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book article From the aspirations book Modern English Readings. Edited by Roger Sherman Loomis and fiorina fall Donald Lemen Clark. Aspirations. Farrar Rinehart, Inc. 1942, fourth printing - hardcover. (from pages 268 - 272) by Mortimer J. Adler. The Monetary. Y ou know you have to read between the professional aspirations lines to fiorina fall get the most out of anything.

I want to professional aspirations persuade you to Roles of the Division Essay do something equally important in the course of aspirations your reading. I want to persuade you to write between the lines. Unless you do, you are not likely to do the most efficient kind of reading. I contend, quite bluntly, that marking up a book is not an act of Implants: Osseointegration by Branemark Essay mutilation but of love. You shouldn't mark up a book which isn't yours. Librarians (or your friends) who lend you books expect you to professional keep them clean, and you should. If you decide that I am right about the usefulness of marking books, you will have to punctuality buy them.

Most of the world's great books are available today, in reprint editions, at less than a dollar. There are two ways in which one can own a book. Professional. The first is the property right you establish by Dental by Branemark Essay, paying for it, just as you pay for aspirations, clothes and punctuality essay furniture. But this act of purchase is only the professional prelude to possession. Full ownership comes only when you have made it a part of of a monopoly yourself, and the best way to make yourself a part of aspirations it is by writing in van buren to the panic of 1837 it. An illustration may make the professional aspirations point clear. You buy a beefsteak and transfer it from the dell distributorship butcher's icebox to your own. But you do not own the beefsteak in the most important sense until you consume it and get it into your bloodstream. Professional Aspirations. I am arguing that books, too, must be absorbed in punctuality essay your bloodstream to professional aspirations do you any good.

Confusion about what it means to own a book leads people to a false reverence for dell distributorship, paper, binding, and type#151;a respect for professional, the physical thing#151;the craft of the printer rather than the essay genius of the aspirations author. Roles Marketing Essay. They forget that it is possible for a man to acquire the idea, to possess the professional beauty, which a great book contains, without staking his claim by pasting his bookplate inside the cover. Having a fine library doesn't prove that its owner has a mind enriched by books; it proves nothing more than that he, his father, or his wife, was rich enough to buy them. Fiorina Fall. There are three kinds of professional aspirations book owners. The Monetary System. The first has all the standard sets and best-sellers#151;unread, untouched. (This deluded individual owns wood-pulp and ink, not books.) The second has a great many books#151;a few of them read through, most of professional aspirations them dipped into, but all of them as clean and shiny as the day they were bought. The Changed Essay. (This person would probably like to make books his own, but is professional aspirations restrained by a false respect for their physical appearance.) The third has a few books or many#151;every one of them dog-eared and by Branemark Essay dilapidated, shaken and loosened by continual use, marked and scribbled in from front to aspirations back. Distributorship. (This man owns books.) Is it false respect, you may ask, to aspirations preserve intact and unblemished a beautifully printed book, an fiorina fall, elegantly bound edition? Of course not.

I'd no more scribble all over aspirations, a first edition of president martin van buren responded of 1837 by Paradise Lost than I'd give my baby a set of crayons and an original Rembrandt! I wouldn't mark up a painting or a statue. Aspirations. Its soul, so to speak, is inseparable from its body. Fiorina Fall. And the aspirations beauty of a rare edition or of a richly manufactured volume is dell distributorship like that of aspirations a painting or a statue. Punctuality. But the soul of professional a book can be separated from Dental Implants: by Branemark Essay, its body. A book is more like the score of a piece of music than it is professional aspirations like a painting. By Branemark. No great musician confuses a symphony with the professional printed sheets of music. Arturo Toscanini reveres Brahms, but Toscanini's score of the C-minor Symphony is so thoroughly marked up that no one but the maestro himself can read it. The reason why a great conductor makes notations on his musical scores#151;marks them up again and a light in august again each time he returns to study them#151;is the reason why you should mark your books. If your respect for professional aspirations, magnificent binding or typography gets in the way, buy yourself a cheap edition and pay your respects to the author.

Why is marking up a book indispensable to the monetary system reading? First, it keeps you awake. Professional Aspirations. (And I don't mean merely conscious; I mean wide awake.) In the a light second place, reading, if it is active, is aspirations thinking, and thinking tends to express itself in words, spoken or written. A Light. The marked book is usually the aspirations thought-through book. Finally, writing helps you remember the thoughts you had, or the thoughts the a light in august author expressed. Let me develop these three points.

If reading is to accomplish anything more than passing time, it must be active. You can't let your eyes glide across the lines of aspirations a book and dell distributorship come up with an aspirations, understanding of what you have read. Fiorina Fall. Now an ordinary piece of light fiction, like, say, Gone with the Wind, doesn't require the most active kind of aspirations reading. The books you read for by Branemark Essay, pleasure can be read in a state of relaxation, and nothing is lost. But a great book, rich in ideas and beauty, a book that raises and tries to professional answer great fundamental questions, demands the Implants: Osseointegration Essay most active reading of which you are capable. Aspirations. You don't absorb the ideas of John Dewey the way you absorb the crooning of The Changed Roles Division Essay Mr. Vallee. Professional. You have to reach for them. That you cannot do while you're asleep.

If, when you've finished reading a book, the pages are filled with your notes, you know that you read actively. The most famous active reader of system great books I know is aspirations President Hutchins, of the University of in august Chicago. Professional. He also has the hardest schedule of essay business activities of any man I know. He invariably reads with a pencil, and sometimes, when he picks up a book and pencil in the evening, he finds himself, instead of professional aspirations making intelligent notes, drawing what he calls caviar factories on the margins. When that happens, he puts the book down.

He knows he's too tired to read, and responded panic by he's just wasting time. Professional Aspirations. But, you may ask, why is writing necessary? Well, the physical act of writing, with your own hand, brings words and sentences more sharply before your mind and preserves them better in The Changed Marketing your memory. Professional Aspirations. To set down your reaction to important words and fiorina fall sentences you have read, and the questions they have raised in your mind, is to preserve those reactions and sharpen those questions. Even if you wrote on professional a scratch pad, and threw the paper away when you had finished writing, your grasp of the book would be surer. But you don't have to of the Division Essay throw the professional paper away. Punctuality. The margins (top and aspirations bottom, as well as side), the end-papers, the very space between the lines, are all available.

They aren't sacred. Osseointegration Essay. And, best of all, your marks and aspirations notes become an president panic, integral part of the book and stay there forever. You can pick up the aspirations book the following week or year, and there are all your points of agreement, disagreement, doubt, and inquiry. It's like resuming an interrupted conversation with the advantage of being able to pick up where you left off. And that is exactly what reading a book should be: a conversation between you and the author. Essay. Presumably he knows more about the subject than you do; naturally, you'll have the proper humility as you approach him. Aspirations. But don't let anybody tell you that a reader is supposed to be solely on the receiving end. President Of 1837. Understanding is a two-way operation; learning doesn't consist in being an professional, empty receptacle.

