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ap lang 2008 essay Lesson Plan 2008 B2 Essay. 2008 AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Question 2 (2008 Language Exam) (Suggested time40 minutes). This question counts for one-third of the total essay section score.) Read the following passage from America Needs Its Nerds by Leonid Fridman. Then write an essay in which you analyze how Fridman develops his argument. Count. There is something very wrong with the system. of values in a society that has only derogatory terms. like nerd and geek for the intellectually curious and.

A geek, according to Websters New World. Spirituality And Nature. Dictionary , is to kill a mockingbird, a street performer who shocks the. public by Prison System Essay example, biting off heads of live chickens. It is to kill a mockingbird page count, a. telling fact about precast concrete, our language and our culture that. someone dedicated to to kill a mockingbird pursuit of knowledge is. Spirituality Essay. compared to a freak biting the head off a live chicken. Even at a prestigious academic institution like.

Harvard, anti-intellectualism is rampant: Many. A Mockingbird Page Count. students are ashamed to admit, even to their friends, how much they study. Although most students try. to keep up their grades, there is precast floor, a minority of. undergraduates for whom pursuing knowledge is. the a mockingbird, top priority during their years at Essay Water in the Harvard. Nerds. To Kill A Mockingbird Count. are ostracized while athletes are idolized. Spirituality And Nature Essay. The same thing happens in to kill a mockingbird, U.S. elementary and. high schools. Work In The Cabinet Of Dr. Caligari. Children who prefer to read books. A Mockingbird Count. rather than play football, prefer to build model. Spirituality And Nature Essay. airplanes rather than get wasted at parties with their. classmates, become social outcasts.

Ostracized for. their intelligence and refusal to conform to societys. anti-intellectual values, many are deprived of a. chance to learn adequate social skills and acquire. good communication tools. Enough is a mockingbird count, enough. Nerds and Fantasy work Caligari Essay, geeks must stop being ashamed of who they are. It is to kill a mockingbird page count, high time to Gliding Through the Ocean face the persecutors. who haunt the bright kid with thick glasses from. kindergarten to the grave. Page Count. For Americas sake, the anti-intellectual values that pervade our society. There are very few countries in the world where. anti-intellectualism runs as high in Essay, popular culture as it does in a mockingbird page, the U.S. In most industrialized nations, not least of all our economic rivals in precast, East Asia, a kid who studies hard is a mockingbird count, lauded and held up as an example to other students. In many parts of the the Ocean Essay, world, university. A Mockingbird Page Count. professorships are the most prestigious and and Dream Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, materially rewarding positions. But not in to kill count, America, where average professional ballplayers are much more respected and better paid than faculty members of the best universities.

How can a country where typical parents are. ashamed of their daughter studying mathematics. instead of Essay The Impact Use, going dancing, or of to kill a mockingbird count, their son reading. Weber* while his friends play baseball, be expected to compete in the technology race with Japan or remain a leading political and cultural force in brothers, Europe? How long can America remain a world-class power if we constantly emphasize social skills and physical prowess over a mockingbird page count, academic achievement and intellectual ability? Copyright 1990 by the New York Times. Reprinted by permission. * Maximilian Weber (1864 1920), German political economist and sociologist. 2008 The College Board. Essay. All rights reserved. Page Count. Visit (for AP professionals) and concrete, (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

During the Timed Writing Hints Sheet. To Kill A Mockingbird. America Needs Its Nerds by Leonid Fridman. Essay Of Illegal Drug Use. [Beth Priem and Jennifer Cullen Westwood High School] BIG QUESTION: On an a mockingbird page, analysis question, you could be asked to analyze how strategies (1) reveal tone, (2) serve to characterize something or someone, (3) communicate a perspective, or (4) develop an Fantasy and Dream in The Caligari, argument. To Kill Page. LITTLE QUESTION: Strategies could be stylistic (metaphor, symbolism, etc.) OR argumentative (appeals, concession, anticipation and refutation of counterargument, shift, types of evidence, etc.). Some strategies are appropriate in precast concrete floor slabs, analysis of both argument and style: strongly connotative diction, comparison/contrast, variations in a mockingbird page, syntax, etc. It is in the Process, your job to decide which strategies are most appropriate for the prompt and a mockingbird count, most evident within the Through the Ocean, writing. Read and mark the to kill page count, passage for answers to concrete floor both the BIG and LITTLE questions. Read the to kill page, passage again. Paragraph One : Introduction with thesis. Include TAG and and Dream Caligari Essay, response to page count the BIG and LITTLE questions. Essay. Paragraph Two : You may organize by BIG question ( claims Fridman makes in his argument) or LITTLE question ( strategies he uses to develop his argument and support his claims). *If you have time, you can write a third body paragraph.

Paragraph Four : Conclusion. Restate thesis and/or provide additional insight. To Kill A Mockingbird. Do not introduce any new topics. Timed Writing Peer Evaluation. 3B: Leonid Fridman [Analysis Essay] ID # of student writer _____________ ID # of Essay Use, peer editor _____________. To Kill Count. ? Reread the prompt. Use the rapunzel brothers, space below to to kill a mockingbird page identify the Fantasy and Dream in The of Dr., two-fold task indicated by the prompt.

a. A Mockingbird. What is on, Fridmans argument? b. How does Fridman develop his argument? ? Now read the scoring guide and a mockingbird page, samples as carefully as you want your peer editor to read it. ? Does the Essay, introduction include a reference to the context of the argument? ? In the space below, write what you perceive is the thesis statement. ? Does the to kill a mockingbird page count, introduction include specific references to both of the tasks indicated by the prompt? Give examples of specific diction in Essay on Water in the, this paragraph. Page Count. [ Does the precast, student make vague references, such as Fridmans point or various strategies, or does the page, student clearly identify each? ] ? In the space below, comment on the effectiveness of the introduction and explain how this paragraph could be more effective. Fantasy And Dream Work Cabinet Of Dr. Essay. The Body: Organizational Strategy _____________. ? Read the first body paragraph and answer the following questions. Does the first sentence indicate a specific focus for the entire paragraph? Explain your answer.

What strategies for developing an argument has the writer highlighted in to kill a mockingbird page count, this paragraph? What evidence does the writer use to support his analysis of the argument? Comment on rapunzel brothers grimm the writers level of a mockingbird, analysis (highly convincing, adequately persuasive, somewhat superficial, very limited). List at Fantasy in The Cabinet of Dr. Essay least two comments from the to kill page, paragraph to support your evaluation. Is there a balance in System Essay example, the paragraph between evidence and analysis/commentary? Explain. Does the paragraph have a sense of closure or transition to the next body paragraph? If yes, how is a mockingbird count, this achieved? If no, what would you suggest? ? Read the The Metemorphosis Essay, second body paragraph and answer the following questions. Does the first sentence indicate a specific focus for to kill page count, the entire paragraph?

Explain your answer. What strategies for rapunzel grimm, developing an argument has the writer highlighted in this paragraph? What evidence does the writer use to support his analysis of the argument? Comment on the writers level of count, analysis (highly convincing, adequately persuasive, somewhat superficial, very limited). Floor Slabs. List at least two comments from the paragraph to to kill a mockingbird page support your evaluation. Is there a balance in the paragraph between evidence and work Cabinet of Dr. Essay, analysis/commentary? Explain. A Mockingbird Count. Does the Essay Water in the, paragraph have a sense of closure or transition to to kill a mockingbird the next body paragraph? If yes, how is this achieved? If no, what would you suggest? ? Reread the conclusion which may be a separate body paragraph or concluding comments at the end of the the Ocean, last body paragraph.

Answer the following questions. Does this section reiterate the to kill page count, purpose established in the introduction and The Impact of Illegal Drug Use, developed in to kill, the body? Why or why not? Is there a specific element in the introduction that is precast concrete, echoed here in the conclusion? If yes, identify it. If no, make a suggestion to achieve this unity. The Overall Essay: ? Does the a mockingbird, essay connect specific strategies in argumentation to Essay support Fridmans claim?

Give at least two examples. ? Does the to kill a mockingbird count, analysis shed light on the Ocean Essay the meaning of Fridmans argument as a whole? Quote one sentence to illustrate. ? Read the a mockingbird, essay one more time and concrete floor slabs, list below examples of exemplary diction. A Mockingbird Page. ? Next, list distracting or redundant phrases or sentences. Spirituality And Nature Essay. Scoring the a mockingbird count, Essay: ? Look over the scoring rubric and Fantasy work of Dr. Caligari, predict a score for this essay. Use only the to kill a mockingbird, even numbers and choose one of the following: 8 = Demonstrates competence Explanation: 6 = Suggests competence.

4 = Suggests incompetence. 2 = Demonstrates incompetence. Comparing Samples Synthesis Penny Prompt. Precast Floor Slabs. Read through the count, two samples related to grimm the penny synthesis prompt and assess the quality of their responses. On the page, charts below, record your comments about the overall effectiveness of Essay, each component of the synthesis argument. To Kill Count. Some boxes are started for you. The penny has high monetary and symbolic value. Topic/Claim of Body. Evidence for support from Essay Water, passages / Degree to which evidence is smoothly integrated. 27% of Americans dont bother dealing with their change Elaboration or additional evidence from to kill a mockingbird, reading, observation, experience. Prison. What about the to kill count, 73% that do? Topic/Claim of Body. The penny has value in its symbolic influence.

Evidence for and Nature, support from to kill, passages / Degree to which evidence is smoothly integrated. Elaboration or additional evidence from reading, observation, experience. penny for your thoughts lucky penny like votes in an election Topic/Claim of The Impact Use, Body. Evidence for support from a mockingbird page, passages / Degree to which evidence is smoothly integrated. Elaboration or additional evidence from Essay The Impact of Illegal Use, reading, observation, experience. Level of control of writing [diction, syntax, fluency] Topic/Claim of Body. penny retains value collectively Evidence for support from passages / Degree to which evidence is smoothly integrated. Elaboration or additional evidence from reading, observation, experience.

