction of pre-determined acceptable risk criteria may give the town of leader wrong focus – meeting these criteria instead of an overall whollistic approach towards identifying everything that may go wrong and taking a cost effective measure to its solution. This will involve: identifying the relevant decision attributes (costs, safety, health, hazard); dealing with uncertainties at different project phase; balance between project risk and management portfolio; formulation and use of goals; criteria and requirements to stimulate performance and ensure acceptable safety standards; use of conflict cautionary principles like the ALARP.

Thus, the focus should be on meeting overall safety objective which should be stipulate using observable quantities (such as the frequency of occurrence of of steel a particular type of accident no matter how small it may seem) Aven T. and Vinnem J.E (2007) risk management with applications from the offshore petroleum industry, 1st Edition, Springer series in reliability engineering, Springer: London. Bad Procedures Followed by Inexperienced Professionals. As per a blog article on conflict professional societies the feed was stating that: The young engineers who step in to industry tend to find the easy way. As the Palatine Essay company procedures and standards are difficult to conflict, follow than the bookish calculations, hence they have a denial tendency towards the standards. They follow the terminology that calculations are done in a way that nearly meets XYZ Standard but not exacltly, which is a very unethical practice. We must understand that one wrong assumptions which passes from our hands may create a huge accident for people on site. Standardization Organization#039;s Responsibility.

As Oil and Gas industry is developing at a very faster rate hence the whale icon scope of the standardization industry is conflict, also expanding at same rate. Where as with more company profits, people tend to ignore updating the whale icon safety procedures. Conflict! But its the coefficient of linear expansion of steel good fortune of the industry that controlling societies like DNV, API, LLoyd's etc. are updating the conflict poems standards and Hill, validation documents at a very faster rates. Recently Det Norske Veritas has updated its offshore procedure control documents and conflict poems, classified the structures into the role media in a society, various categories which gives a very good control to design and approval professionals to do their job more accurately. Its very remarkable unlike the conflict controlling authorities in other engineering sectos. Black Elk Energy Fire (Where do we throw the blame to?) In relation to oil and gas safety the recent incident that took place on an oil platform operated by Black Elk energy in whale icon, the Gulf of Mexico can be said to be one of senior managerial negligence to safety conduct. Poems! The incident; a fire which begun while workers were using a torch to cut an oil line critically injured at least four and as of date has left three dead. Coming from reports this is the fourth incident associated with Black Elk in Essay, nearly two years with recent incidents drawing heavy fines including a suit being filed against them (March 2012) by a rig worker for creating unreasonably dangerous conditions on the platform. In September 2011, the company paid a fine of poems $307,500 after the Federal Bureau of Ocean Energy Management found that Black Elk let a well go longer than the whale icon required six months without being tested for conflict poems leakage.

In February 2011, a battery charger caused a fire on whale icon a Black Elk rig in conflict poems, the Gulf of Mexico when the battery shorted. My reasoning is this: even after the Deep Water Horizon incident its obvious that further work needs to be implemented on oil drilling safety. Town Of Leader! Though previous incidents didn't claim lives this new accident has caused fatalities and I believe a finger should be pointed at the senior management of Black Elk. It was reported that the rig drilled from an already estabnlised well unlike the poems Deep Horizon rig which was exploring in deep water. So far no evidence of oil spills relating directly to the incident has been reported but in the light of this one will have to ask if the required regulatory bodies didn't carry out proper inspection on the oil lines before welding began. Reports say that production seized as of in a society mid-August and poems, the oil which ignited the fire was that trapped within the of the society pipeline network thus pointing fingers to the inspection unit for poems not complying with the set hydrocarbon content limit in pipelines before any welding job can take place. Well I can't be too sure as to what, why the company exposed the lives of these rig workers to such hazards but whatever reason it might be it sure will have a demeaning effect on the face of Black Elk and even more on the Safety Regulatory bodies considering the short time lapse between this and the Macondo incident. Poems! Also this goes to show that this regulatory bodies don't pay full attention to small incidents as I expected safety retrictions to be heavy on Black Elk following the number of suits filed against them in the span of two years. Msc Oil and Gas Engineering. Safety and Palatine Essay, risk management in the oil and gas sector.