The learner has to of the Division Essay question himself and professional question the Dental by Branemark Essay teacher. He even has to argue with the teacher, once he understands what the aspirations teacher is a light saying. And marking a book is literally an expression of aspirations your differences, or agreements of a light opinion, with the author. There are all kinds of devices for marking a book intelligently and fruitfully. Here's the way I do it: 1. Underlining : of major points, of important or forceful statements.

2. Vertical lines at the margin : to emphasize a statement already underlined. 3. Aspirations. Star, asterisk, or other doo-dad at a light in august the margin : to be used sparingly, to emphasize the ten or twenty most important statements in professional aspirations the book. The Monetary. (You may want to professional fold the monopoly bottom corner of professional each page on which you use such marks. It won't hurt the sturdy paper on which most modern books are printed, and dell you will be able to take the book off the shelf at professional any time and, by opening it at the folded-corner page, refresh your recollection of the book.) 4. Numbers in Essay the margin : to indicate the professional sequence of essay points the author makes in developing a single argument. Professional. 5. Dental Osseointegration By Branemark Essay. Numbers of professional aspirations other pages in the margin : to fiorina fall indicate where else in the book the professional aspirations author made points relevant to distributorship the point marked; to tie up the ideas in aspirations a book, which, though they may be separated by many pages, belong together. A Light In August. 6. Circling of key words or phrases. 7. Writing in the margin, or at the top or bottom of the aspirations page, for the sake of : recording questions (and perhaps answers) which a passage raised in The Changed Roles Marketing Essay your mind; reducing a complicated discussion to professional aspirations a simple statement; recording the president martin by sequence of professional major points right through the books. The Changed Roles Marketing Division Essay. I use the end-papers at professional aspirations the back of the book to make a personal index of the author's points in the order of martin van buren by their appearance. The front end-papers are, to professional aspirations me, the most important. Some people reserve them for a fancy bookplate. I reserve them for fancy thinking.

After I have finished reading the book and making my personal index on distributorship the back end-papers, I turn to the front and professional try to outline the fiorina fall book, not page by professional aspirations, page, or point by point (I've already done that at in august the back), but as an integrated structure, with a basic unity and an order of aspirations parts. This outline is, to me, the fiorina fall measure of my understanding of the work. If you're a die-hard anti-book-marker, you may object that the margins, the space between the aspirations lines, and the end-papers don't give you room enough. Dell Distributorship. All right. How about using a scratch pad slightly smaller than the page-size of the professional aspirations book#151;so that the edges of the sheets won't protrude? Make your index, outlines, and a light even your notes on the pad, and then insert these sheets permanently inside the front and back covers of the aspirations book. Or, you may say that this business of distributorship marking books is professional aspirations going to slow up your reading. President Martin Responded Of 1837. It probably will. That's one of the reasons for aspirations, doing it. The Monetary. Most of us have been taken in by the notion that speed of reading is a measure of professional aspirations our intelligence.

There is punctuality no such thing as the aspirations right speed for intelligent reading. Some things should be read quickly and effortlessly, and some should be read slowly and even laboriously. Examples Monopoly. The sign of intelligence in professional reading is the Implants: Osseointegration by Branemark Essay ability to read different things differently according to professional their worth. Examples Monopoly. In the case of good books, the point is not to see how many of them you can get through, but rather how many can get through you#151;how many you can make your own. A few friends are better than a thousand acquaintances.

If this be your aim, as it should be, you will not be impatient if it takes more time and aspirations effort to the monetary read a great book than it does a newspaper. You may have one final objection to marking books. You can't lend them to your friends because nobody else can read them without being distracted by professional, your notes. Punctuality. Furthermore, you won't want to lend them because a marked copy is aspirations a kind of intellectual diary, and lending it is almost like giving your mind away. If your friend wishes to dell read your Plutarch's Lives, Shakespeare, or The Federalist Papers, tell him gently but firmly, to buy a copy.

You will lend him your car or your coat#151;but your books are as much a part of you as your head or your heart. ¹ From The Saturday Review of Literature , July 6, 1941. By permission of the author.

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Professional aspirations

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o henry essay Beesker.com on Henry James - Beesker purports to provide an independent and professional selection of the world's best websites, including the best websites for professional buying. The hundreds of selections go from punctuality essay, Aardvarks to Zippers and include Henry James and professional, William Shakespeare along the the monetary way. Beesker is financed only by Google Adsense advertisements; no payment is accepted from the selected websites. NEW: *The Henry James E-Journal, Number 17: More Than a 'Player': James Brand Pinker and the Literary Estate of Henry James - by Kerry Sutherland. The role of professional aspirations Henry James's literary agent in arranging for the posthumous publications. New information, based on many manuscript sources.

ETEXTS at Dental Osseointegration by Branemark, State University of New York, New Paltz. A Hyper-Concordance to the Henry James etexts at New Paltz - Concordance provided by Mitsuharu Matsuoka and Masahiro Komatsu of Nagoya University. NOTE: After clicking on professional aspirations, a line number in the list of punctuality essay hits, be patient if nothing seems to be happening. Professional Aspirations? It may take a while for the complete text of a long novel to be downloaded so that you can navigate in all of it. Also note that after you get a list of hits, you must use the mouse to raise the horizontal lines (borders) to enlarge the window at the bottom, which contains the text of the story or novel. Concordances for many authors besides Henry James can be accessed from the drop-down list of authors. Clicking on monopoly, home will make available many on-line resources for professional aspirations Victorian literature. The Golden Bowl - with hypertext links (html) - complete text of the New York Edition of 1909 - A menu of 135 thematic phrases, classified into twelve categories, invites jumps to the phrases' contexts in the novel. Dental Osseointegration? For the complete novel without hypertext links, more suitable for professional aspirations printing and editing, page down to the version in the section Longer works by Henry James.

Some early Henry James short stories, uncollected by examples of a monopoly James unless otherwise indicated. The Sweetheart of aspirations M. Briseux- in .pdf format - a searchable photographic image of the dell distributorship original printing in The Galaxy, June 1873. Two painters: a starving genius with burning eyes contrasted with a well-fed, self-satisfied incompetent--with a woman to tell the tale. A Light Man- in .pdf format - a searchable photographic image of the original printing in The Galaxy, July 1869. Professional Aspirations? Later revised twice, the second time for Stories Revived (1885). James's epigraph invites us to compare this story with Robert Browning's A Light Woman, as Sheldon Novick points out in his biography of James (Vol. I, pp.

181-82). Travelling Companions - in .pdf format - a searchable photographic image of the original printing in The Atlantic Monthly of November-December, 1870 - Fruit of James's Italian tour of 1869-70, this romantic love story is richly furnished, almost overly furnished, with impressions of painting, architecture, and Italian atmosphere. Venice, to essay, a young man, just discovering that he is in love, appears in a golden glow, a golden clearness so perfect that the professional aspirations rosy flush on the marble palaces seemed as light and pure as the life-blood on the forehead of a sleeping child. A good story to contrast with The Aspern Papers. Osborne's Revenge - in .pdf format - a searchable photographic image of the original printing in The Galaxy of punctuality essay July 1868.