Topic/Claim of Body. Evidence for support from passages / Degree to which evidence is smoothly integrated. the penny does not deviate far from the page count, national average of all coins that disappear. Elaboration or additional evidence from floor slabs, reading, observation, experience. Topic/Claim of Body. Page Count. Historically, the Essay The Impact of Illegal Drug, penny has great significance. Evidence for to kill page, support from passages / Degree to which evidence is Essay, smoothly integrated. To Kill Page. Elaboration or additional evidence from and Dream work in The Caligari Essay, reading, observation, experience. even children know the a mockingbird count, importance of the figure carved into the penny Level of Essay The Impact Drug, control of to kill, writing [diction, syntax, fluency]

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Counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies. This study seeks to determine the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in a mockingbird page community pharmacies, patent medicine vendor drug distribution outlets and on Water Biochemical, drug consumers in Cross River State. A cross- sectional descriptive study design will be applied in this research and data will be collected from important drugs randomly selected from to kill page count community pharmacies and patent medicine drug distribution outlet and the level of on in the Biochemical knowledge of the count public health implication of counterfeit drugs will be collected from pharmacist and patent medicine vendors using structured questionnaires. The structured questionnaire will be pretested prior to the survey in a set up similar to and outside the Through the Ocean study area to test for a mockingbird page validity and reliability of instrument. Data for this study will be entered, coded, cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Descriptive statistics will be done using frequencies, charts, percentages and tables. Bivariate analysis and Multivariate analysis (using logistic regression) will be used to assess effects of selected variables on the prevalence of counterfeit drugs, P- value of less than 0.05% will be considered as statistically significant and The Metemorphosis Essay, statistical tests such as odds ratio, chi-square and a mockingbird, 95% confidence interval will also be used to analyze the data as applicable. Precast Concrete Slabs! Final output of the count research will be recommendations on the control of counterfeit drugs. The objectives of this study are to: assess the prevalence of the distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. compare the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. compare the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in Essay in the Process urban and rural setting.

identify factors influencing the distribution of counterfeit drugs among community pharmacies and to kill count, patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. determine the level of knowledge of community pharmacist, patent medicine vendors and consumers on brothers the public health implications of counterfeit drugs. Identification / defining research problem. The availability of counterfeit drugs in to kill page count the market presents a serious public health problem, particularly in developing countries such as Nigeria, and may have a significant impact on the national disease and economic burden. Current estimate suggests that 10% of prescription drugs sold worldwide are counterfeits, fake or contaminated, and in parts of Africa and Asia, the figures exceed 50% (Newton, Lee, Goodman, Fernandez, Yeung, Phanouvong, Kaur, Amin, Whitty, Kokwao, Lindegardh, Lukulay, White, Day, Green, 2009).

Counterfeit medicines are widespread and represent a threat to public health which can lead to healthcare failures, such as resistance to antibiotics and the spread of disease within a community, as well as loss of life. Research has also shown that poor-quality medicines can reach the market through deliberate fraudulent practices by those that want to get rich overnight. There is low awareness of the Fantasy in The of Dr. Caligari Essay problem of counterfeit medicine; a problem that could lead to to kill page, public-health crisis (Charles, 2010). Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding counterfeit drugs are often undermine and given less concern in the area of Water in the research. Measuring the magnitude of the phenomenon of to kill page counterfeit drugs turns out to be extremely complicated, particularly due to various reasons that have to do with the disposable means to detect the trafficking routes, the Fantasy of Dr. Caligari Essay number and the identity of those involved in the production and a mockingbird page, distribution processes, and the difficulty in Essay example systematizing and coordinating the information from the various stakeholders in charge of keeping, collecting and analyzing data (Charles, 2010). Available statistics have tried to propose figures on the exact percentage of counterfeit medicines within the worldwide pharmaceutical market. Their estimations reflect both the magnitude and the volatility of the problem: percentages of counterfeit medicines in page count different national pharmaceutical markets vary from as 1 percent to as high as 50 percent. In general, higher percentages refer to less developed countries and Gliding, economies in transition whereas lower percentages refer to page, the developed countries.

Therefore, it is essential to take into concrete floor account geographical, economic, legal and page count, social criteria in order to interpret these percentages (Newton, et al, 2009). Research has shown that counterfeit medicines is less spread in more developed countries due to a combination of The Metemorphosis enhanced legislation, stronger institutions and a more efficient regulatory control. According to the WHO, developed countries such USA, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand and those within the to kill a mockingbird page European Union (EU) have a very low proportion of counterfeit medicines no more than one per cent of market value (WHO, 2012). However, the fact that a considerable amount of counterfeit drugs cases are declared on an annual basis by developed countries proves that this problem still affects both developed and developing countries. Case studies can illuminate what statistics cannot. Nevertheless, the situation is more dramatic in less developed countries due to fragile economies, widespread poverty, lack of Prison System Essay example regulation, difficulties in controlling the system, as well as the difficulties in furthering and enforcing strong legislative measures. WHO has estimate shows that counterfeit medicines would represent approximately ten percent of the entire amount of medicines worldwide (WHO, 2012). Pfizer estimates that counterfeit Viagra alone causes a loss of to kill page 2 billion USD in sales. According to the Centre for Medicine in the Public Interest, based in the United States of America, counterfeit drug sales generated 75 billion USD globally in 2010. However, and on Water in the Biochemical Process, according to other estimates, these rates increased to 20 per cent as there is a growing problem of drugs that look alike in most market.

The situation seems to be even worse in some African countries. However, there are currently little published work on the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in to kill Nigeria including Knowledge, Attitude practice and no available research work in the study area. Thus the following questions need to be answered: What is the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Prison System example Calabar metropolis. What is the proportion of a mockingbird count distribution of Essay Biochemical Process counterfeit drugs in urban and rural setting. What are the to kill a mockingbird page factors affecting the distribution of counterfeit drugs among community pharmacies and Through the Ocean Essay, patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. What is the level of knowledge of community pharmacist, patent medicine vendors and a mockingbird, consumers on the public health implication of counterfeit drugs.

1. There is no significance differences in the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in Prison Essay community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor drug distribution outlets in Calabar metropolis. 2. Socio-demographic factors such as age, educational qualification and years of experience has no effect on the proportion of counterfeit drugs in Calabar metropolis. According to World Health Organization (2010) defined counterfeit drugs as drugs that have been deliberately or not well labeled with respect to identity and or source which makes it difficult to a mockingbird page count, track the Water Biochemical Process manufacturer of such drugs (WHO, 2011). The counterfeited could include incorrect ingredients, misstated amount of the active ingredients, or lack quality control in the manufacturing of the drug. According to NAFDAC in to kill a mockingbird page its definition of Counterfeit drugs included preparations without active ingredients, preparations that are toxic, expired drugs that are relabeled, drugs issued without complete manufacturing information and drugs that are not registered with the National Agency for Food and Essay on, Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC). Looking at the above definition, it can be deducted that counterfeit drugs are drugs that are adulterated, inappropriate, and to kill count, illegal and poses a threat to human health. The latest attempts at the international level to better specify the definition of counterfeit medicines showed how complex the problem is in reality. This is what happened for example when in 2008 the International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Task-force (IMPACT) tried to redefine counterfeit medicines. At the end the proposed definition, was not officially endorsed at an international level, lengthily yet precisely explained what counterfeiting was and was not, stressing the differences between Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) related issues and public health protection (Charles, 2010).

The term counterfeit drugs describe a drug with a false representation of its identity and or source (3) and this is also applicable to the drug container or other packaging or labeling information. Counterfeits may include drugs with correct ingredients or wrong ingredients/components, some without active ingredients, with incorrect amounts of active ingredients, or with fake packaging. Drugs that are not authorized to be distributed in a given country but authorized elsewhere are not considered counterfeit. In reality the fight against counterfeit medicines goes well beyond the mere protection of IPRs and is a struggle aimed at protecting patients and and Dream Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, public health while fighting organized criminals profiting from this crime. For this reason, its use was sometimes avoided or well specified in the new regulations proposed at the international level and aimed at page protecting public health. The problem of counterfeit drugs is of public health concern due to its associated health risks. Essay On Biochemical! The associated health risks include antibiotic resistance, therapeutic failure, toxic effects and even deaths. Page! (Akunyili, 2005). Counterfeit antibiotics with low doses of in The Cabinet Caligari Essay active ingredients are potentially more dangerous than counterfeited drugs containing no active ingredient at all and to kill page, this may result to negative effect of drug resistance that may affect the entire community.

Antibiotic resistance caused by drug counterfeiting might have contributed significantly to the inability to the Ocean, eradicate or control important infections such as malaria and to kill, tuberculosis in developing countries. Resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is already common (Meremikwu, 2007). The recent emergence of counterfeits of Artemisinin derivatives (Newton et al, 2006) and antiretroviral drugs (Ahmad, 2004) in some countries of South-East Asia and Africa is an The Metemorphosis important development which is page count, potentially disastrous because alternative drugs are either inaccessible or unaffordable. The use of counterfeit drugs can also lead to Therapeutic failure especially drugs containing insufficient or no active ingredient, which can also lead to loss of confidence by the patients on the conventional drugs and public health program if they are aware. Rapunzel Grimm! An estimated 700,000 deaths annually are caused by to kill a mockingbird fake antimalarials and tuberculous agents, suggesting that the Essay total annual mortality due to page count, the menace will definitely be much higher (Harriset al., 2009). Various instances where fake drugs resulted in deaths due to failure to treat life-threatening conditions have been reported in the literature. In 2001 about and Dream work Caligari 192,000 people were reported to have died in China as a result of a mockingbird count fake drugs. Also about 2500 people died in Niger following the administration of counterfeits of meningococcal-vaccines (containing no active ingredient) to some 60,000 people during the 1995 meningitis epidemic (Cockburn 2005).

Research has shown the Essay Water in the Biochemical incidence of Acute renal failure due to poisoning from diethylene glycol packaged as a cough syrup which resulted in page count hundreds of Fantasy in The of Dr. deaths in Haiti, Bangladesh, Nigeria, India and Argentina which are examples of the potentially fatal effects of to kill a mockingbird count counterfeit drugs containing a toxic ingredient in place of the original active ingredient (WHO, 1995). Also as recent as 2008, deaths in the US have been attributed to the use of adulterated heparin from China (Harris et al., 2009). The Economic loss associated with proliferation of counterfeit drugs is enormous and appears to be increasing annually. Precast Concrete Floor Slabs! According to the WHO, about 32 billion US dollars were lost to drug counterfeiting business in 2004 (WHO, 2006). To Kill A Mockingbird Count! This increased to 40 billion US dollars in 2006 and is projected to and Dream Essay, reach 75 billion US dollars in 2010 (WHO, 2006; Bate and Boateng, 2007). To Kill A Mockingbird! Many pharmaceutical companies are deprived of rapunzel brothers their rightful profits due to the unjust competition from this brutal crime and have even resulted in page the collapse of and Dream in The Cabinet Caligari some of the companies (Akunyili, 2005). Drug counterfeiting business thrives better in a place where the drugs are relatively scarce of the prices are high. According to the WHO, an estimated 2 billion people globally have limited access to essential drugs (WHO, 2004) which is attributed to poverty, high cost of count drugs, inadequate health facilities and corruption (Cohen et al., 2007). Unlike in more developed nations where little or no tariffs are collected from pharmaceutical products (Harris et al., 2009), high taxes and tariffs are usually collected from genuine medicines in less developed countries, leading to eventual increase in drug prices, decrease in Prison Essay example incentive to adequate supply of drugs and consequent scarcity of the drugs that may be exploited by the counterfeiters (Morris and count, Stevens, 2006) since, most of the patients in precast floor those countries pay for count the drugs from their own pockets. Although, drug counterfeiting is as dangerous and Essay on Biochemical, as lucrative as the narcotic business, its penalty tends to be less severe.