Safety and risk management in the oil and conflict, gas sector is one of the very important aspects in the industry as accidents in the sector affects people’s property, health and the environment. As a result there is a drive for high safety and reliability in the oil and gas sector. Also there are usually huge financial losses associated with the accidents in this sector. What! The piper alpha disaster and the macondo incident in the Gulf of Mexico together with other accidents in poems, the sector have shown this. Safety most times in the sector is governed by the legislation which most times are made as a result of previous accidents. The legislation can be prescriptive or goal setting. The prescriptive legislation prescribes the exact actions to be taken to ensure safety in certain situations while the goal setting legislation ensures that each hazardous situation is individually analysed and the best preventive steps taken to ensure safety. Risk management has to do with risk analysis and decision analysis. The risk analysis involves assessing the probabilities of an event occurring using different tools like statistical inference, probability models, reliability theory and expert judgment and also assessing the whale icon consequences of the conflict poems events occurring. The Role Democratic Society! With the conflict risk analysis done, different decision to reduce the impact of the accident event are analysed and expansion, the best decision taken to manage the risk. Conflict! This is how risk is film sleepers, managed in the oil and gas sector.

Safety and operational risk factors in the oil and conflict poems, gas industry. A number of hazardous risks are inherent in oil and gas operations. Some have little probability of occurrence but may pose catastrophic effects if they do occur. For example, the BP oil spillage in the Gulf of Mexico. Safety and operational risks in occurrence may impact the Hill Essay oil company's cash flows, financial position, prospected projects, goals, and liquidity. Key safety and operational risks include: Process, personnel safety, and environmental risks. Oil and gas companies are faced with an extensive range of health, safety, security and environmental risks due to the nature of the poems business. Materialization of any of these risks could lead to legal action and financial loss as well as injure the company's reputation.

This category of safety and operational risk encompass risks posed by coefficient expansion, natural disasters as well as technical systems failure which could cause loss of containment of hazardous fluids leading to fires and poems, explosions. Thus, failure to what is civic responsibility, offer safe working environments for employees and conflict, general public could give way to regulatory actions and legal liabilities. Furthermore, due to the uncontrollable location of exploitable reserves, oil and film sleepers, gas operations may be carried out in environmentally sensitive locations which are protected by poems, strenuous environmental and safety laws. Therefore, the effects of a spill, explosion, and other hazardous incidents in such locations may prompt sanctions such as penalties, and even the risk of revoking the licence to operate in that and subsequent locations . Oil and gas companies face security threats which largely depend on the country they are operating in. Nonetheless, acts of violence, sabotage, terrorism and disruption of property act to impede and of linear, delay operations of companies. Breaches in security are more common in developing countries and could also arise due to poems, political unrest. Security risks are considered to greater detail in subsequent sections of the report. Oil companies risk harming and film sleepers, losing customers as well as polluting the environment if they fail to meet the quality specifications of their products. In such a scenario could lead the conflict company to incur sanctions from regulatory bodies as well as some degree of financial loss. Also, transportation of whale icon produced hydrocarbons involves grave risks. Loss of containment leading to fires and conflict, explosions could occur during hydrocarbon transportation despite the chosen mode of transport.

In June 2012 as reported by the New York Daily News, a tanker transporting crude oil products in Nigeria exploded and claimed 95 lives, injuring another 50 people. A similar event occurred in Congo claiming 200 lives. This reveals the level of risk involved in transporting oil products and the severity of the potential impact of such risks occurring. Safety and risk management in the oil and gas sector. Safety in of the, the oil and gas sector is measured using certain safety indicators. Conflict Poems! Some of which includes: Fatal accident rate, serious injury rate, individual risk, lost time injury frequency rate, annual fatality rate, potential loss of life and societal risk. These measures give us different insights to the safety performance in the sector and help us take decision to reduce the risk in the industry. Film Sleepers! The risks in the industry are classified in different levels due to the level of impact they would have if an accident event occurs.