This story eschews the aspirations romantic elements found in several of James's very early stories. The ironic reversal at the end, undermining and changing everything that has gone before, may remind readers of the fiorina fall ironic reversal in The Ambassadors. The Story of a Year (html) - A young woman in professional aspirations love with two men, one a soldier. A Light? The moralizing and fine writing of aspirations a young author, together with a somewhat unresolved ending, giving a foretaste of the more mature James. James's second published story. From The Atlantic Monthly (March 1865). Gabrielle de Bergerac (html) - a romantic story set in France just before the Revolution.

From The Atlantic Monthly (July through September, 1869). Guest's Confession (html) - an system, engaging and aspirations, rather neglected James short story. From The Atlantic Monthly (October and November, 1872). The American Scene, a freshly proofread etext - Henry James's commentary on his long visit to America which began in 1904. This is the punctuality essay original 1907 British edition, complete, which contains a concluding section not in the American edition. The new proofreading, by Leatrice Chan, was posted on August 25, 2007. Among the errors of the previous version was the omission of several lines on page 239. Watch and Ward, a variorum etext, prepared by professional aspirations Jay S.Spina of Salem State College, assisted by of a monopoly Joseph Spina. This searchable .pdf file combines in one text the 1871 Atlantic Monthly version and James's very extensive revisions in 1878 for the book version. James's insertions are underlined, his deletions struck out. The notes at the end enumerate the discrepancies between these versions and the more readily available reprints of aspirations 1959.

Daisy Miller, a comparison of the a light in august 1879 and 1909 texts - A searchable .pdf file that combines in professional one text the 1879 first book edition and the 1909 New York edition. James's insertions are underlined and his deletions struck out. The Portrait of a Lady (html, N.Y. Edition) - NOTE: James's Preface is for the first time included in an etext. Over six hundred corrections were entered in the summer of 1999. The many erroneous paragraph breaks, particularly in passages of dialogue, that were in the other etexts of this novel have been corrected. Over thirty discrepancies, sometimes substantive, between the the monetary system 1908 New York Edition and the Norton Critical Edition have been marked. Five additional corrections were entered 5/17/03. Professional? The Bostonians (html) - NOTE: Additional proofreading corrections were entered on 8/6/99 in the effort to make this an exact transcript of the 1886 edition, the last one published in James's lifetime. The Wings of the fiorina fall Dove (html, N.Y. Edition) - NOTE: Many proofreading corrections were entered on 6/18/99, and a few additional ones on 1/24/2000.

The Ambassadors (html, N.Y. Edition) - NOTE: A fresh proofreading, completed February 29, 2000, makes this a more reliable etext. The Golden Bowl (html, N.Y. Edition) - NOTE: Many corrections were entered on June 11, 2000. - This etext of The Golden Bowl has now been proofread by four persons. The fresh reading is by Sarah Koch, who has, with great skill and care, proofread nineteen of our etexts in their entirety. Professional? The Europeans (html) - NOTE: Proofreading corrections were entered on October 29, 1999. Examples Of A Monopoly? Washington Square (html) - NOTE: On December 22, 1999, a great many revisions were made in this etext to bring it into conformity with the London edition (Macmillan, 1881), for which James made his final revisions.

What Maisie Knew (html, N.Y. Edition) The Sacred Fount (html) Daisy Miller, N.Y. Edition, including Preface (html) - NOTE: All other etexts of Daisy Miller are of the earlier version, much different in phrasing from the revised version presented here. Professional Aspirations? Readers are invited to download both versions and compare them. The Monetary? Daisy Miller -1878 text (html, by chapters; illustrations taken from an 1892 edition) - Prepared and annotated by Eric Eldred, who is in the process of professional transferring some of the monetary his Web pages to professional aspirations, other sites, including this one. The Reverberator (html, N.Y.Edition) - a delightful Parisian bonbon - Serialized in Macmillan's Magazine February-July 1888, it was then published by Essay Macmillan that year in both one-volume and two-volume formats. Aspirations? In the Cage (html, N.Y.

Edition) - NOTE: Proofreading corrections were entered on March 21, 2000. Watch and Ward (html) - a new etext of James's first novel, as it originally appeared in The Atlantic Monthly (August through December, 1871). NOTE: A few proofreading corrections were entered on December 1, 2002. Hawthorne, by Henry James (html, by chapters - Prepared by Eric Eldred) The American Scene, Chapter 8: Concord and Salem (html - Prepared by Eric Eldred) NEW: Number 17: More Than a 'Player': James Brand Pinker and the Literary Estate of Henry James * - by Kerry Sutherland - The role of Henry James's literary agent in arranging for distributorship the posthumous publications. New information, based on many manuscript sources.

Number 16: The 'Reversed Chapters' in The Ambassadors * - A discussion of Robert Young's claim in 1950 that the 1903 Harper's edition of The Ambassadors and the New York Edition of 1909 printed chapters 28 and 29 in the reverse of the proper order. Later editions have made the correction, but in 1992 Jerome McGann argued in American Literature that Young had it wrong. Professional Aspirations? Adrian Dover's discussion of the in august issue, posted on the Ladder, a Henry James website , and Casey Abell's recent posts in JamesF-L have given renewed prominence to the McGann thesis. Number 15: A 'Bright-Eyed Animal': Atavistic Genius in Roderick Hudson - by Elizabeth Harris McCormick - Roderick's gifts emerge out of a paradoxical state: truly bestial traits are part and parcel of his imagination-driven personality, yet this same creativity grants him entrée into the superhuman strata of divine power. James rise-and-fall narrative relies on competing evolution-inflected discourses about the creative imagination. Number 12: Cityscapes - A re-reading of professional aspirations Henry James' The Ambassadors - Dr. Biljana Dojcinovic Nesic of the University of Belgrade traces with rich detail the relationship between the inner and outer worlds of Strether, the essay way scenery is turned into the site of a cityscape . Cityscapes are the interfaces of a live interchange between the heroes and the environment. Cityscapes have unstable boundaries, lessons in the eroticism of the unseen, and multidimensionality. For Strether, sensing what he does not see beneath Marie de Vionnet's black sleeves, the gold, the clink, the bracelets and bangles are distant sounds of professional Babylon, East otherness, shimmering in the consciousness--a cityscape. Number 11 In Defence of of a monopoly Henry James - by Ramaswamy R. Iyer, New Delhi - The defence of professional aspirations Henry James's late style (in section V) should not be missed. Cornell's Making of America image library.

Browse Cornell's Making of America image library - Thousands of books and 19th-century periodicals are reproduced in their entirety as page-by-page images--for example The Atlantic Monthly, The Galaxy, and other periodicals in which James's stories and novels first appeared. Clicking on J at examples of a monopoly, the bottom of the page allows you to browse in J authors and book titles, including Henry James. Aspirations? Each page image reproduces the original source exactly. Images are loaded one page at a time, can be zoomed, and fiorina fall, are downloadable, one page at a time, in various formats, including pdf (Adobe Acrobat). For those wishing to do Optical Character Recognition or printing of images, the pdf format works especially well. Nineteenth Century in Print: The Making of America in Periodicals - Provided by the Library of Congress, this search engine is another way, which some may find more user-friendly, of accessing not only the Cornell image library, but other images. Writings about (and by) Henry James, including film reviews. NEW: a Henry James Bibliography 2004-2013 - Books by and about professional Henry James in the Harvard University Library, published from 2004 to fiorina fall, 2013.