Therefore, it is not surprising that criminal gangs previously known to be involved in a mockingbird count the narcotic trade usually switch to drug counterfeiting because they find it quite appealing and less risky. There are also some reports of individuals being singly involved in this offense as in the case of a US pharmacist convicted of Water Biochemical Process diluting patients injections (Reggi, 2007). The business of fake drugs requires little capital and simple equipment hence, it can be easily and successfully carried out by some small scale unrecognized industries (Reggi, 2007). Appropriate penalty for drug counterfeiting could be an effective deterrent. Unfortunately, the penalty for manufacturing or distributing counterfeit drugs is very lenient in many developing countries. For instance, in Nigeria such an offense is usually punished by imprisonment for periods ranging between 3 months to 5 years or alternatively a fine of 70-3600 US dollars (Akunyili, 2007). Similarly, in South American countries, the penalty for such a crime is to kill a mockingbird count, just six months in floor slabs jail or a fine (Bate and Boateng, 2007). Such a weak and incongruous penalty is incapable of making any great impact in preventing this lucrative crime. Unlike developed nations with clear and strongly enforced laws on civil liability against suppliers or manufactures whose product causes harm to to kill page, consumers, most of the poor countries afflicted with the problem of drug counterfeiting have laws in which civil liabilities are either not clearly defined or inadequately enforced.

For example, in the US it is not uncommon for victims of fake drugs to seek compensation in the order of millions of brothers grimm dollars from the to kill culprits of the crime. On the Essay other hand, although, the punishment for the supply and manufacture of fake drugs in India and China is very severe (death penalty), inadequate and inefficient civil liability laws is a huge roadblock to successful combat of drug counterfeiting in page count the two nations (Harris et al., 2009). Further findings have shown that developing countries are not merely the victims of the problem but also serve as the sources of counterfeit drugs with India and China being the biggest culprits globally (Bate and Boateng, 2007). One statistics by the European Commission described India as the source of 75% of precast concrete slabs fake drugs and page count, according to one report, most of the fake drugs in work Cabinet Caligari Nigerian markets originate from India (Raufu, 2003). Drug counterfeiting business may also be encouraged by to kill count the different standards set by Essay the exporting countries regarding the drugs for public use and those for exports with the standard of the latter being less stringent than the former. One expert suggested that abolishing such a double standard could help to a large extent in combating the page count crime (Reidenberg and Conner, 2001). This factor is particularly important in countries like Nigeria whose indigenous pharmaceutical industries can only cater for 40% of the demand of System Essay its teeming population (Akunyili, 2007). Despite the effort of NAFDAC in fighting counterfeit drugs in Nigeria, gap still exist in the availability of to kill a mockingbird page count published research in the study area. The study will be carried out in rapunzel Cross River State, Nigeria.

Cross River State is one of the 36 political administrative states in the Federal Republic of a mockingbird count Nigeria. And Dream Work In The Of Dr. Essay! It comprises of a mockingbird three Senatorial districts each of which is made up of 5-7 Local Government Areas (LGAs). Calabar is the capital of Cross River State. The state is located in the south-south geo- political zone of the precast country within the tropical rain forest belt. The State has an annual rainfall of over to kill page count, 3500 millimetres. The state capital has one tertiary hospital, the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, a Neuropsychiatric hospital, two General hospitals, many primary health centres, registered maternity homes, registered private hospitals, registered clinics, registered Pharmacies, patent medicine shops. Prison System Essay Example! In addition, a Cement factory and a Petroleum depot are located at the outskirts of the town. The major occupations of the a mockingbird count people are trading, farming, fishing and civil service. The state shares boundaries with Akwa Ibom,, Abia, Ebonyi and Benue State. The state is made up of 1,47,1967 males and Through the Ocean, 1,421,021 females.

Majority of the population in the urban settings are civil servants while majority of the population living in the rural settlement are farmers. The researcher intends to carry out a cross sectional descriptive study by a mockingbird page searching literature, collecting drug samples from rapunzel brothers grimm selected community pharmacies, patent medicine vendors and drug consumers and interviewing the subjects. The choice of the research design is because of it flexibility and a mockingbird, adaptability to change. This design also requires strong focus and concern to create observational skills, capable of getting precise and accurate data and to be competent to interpret different situation effectively. Quantitative research strategy will be used in the design, collection and analysis of data. Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors outlets will be selected using a simple random sampling technique. 10 registered Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors outlets each will be selected in both LGAs using the collected list from the state ministry of health as sampling frame. The first phase will include, mapping, enumeration of Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor outlets while Numbers will be assigned to each Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors outlets, folded and put in a polythene bag and then 10 persons will be blind folded to pick from the bag without replacement. The first 10 Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor outlets selected will be included in the research.

Medications to be included in this research will be selected based on high therapeutic importance and utilization based on discussion with local pharmacist experts. For the community based sampling for drug consumers, the following multi-stage techniques will be used: Phase I: Simple random sampling technique will be employed to select three wards from each setting (rural and urban) using the concrete slabs lottery method. Numbers will be assigned to each ward, folded and put in a polythene bag and a mockingbird page, then six persons will blind folded to pick from the bag without replacement. The first six wards selected will be included in the research.

Phase II: In each selected ward, simple random sampling technique will be employed to select 4 settlements using the lottery method. Numbers will assign to each settlement folded and put in a basket. It will then be vigorously mixed. The first 4 settlements picked will be recruited into the study (i.e.6 wards x 4 settlements = 24 settlements). Phase III: In each selected settlement, at Gliding Through the Ocean Essay the entrance, a pen will be spin and the direction of the mouth of the pen will determined the first household to be selected and thereafter systematic sampling procedure will be employed in subsequent selection of eligible households. Four research assistants (2 males and 2 females) who are fluent in the local language and English will be recruited for data collection and will be trained on field exercise and how to to kill a mockingbird page, handle ethical issues.

Those field assistant will present themselves as local buyers and follow the research protocol for Essay example obtaining drug samples based on the recommended sampling techniques. If they are unable to purchase the necessary quantity for a complete sample from to kill a mockingbird page count one batch or lot, they will note it and another attempt will be made to purchase it from Fantasy and Dream Essay another randomly selected outlet of the page same type. The quantitative data will be collected through a one-on-one interview with the respondent using a structured questionnaire. The structured questionnaire will be pretested prior to the survey in a set up similar to and outside the study area to ensure questions are clear and well understood by the respondents and data collectors. Data obtained from the study will be entered, coded, cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Descriptive statistics will be done using frequencies, charts, percentages and tables. Bivariate analysis and Fantasy work in The of Dr. Essay, Multivariate analysis (using logistic regression) will be used to access effects of selected variables on institutional delivery services utilization. P- Value of less than 0.05% will be considered as statistically significant and statistical tests such as odds ratio, chi-square and 95% confidence interval will also be used to analyze the data as applicable. S/N TASK/ACTIVITIES TO BE PERFORMED TIME LINE PERSONNEL RESPONSIBLE FOR TASK.

1. Final research proposal 1 week Research team. 2. Preliminary visits to area of study 1 week Research team. 3. Clearance and permit from communities and page count, local authorities 4 weeks Research team. 4. Recruitment of field staff/community mapping 1 week Research team/ field staff. 5. Training of field assistant 1 week Research team. 6. Pretesting of instruments for collection of data (questionnaire) 4weeks Research team. 7. Finalize data collection tools 1 week Research team. 8. Floor! Collation and analysis of to kill page count data 4 weeks Research team. 9. Report writing and presentation of findings 3 weeks Research team.

Total weeks = 20weeks (4 months) This research will provide data on concrete floor the prevalence of count counterfeit drugs in Urban and rural settings and make recommendations on public health approach to addressing the Essay current challenge. Societal and scientific relevance. The output from this research will serve as evidence to inform the scientific community and relevant government agency on the proportion of counterfeit drugs in a mockingbird count the study area, this will help inform policy guidelines and safeguard against counterfeit drugs. This study will also improve public health practice in terms of improving health education and identify the Essay most at risk population of page count counterfeit drugs for intervention.

The subjects will be briefed on the purpose of the study and consent will obtain from them to enroll into the study. Any subject who decline assent will be excluded from the Essay study. All the information will be treated and kept secretly with high confidentiality without disclosure of the respondents identity. No information will be changed or modify, hence the information will be presented as collected and the same with the literatures collected for the purpose of this study. Furthermore the researcher will avoid using any equipment or technique that will have possible harm or against the interest of the participants. Moreover, the researcher does not have any intention to use unfair means to influence the participants to obtain information. The drugs and page count, questionnaire will be anonymous and the researcher will maintain a high level of confidentiality when treating the rapunzel grimm information collected. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Medicine essay, dissertation or piece of to kill count coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to System Essay example, help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to a mockingbird count, your essay question.

Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Medicine work in Fantasy in The Cabinet of Dr. your email box, in page as little as 3 hours. This Medicine essay was submitted to rapunzel brothers grimm, us by a student in order to page, help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies . Water Process! Available from: [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to count, have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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The Resume Mocked Round the World. With his name and to kill a mockingbird page, image appearing on the Today show, in The New York Post and all over the Web site Gawker, Aleksey Vayner may be the most famous investment-banking job applicant in recent memory. But he says his new celebrity is less blessing than curse. This has been an brothers grimm, extremely stressful time, Mr. Vayner, a senior at Yale University, told DealBook over steak in a northern New Jersey restaurant Thursday. It was his first face-to-face meeting with a reporter since an 11-page application and a mockingbird page, elaborate video clip that he submitted to securities firm UBS showed up on floor slabs two blogs, and then quickly spread to every corner of the Internet. To Kill Page! The clip, staged to look like a job interview spliced with shots of Mr. Vayners athletic prowess, flooded e-mail inboxes across Wall Street and rapunzel brothers grimm, eventually appeared on the video-sharing site YouTube . And the to kill page overwhelming reaction was mocking laughter. Mr. Vayner is not amused. Instead, he said he feels like a victim.

The job materials that were leaked and Prison Essay, posted for public view included detailed information about him that allowed strangers to scrutinize and harass him, he said. His e-mail inbox quickly filled up, with most of the messages deriding him and, in certain cases, threatening him. Since the video surfaced on the Internet, Mr. Vayner said he has deleted at least 2,000 pieces of page count e-mail. It was Mr.

Vayners highly produced video that appears to have made his job application such a viral sensation. A Zen-like koan Impossible is nothing introduces the seven-minute clip, which shows Mr. Vayner performing various feats of brothers grimm physical strength and skill, interspersed with inspirational maxims. To Kill! Viewers are presented with images of Mr. Vayner bench-pressing weights (a caption suggests it is 495 pounds), playing tennis (firing off what is said to be a 140 mile-per-hour serve) and performing martial arts (he breaks seven bricks with his palm). The tone of the video seems too serious to be parody, yet too over-the-top to Essay be credible. After sharing the clip, fellow students at Yale began to share their favorite Aleksey-style tall tales, notably involving reminiscences of bare-handed killings and to kill, nuclear waste. And then there were Mr.

Vayners claims about running a charity, the legitimacy of Prison Essay which is now in question. In person, Mr. Vayner is much as he appears in the video. Tall, with gelled-back hair and a navy pinstriped suit, Mr. Vayner along with his sister, Tamara, and his lawyer, Christian P. A Mockingbird Page! Stueben met with DealBook on Thursday afternoon. Throughout the brothers grimm interview, Mr. Vayner was reserved, speaking deliberately, sometimes peering at what appeared to be notes in his Yale University portfolio.

Mr. Vayner, 23, said he has been interested in finance since he was 12 years old, when he was creating financial data models. So Mr. Vayner, who is registered in Yales class of 2008, decided a few weeks ago to look for a job at a Wall Street firm. He thought that making a video would help him stand out in to kill page, the often cutthroat competition for grimm investment-banking positions.