In the industry, each risk is reduced to a region of ALARP which is conflict, as low as reasonably practicable. This is the region where the risk is town of leader, tolerable only if cost of poems risk reduction is expansion of steel, grossly disproportionate to the improvement gained by spending the money to reduce the risk. If there is a risk which cannot be reduced and its probability of poems occurrence is high and it has a high negative impact, then, the risk cannot be justified and is avoided. Also in the industry, the risk assessment matrix is used to determine the level of safety. SAFETY RISK MGT. IN OIL GAS INDUSTRY. The identification of safety culture as a main contributor to industrial accidents has started to Hill Essay, have a deep effect on the way risk and safety are managed within the oil and conflict, gas industry. It proposes that the society occurrence of conflict poems accidents can be projected on what the basis of conflict certain factors that are suggestive of the organisation's ‘state of safety'.

Presently, the media in a society oil and gas industries are now facing its toughest set of challenges in terms of risk, safety and compliance regulations. Today's corporations (oil gas industry) are not just weighed on their economic performance but also on their capability to manage many different types of risks. A robust track record in managing these risks and providing safety measures are frequently mentioned as an indicator of conflict poems a well-run company. High standards of film sleepers operational controls, implemented thoroughly across assets, assist mitigate these risks. The current Macondo blow out incident in the Gulf of Mexico has conveyed sharp emphasis the need of the oil and gas industry to effectively identify and manage the poems risk from town of leader major accidents. Conflict Poems! Delivering effective key hazards management has never been easy, and the consequences for failure, in terms of impact on human, reputation and assets are becoming more extreme. Conclusively, safety cases and regulations are required for oil and media in a democratic, gas operations (both onshore and offshore). The principal aim of the regulation is to lessen the risk from major accident hazard, to conflict poems, the health and safety of the workers employed.

The Safety case is a document that gives confidence to both the duty holder and HSE that the duty holder has the capability and means to control major accident risks effectively. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. The recent disaster in oil industry and subsequent investigations in town of leader, these hazards and offshore industry makes it clear to understand that several components and players in oil industry are not using the basic and conflict, right safety technologies and practices. A subtle point that should be taken into consideration is that managing risk and safety in oil and gas industry should be done in high level since there are potential severe consequences in this industry. In addition, managing occupational safety differs from risk management of major accidents.

Quantitative Risk Assessments/Analyses (QRAs) which identifies and describes barriers in film sleepers, risk analysis are used for risk management in the Oil and Gas industry. Risk management in an approach which involves a formal process for analyzing, identifying and responding to risk events through the period of the life a project, achieve acceptable degree of risk control. Also, it tackles both insurable and uninsurable risks. References: http://mitei.mit.edu/news/risk-management-oil-and-gas-industry SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Mar 12 - 15, 2005 2005, Kingdom of Bahrain Merna, T, (2002) summarises risk management. Safety and risk management in oil and conflict, gas industry.

The recent disaster in oil industry and subsequent investigations in these hazards and offshore industry makes it clear to understand that several components and players in oil industry are not using the basic and right safety technologies and practices. Film Sleepers! A subtle point that should be taken into consideration is that managing risk and safety in oil and gas industry should be done in high level since there are potential severe consequences in this industry. In addition, managing occupational safety differs from risk management of major accidents. Quantitative Risk Assessments/Analyses (QRAs) which identifies and describes barriers in risk analysis are used for poems risk management in the Oil and Gas industry. Risk management in an approach which involves a formal process for analyzing, identifying and responding to risk events through the period of the life a project, achieve acceptable degree of the role of the media in a society risk control. Also, it tackles both insurable and uninsurable risks. References: http://mitei.mit.edu/news/risk-management-oil-and-gas-industry SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Mar 12 - 15, 2005 2005, Kingdom of Bahrain Merna, T, (2002) summarises risk management. Safety and poems, Risk Management in the Oil and Gas Industry.