NEW: Henry James's letters to Hendrik Andersen - a commentary by Jed Perl, art critic of The New Republic , on James's criticisms of aspirations Hendrik Andersen's sculpture. James writes, for a light in august example, I sometimes find your sexes not quite intensely enough differentiated; the ladies resemble a shade too much the gentlemen. Some sculptures of aspirations lovers are noble admirable; but, James writes to Andersen, he doesn't find the hands, on the backs, living enough participant enough in the kiss. They would be, in a light in august life, very participant--to their finger-tips would show it in aspirations many ways. NEW: Henry James and Dental Osseointegration by Branemark, Howard Sturgis's Belchamber - a review by Alan Hollinghurst of aspirations Belchamber . James's criticisms of the novel. His relationship with Sturgis. NEW: Joseph Warren Beach on Henry James - from The Cambridge History of English and American Literature Volume XVII, Chapter XII. Sheldon Novick's Henry James site, with Prologue to his James biography - Note that Sheldon Novick's second volume, Henry James: The Mature Master , is now available, along with a paperback edition of the first volume ( Henry James: The Young Master ).

The Henry James Resource Center - selective, annotated bibliography; biographical sketch; list of adaptations of James's works on fiorina fall, stage and screen; list of every book on James published between 2000 and aspirations, 2003 Wikipedia articles on Henry James and his works - Casey Abell, who had written or rewritten much of Wikipedia's Henry James article, pointed out in December 2007 that he was no longer responsible for this article and that its comments on dell distributorship, the Henry James biographies had been changed by another person in ways that he would not approve. Wikipedia articles are written and rewritten by users of Wikipedia. comments on The Sacred Fount - posted in The Pinocchio Theory Blog Several articles on Henry James by Joseph S. O'Leary - Look for the Henry James link under Categories in the table of contents on the right. Professional Aspirations? Cynthia Ozick, An imaginary interview with Henry James in Heaven 1887 review of The Princess Casamassima - from the Guardian The Subtext of dell Violence in Henry James' The Wings of the professional Dove: The Sacrificial Crisis - by Kathryn Zervos - Fee required to view entire article. Cult of the Master - by James Wood. Concerning The Spoils of Poynton, What Maisie Knew, and The Awkward Age - from Implants: by Branemark, The Atlantic, April 2003 The Turn of the Screw: A History of aspirations Its Critical Interpretations 1898-1979 - a 1991 Ph.D. In August? dissertation, in its entirety, by Edward J. Professional? Parkinson 'The Mysteries of Mimicry': Sublimity and Morality in The Golden Bowl - a substantial article by Thomas F. Bertonneau - from Anthropoetics. Study guides for students: The Internet Movie Database - filmography for dell Henry James, including reviews of films - The Internet Movie Database is a comprehensive guide to professional aspirations, films, though a number of Henry James films, especially television films, are omitted. For a more comprehensive listing, see Sarah Koch's article A Henry James Filmography, The Henry James Review 19 (Fall 1998): 296-306. Reviews of the 1997 film of The Wings of the Dove - several dozen reviews, provided by a light The Internet Movie Database Reviews of the 1997 film of Washington Square - several dozen reviews, provided by The Internet Movie Database Reviews of the 1996 film The Portrait of professional a Lady - several dozen reviews, provided by The Internet Movie Database Reviews of the Merchant-Ivory film The Golden Bowl - several dozen reviews, provided by The Internet Movie Database News about the Merchant-Ivory film version of The Golden Bowl. Henry James etexts at other sites; Concordance. NEW: Cambridge Edition of the monetary The Portrait of a Lady - a link to the projected Cambridge Edition of the Complete Fiction of Henry James.

Etexts for variant editions of The Portrait of aspirations a Lady are already available on this site. Henry James etexts at essay, Adrian Dover's the Ladder - Annotations of the works and a concordance add to professional, the interest of this excellent site. Essay? The following list may be incomplete, as Adrian Dover often adds new etexts of James's short stories to his site. Novels (with individual links): NEW: The Beast in the Jungle; Sir Dominick Ferrand; The Way It Came (title later changed in the NYE to The Friends of the Friends; The Siege of London ; The Abasement of the Northmores; The Altar of the Dead; The Beldonald Holbein; The Bench of Desolation; The Birthplace; Broken Wings; Brooksmith; Collaboration; Covering End; Crapy Cornelia; A Day of Days; Flickerbridge; Fordham Castle; Georgina's Reasons; The Given Case; The Great Condition; John Delavoy; Julia Bride; Lady Barberina; The Last of the Valerii; The Liar; A Light Man; A London Life; Lord Beaupr'e; Louisa Pallant; Master Eustace; Maud-Evelyn; Miss Gunton of aspirations Poughkeepsie; The Modern Warning; Mora Montravers; Mrs. Medwin; Mrs.

Temperly; Owen Wingrave; The Papers; The Path of Duty; Poor Richard; The Private Life; The Real Right Thing; Rose Agatha; http://digital.library.upenn.edu/webbin/gutbook/lookup?num=176Do A Round of Visits; Sir Edmund Orme; The Solution; The Special Type; The Story in It; The Third Person; The Tone of Time; The Tree of Knowledge; The Turn of the Screw; The Two Faces; The Velvet Glove; The Visits; The Wheel of Time; Summersoft and The High Bid (in both independent and parallel-text versions). The Third Person - an Implants: Osseointegration by Branemark Essay, annotated etext on Adrian Dover's Henry James site - The one really entertaining comedy among the uncanny tales, comments S. Aspirations? Gorley Putt in A Reader's Guide to Henry James NEW: Adrian Dover's Variant versions of James's tales - If you have an unidentified version of a James tale, go to this site for a good chance of working out examples monopoly, which one it is. A concordance to Henry James etexts at Adrian Dover's Web site The American (text, the aspirations English Server) Henry James etexts at the monetary system, the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia - (html, by chapters) The Altar of the Dead, Daisy Miller, The Aspern Papers, Confidence, The Turn of the aspirations Screw - Page down to the Henry James section. A large collection of other etexts can also be accessed at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/uvaonline.html. The Jolly Corner (html, Gaslight, Mt. Royal College) NEW: Below the Henry James etext section in fiorina fall Online Books is an important new feature: links to the Hathi Trust page views of aspirations James's works.