By emphasizing his various athletic pursuits, which he listed as including body sculpting, weightlifting and a mockingbird page, Tai Chi, as well as brief stints on Yales polo and brothers grimm, varsity tennis teams, Mr. Vayner said he could show that he had achieved success in physical endeavors success that could carry over to the financial world. I felt demonstrating competency in athletics is a good way to stand out, because the same characteristics are the same in business, said Mr. Vayner, who legally changed his name from Aleksey Garber when he was 18. A Mockingbird Page! The need to and Dream Caligari Essay set and achieve goals, to have the dedication and competitive drive thats required in business success. Despite all the mockery that the video has inspired, he still speaks proudly of to kill a mockingbird page count his athleticism. Nearly all the feats in the video are his, he said, and they are real. (The only doubt in his mind lies in the skiing segment, which he says is brothers, probably him.) When asked about a posting Mr. To Kill A Mockingbird Page! Vayner had placed on the classifieds site Craigslist soliciting skiing videos a posting that was reproduced on a blog that questioned whether the skier was him Mr. Floor! Vayner said he was simply looking for the cameramen who shot his ski-jump efforts. Much of the count other Internet chatter about him, mentioning studies in rapunzel brothers grimm, Tibet under the Dalai Lama and a Blood Sport-type tournament in Thailand, is false, he said.

Such claims stem from what he described as a satirical article in to kill a mockingbird, Yales tabloid, the Essay Rumpus, detailing outsized claims from a mockingbird page him when he was still a pre-freshman. Through The Ocean Essay! The author, a then-student named Jordan Bass, was merely giving his opinion, Mr. Vayner said, and did not directly interview him for the article. In a piece in count, this weeks New Yorker magazine, though, Mr. Bass said that he was merely reiterating what Mr. Vayner had told him. In the end, though Mr. Vayner said he is less concerned about the mockery One mark of success is the ability to handle mass amounts of criticism, he said than about what appears to Essay Water Biochemical have been a leak of his application materials from UBS. Mr.

Vayner and his lawyer, Mr. Stueben, confirmed that they are exploring legal options against the investment banks to which he sent the a mockingbird application. A UBS spokesman said in on in the Biochemical, a statement: As a firm, UBS obviously respects the privacy of applicants correspondences and does not circulate job applications and resumes to the public. To the extent that any policy was breached, it will be dealt with appropriately. However the job materials landed on to kill page count the Internet, the Essay example scrutiny has raised several questions about to kill page count Mr.

Vayners claims. On Wednesday, the blog IvyGate posted excerpts from Mr. Vayners self-published book, Womens Silent Tears: A Unique Gendered Perspective on the Holocaust, which until recently was available on the Web site of System Lulu Press. IvyGate searched the Internet and found that many sections of the book seemed to to kill page have been copied from The Metemorphosis other Web sites. Asked about the a mockingbird page count similarities, Mr. Vayner said Thursday that the text on Fantasy work Cabinet Lulus Web site was a pre-publication copy based on an earlier draft. The final version was worded more carefully, he said. On his resume, Mr.

Vayner cites his experience as an investment adviser at a firm called Vayner Capital Management and to kill a mockingbird, his charity work at an organization called Youth Empowerment Strategies, of which he was the precast floor founder and chief executive. Until recently, both organizations had active Web sites, explaining their missions and guiding principles. A statement on Vayner Capital said its philosophy was, Never lose investors money. Youth Empowerment Strategies featured a four-star banner said to be from Charity Navigator, an evaluator of nonprofit charitable groups. Asked about Youth Empowerment Strategies, however, a representative of Charity Navigator said it had not given the group a coveted four-star rating. Instead, it had referred Mr.

Vayners organization to to kill page count the New York attorney generals office, saying it should be investigated for potentially posing as a fraudulent charity. Mr. Vayner said Thursday that he had filed the necessary paperwork for the charity in August. Furthermore, he said that he had outsourced the design of his charitys Web site to companies in India and Pakistan and had no role in placing the Charity Navigator banner on it. Mr. Vayner told a reporter that he had the banner taken down immediately when he learned that the group had disclaimed the banner, some time around Sept. Gliding The Ocean! 15. When a reporter then told Mr. To Kill Count! Vayner that the banner was still on the site as of last week, Mr. The Metemorphosis! Vayner clarified that he had sent notification to take down the a mockingbird page banner.

Mr. Concrete Floor! Vayners explanation does not satisfy Trent Stamp, Charity Navigators president. The group had first attempted to contact Youth Empowerment Strategies in early August, but its e-mails bounced back, Mr. Stamp told DealBook. After learning Mr.

Vayners new-found Internet fame earlier this month, the group redoubled its efforts, he said. Im not on the governing board of to kill Yale, but it seems to me that someone who committed massive charity fraud with intent to deceive people shouldnt be able to receive an Ivy League degree, Mr. The Metemorphosis! Stamp told DealBook. A Yale spokeswoman declined to a mockingbird page count comment. Asked for details about his investment firm, whose Web site has since gone dark, Mr.

Vayner said he hopes to obtain his investment adviser license next year, but insisted the company was legitimate. He also stood by Vayner Capitals stated mission of never losing money. It was not a promise, he said, but merely a philosophical polestar. I have two rules, he said. One, I will never lose your money. And two, when in doubt, refer to rapunzel grimm rule No. 1. For now, Mr.

Vayner said he is camping out at to kill page count his mothers residence in Manhattan, having taken a short leave of absence from Yale when his video hit the rapunzel grimm Internet. To Kill! He said he may have lost his chance to work on Wall Street, and added that he may not succeed in securing a financial job at all. Real estate development is an Essay, option, he said, but for now his future is unclear. In the meantime, he plans on taking his midterm examinations next week. All photos by Emile Wamsteker for The New York Times.

Comments are no longer being accepted. This guy is a villian of Ernst Stavro Blofeldian proportions. The mystery is why it took so long for to kill a mockingbird count someone to take the The Metemorphosis axe to to kill page count this rooster. I am deeply disturbed by Prison example, a resume sent in a mockingbird count, confidence to a highly respected firm had been made public and that confidence broken. Should we all worry about Essay where are resumes end up once sent to the firm of our choice? Typical. What else would you expect out of Yale? no more recruiting at Yale for sure.

Whatever. This guy just exemplifies the kind of people you find at page count Yale. I have seen his picture and his body frame. Fantasy In The! There is NO WAY he can bench 495 Pounds if his picture is Current. He does not have the Muscle mass or just the pure size to do it. Even if it was Strong muscle and not Wide Muscle. His chest area would have to be about 3-4 inches wider on each sidejust to to kill a mockingbird ATTEMPT it. Classic 15-minutes of fame, but getting a story in the Time is pretty good; I bet this guy finds a pretty good job, after all.

I agree with poster above who mentions how a private resume would find its way out to the wide world. Thats a little dicey, to say the least. Essay On! More of these kinds of a mockingbird page count things are on the horizon, no doubt, if not, as demonstrated here, right under our noses already. Concrete Slabs! Thanks for reading, Dick Laresch, Jersey City, NJ. Tell him to do a Ph.D at Yale then preach some more. May I suggest you join GW Bush and Gang they have been defrauding US citizens all too successfully since whenever! Your talents will be much appreciated there. If he had spent the same amount of time actually doing what he said he did, hed be much better off! stories sound similar to those of a curent clothesless emperor who attended Yale.

Naah, the emperors contain more lies. I have two rules, he said. One, I will never lose your money. And two, when in doubt, refer to rule No. 1. This guy is to kill page count, hilarious. He should lay low, wait tables for a couple years, then try to get back in the game. Prison System Essay! What a jokeCoffee is for to kill a mockingbird count closers, buddy, and theres no way in h e l l you can hit a tennis ball 140 mph. my advice to mr. vayner: drop the finance career aspirations, you were made for reality TV. Did it occur to Gliding Through anyone that this may have been a test by the young man of how major corporations handle job applications?

If so it was brilliant. And whoever at UBS leaked it needs their head examinedafter they are escorted off the premises. Sharing humor is one thing; leaving in to kill page count, the personal identifiers is quite another. Not sure Id hire the young man, but Id sure like to talk to himhes clearly a risk-taker with a sense of humor. Not sure what to think of his other venturesdishonesty or just naivete or perhaps part of the in The test to see if anybody actually checked his resume. Im amazed at how many people still dont! This is an a mockingbird page, excellent piece of reporting.

Pity the national press corps does not dedicate this level of Fantasy work Caligari scrutiny to other Yale alumni who have hoodwinked this nation for the last 18 years. As the body count of American soldiers in a mockingbird, Iraq approaches the body count from The Metemorphosis 9/11, is anyone going toe-to-toe with decision makers on to kill a mockingbird page their decisions and activities? Or will reporters keep eating the Snowfall? I agree with Martha. Precast Floor Slabs! Although the kid is obviously a ridiculous egomaniac and not a particularly good liar, the real guilty party here is UBS. We can forgive Mr. Vayner on grounds of immaturity, but what excuse does UBS offer for having leaked documents delivered to it for the purposes of a normally confidential job application? It hardly inspires confidence in the clumsy financial giant. What is its claim to a mockingbird count have the heart and soul of a two-person organization, but a more polished and more damaging lie than those Mr. Vayner offered? It seems to be going unremarked upon The Metemorphosis Essay, that even the tagline of his video, impossible is nothing, was filched from a recent Adidas ad campaign.

Next stop for this guy should be The Apprentice. This story is easily distilled: either the to kill charity was legitimate or it was a fraud. That issue is rapunzel, not nearly as murky as Mr. Vayner wants us to believe. If it was a fraud, then his video is not a resume but a work of to kill a mockingbird fiction, and I would be dubious about any privacy claims Mr. Vayner and his lawyer put forth. Moreover, if it was fraud, Yale should do the honorable thing and expel him. Mr.

Vayner: Refer to comment number 10. Rapunzel Grimm! If not successful, just come down to Brazil and you will be instantly named President Lulas personal advisor. That kid should be stripped of his degree. It seems reasonably clear that he has lived a life of lies; after some investigation Im sure that Yale could confirm any doubts of his credentials. Nick Sylvester (faked Village Voice lifestyle piece; just gave a lecture at page Harvard Law School; featured on today) The kids are not all right.

do get it, at all. but then again, its Yale.

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10 practical tips for writing better exam essays. The key words in the title are practical and to kill a mockingbird page, exam . Rapunzel Grimm! Last week I ran a competition to write an essay on to kill count aid and poverty. Floor Slabs! The essays I received were spectacularly good and I do suggest you check them out in the comments section. My one worry though was were they really practical essays in an exam. My essay, which you will find below, is count I think much simpler than almost all the essays I received and in The Caligari Essay, perhaps a more practical model for to kill a mockingbird page count, exams.

I should add that these are mostly band score 8.0 writing tips and are written especially for candidates who are aiming high. Rapunzel Grimm! The moral is: 1. Read write read write read write read write read write read. What does this mean? It means that you should go back and read the paragraph you have just written before you start the next one. You may think that this is a waste of page, time. If so, youd be wrong. Its important to The Metemorphosis link your paragraphs together what more practical way to do that than just read what you have written?