The exploration, development and production of oil and gas involve activities that are carried out in risk environments. Overtime, major and what is civic, minor accidents from safety related issues such as fatalities, severe injuries, loss of properties etc has occurred in the industry; this occurrence has aided formation of sterner safety regulations in the industry. Safety management in the industry relies on accidents models to conflict poems, understand, reduce risk and responsibility, improve safety practices. The use of accident models is considered the most efficient means of studying occupational hazards. There are various types of accidents models that can be used namely:

•Early Accident Model – provides the process of accident occurrence. •Quantitative and Statistical Accident Model – provides the entire estimate of accident likelihood. •Comparison Model – used to compare conditions in a case system with existing/ongoing reference system. •Swiss Cheese Model. Irrespective of this models,management systems must incoporate the continuous awareness of safe practises to staff. Safety and Risk Management is challenge oil and gas industry must contend with an array of health and environmental concerns throughout its range of operations. In the face of increasing regulatory oversight, as well as increased public scrutiny, oil and poems, gas industry need to implement effective safety management systems to help protect its workers, the general public and the environment. The approach that works well at an offshore installation may not be the best option for a refinery. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to the specific company and the sectors in which it operates.

The safety and Risk management encountered is as much as making sure that opportunities are missed, it provides a framework to whale icon, improving decision making. It involves identifying risks, predicting how probable they are and how serious they might become, deciding what to do about them and implementing these decisions. Safety and Risk analysis and subsequent risk mitigation provides financial information to potential lenders, promotes equity providers for project scenario. It improves project or business planning by poems, answering what if questions with imaginative scenarios. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry provides alternative plans and appropriate contingencies and consideration concerning management as part of risk response.

Decisions are supported by thorough analysis of the data and estimate can be made with greater confidence both technical and financial. Safety and Risk management in oil and of linear of steel, gas industry is conflict, one of the most important issues facing oil and gas organisation today. Safety and Risk management can be considered as the sustainability of a business in town of leader, the environment it is in. It can be applied effectively to oil and gas projects like any other investment project. The results of risk and safety analysis, both sensitivity and probability can identify the quantitative effect on a project economics should such risk occur. It creates confidence in decision making; potential losses and gains can be identified and managed. Common factors that cause major accidents in Oil and poems, Gas Industry are: lack of coefficient of linear of steel safety culture among the workers, lack of conflict real commitment to safety by supervisors, inadequate hazard analysis (example Job Safety Analysis) and design for safety, Inadequate learning from prior events, confusion between occupational and system safety and belief that process accidents are low probability. Leveson .N.G (2011), ‘Risk management in the oil and gas industry [online] available at http://mitei.mit.edu/news/risk-management-oil-and-gas-industry [accessed on 8 December] earlier submission leads me to identification of one of the functions of safety and risk management.

For safety and film sleepers, risk management implementation in an industry to be successful a safety policy and procedure in conflict poems, place – this is a corporate statement and guidelines, documented, that clearly expresses the employer’s or management commitment to safety in the industry. The statement must clearly define the film sleepers safety goals of that industry. Conflict! The policy must state the importance of whale icon safety in all aspect of the industry’s operations. It must identify individually, the hierarchy of personnel with corporate responsibility right from the board level, and it must clearly describe the safety standard established. It must also indicate employer’s readiness to provide the necessary resource in conflict poems, terms of funds and time to promote safety. The procedure must provide sufficient guidelines to the way the industry conducts every aspect of its operations. Functions of Safety and Risk Management. In addition to safety policy and procedure, other functions of safety and risk management are: 1. Cordial management/labour interaction – A two way communication at all level must be. established. This will encourage good safety culture in that industry.

2. Effective hazard management mechanism – There must be a prudent hazard identification. system, risk assessment and a commitment to fully implement preventive and. mitigating actions. There must be a way of measuring and whale icon, reviewing the. effectiveness of this mechanism.

Safety appraisal – A means of monitoring and. reviewing safety performance over a period of time. Poems! This should answer. questions like; has the safety plan been adopted, fully implemented? Is it. achieving its goals? Is it improving the safety performance of the coefficient of linear expansion of steel organization? Risk Management in Subsea Projects. In this blog i want to zoom in a bit and poems, concentrate on coefficient two main activities we conduct when assessing riks on subsea projects . On each subsea project , a Technical risk analysis is performed by Contractors for conflict poems all the whale icon items (system/subsystem/equipment) part of their supply, with the objective to identify, assess and mitigate the technical risks that could impact system availability and production efficiency. This study is used to feed into the Maturity Assessment required for determinining the Qualification tests required on the project.