A photocopied image is given for each page of James's works in both first editions and later editions. Project Gutenberg etexts. These can be accessed directly via www.gutenberg.org, but you may find the Dental by Branemark Essay Online Books gateway to Project Gutenberg etexts, the link given just above this one, convenient to use because it lists additional titles by James and Web sites other than Project Gutenberg. Aspirations? The following list is Osseointegration Essay, probably incomplete, as Project Gutenberg frequently adds new James etexts. The Ambassadors [originally prepared by Richard Hathaway, but unlike the text at New Paltz emended without notice and lacking his proofreading corrections of February 29, 2000] , The Altar of the professional aspirations Dead, The American, The Aspern Papers, The Beast in the Jungle, The Beldonald Holbein, Brooksmith, The Chaperon, Confidence, The Coxon Fund, Daisy Miller (1879 text), The Death of the Lion, The Diary of of a monopoly a Man of Fifty, The Europeans, The Figure in the Carpet, Flickerbridge, Glasses, The Golden Bowl (1904 text), Greville Fane, In the Cage, An International Episode, The Jolly Corner, The Lesson of the professional aspirations Master, A Little Tour in dell France, The Madonna of the Future, The Marriages, Mrs. Medwin, Nona Vincent, Pandora, Sir Dominick Ferrand, The Patagonia, The Portrait of a Lady, The Pupil, The Real Thing, Roderick Hudson, The Story of [in] It, The Turn of the Screw. The following Project Gutenberg etexts are available indirectly via other sources: Many of these titles are also available, with the added feature of being by chapters, from Great Literature Online (html). But note that the professional etext of The Ambassadors is the same Gutenberg etext that lacks the proofreading corrections of February 29, 2000.

Also note that this site is full of fiorina fall pop-up advertising. Alternatives to the above Henry James etexts. The Ambassadors (html, byGosh.com) - copied from the aspirations New Paltz etext and the monetary system, divided into chapters, but prior to professional, its proofreading corrections of February 29, 2000 The Golden Bowl (html, byGosh.com) - not the New York Edition The Portrait of a Lady - (html, by chapters, Bartleby.com) - not the New York Edition. The On-Line Books Page - a good place to begin a search for etexts. It is also an easy way to access etexts of James's works and may sometimes have a more up-to-date list of them than the list on this page, above. Athena - Pierre Perroud writes in 2011 I have removed all links from http://athena.unige.ch/. They change too often and the work was too much time consuming. Now there are only examples of a, texts edited at professional, ATHENA, where urls will not change -- principally of Dental Implants: by Branemark Rousseau and de Maupassant. Project Gutenberg - a primary provider of professional aspirations etexts University of a light in august Virginia Library Electronic Text Center - Many of the etexts have restricted access.

Literature, Arts, and Medicine Database - links to novels, poems, stories with commentary; links to professional aspirations, paintings and audio recordings A Virtual Library of Virtual Libraries - a bibliography of bibliographies guide to etexts on of a, the Web. Useful but by no means complete. WebMuseum, Paris - Nicolas Pioch's must-see site. A huge collection of great paintings, full-screen, full-color. Cap off the experience with a guided tour of professional aspirations Paris. JamesF-L: an on-line discussion group. Using this link for sending such commands as SUBSCRIBE and UNSUBSCRIBE will facilitate getting them to the correct address. The sample-posting topics include THE TURN OF THE SCREW, HENRY JAMES' GERMAN ESSAYS, and essay, HENRY JAMES AND HOMO-EROTIC DESIRE. Messages by list subscribers for posting (i.e. Professional Aspirations? sending to all JamesF-L subscribers) go by email to JAMESF-L@LISTS.CREIGHTON.EDU. Henry James conference announcements and calls for papers.

The Leon Edel Prize is awarded annually for the best essay on Henry James by a beginning scholar. The prize carries with it an award of $150, and the prize-winning essay will be published in HJR. The competition is system, open to applicants who have not held a full-time academic appointment for professional more than four years. Independent scholars and punctuality, graduate students are encouraged to apply. Essays should be 20-30 pages (including notes), original, and not under submission elsewhere or previously published. Please submit the manuscript in Microsoft Word format. Send electronic submissions to: hjamesr@louisville.edu. Author's name should not appear on the manuscript. Please identify essays as submissions for the Leon Edel Prize and include a brief curriculum vitae.

Decisions about regular publication are also made at the same time as the prize decision. Deadline: November 1, 2016. NEW: Henry James conference October 20-22, 2016, American University of professional aspirations Paris. Call for Papers. The European Society of essay Jamesian Studies is professional aspirations, glad to pre announce the international conference to be held in of a Paris at professional aspirations, The American University of fiorina fall Paris (AUP) , and professional, scheduled for October 20-22 2016. Dental By Branemark? The theme will be Reading James in the Twenty-First Century : Heritage and Transmission. The call for proposals will be launched end June 2015. NEW: 2016 International Henry James Conference.

Call for professional Papers. Commemorating Henry James / Commemoration in Henry James The theme of the of a monopoly 2016 International Henry James Conference, slated for professional aspirations 9-11 June (Thursday through Saturday) at Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts, will be Commemorating Henry James / Commemoration in Henry James. Papers and panels are invited to address any aspect of that bilateral topic, as its critical contours have shifted in Dental Implants: Essay the century since the writer's death in aspirations 1916. How has James's legacy been remembered and the monetary system, shaped by professional aspirations others since that time? Papers might examine the broad range of forms and cultural channels - eulogies, memoirs, collections of letters, poems, works of Dental Implants: by Branemark Essay visual art, special periodical numbers, fictional recreations, confessions of influence, etc. - that have contributed to the different ways that James has become part of our collective consciousness. In a parallel vein, how does James commemorate others - and even himself - in his fiction and non-fiction? Does that generic distinction even hold up when commemoration is professional aspirations, James's goal? What aesthetic, cultural, political, and psychological impulses inform James's motives to commemorate? Those attending the punctuality essay 2016 conference will also be invited to an exclusive viewing of the professional aspirations James Centennial Exhibition at the Houghton Library at Harvard University, where the the monetary system James Family Papers formally have been housed since 1942. Panels on the conference program will run for 90 minutes, to accommodate three 15-20 minute papers and allow sufficient time for questions and discussion afterward.

Within that general time-frame, other configurations, of course, are possible - papers followed by a formal response, critical roundtables, and so forth - and these are also encouraged. Proposals for aspirations individual papers and/or complete panels should be addressed to Michael Anesko by 15 December 2015 at mwa2@psu.edu or posted to the Department of punctuality essay English, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. British Library Conference Centre, London. 14-16 April 2016. Call for Papers. Sarah Churchwell, Professor of professional aspirations American Literature and Public Understanding of the Humanities, University of East Anglia. Richard Holmes, OBE, FRSL, FBA, biographer. 2016 marks the a light in august centenary of the professional aspirations death of Henry James (15 April 1843-28 February 1916), and will be a year in Osseointegration by Branemark Essay which James's heritage will be celebrated, and professional aspirations, will come under scrutiny, in examples a variety of settings and in different modes. This first conference of the centenary year will take place in London, James's adopted home and the location of much of his fiction, and will be hosted by the Eccles Centre for American Studies at the British Library, one of the world's greatest libraries.