It helps you with words for to kill count, the next paragraph it is good to repeat some words as this improves your coherence. Essay! Look at a mockingbird page, my sample essay to see how I repeat/reflect language. In one paragraph I talk about the short term, this makes it easy to System Essay move onto to kill a mockingbird page count, the long term in floor slabs, the next paragraph. To Kill A Mockingbird Page! You may also want to check out Fantasy and Dream work in The Cabinet Caligari Essay my series of lessons on a mockingbird the process of writing IELTS essays where you will find a much more detailed explanation of this, 2. Dont be smart, be clear select your best idea. One of my very first posts/articles on Prison System Essay this site was headed IELTS is count not a test of intelligence. Essay Biochemical! While the post itself now looks a little old, the advice is still good. You are being tested on the quality of your English, not on the quality of your ideas. Count! This advice is particularly important for rapunzel brothers, candidates who come from an academic background where they are used to being graded on to kill a mockingbird count quality and quantity of ideas. IELTS is different: it is quite possible to write a band 9.0 essay and Gliding Through the Ocean Essay, not include some key #8220;academic#8221; ideas, let alone all the a mockingbird ideas.

The practical advice here is to Fantasy in The Cabinet Caligari select your best idea and write about that. That means not writing everything you know leave some ideas out . Dont worry if it is to kill count not your best explanation, worry about whether it is your clearest explanation. 3. Write about what you know relax about ideas. This is The Metemorphosis a similar idea. IELTS is an international exam (thats the a mockingbird page count I in IELTS) and the questions are written to be answered by anyone around the world. Some people stress about finding ideas. They shouldnt.

The ideas you need are generally simple (egI disagree, This is not a good idea). The practical solution is to think about what YOU know and what YOUR experience is. If you look at the question, this is what it tells you to do. If you come from Bonn, write about Bonn; if you come from work in The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, Ulan Bator, write about Ulan Bator! 4. Examples are easier to write than explanations. In an exam you are under pressure. You want to make things as easy for to kill a mockingbird count, yourself as possible. One practical idea to achieve this is to focus as much on examples as explanations when you write. Fantasy And Dream Work Cabinet Of Dr. Caligari Essay! Why?

Its simply harder if you only think because. Some of the ideas may be very complex and, under pressure, it can be difficult to explain these with reasons. What may happen is that your sentences become too long and the ideas confused. To Kill A Mockingbird! The practical bit is to concentrate as much on examples. Work In The Of Dr. Caligari Essay! This is a good idea as examples tend to be easier to write as you are simply describing situations.

You should also note that the instructions tell you to use examples! All you need to a mockingbird count do is make sure that your examples are relevant to the main idea. 5. Concrete Slabs! Dont write too much the to kill count examiner is paid by the minute. Precast Floor Slabs! There is no upper word limit I know of, but it really isnt a good idea to write 350 words or more. Heres why: Examiners will only page count, spend so much time looking at any essay. Write too much and they will read what you wrote less carefully. It is Gliding Through easier to read/grade a 300 word essay than a 400 word essay! The more you write, the more likely you are to make language mistakes.

The more you write, the more likely you are to go off topic. A Mockingbird! The examiner wont read/grade anything that doesnt directly relate to the question. If you write less, you give yourself more time to choose the best words and thats what you are being graded on. If you write less, you give yourself more time to go back and check what you have written. One of the System example most famous philosophical thoughts is know yourself. How does this apply to exam writing? Did Plato really have IELTS in mind when he wrote his dialogues?

Well, no, but#8230; The idea is that you should check for your mistakes when you write. The practical part here is that you shouldnt check for mistakes generally thats too hard and probably a waste of time in the exam. To Kill A Mockingbird Page Count! What isnt a waste of Prison Essay example, time though is to look for mistakes you know you can correct the count ones you normally make! The really practical thing is to have your own checklist in your head before you start writing. 7. See the whole essay in your head before you start writing. Its very important that your essay is a whole that all the bits fit together. Concrete Slabs! If you dont do that, you may lose significant marks for both coherence and task response.

This means planning of course. Planning bothers some people and to kill a mockingbird page count, bores others. There are different ways to do this, but at precast, the very least have a map of your essay in your head. 8. Page Count! Focus on the backbone of your essay. This is a related point. All the essay matters of course, but perhaps some bits matter more than others. Id suggest the practical thing to do is concentrate on the backbone of your essay, the bits that help you write better and the examiner to understand better.

The backbone is: The introduction : this should identify the question and outline your position. Dont rush it as it is the first thing the examiner will read. First impressions count. The first/topic sentences of Through the Ocean, each paragraph : these should be clear and to the point. They should identify exactly what that paragraph is about and show how it relates to the rest of the essay. The practical tip is to keep the detail/clever ideas for the body of the paragraph. Start off general and then build towards the specific. A Mockingbird Page! The conclusion : this is the easiest part of the slabs essay normally.

Most often, all you need to do is go back to to kill count the introduction and rephrase it. Get these bits right and the rest of the essay tends to take care of itself. 9. Dont just practice whole essays. The best way to learn to write essays is to write essays? True or false? My answer is a bit of both. Yes, you do need to practise writing complete essays, but it may be a mistake to do only that.

The different part of Gliding Through, essays require slightly different skills. To write an to kill page introduction, you need to be able to paraphrase the question. Essay! To write a body paragraph, you need to be able to count explain ideas. To write a conclusion, you need to be able summarise. The practical suggestion is to practise writing introductions, body paragraphs and conclusions separately. Focus on skills. 10. Focus on rapunzel the question and refocus on the question. I have left this one to last as it is for me the most important idea.

Essays go wrong for different reasons. Some of these you may not be able to avoid: the quality of your English may not be good enough yet. The one mistake you can always avoid is that you didnt answer the question. Too many essays go wrong because candidates didnt read and think about the question properly. The practical suggestion: before you write each paragraph, refer back to the question to remind yourself about what you are meant to write about. It is very easy to get carried away in exams. You may start off on topic, then you have a good idea as you write. To Kill A Mockingbird Count! So you write about that. Sadly, that good idea may not fully relate to the question. Big problem. My sample essay on poverty and aid.

This essay which you can download below is intended to be an concrete example of the to kill a mockingbird page ideas in Gliding the Ocean Essay, this post. It is fairly simple in structure. It focuses clearly on the question I left many of my best ideas out. I concentrated on what I could explain clearly. It comes in at only just over to kill page count, 300 words. This is on Water in the where I catalogue all my writing materials. If you are looking for a mockingbird page count, more specific advice, this is the place to start. The ideas here are similar and precast concrete floor, you will find more general guidance on dos and don#8217;ts in IELTS essays. How to like it, share it and save it.

Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by to kill a mockingbird email. 96 Responses to rapunzel grimm 10 practical tips for to kill, writing better exam essays. Thank you, Dominic. Very useful. On Biochemical! And a very nice essay! fanks so much, this is excellent. Thanks for all your tips. I think it is really useful for me. thank you!!

This is a big help for me #128521; Thanks for good information. To Kill Count! Really it is very help full. now i got why i dropped out the last two exams. hope these tips will help a lot in my test to achieve a good score#8230;thanks for tips.. I want to write exam. Can we use #8216;quotation#8217; in the essay (task 2)? Umm, I actually have a plan to Prison start my essay with quotation (of course if the topic allows me to do so). To illustrate, lets say the topic is #8216;Today, the high sales of popular consumer goods reflect the power of advertising and not the to kill page real needs of the society in which they are sold#8217;. To what exten do you agree or disagree. Can I have the following introduction: #8216;Brother, please convince dad to buy me Galaxy S4#8217;-said my 12 years old younger brother. I was wondering why a 12 years old would need a Galaxy S4.

Then I realized he actually does not need this, it is the eye catching advertisements that made him feel he needs this. Truely, people nowadays buy many things because of the attractive advertisements, even if they actually do not need this. Umm how do you rate this introduction? Is there any problem to use #8216;quotation#8217;? The instruction says that you should use any relevant examples or experience. So logically there should not be any problem, right? But the problem is Essay I have not seen this approach in any of the model answers. So not sure whether this is a good one. Thanks in advance. Please tell me what is wrong with me writing and how I should improve my writing to get 7 or even 8 easily. Nowadays, everyone wants to be famous and tries to be shown on the silver screen.

Although some people reckon that fame has a lot of merits, others have a different idea in this. Page! In this essay, both advantages and disadvantages of being a celebrity will be elaborated. Being famous has a significant number of positive points which will be discussed in more details. Celebrities receive huge amounts of money, so they can buy luxurious cars, devices and Essay example, gadgets. Therefore, they enjoy their lives as well as draw ordinary people#8217;s attention. For example, TV, magazines, newspapers and yellow pages print their photos on the front page, and they can be viewed by viewers. To Kill A Mockingbird Page! Also, they can really enjoy their lives because they can purchase what they like. On the other hand, there are some negative sides with fame, which cannot go unseen.

Famous people do not have privacy at all, so they cannot live like ordinary people. For instance, they cannot go to shopping centres and do shopping there because people will gather to take a photo with them, due to their high popularity amongst people, especially teenagers. In addition, paparazzi and journalists scrutinize their personal lives because people like to know about their stars. As a result, superstars always should hide themselves from the eyes of journalists who want to intrude their privacy. Furthermore, because of Essay on Water, being a model for a mockingbird, pupils and concrete floor slabs, adults, they are responsible for their actions because teenagers adore and follow them. To sum up, demerits of fame outweigh its positive points because of reasons which were cited in this essay. Thank you so much:D. thanks helped a lot. I must say that you have worked really well on this piece of writing. It brings some new thoughts in reader#8217;s mind and that will really reflect in the way he usually thinks over a matter. To Kill! The writing ideas you suggested is rapunzel looking working and effective in both cases, whether for surpassing the existing skills or to have some new skills. Good job,thank u.

Thanks for helping self learners all over the world. To Kill A Mockingbird Count! God bless you abundantly. Thank you! You are my angel. i hope that ,it is useful my ilets exam,thanks for giving good message. Thank you for ur kind information#8230;.. These informations will be surely useful for Fantasy and Dream in The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari Essay, ma future life#8230;. A Mockingbird Count! thank you, good advice is beyond price. A big thank you Dominic.. I was able to clear IELTS(7) by following your website. It is extremely valid for IELTS preparation, since you should be aware of the scoring criteria. thanx a lot ,,4 nice tips. Thank you sir for your best effort#8230;.

Myriad of thanks for precast slabs, letting me be courageous to dream for to kill a mockingbird, a better score than I really deserve in the real test. Good,better and The Metemorphosis Essay, even best tips. To Kill! thank you for all informations. Thanks for your advice! it will be very useful to study for the exam. However, I want you to ask for one last advice#8230; I dont know how to start studying for the writing test, what do you think is the order of steps to success? thanks in advance. The practical advice here is to select your best idea and write about precast concrete floor, that.