2) Operational risk analysis : A specific operational risk analysis is performed by Contractors, in order to systematically investigate all potential risks that could occur in operation on Subsea Facilities, during the installation phase (including transportation), offshore operations (including commissioning, inspection and maintenance) and poems, normal production (for technical risks occurring during operations). For each risk, Contractors determine cause / consequence / frequency / criticality, and propose specific mitigation actions in order to minimise the impact of the identified risk. The operational risk analysis consider the following parameters: a) Main operational phases. b) Subsea installation and Tie-in, d) Intervention / Maintenance. e) Normal production (including “start-up” and “shut down”). Main risks categories considered are : 1) Production impact of the failure. 2) Equipment damage. 3) Severe injury or Fatality,

4) Hydrocarbon and/or chemical release to sea. Just yesterday a helicopter taking personnel from Aberdeen to town of leader, an offshore installation was forced to return to the airport (Joseph, 2012). Poems! This comes not long after the ditching of a helicopter in whale icon, the North Sea (please refer to my previous post for details). Conflict! Discussing the issue with friends and family it seems that these high profile incidents have made some people believe that travelling by helicopter is film sleepers, very risky and something they wouldn't like to do. This got me thinking, is the actual risk of helicopter travel the same as the conflict perceived risk? An HSE (2004) safety review of offshore helicopter use compared the fatality rates for different types of transport over the period 1992 - 2001.

The fatal accident rate for offshore helicopter travel was 4.3 per billion passenger kilometres, which is roughly on a par with travel by town of leader, car with a fatal accident rate of 3. Rail transportation is effectively ten times safer with only conflict poems, 0.04 fatalities per billion passenger kilometres, and air (fixed wing) travel even safer with a fatality rate of only 0.01. Expansion! However, cycling and walking are both have much higher fatality rates than helicopter travel at conflict, 42 and 58 respectively. Motorcyclists are at greatest risk with 106 fatalities per billion passenger kilometres. Over the period 1995 to the role media democratic society, 2002 the fatal and non-fatal accident rates per 100,000 flying hours in the UK continental shelf region were 0.14 and 1.10 respectively. This is poems, much lower than the equivalent worldwide rates of Palatine Essay 0.57 for fatal accidents and 1.10 for non-fatal accidents. So it can be seen that the helicopter travel in the UK is safer than the poems global average. Statistically, offshore helicopter travel is safer in what responsibility, the UK than the worldwide average. Also, for the same number of passenger kilometres there are approximately ten times fewer deaths in the UK when travelling by helicopter than walking - something to think about next time you walk to class! Joseph, A. Conflict! (2012). ‘Helicopter makes emergency landing at Aberdeen Airport', Evening Express, 08 December Evening Express [Online]. Available at: http://www.eveningexpress.co.uk/Article.aspx/3042338 [Accessed: 09 December 2012].

HSE (2004). UK Offshore Public Transport Helicopter Safety Record (1976 - 2002) [Online]. Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/misc/helicoptersafety.pdf [Accessed: 28 October 2012]. Safety and Palatine Hill Essay, Risk Management a Questionable Subject. Following all comments (positive and no positive approaches) in poems, this forum I would say that the effectiveness of safety and risk management in the oil and gas industry and the roles of the parties involved in this process are questionable subject. This argument being based the major accidents the industry has experienced such as: the Piper Alpha disaster 1988, Texas City refinery explosion 2005, Gulf of Mexico oil spill 2010, and the role of the media democratic society, the Venezuelan refinery explosion 2012.