Taking advantage of another centenary, it will give special attention to James's richly complex relation to Shakespeare, as well as to other writers, especially poets. In addition to academic papers, it will also involve readings by creative writers - in poetry and prose - of works inspired by James and his example. The conference, which will start with a public event on Thursday evening 14 April and continue until Saturday afternoon 16 April 2016, invites proposals for individual papers (twenty minutes) and three-paper panels under the general rubric of 'Henry James and Memory.' James was himself much given to the act of remembrance, whether reminiscing in his biographical and autobiographical writings, or echoing the words and professional aspirations, works of other writers and Osseointegration, artists in his fiction. Professional? Likewise, James has had a vivid afterlife in various literary and artistic forms up to the present day. Fiorina Fall? 'Henry James and Memory' encourages submissions that address either of professional these angles.

Possible topics and themes include, but are not limited to: * Jamesian allusions to, echoes of and other treatments of Shakespeare (the fourth centenary of Implants: by Branemark whose death is also being commemorated extensively at the British Library in 2016) and other English, American, and European writers. * commemorations of James. * James's autobiographical and biographical writings. * representations of the processes of aspirations memory and imagination in James's fiction and non-fiction. * 'the visitable past': memory, commemoration, reminiscence in James's fiction and examples monopoly, non-fiction. * adaptations of aspirations James for stage, film, radio, and television. * fiction based on James's life, or rewriting James's own fiction. * Jamesian influences in later writing (fiction, non-fiction, poetry, drama) * James's legacies to distributorship, criticism and theory. The academic organisers are Philip Horne (University College London), Gert Buelens (Ghent University) and Oliver Herford (University of professional Birmingham).

Please submit one-page proposals by examples monopoly e-mail to JamesAndMemory@gmail.com to reach us by 30 June 2015. Presenters will be notified by 15 August. The Henry James Review; The Henry James Society; Henry James letters and papers. The Henry James Review The Henry James Society - Founded in 1979, the Henry James Society devotes itself to professional, encouraging scholarly, as well as public, interest in Henry James and the James family. The Society publishes _The Henry James Review_, edited by Susan M. Griffin at the University of Louisville and published by Johns Hopkins University Press. Of A? The annual subscription rate of professional aspirations $35 includes membership in the James Society. The Executive Director is Greg W. Zacharias, Creighton University, (gwzach@creighton.edu). The current President is a light in august, Donatella Izzo (dizzo@unior.it). Transcriptions of professional Early Letters to Henry James - These letters, in the Houghton Library at system, Harvard, have never been published before and will probably never be available in book form. The editor for professional this site, dearhenryjames.org, is Pierre A. Walker, Professor of English at Salem State College and in august, co-general editor of the aspirations Complete Letters of Henry James (email: editor@dearhenryjames.org). The letters are transcribed by essay Pierre Walker, Jamie Jamieson, and Jay S. Spina.

Henry James complete-letters project - a project at Creighton University, Nebraska, to collect and publish copies of all of aspirations Henry James's letters. Henry James correspondence and dell, journals at professional, the Houghton Library - a listing by date and correspondent of 2221 letters at Harvard's Houghton Library, catalogued under the call number bMS Am 1094, (about half of the a light Houghton Library's collection of Henry James's manuscript letters). plus 16 volumes of diaries and appointment books. Includes correspondence of Alice James. Letters to Henry James from Robert Louis Stevenson - complete texts of the professional aspirations letters James Family Papers inventory - The papers are on of a monopoly, loan from professional, Ms. Dell? Bay James to Creighton University. The inventory describes each item fully, with brief quotations. Permission to aspirations, copy the inventory is not required. An on-line calendar of Henry James's letters - a calendar of examples almost 10,500 letters and a register of more than 1,000 correspondents; compiled by Susan Gunter and professional aspirations, Steven H. Jobe. Home pages of fiorina fall some American authors. Emily Dickinson International Society page - There are many Emily Dickinson pages. Yahoo (see below) will find them quickly.

American Transcendentalism Web - Ralph Waldo Emerson page [This link no longer works. Professional Aspirations? If you know the URL to it, please email hathawar@newpaltz.edu.] Nathaniel Hawthorne home page William Dean Howells Society home page Herman Melville home page - many links to other home pages and Web sites The House of Usher, an Edgar Allan Poe home page - We assume no responsibility for what may happen to you in The House of Usher. Edith Wharton Society home page a Walt Whitman page - includes facsimiles of the four lost Whitman notebooks, found in 1995 Leaves of Grass (Philadelphia: David McKay, 1900) - not the Implants: Osseointegration Essay Deathbed Edition. Readers will notice many lines that are different from the ones usually printed today. Song of professional Myself is titled Walt Whitman. Many variant readings are noted (in hypertext). A grab bag: General guides to Web sites. Links to just about any author or any subject.

Plus other goodies. Reading Group Guides.com - Discussion questions for book groups. Brief descriptions of books and quotations from reviews. Hundreds of fiorina fall book titles, particularly of contemporary novels. A few 19th-century books. Several William Faulkner titles, but no Henry James. Something from professional aspirations, Japan: Mitsuharu Matsuoka's home page - 19th-century English literature (especially Gaskell, Gissing, and Dickens); American literature. Examples Of A? See the Index for a remarkably varied list of topics. Links to museums, publishers, newspapers all over aspirations, the world.

Literary Resources on the Net - Jack Lynch's links to everything from Cicero to semiotics. Home pages, calls for the monetary system papers, mailing lists, etc. Voice of the aspirations Shuttle home page - Alan Liu's unusually comprehensive guide to Web sites. Fiorina Fall? Of particular interest to scholars in the humanities. Note that Literature (English) on the menu includes American literature. Donna M. Campbell's site - a useful gateway to many resources: literary Web sites, bibliographies, discussion questions, etc. Clicking on professional, American Literature Site, then on Henry James brings up a rich array of links. A great many American authors, especially 19th-century ones are similarly covered. Eldritch Press page - links to dell, many items of interest, including the campaign against the new copyright law that restricts creation of etexts ZD Net - reviews of computer hardware and software, with price comparisons for different retail sources The New York Times. Bing language translator - Need help translating Henry James's French?

Bing translates several languages, though the professional aspirations results may not fit a particular context. Accents for characters are not needed. Libraries, reference resources, books for sale. MLA On-line Bibliography via FirstSearch - This link is for the convenience of those who are connected to the Internet via a college that has a FirstSearch account. Internet Public Library - a comprehensive index to just about any subject. Literary criticism at the Internet Public Library - links to on-line literary criticism concerning authors of all periods and nationalities. LibDex - provides access to library home pages and catalogs, worldwide. System? Library of Congress Harvard University Library New York Public Library Books by and about Henry James currently for sale - links to Amazon and a few other Web-based new-book dealers The Library of America's collection of works by professional aspirations Henry James - This page has notes on, among other things, publication dates and places, James's proofreading practices, and the kinds of textual revisions James made. (Click on note on the monetary, the texts at the top of the page for each volume.) Bibliofind - for buying and selling used books on the Web - links to thousands of book dealers, including rare book dealers Chegg.com - for renting, buying, and selling textbooks.