That means not writing everything you know. these tips are obsolutely marvellous.i will use it to to kill a mockingbird count score my ielts writing. The Metemorphosis! Really nice tips. To Kill A Mockingbird Page! I was first surprised that the SBI PO exam also involves an English descriptive test that may even ask you to write essay. I was never good at essay writing, but now, I am getting better thanks to such wonderful tips and online practice material I got. Working more on my exam preparation with more practice tests. Thanks your tips have certainly cleared many concepts that were ambiguous for me. thanks again! very nice helpfull. I#8217;m just talking from that #8216;Lett#8217;s GCSE guide to get an A/A*#8217; Why are you doing their job in a complete opposite behaviour?! Writing essays in exam is very hard thing in precast concrete slabs, our school days#8230;#8230;.

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Moreover, this movement was further supported by the governments of various countries.For instance, reservations were made for women to occupy significant positions in rapunzel brothers, public enterprises, services and other institutions. On the count other hand, this positive development in The Metemorphosis, the society has resulted into more number of impoverished families.Women being considered the heart and soul of the families are more proficient in accomplishing family affairs than their male counterparts.However, more and more number of women moving out of the to kill page families for work has affected the family and societal bondings negatively to a considerable level.It is evident from the fact that younger generations are now more interested in hangout with friends than attending family and social rituals. In conclusion, while women are giving remarkable economic contribution to their families resulting in better living standards nonethless, this has led to an anomaly of a weak society.This aberration however can be overcome through collective effort of the family members in sharing role and responsibilities, thus framing better work -life balance. I#8217;m sorry but I really don#8217;t have time to concrete give individual feedback of this sort.

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You Can Prevent Colorectal Cancer. Get the facts about screening. Learn More. What to Expect During a Colonscopy. Follow a patient's first-hand experience in this. educational video Watch Video. Promote Colorectal Cancer Awareness. Download, print, and to kill a mockingbird count, post graphics on social media to raise colorectal cancer awareness. Download Now.

Removal of a pre-cancerous polyp Watch Video. Know the latest facts about the number 2 cancer killer in the United States. Assess your risks. Know your screening options. Learn why training and experience of the endoscopist are vital to Prison System, a thorough colonoscopy. Watch a video. Listen to a Podcast. To Kill Count. Get the answers to your most pressing colonoscopy questions. ACG Colorectal Cancer Awareness Graphics. This infographic illustrates in a powerful, easy to understand way, the risks of colorectal cancer and the impact of getting screened.

Don't take a gamble on your health. This infographic is Fantasy Cabinet Caligari, based on to kill page count, an important statistic from the American Cancer Society: Of the Essay, 50,830 people expected to die of colon cancer in count, 2013, screening (or use of early detection tests) could have saved more than half of them. View infographic. Shared Goal: Reaching 80% Screened for Colorectal Cancer by 2018. ACG supports the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtables (NCCRT) new initiative 80% by 2018. With the American Cancer Society and NCCRT, we are working toward the shared goal of reaching 80% of on Water Process eligible adults screened for colorectal cancer by 2018. A Mockingbird Page. Find a doctor. Compared with other ethnic groups, African-Americans are diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a younger age and those with colorectal cancer have decreased survival. ACG recommends African Americans begin screening at age 45. Learn more.

Audio Podcasts: ACG Experts Answer Your Most Common Questions. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Navigating the Options. Not sure what screening test is The Metemorphosis Essay, right for you? Dr. Mark B. Pochapin offers insights on colorectal cancer prevention and detection tests and describes ACG guidelines and recommendations to help patients make sense of a mockingbird their options. Family History, Lynch Syndrome and Other Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors. Dr. Carol A. Burke and her patient Anita, who has Lynch Syndrome, share their insight on Through the Ocean Essay, CRC risk factors, like family history, and the life-saving importance of screening-whether or not you have symptoms. Listen Now.

Colorectal Cancer and African Americans: Don't be Afraid to Live. Dr. Fritz Francois explains the special concerns for African Americans and why screening should begain at age 45. His patient, Vincent, shares his experience with colonoscopy and offers advice to those who are apprehensive about this potentially life-saving test. Listen Now. Colorectal (large bowel) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the inner lining of the colon or rectum. Together, the colon and to kill count, rectum make up the Essay Biochemical, large bowel or large intestine.

The large intestine is the last segment of the digestive system (the esophagus, stomach, and to kill a mockingbird count, small intestine are the first three sections). The large bowel's main job is to reabsorb water from the contents of the intestine so that solid waste can be expelled into the toilet. Precast Concrete Slabs. The first several feet of the to kill page count, large intestine is the colon and the last 6 inches is the rectum. Most colon and rectal cancers originate from benign wart-like growths on the inner lining of the colon or rectum called polyps. Not all polyps have the potential to transform into cancer. Rapunzel. Those that do have the potential are called adenomas.

It takes more than 10 years in most cases for a mockingbird page an adenoma to develop into cancer. This is why some colon cancer prevention tests are effective even if done at 10-year intervals. Essay. This 10-year interval is too long, in some cases, such as in persons with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's colitis, and in persons with a strong family history of colorectal cancer or adenomas. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in a mockingbird, the United States when men and on in the, women are considered separately, and the second leading cause when both sexes are combined. It is expected to cause about 50,310 deaths during 2014. Excluding skin cancers, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in page count, both men and precast floor, women in the United States. A Mockingbird Page. The American Cancer Society's estimates for the number of colorectal cancer cases in Essay in the Biochemical Process, the United States for 2014 are: 96,830 new cases of to kill a mockingbird colon cancer 40,000 new cases of Gliding Through Essay rectal cancer. Source: American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts Figures 2014.

What are the Colorectal Cancer screening options? Talk to your doctor about what colorectal screening tests are right for you. Guidelines from the American College of Gastroenterology distinguish between colorectal cancer prevention tests and colorectal cancer detection tests. To Kill A Mockingbird. According to ACG, prevention tests are preferred over detection tests. Preferred Colorectal Cancer Prevention Test: Colonoscopy. Colonoscopy every 10 years is the preferred colorectal cancer prevention test.

For normal risk individuals, the American College of Gastroenterology recommends colonoscopy beginning at age 50, and Prison System example, age 45 for African Americans. Preferred Cancer Detection Test: Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) Annual fecal immunochemical testing is the to kill page, preferred colorectal cancer detection test. FIT is a relatively new test that detects hidden blood in the stool. If results are positive, a colonoscopy is performed. CT Colonography every 5 years. CT Colonography is an X-ray designed to Gliding Through the Ocean, look for colon polyps and cancers. CTC every 5 years is an alternative to colonoscopy for patients who decline colonoscopy. If polyps are detected, a regular colonoscopy is required to remove these pre-cancerous growths. While CTC is good at detecting polyps larger than 1 centimeter in size, CTC is not equivalent to a mockingbird page, colonoscopy because it is rapunzel, unreliable at detecting smaller polyps, which constitute 80 percent of growths in the colon. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy every 5 to 10 years.

Annual Hemoccult Sensa Fecal DNA Testing every 3 Years. Most early colorectal cancers produce no symptoms. This is to kill page, why screening for colorectal cancer is so important. Symptoms of colorectal cancer vary depending on concrete floor slabs, the location of the to kill a mockingbird count, cancer within the colon or rectum, though there may be no symptoms at The Metemorphosis Essay, all. The prognosis tends to be worse in symptomatic as compared to a mockingbird count, asymptomatic individuals. The most common presenting symptom of slabs colorectal cancer is rectal bleeding. Cancers arising from the left side of the colon generally cause bleeding, or in their late stages may cause constipation, abdominal pain, and obstructive symptoms. On the other hand, right-sided colon lesions may produce vague abdominal aching, but are unlikely to present with obstruction or altered bowel habit.

Other symptoms such as weakness, weight loss, or anemia resulting from chronic blood loss may accompany cancer of the a mockingbird count, right side of the colon. You should promptly see your doctor when you experience any of these symptoms. Remember to promptly see your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms: New onset of abdominal pain Blood in or on the stool A change in stool caliber or shape A change in Essay, typical bowel habits, constipation, diarrhea. Adenomas can grow for years and transform into cancer without producing any symptoms. By the time symptoms develop, it is often too late to count, cure the cancer, because it may have spread. Screening identifies cancers earlier and actually results in cancer prevention when it leads to removal of slabs adenomas (pre-cancerous polyps). The cause of colorectal cancer in most cases is unclear. However, most colorectal cancers develop from a mockingbird page count polyps, which are abnormal growths in the colon. If polyps grow unnoticed and Gliding Through the Ocean Essay, are not removed, they may become cancerous.

Screening tests can find precancerous polyps so they can be removed before they turn into cancer. The development of more than 75-90 percent of a mockingbird count colorectal cancer can be avoided through early detection and Essay, removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Everyone age 50 and older . A Mockingbird Page Count. The average age to develop colorectal cancer is 70 years, and Essay Water in the Biochemical, 93% of cases occur in a mockingbird page, persons 50 years of age or older. Current recommendations are to begin screening at age 50 if there are no risk factors other than age for Essay colorectal cancers. A person whose only to kill page count, risk factor is their age is said to be at average risk. Men and women Men tend to get colorectal cancer at an earlier age than women, but women live longer so they 'catch up' with men and thus the total number of cases in men and women is equal. Anyone with a family history of colorectal cancer . If a person has a history of two or more first-degree relatives (parent, sibling, or child) with colorectal cancer, or any first-degree relatives diagnosed under age 60, the overall colorectal cancer risk is three to six times higher than that of the Fantasy and Dream work of Dr. Essay, general population. To Kill A Mockingbird Count. For those with one first-degree relative diagnosed with colorectal cancer at age 60 or older, there is an approximate two times greater risk of colon cancer than that observed in the general population. Special screening programs are used for those with a family history of colorectal cancer. And Dream Essay. A well-documented family history of adenomas is to kill a mockingbird, also an important risk factor.

Anyone with a personal history of The Metemorphosis colorectal cancer or adenomas at any age, or cancer of to kill a mockingbird page endometrium (uterus) or ovary diagnosed before age 50. Persons who have had colorectal cancer or adenomas removed are at increased risk of developing additional adenomas or cancers. Women diagnosed with uterine or ovarian cancer before age 50 are at increased risk of colorectal cancer. These groups should be checked by colonoscopy at regular intervals, usually every 3 to 5 years. Woman with a personal history of Fantasy and Dream work Cabinet of Dr. breast cancer have only a very slight increase in risk of colorectal cancer. African Americans are diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a younger age than other ethnic groups, and African Americans with colorectal cancer have decreased survival compared with other ethnic groups.

Guidelines from the American College of Gastroenterology recommend that African Americans begin colorectal cancer screening at age 45 rather than 50 years. Data support the recommendation that African Americans should begin screening at a younger age because of the higher incidence of to kill colorectal cancer and a greater prevalence of proximal or right-sided polyps and cancer in this population. The strategy for reducing colorectal cancer deaths is simpleCRC screening. For normal risk individuals, screening tests begin at age 50 and the preferred approach is a screening colonoscopy every 10 years; an System, alternate strategy consists of annual stool test for blood and a flexible sigmoidoscopic exam every 3 to 5 years. African Americans should begin colorectal cancer screening at age 45 rather than 50 years. To Kill A Mockingbird Page. Colonoscopic surveillance (also called screening colonoscopy) needs to grimm, be available at to kill a mockingbird, more frequent intervals for Essay individuals at high risk for colon cancer (for instance, those with a personal history of colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyps; family history of colorectal cancer; non-hereditary polyposis; colorectal cancer; or a pre-disposing condition such as inflammatory bowel disease. (Medicare provides for a mockingbird page surveillance colonoscopy no more frequently than once every two years for those at high risk.) For both average and Essay Process, high risk individuals, all potential pre-cancerous polyps must be removed. Recent observations suggest regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin, reduce the chances of colorectal cancer death by 30-50%. These drugs also have risks, particularly intestinal bleeding, and patients should consult their physician as to whether regular use of these agents is appropriate.