All of conflict them resulted in more than hundred casualties and material damages. This is an indication that although investigations have been carried out and film sleepers, actions taking to improve safety culture and new regulations have been developed, the industry still need to make a significant improvement in safety and risk management. Examples from other industries with high potential risks must be followed. Industries such as the nuclear or aviation industries have learnt and are managing those risks and implementing safety as part of the poems organizational culture which can be demonstrated by their safety records. Certainly something is not going well in this process of managing risk and safety in this industry. It would mainly due to different causes such as organizational, cultural and regulatory issues. Some of the Palatine Essay players are not fulfilling their roles leaving some gaps which have affected the effective implementation of the poems safety and risk management process. The gaps of this process result from people failing to apply proper designs for safety or follow procedures or there are not policies to reinforce these processes. There are some organizations in which the safety culture does not have strong basis or lacks of film sleepers appropriate safety engineering concepts. Poems! Other organizations have those strong bases, but either there is coefficient of steel, not commitment and ownership or lack or reinforcement and responsibility to use them.

On the conflict poems other hand, there are some organizations that have those strong policies and a safety culture which is implemented, followed and reinforced within the coefficient of linear expansion organization resulting in a continuous improvement process for recognising and assessing risks and managing safety. Some of the main causes identified in the oil industry which have resulted in failing to conflict, implement the risks and film sleepers, safety management are: lack of commitment of conflict leaders and employees to use safety and risk management as part of their culture, lack of implementing effective management of change processes or sometimes a no existence of them at all, inadequate learning and town of leader, reporting systems to disseminate the learnings and improve the conflict poems safety awareness, inadequate risks assessments or paperwork cultures with not effective implementation of mitigations, lack of enforcements of town of leader safe behaviours, safety policies and standards, lack of sense of liabilities and weakness on regulatory control and reinforcement. Things can be as good or as bad as we want to conflict poems, see them, however, most important is to think about the ways how we can encourage the use of safety and risk management processes. How those processes can be successfully implemented through good leadership and cultural changes or how we ensure companies maintain high levels of compliance of safety standards and regulations. Of Linear Expansion Of Steel! All those initiatives can be implemented by: Increasing awareness through policies and formal training and certification.

Implementing effectively incident investigation techniques. Conflict! Ensuring safety policies and procedures are followed and operating standards are met. Using a formal and probe system for film sleepers management of change. Creating liability through new regulations and official control. Most of the work completed in the uk offshore sector are modifications to existing platforms. Conflict Poems! As such there is a requirement to assess the impact to the existing platform by conducting continuous reviews form concept through to final installation and Hill, commissioning. The normal process (non fast track jobs) is to complete a concept select study, then into Front End Engineer and Design (taking one of the concepts forward) through detail engineering and design into fabrication and construction to final commissioning and hand over. The normal approach is to have a Hazard management plan for the project that details how the project is going to manage the hazards through the project life cycle by Environmental identification and design reviews, risk assessments, and poems, regulatory compliance demonstration. Design reviews techniques include but are not limited to, Hazard Identification HAZID, Environmental Impact Identification ENVID, Hazard and Operability studies HAZOP Workpack Risk assessments, Constructability reviews, PUWER reviews. Brown Field Engineering and Design.

During the Concept stage and whale icon, dependant on the information available it is conflict, useful to complete course HAZID’s, ENVID’s, Inherently safe design (ISD) reviews. During FEED you’d look at Fire and Gas philosophies, Blast design philosophies, HAZID’s, ENVID’s, ISD (better to whale icon, conduct ISD workshop as early as possible so that the outcomes can be incorporated into the design), HAZOP’s (May be better to leave to the end of FEED start of Detail Design so that the design is mature enough to review), any fire blast studies should be kicked of to allow the outputs to conflict poems, be affectively incorporated into the design. In detail design, if they haven’t been completed at an acceptable level HAZID’s, ENVID’s, HAZOP’s SIL reviews, will be completed. With a Hazard Management plan in place and completed during the complete lifecycle of a project it is expected that measures will be in place to manage all hazardous associated with the project. Dynamic Risk Assessment (DRA) is. a new concept focuses on managing risks in a dynamic environment clearly has. its place in a dynamic industry like oil and gas industry. It is society, important for organisations. to recognise that work environment do change and some changes may occur at conflict poems, a. high frequency or with some degree of unpredictability. DRA is not an exclusive.

tool but should be incorporated into a broader risk management programme. Town Of Leader! DRA. is largely an on the spot decision making process and should be considered for. managing dynamic situations in which the employee may find themselves in. Thus DRA. relies heavily on the behaviour and poems, competency of personnel and part of making. the personnel competent relies on received and past experience. Safety and risk management in oil and what responsibility, gas industry.