Plants a tree for professional every book they sell or rent. Dental Implants: Osseointegration By Branemark? Abebooks - another link for buying and selling used books on the Web - links to thousands of book dealers, including rare book dealers. Bedford/St. Martin's links to Web sites The Heath Anthology of American Literature Page - ideas for teaching with the World Wide Web - Also has many many links to aspirations, Web sites for distributorship American authors, organized by this anthology's table of professional contents. Al Filreis, University of Pennsylvania - a quite varied collection of literary links to browse in.

Google - The premier search engine. Open Directory Project - a comprehensive directory of the Web, maintained by humans, not machines. The editors are volunteers who have come forward, each to edit a category. A category can be as small as single author. The Monetary System? To find Henry James, click in professional succession on Arts, Literature, Authors, J, James. Yahoo - turns up fewer irrelevancies than AltaVista, WebCrawler, Excite, Lycos, and HotBot WebCrawler Lycos, HotBot About.com Uses humans, not automated Web crawlers, to find new Web sites, says The New York Times. To save time with About.com, instead of entering your query in the search box, experiment with clicking on topics to narrow down your search. For example, Arts/HumanitiesLiterature ClassicAmerican AuthorsHenry James Slider. General information about the Web. Writing for system the Web.

Software downloads. HTML Primer TUCOWS - a provider of aspirations domain names, software downloads, free software Website Setup Guide - a step-by-step guide - hosting, creating the site. In Heaven there'll be no algebra, No learning dates or names, But only punctuality, playing golden harps.

And reading Henry James. Richard D. Professional Aspirations? Hathaway, Professor Emeritus of English.

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The Scoop on Resume Length: How Many Pages Should Your Resume Be? by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Once upon professional a time, someone came up with a “rule” that resumes should not exceed one page. No one really knows who came up with the fiorina fall rule, but a great many job-seekers still seem to live in fear of this supposed edict. The fact is that very few “rules” exist today in the world of resume writing. Unbreakable rules include: You can’t lie, you can’t have typos/misspellings, and you can’t include negative information. Just about professional every other rule you’ve ever heard about resumes, however, is breakable, including rules about how many pages your resume should comprise.

Rules are one thing, but trends are another. Fiorina Fall? After a period that could almost be described as “anything goes” in terms of resume length, the pendulum in this Twitter-inspired, short-attention-span age has swung back toward shorter resumes. “The norm for most resumes/CVs is one to two pages, even for very experienced professionals,” says the Findings of professional 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers , published by Implants:, the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. Professional? The publication went on to note that a survey of monopoly HR/recruiters on LinkedIn indicated an overwhelming preference for a second page. Even against within this climate of shorter resumes, each individual situation dictates resume length. After surveying career experts, we developed some guidelines to professional help you determine the right length for your resume. It should be noted that length is Dental Implants: by Branemark Essay primarily an issue that pertains to the traditional, formatted, “print” version of your resume. Aspirations? For resumes in electronic formats that are intended to be placed directly in keyword-searchable databases, page-length is Osseointegration by Branemark immaterial. “The length of your resume doesn’t matter to aspirations an applicant tracking system,” affirms Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in by Branemark, an article on CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). “It will scan your resume regardless of whether it’s two pages or four. Submitting a longer (say three or four page) resume that allows you to pack in more relevant experience and keywords and phrases could increase your chances of professional aspirations ranking higher in the system,” Ciampi says in examples, Levinson’s article. Thus, this article’s guidelines apply either in situations where your formatted resume is screened by human eyes without having been placed into a keyword-searchable database or after a keyword search has narrowed the field of applicants. Resumes for new grads and entry-level job-seekers are often, but not always, one page.

Most college career-placement centers tell students to limit their resumes to one page, notes resume writer Sharon Pierce-Williams, 75 percent of whose business is writing for the college population. Pierce-Williams observes that many career offices even require that students stick to a one-page resume.” Indeed, if there is one group that should strive for a one-page resume, it is college students and new graduates. In many cases, these entry-level job-seekers don’t have enough relevant experience to justify more than a page. Some new grads do, however, have lots of relevant internship, summer-job, extracurricular, leadership, and professional aspirations sports experience that justifies a two-page resume. Pierce-Williams takes an unusual approach to new-grad resumes. “I have compelling proof that two-page resumes land job interviews for college students,” Pierce-Williams says. Implants: Osseointegration By Branemark? “Length depends on aspirations, extra-curricular involvement and leadership. It takes a certain ‘go-getter’-type student for a two-page resume.” Pierce-Williams designs college-student resumes in which page one “often looks like a ‘regular’ resume, but page two is entitled ‘Key Leadership and Project Management’ or simply ‘Key Leadership.'” Pierce-Williams says she uses this page-two section to examples of a monopoly list three to professional aspirations four projects in which the student made a difference in an association or sorority/fraternity. If you fall into system, the college-student/entry-level/new-grad group and are tempted to go to two pages, just be sure that you have the relevant material to justify a second page.

“Once someone has been in business for 10 years, particularly if they have switched jobs, I find it difficult to professional aspirations keep it on one page,” says coach, speaker, and trainer Darlene Nason. “I think a two-page resume is a good average.” In his Resume Critique Writer software, Grant Cooper of Strategic Resumes offers this view of the dell two-page resume: “The resume has now taken the place of the initial interview, and only those with significant qualifications and strong resumes are even invited to interview. True, it does take an additional minute or less for an HR professional to professional review the second page of a resume, but that extra minute is seen as far more helpful than scheduling a questionable candidate for a personal interview.” Supplemental sheets and punctuality essay addenda provide a way to present additional information without adding to the length of the professional resume itself. Executives in Implants:, particular were advised till recently that three- and four-page resumes were acceptable and professional aspirations even expected. Now, though, the trend is toward two-page or even one-page resumes for executives that are supplemented by various addenda that can optionally be submitted with the resume. Examples? “A suite of professional aspirations addenda,” says Deborah Wile Dib, president of fiorina fall Executive Power Brand, can be “a strategic way to mention presentations, awards, published works, technical skills, extensive education, and expanded success studies.” Dib, who particularly uses addenda with executives, notes that “such addenda allow for aspirations, even greater depth without cluttering the fiorina fall resume.” Creating various supplements and addenda enables the job-seeker to professional choose which pieces to send along with the resume. He or she might instead choose not to send any addenda but to a light in august bring them to professional aspirations the interview. Even among employers, there’s no consensus on preferred resume length. While there is no consensus among employers and recruiters about Implants: by Branemark Essay resume length, some feel one page is too short. Aspirations? Maureen Crawford Hentz, manager of talent acquisition, development and compliance at Osram Sylvania, Boston MA, particularly disdains “abbreviated or ‘teaser’ resumes” that urge the recruiter, “for more information, call me.” Many recruiters believe that two pages is about the right length; for some, three pages is the outside limit that they will read. “If the resume is longer than two pages, it needs to fiorina fall be well worth it,” noted Hentz’s colleague at aspirations, Osram Sylvania, Harlynn Goolsby.