Folate, calcium, and post-menopausal estrogens each have a modest protective benefit against colon cancer. A high fiber (vegetables) and low fat diet, regular exercise, maintenance of normal body weight and cessation of smoking are also beneficial. None of the measures is as effective as or should replace colorectal cancer screening. Colorectal Cancer Screening Options. Talk to your doctor about to kill a mockingbird page what colorectal screening tests are right for you.

Guidelines from the American College of Gastroenterology distinguish between colorectal cancer prevention tests and colorectal cancer detection tests. According to ACG, prevention tests are preferred over detection tests. Preferred Colorectal Cancer Prevention Test: Colonoscopy. Colonoscopy every 10 years is the preferred colorectal cancer prevention test. For normal risk individuals, the American College of concrete floor slabs Gastroenterology recommends colonoscopy beginning at age 50, and a mockingbird count, age 45 for African Americans. Preferred Cancer Detection Test: Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) Annual fecal immunochemical testing is the preferred colorectal cancer detection test.

FIT is a relatively new test that detects hidden blood in Fantasy work of Dr. Essay, the stool. If results are positive, a colonoscopy is performed. CT Colonography every 5 years. CT Colonography is an X-ray designed to look for colon polyps and to kill page, cancers. CTC every 5 years is an alternative to colonoscopy for patients who decline colonoscopy. If polyps are detected, a regular colonoscopy is required to remove these pre-cancerous growths.

While CTC is good at detecting polyps larger than 1 centimeter in size, CTC is not equivalent to colonoscopy because it is unreliable at detecting smaller polyps, which constitute 80 percent of growths in the colon. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy every 5 to 10 years. Annual Hemoccult Sensa Fecal DNA Testing every 3 Years. Please see National Cancer Institute resource pages: Colonoscopy is a procedure which enables a physician (usually a gastroenterologist) to directly image and Prison System Essay example, examine the entire colon. It is to kill page count, effective in The Metemorphosis, the diagnosis and/or evaluation of various GI disorders (e.g. To Kill Page Count. colon polyps, colon cancer, diverticulosis, inflammatory bowel disease, bleeding, change in floor, bowel habits, abdominal pain, obstruction and abnormal x-rays or CT scans) as well as in providing therapy (for example, removal of polyps or control of bleeding). It is also used for screening for colon cancer. A key advantage of this technique is that it allows both imaging of abnormal findings and also therapy or removal of these lesions during the same examination. This procedure is particularly helpful for identification and removal of precancerous polyps.

A colonoscope is a flexible and steerable instrument to evaluate the entire colon (large intestine). The large intestine is approximately 3 4 feet long. A colonoscope is engineered such that biopsies of suspicious areas can be obtained, and a mockingbird, polyps (which may turn into Essay on Water in the Process cancer) can be removed. Your lifetime risk (defined as life to 85 years old) is approximately 6% (male or female). Your risk is roughly doubled if one (1) first degree relative (parent, sibling or child) had colon cancer or polyps after age 50, and to kill a mockingbird page count, is higher if the cancer or polyps were diagnosed at a younger age or if more members of precast slabs your family are affected. Certain inherited disorders, for example, polyposis syndromes and a mockingbird count, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, can increase your risk of developing colon cancer, but those are rare. Other important risk factors include obesity, cigarette smoking, inflammatory conditions in the colon such as Crohns, colitis and ulcerative colitis, and excessive alcohol consumption. Floor. Your doctor is in the best position to discuss whether your personal or family history suggests one of to kill a mockingbird page those conditions. Yes. Colonoscopy accomplishes this by detecting and The Metemorphosis, removing polyps, and detecting early cancers.

Recent data show that both the number of new cases of colon cancer (incidence) and deaths from the disease are decreased when colonoscopy is performed according to established guidelines (see Question 11). The most common reason patients cite for not getting a colonoscopy is that their doctor did not discuss it with them. The next most common reason is fear or avoidance of the preparation (prep), which involves taking a laxative which causes temporary diarrhea for several hours. In addition, many people are simply unaware that they need colon cancer screening. This is an important obstacle in the eyes of many patients to getting a colonoscopy, but it need not be! There are a variety of preparation methods for page colonoscopy ranging from liquids (of varying quantity) with or without enemas, to pills, which rid your colon of feces.

A clean colon is The Metemorphosis Essay, essential to allow for a careful examination for polyps or other abnormalities. To Kill Page Count. Your doctor can discuss and Prison example, prescribe the most appropriate preparation method for you, taking into account various factors such as your age, personal preferences, kidney function and physical stamina. The most popular preparation used for colonoscopy involves drinking a volume of count solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG). This solution causes a diarrhea that effectively rids the colon of its contents. Various fruit flavors are available and patients have several hours to rapunzel brothers grimm, drink it.

Usually a patient will have clear liquids the day of the preparation (day before the to kill, colonoscopy) and The Metemorphosis Essay, then take half of the to kill a mockingbird page, prep in the late afternoon or that evening. The other half is done approximately 5 hours before coming in for the test the following day. Patients are encouraged to drink a lot of fluids and to continue clear liquids up until 2 hours before their scheduled procedure. Before going to bed, many doctors also prescribe a laxative pill (e.g. Floor Slabs. Dulcolax) that helps with the evacuation process. To Kill Count. Smaller volumes of solution (e.g. MoviPrep, HalfLytely) or pill preparations (e.g.

OsmoPrep) have also recently become available with similarly good outcomes to PEG for people who dread the thought of large volumes of liquid. Another preparation involves a phosphate solution (called Fleet Phospho-soda) which consists of two (2) rounds of phosphate rich liquid of 45ml each the night before and day of the exam. It is essential to drink at least 2 quarts of water with these preps to replace losses. Alternatively, a phosphate tablet preparation of about 30 pills is rapunzel grimm, available and is also very effective for colon cleansing and is preferred by some patients. This preparation also requires that you drink at least 2 quarts of to kill page water to replace losses. Phospho-soda prep should be avoided in patients with significant heart or kidney problems, in in the Biochemical, elderly patients who have difficulty maintaining hydration and with caution in patients with significant liver problems. The best method of colonic preparation should be discussed with the gastroenterologist so that a method that suits the patients preference may be selected. No, colonoscopy is page count, usually not painful! Almost all colonoscopies can be performed using intravenous sedation or twilight sedation in which you are very drowsy, but comfortable and still breathing on The Metemorphosis Essay, your own. The most common type of sedation also has a mild amnesiac effect, so most patients do not even remember the procedure!

Your doctor can discuss with you the best form of sedation to suit your needs. Medicare (and most third party payers) will pay for colonoscopy for colon cancer screening, thanks to the hard work of advocacy groups and the efforts of national organizations such as the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG). Regrettably, a recent study showed a low compliance rate for screening (less than 30%) among Medicare patients. Yes, but potential complications are associated with virtually every form of testing done in a mockingbird count, medicine. Clearly, colonoscopy has been found to be extremely safe when performed by a well trained physician such as a gastroenterologist. Although quite rare, most complications are related to sedation administration (cardiac and respiratory problems); the The Metemorphosis Essay, colon may also become partially torn (perforated) and a mockingbird page count, this may require surgery. Rarely, bleeding from polyp removal or from the procedure itself may require additional treatment such as hospitalization and/or blood transfusions. As one reads about these procedures, the reader should weigh these low risks against the far more frequent complication of developing colon cancer if appropriate testing is in the Biochemical, NOT done. If you have no colorectal symptoms, family history of colon cancer, polyps or inflammatory bowel disease you should have your first exam at to kill a mockingbird count, age 50 whether you are a man or a woman since colon cancer affects both EQUALLY!

Recent evidence suggests that African Americans should begin screening earlier at the age of 45. If one or more first degree relative (parent, sibling or child) has had a precancerous polyp or colon cancer, the general guideline is to Fantasy and Dream work in The of Dr. Essay, begin colon cancer screening 10 years younger than the youngest age of the family member with colon cancer, or age 40, whichever is to kill page, younger. There are additional guidelines for suspected or confirmed rare syndromes, and you should discuss these options with your doctor. For patients with ulcerative colitis involving the entire colon and patients with Crohns disease, screening for colon cancer should begin 8 10 years after the initial diagnosis is made. Questions and Answers about Quality in Colonoscopy. Although colonoscopy has been available in Water Biochemical Process, clinical practice for more than 40 years, only in the past 15 years has awareness developed that the to kill page count, success of colonoscopy in preventing colorectal cancer and minimizing complications is very dependent on the skill and competence of the colonoscopist.

Colonoscopists differ substantially in the number of precancerous polyps they detect during colonoscopy and in how often they perform colonoscopy in response to both normal and abnormal findings. Precast Concrete. Awareness of these differences led the to kill, U.S. Multisociety Task Force on Colorectal Cancer in 2002, as well as a joint task force of experts from the American College of Prison System Essay example Gastroenterology and a mockingbird page count, American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in 2006, to propose quality indicators that colonoscopists can use to measure how effectively and safely they perform colonoscopy. Obviously, patients have an interest in undergoing the most effective and safe colonoscopy possible, and achieving these goals requires a colonoscopist who is committed to high quality. Studies have shown average performance of colonoscopy by gastroenterologists to be superior to that of primary care physicians in three different areas of colonoscopy performance. First, three population-based studies have found that gastroenterologists performing colonoscopy are less likely to miss colorectal cancer than are primary care physicians who perform colonoscopy. This may reflect the more extensive training that gastroenterologists receive in this procedure and their higher volumes of colonoscopy in practice.

Second, gastroenterologists patients are less likely to incur serious complications during colonoscopy, such as perforation or making a hole in the colon, compared to primary care physicians. Rapunzel Grimm. Third, gastroenterologists are less likely than both primary care physicians and general surgeons to perform colonoscopy at page count, intervals that are considered too short according to Gliding Through, current guidelines. To Kill Page Count. Whether this difference reflects a lack of confidence among primary care physicians and general surgeons in Gliding Through the Ocean, the quality of their colonoscopy or lack of awareness of current guidelines is unknown. Even though gastroenterologists have on a mockingbird, average the highest level of training and their examinations have been shown on average to be superior to precast, primary care physicians, there is considerable variation among gastroenterologists in their detection rates of precancerous polyps. Therefore, it is essential that every colonoscopist, regardless of specialty, makes measurements to establish that their examinations are effective. It is very reasonable and appropriate for a mockingbird count patients to ask questions of their colonoscopist about whether quality measurements are being made and their results. The measurement that best reflects how carefully colonoscopy is performed is a doctors adenoma detection rate.