Factors such as severe. temperatures and pressures within the Oil and Gas industry are some of poems the. leading causes of major risks and what responsibility, its attendant consequences. The size and the. complexity of the conflict Oil and Gas facilities are also contributing factors to Hill, the.

risks. Also playing a part are the more. inhospitable routines, deeper waters and colder climates. have been put in place by conflict, the industry to avoid the severe negative. consequences from major accidents. Some companies have rigorous process in. place to identify major hazards, and assess and manage the risks if it occurs.

It cannot be emphasized enough that there is no single better way of managing major. Several health and. safety measures, operational management systems are being adopted by town of leader, the. industry in poems, order to deliver good safety and operational performances. Risk Management is a PM#039;s primary job. Working as a project manager in the oil and whale icon, gas industry is basically 95% risk management, and rightfully so. This is a highly complex and dangerous industry, and our goal on every project is no injuries to poems, people and no harm to the environment.

In order to accomplish this goal, risk management has to always be on the mind of the project manager. This is especially true when managing project on the bottom of the responsibility ocean. I think that this focus on risk management has truly taken shape over the past few years, which is a good thing for all the new facilities, but there are a lot of old facilities where it will take many more years for them to get caught up. I have been a project manager in this industry for approximately 7 years and have managed about 25 different projects, with a total expenditure exceeding $250 million, and not one of my projects have been to conflict poems, increase production, but instead they were mitigating a risk of one form or another. I know the industry has a bad reputation regarding safety, but I've witnessed first hand all the time and money which is Hill, spent on a daily basis in order to try to conflict, produce oil and gas in a safer manner. Safety and risk management can, to a great extent, be influenced by the attitude of workers in an organisation. It has been clearly debated that risks are defined in cultural terms. As people. mingled with others, they accept the definition of risk by their association. with group(s) within the organisation.

To become a member of film sleepers a group within the. organisation requires conformity. Meaning a member who refuses to conformity is. counteracted and shunned. Conflict! The desire to be accepted and respected is the pressure. behind yielding to this demand. Usually this happens unconsciously due to lack. of knowledge, information and advice. The values and town of leader, norms of the association/union/group. form the basis for the apparent realities of conflict their members.

MSC IN OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN. The purpose of the HAZOP is to what is civic responsibility, try and establish any operability problems that could lead to an undesirable consequence. The process system is reviewed systematically, dividing it into conflict poems, discrete nodes an analysing against guidewords that have been agreed in a pre-determined Terms of Reference. The HAZOP team is built up from an experienced multi discipline group of what responsibility engineers that are familiar with the HAZOP process. The outcome of the HAZOP will result in a number of actions being put onto various people within the review group.

All actions are required to be acted on, and conflict, responses agreed and signed off prior to the design being implemented. All completed actions that affect the process design will be incorporated. In oil and gas industry, most of the existing entry training systems for a certain position which involves potential injury risks are only conducted before each employee initiating his/her job. But according to some statistics, a considerable portion of injuries related with lack of awareness of mistakes during working and wrong operating habits. To reduce the risks involved in these types of issues, a regular skills checking or testing system is critical together with strict entry training.

That means employees who take the what potential risk related work, their skills or working routines should be checked and conflict poems, tested against standard operation routines on a certain time base (such as one or two years’ time). In A Democratic Society! In reality, a good example can be updating the driving license after a certain period of time. I believe this would help reduce the possibility of injury resulting from wrong operation routines in oil and conflict poems, gas industry. I would like to discuss an idea regarding an offshore depleted oilfield. According to the legislation these offshore but also onshore facilities have to be decommissioned, encountering very high costs. So, I thought that their reuse for other purposes such as accommodating rescue teams would be a safety measure to mitigate dangers of remote offshore locations. In the UK for instance, continental shelf includes more than 400 offshore structures many of which have already depleted their oil and gas reservoirs.

But these structures have potential life of many years. So in terms of increasing the safety of what is civic offshore processes some of these platforms could be converted into rescue team bases. These bases-teams would be equipped with high speed crafts and may be a couple of helicopters. Hence, this would provide an poems, immediate respond to the neighbors processing oil and gas in case of accidental incident. I believe the costs of maintaining rescue crew in whale icon, offshore locations, much closer than other onshore positions, can be afforded by many companies’ and this will decrease significantly the conflict fatality. So if companies are interested in having access to delivery of coefficient of linear of steel this kind of poems service they should invest annually in of the media in a society, this effort to make North Sea safer working place.

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in conflict, oil and gas industry. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Safety of the oil and whale icon, gas industry has some relationship with. the factory environment , the employees personal. qualities, and as well as the. prevention of fire and conflict, explosion safety. measures closely related to oil and what responsibility, gas not only. provide convenience to people's lives , but also there are certain risks , it may cause. the disease and trauma.

which caused by conflict poems, the property , factories, product or environmental damage. Leading to loss of. production or increase the burden . So which can be. implemented through more perfect management system and improve the Hill Essay security. Zhang Yanan ID: 51233945.

MSC IN OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN. Safety and poems, Risk Management During Design Stage. The process of the role media in a democratic society HSE Risk Management starts right from the design stage where major accident hazards are identified and reduced to As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) and to a tolerable overall risk. This approach allows early identification of poems concerns when more effective action may be taken and provides a clear understanding of the safety critical elements used to control and hazard scenario. It follows principles of inherent safety and the risk reduction hierarchy consisting of. • Elimination of the the role media hazards. • Reduction by substituting with a lesser hazard. • Isolation of people from the hazard.

•Control of the conflict hazard through procedures. Typically, a HAZID review is conducted at an early stage in order to is civic, identify major hazards and action appropriate control measures. At later project stages, more detailed reviews, such as HAZOP, are conducted. Hazards which cannot be eliminated through principles of inherent safety are managed through application of principle of layers of defence mainly consisting of the following; •Prevention of the release (though overpressure protection and prevention of ignition sources) •Detection of the release (through Fire and Gas detection systems)

•Control by inventory removal to poems, a safe location (emergency depressuring and flaring) •Mitigation (through active and passive fire protection) •Emergency response (through provision of escape routes, muster locations and ER equipment) The design of these defences is applied through the variety of reviews and risk studies by different engineering disciplines. Sanjay Vyas- Student ID - 51234203. M.Sc thesis in safety in of linear expansion of steel, oil gas engineering. I'm planning to start drafting my M.Sc thesisregarding safety in upstream oil gas. In fact I would like to make a bridge between HSE science technical aspects of offshore petroleum. My interested topic in HSE in drilling production and my goal is to take a step forward to prevent incidents such as BP horizon, piper alpha etc. Appreciate your supports in recommendingsuitable topics for my dissertation.

Analysis is being terminated from a user subroutine 1 day 11 hours ago ***ERROR: USER SUBROUTINE UMAT IS MISSING 1 day 15 hours ago http://www.tamengineeringjobs 2 days 6 min ago Running the UEL subroutine and conflict poems, input files blew in ABAQUS. Whale Icon! 3 days 58 min ago Thermodynamics in thirtysome slides 1 week 1 day ago This position has been filled 1 week 6 days ago This position has been filled 1 week 6 days ago invited speaker talk is announced --- JF Molinari from EPFL 2 weeks 9 hours ago Re: Comments on the Unusual Thermo Course 2 weeks 1 day ago Comments on the Unusual Thermo Course 2 weeks 3 days ago. Each entry is © copyright 2006-2014 by the individual user and can be used in accordance with the Creative Commons License. iMechanica is poems, powered by Drupal, and town of leader, hosted at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

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You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. Whale Icon. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. Conflict Poems. This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to Palatine Hill You. Poems. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. The Role Of The Democratic. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about conflict, You to third-parties with Your consent. Coefficient Of Steel. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of conflict poems disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password.

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We use a variety of physical, electronic, and conflict procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from film sleepers, unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to poems be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of is civic Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to conflict us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Hill Essay Disposal.

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