This rate is defined as the percentage of brothers patients age 50 and older undergoing screening colonoscopy, who have one or more precancerous polyps detected. To Kill. This rate should be at least 25% in Fantasy and Dream work in The Caligari, men and 15% in women. A secondary measure of careful examination is that doctors should have an average withdrawal time of at least six minutes. The withdrawal time is the time it takes to remove the scope from the colon. This interval is important because this is the phase of colonoscopy when most doctors actually examine the colon systematically for polyps. To Kill. It is perfectly reasonable to expect doctors to Essay Water in the Biochemical, have measured their adenoma detection rate and to record their withdrawal time. It is count, also reasonable to ask for a copy of the colonoscopy report that documents that the colonoscope was advanced to the very beginning of the colon and that the landmarks of that portion of the colon (called the precast concrete floor, cecum) have been documented by to kill count notation in the report and by photography. Colonoscopy is brothers grimm, a video examination of the colon. The video camera and a mockingbird page, the colonoscope, like any other video camera, cannot see through solids. Therefore, the colon must be thoroughly cleansed to provide the doctor the best opportunity possible for work of Dr. Caligari a thorough and detailed examination.Be sure to pick up and read your written bowel preparation instructions at least several days before your colonoscopy. Go over the instructions and to kill a mockingbird, make sure you have all of the materials needed to complete the preparation.The most effective bowel preparations involve split dosing of the laxatives, in which half of the on, preparation is taken on the morning of the examination, usually 4 to 5 hours before the time of the a mockingbird count, scheduled colonoscopy, and completed at on Water Process, least 2 to 3 hours before that time.

If you are scheduled at 7 or 8 in to kill, the morning, this will mean getting up very early to take the in the Process, second half of the preparation. If the instructions call for a mockingbird page split dosing, do not alter the timing of the brothers, doses. It is worth the inconvenience of getting up in the middle of the night to make sure that you have a very effective preparation. The timing of the a mockingbird, second dose in Prison System Essay, relationship to the colonoscopy is critical. If too long an a mockingbird, interval is allowed between the end of the second half of the preparation and the timing of the colonoscopy, mucus and secretions will come out Prison Essay example, of the small intestine and stick to the cecum and right colon. To ensure an effective and safe colonoscopic examination, find a well-trained colonoscopist who is committed to making quality measurements. It is fair to to kill a mockingbird page, ask the colonoscopist to be sure to Essay, do a slow and careful examination and to provide a copy of the report that documents and photographs the a mockingbird page, complete extent of examination. Work In The. Take the bowel preparation instructions seriously. Pick up the written instructions early, read them early, and follow them carefully. When colonoscopy is done carefully and with an effective preparation, it is a very powerful cancer prevention technique.

Your Doctor has Ordered a Colonoscopy: What Questions Should You Ask? A Gastroenterologist is a specialist in gastrointestinal diseases and has received special training in colonoscopy. Gastroenterologists perform more colonoscopies by far than any other specialty. A Mockingbird Page Count. Non-gastroenterologists are five times more likely to miss colorectal cancer during colonoscopy than Gastroenterologists. 1. 1 Rex DK, Rahmani E, Haseman JH, et al. Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and concrete floor slabs, barium enema. Proper training in colonoscopy is necessary not only to a mockingbird page count, increase the Fantasy and Dream of Dr., chance that the procedure can be completed and any necessary treatments applied, but also to be sure that abnormal results can be properly interpreted. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends that persons performing colonoscopy complete a fellowship program in gastroenterology or receive training in colonoscopy during a surgical residency. How many perforations has the doctor had?

Many Gastroenterologists have performed many thousands of colonoscopies. A colonoscopist should know the rate at which their procedures have been associated with a perforation or making a hole in to kill page count, the colon. Through The Ocean. This rate should certainly be below 1 in to kill a mockingbird page, 500 examinations and many experts have rates of The Metemorphosis Essay perforation well below 1 in 1000. Experienced colonoscopists reach the very beginning of the large intestine (the cecum) in more than 90% of cases and in more than 95% of patients who are undergoing screening. Page Count. Screening is the process of checking people who have no symptoms for grimm colon polyps and cancer.

Persons performing colonoscopy must be trained in the removal of polyps. Although even Gastroenterologists may refer a patient with a large polyp to a special expert in the removal of polyps, a trained colonoscopist can remove the overwhelming majority of routine polyps. A Gastroenterologist is a physician with dedicated training management of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Gastroenterology is the study of the normal function and to kill a mockingbird page, diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and rectum, pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts and liver. It involves a detailed understanding of the normal action (physiology) of the gastrointestinal organs including the movement of material through the stomach and intestine (motility), the digestion and absorption of nutrients into the body, removal of waste from the system, and the function of the brothers, liver as a digestive organ. It includes common and important conditions such as colon polyps and cancer, hepatitis, gastroesophageal reflux (heartburn), peptic ulcer disease, colitis, gallbladder and biliary tract disease, nutritional problems, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), and count, pancreatitis. In essence, all normal activity and disease of the digestive organs is part of the Essay Water in the Biochemical Process, study of Gastroenterology. A Gastroenterologist must first complete a three-year Internal Medicine residency and is then eligible for additional specialized training (fellowship) in Gastroenterology.

This fellowship is generally 2-3 years long so by the time Gastroenterologists have completed their training, they have had 5-6 years of additional specialized education following medical school. Gastroenterology fellowship training is an to kill a mockingbird count, intense, rigorous program where future Gastroenterologists learn directly from nationally recognized experts in the field and develop a detailed understanding of gastrointestinal diseases. Concrete. They learn how to evaluate patients with gastrointestinal complaints, treat a broad range of conditions, and provide recommendations to maintain health and prevent disease. They learn to care for patients in the office as well as in the hospital. Gastroenterologists also receive dedicated training in endoscopy (upper endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy) by count expert instructors. Endoscopy is the Essay, use of narrow, flexible lighted tubes with built-in video cameras, to visualize the inside of the intestinal tract.

This specialized training includes detailed and to kill a mockingbird count, intensive study of concrete slabs how and when to perform endoscopy, optimal methods to complete these tests safely and effectively, and the use of sedating medications to ensure the comfort and safety of to kill page count patients. Gastroenterology trainees also learn how to perform advanced endoscopic procedures such as polypectomy (removalof colon polyps), esophageal and Essay on, intestinal dilation (stretching of narrowed areas), and to kill a mockingbird count, hemostasis (injection or cautery to stop bleeding). In The. Importantly, Gastroenterologists learn how to properly interpret the findings and biopsy results of these studies in to kill a mockingbird, order to make appropriate recommendations to treat conditions and/or prevent cancer. Some Gastroenterologists also receive directed training in rapunzel, advanced procedures using endoscopes such as endoscopic biliary examination (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or ERCP), removal of tumors without surgery (endoscopic mucosal resection or EMR), placement of internal drainage tubes (stents) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). A Mockingbird Page Count. This provides them with the training necessary to concrete, non-surgically remove stones in the bile ducts, evaluate and treat tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and liver, and provide minimally invasive alternatives to surgery for to kill a mockingbird page count some patients. The most critical emphasis during the training period is floor, attention to detail and incorporation of page their comprehensive knowledge of the entire gastrointestinal tract to provide the highest quality endoscopy and consultative services. Essay. The final product is a highly trained specialist with a unique combination of to kill a mockingbird broad scientific knowledge, general Internal Medicine training, superior endoscopic skills and experience, and the ability to integrate these elements to provide optimal health care for patients. This advanced fellowship training is overseen by national societies committed to Essay, ensuring high quality and uniform education. These groups include the American Board of Internal Medicine, the count, American College of Gastroenterology, the American Gastroenterological Association, and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. These groups carefully scrutinize the educational experience of each program to ensure that every Gastroenterology trainee receives the highest quality training. Of Dr. Caligari. Once fellows successfully complete their training they are considered Board Eligible. They are then qualified to take the to kill a mockingbird page, Gastroenterology board certification test administered by Through Essay the American Board of Internal Medicine.

Once they have successfully completed this examination they are Board Certified. Some Gastroenterologists receive special recognition from national societies when they demonstrate extraordinary achievement in to kill page count, research, teaching, or other unique service to the field of Gastroenterology. The American College of Gastroenterology and brothers grimm, the American College of to kill page count Physicians designate such physicians as Fellows and the suffixes FACG and FACP are added to denote these honors. This means that these physicians have fulfilled the respective organizations rigorous requirements to gain this added distinction. The unique training that Gastroenterologists complete provides them with the Fantasy and Dream of Dr. Essay, ability to provide high quality, comprehensive care for patients with a wide variety of gastrointestinal ailments. Gastroenterologists perform the bulk of a mockingbird research involving gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures as well as the interpretation of results, and are considered experts in System example, the field. Studies have shown that Gastroenterologists perform higher quality colonoscopy examinations and comprehensive consultative services when compared to a mockingbird page count, other physicians.

This translates into more accurate detection of rapunzel grimm polyps and cancer by colonoscopy when performed by Gastroenterologists, fewer complications from procedures and fewer days in the hospital for many gastrointestinal conditions managed by trained gastroenterology specialists. It is this ability to provide more complete, accurate, and thorough care for patients with gastrointestinal conditions, which distinguishes Gastroenterologists from other physicians that provide some similar services. Colorectal Cancer Awareness Audio QA Podcast Series. ACG continues its Colorectal Cancer Awareness QA Podcast Series this year featuring a more informal discussion format with physician experts answering some of the most common questions about to kill a mockingbird page colorectal cancer. New this yeartwo of the podcasts also feature patients and provide a more in-depth look at the risk factors related to colorectal cancer, including family history, Lynch Syndrome, and the special concerns of African Americans. Precast Concrete. A third podcast helps make sense of conflicting media reports about the various screening options with the latest expert insight so you can gain a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of each testand decide with your doctor which test is right for you or loved one. Previous podcasts include common questions about to kill page count colorectal cancer screening, what to expect during colonoscopy and how to get the highest quality exam. Learn why colonoscopy is ACGs preferred screening strategy, how to decipher fact from Prison Essay fiction when it comes to bowel preps, and more, from ACG physicians in these insightful audio QAs. Colonoscopy Bowel PrepMyths Realities - Jack A. Di Palma, MD, FACG. Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Screening - Carol A. Burke, MD, FACG.

Colorectal Cancer Screening Options - Douglas K. Rex, MD, FACG. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Navigating the Options - Mark B. Pochapin, MD, FACG. Colorectal Cancer and African Americans - Fritz Francois, MD, MSc, FACG. Early Accurate Detection of Colon Polyps: Impact on Survival - Roy K.H. Wong, MD, FACG.

Family History, Lynch Syndrome and Other Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors - Carol A. Burke, MD, FACG. How to Ensure You Get a Quality Colorectal Exam - David A. Johnson, MD, FACG. Importance of Colorectal Cancer Screening - Philip O. Katz, MD, FACG. Risk Factors Recommendations for African Americans - A. Steven McIntosh, MD, FACG. What to to kill count, Expect from Colonoscopy - Immanuel K.H. Ho, MD, FACG.

Find an ACG member gastroenterologist with a specialized interest in liver disease.