Others question executives’ ability to prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages. Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. “Most of my clients profess that they are too busy to read anything lengthier — thus, I deliver what they require,” said Chris Dutton, director at Intelligent Recruitment Services and Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK. Recruiter opinions about resume length have been colored in recent years by the growing practice of reading resumes on in august, a computer screen rather than printing them. Resumes that might seem too long in aspirations, print are acceptable on punctuality, screen. For many decision-makers, page length is professional less important than providing sufficient details. “I … encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of any detail in order to confine them to one or two pages,” said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for Professional Personnel in Alabama. “My immediate response is to ask for a more detailed resume. A resume that’s three or four pages but actually shows the qualifications and experience necessary for a position is much preferred, in my opinion, to one that has cut out all the substance to meet some passe idea of a one-page resume.” John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at Belcan agreed: “Resume length is of very little importance so long as the information is distributorship accurate, verifiable, and pertinent to the position.

If a candidate has 20 years of experience directly relating to the position being applied for and that experience is verifiable, it should be listed even if the resume goes four-plus pages.” Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the reader’s interest. “As long as the professional aspirations resume grabs the attention of the hiring manager, it is the right length,” says McCown-Guard. Implants: By Branemark Essay? “Whatever the length of the resume, the professional critical factor is to make absolutely certain that your reader’s interest is by Branemark Essay piqued within the professional aspirations first half of the first page,” cautions Laurie J. Smith, president of Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service. “Of equal or greater importance [to length] is concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of bullet points, and good organizational strategies that ensure the resume can be quickly skimmed,” notes the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Essay, Careers . “In addition, it is essential to professional use strong merchandising and positioning strategies to distributorship bring the most relevant information to the forefront. Creating a strong impact “above the fold” — on professional, the top half of the first page of the resume — has become increasingly critical for job seekers in one of the most competitive employment markets we’ve ever experienced.” Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at least a third to a half of the page.

If the dell last page of your resume amounts to just a few lines of text, it’s best to condense so that the preceding page becomes the last page of your resume. Conversely, don’t add superfluous text just to fill up the last page of your resume. “I never fluff up content for the sake of filling space,” says Teena Rose of Resume to Referral. Professional? “Irrelevancies can dilute the punctuality essay overall effectiveness of the resume.” The end of your resume, Rose notes, “should offer additional value and not be perceived as leftovers.” Don’t sacrifice your resume’s readability to make it conform to arbitrary “rules” about resume length. It’s always pitiful when we have to whip out the magnifying class to read the professional aspirations tiny 8- or 9-point type on the resume of a job-seeker who has gone to in august absurd lengths to limit his or her resume to a certain number of pages. Don’t forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to 11.5 is better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; we’ve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and aspirations a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto examples monopoly X number of pages. “It’s less taxing and time-consuming to read one and a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everything’s squished together,” observes one expert. “Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally ‘crammed’ into one page, are now frowned upon,” says Cooper in his Resume Critique Writer software. “It is professional aspirations simply too difficult for fiorina fall, a hiring director to read the tiny print and aspirations jam-packed information squeezed into a one-page stuffed resume.

Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and dell distributorship well-formatted two-page resume that is easy to professional aspirations read, yet has the detailed information they now need.” Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in a resume that is two or more pages. All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Some job-seekers choose a “page 2 of 3” model. “If you decide to go with two or more pages, be sure to include your name and appropriate page number at the top,” suggests Ann Baehr of examples of a monopoly Best Resumes. “And organize all of the information with distinct categories to make it easier for the reader to find what they are looking for at a glance.” Including your name close to the page number is highly desirable in professional aspirations, case resume pages get separated from monopoly each other. However, repeating your entire “letterhead” from the first page of your resume on subsequent pages can be confusing and take up too much space. Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to a footer designed to entice the employer to keep reading the resume: “At the professional aspirations bottom of my multi-page resumes, there is distributorship a [customized] footer that reads something like this: ‘More indicators of performance General Motors can use now…'” It’s OK for a resume section, such as your experience, to straddle two pages of your resume, but avoid splitting the description of a given job over two pages. Finish describing a job on professional, one page, and begin detailing the next-oldest job on the following page. Final Thoughts on Job-Seeker Resume Length.

One more guideline to consider is that one-page resumes are typically expected for networking and at job fairs. If you’re still torn about how long to monopoly make your resume, consider contacting a qualified resume writer for an expert consultation. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for professional, jobseekers, and blogs about a light storytelling in the job search at professional aspirations, A Storied Career . Katharine, who ea ned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dyn mic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in punctuality essay, t e Door: N tworking Your Way into aspirations, the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to in august Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com.

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Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over professional aspirations, 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the dell job you want. Dr. Professional? Randall S. Dell Distributorship? Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on aspirations, the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com.

He is publisher of Dental Implants: Quintessential Careers Press, including the professional aspirations Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the dell country. Finally, Dr.

Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for aspirations, more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com. Check out Osseointegration Essay, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for aspirations, Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in dell, the job search at professional aspirations, A Storied Career. System? Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from professional aspirations Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is system author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and professional aspirations A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha).

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Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the the monetary system process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and aspirations job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an fiorina fall archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and professional aspirations employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to the monetary system go straight to the career and aspirations employment section of the system [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to aspirations the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.

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A for and against essay about the internet. Professional. Look at fiorina fall, the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for young people? For young people it is. Professional Aspirations. They shoud be surervised while accessing the system, internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an professional aspirations, invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on Implants: Osseointegration by Branemark, young adults. As in the essay, the aspirations, young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly.

As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the rules of fiorina fall, age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and professional aspirations dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. Essay. I think Internet is very useful in schools and in work. It#039;s also handy when you need to professional, communicate. On the other hand a lot of fiorina fall, people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram.

I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is very usefull . So in conclusion internet is possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. Professional Aspirations. :) I agree with all of distributorship, you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and professional homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to Dental Osseointegration by Branemark Essay, hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is professional it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it!

I think the internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is very good and useful, but some young people use it for a light bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. I totaly agree. It all depends from parents.

If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to professional aspirations, billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the of a monopoly, Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the professional aspirations, Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for more than an a light, hour without computer or smartphone. They need to aspirations, publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the punctuality essay, safety of your personal data.

Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. Aspirations. It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in in august, looking it . everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is included. Surely it was meant for connecting people from professional all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for Osseointegration Essay different things that provide us either with information or amusement.

It is aspirations said that the a light in august, Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. Professional. So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the in august, Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is aspirations bad or not,which depends on users. I think the dell distributorship, Internet is something that we have to know, and professional aspirations we should know what is good and bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way. I think it is the same for young people, we have to be responsible, because the Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is examples useful for everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of professional, reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of system, information, and a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to aspirations, games, that depends on each family.

Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of fiorina fall, what he or she can or can#039;t do. It#039;s impossible to live without internet in aspirations, a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to the monetary, make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and aspirations hours looking for by Branemark few informations? Internet is useful for everyone, for young and old people. There#039;s a lot of aspirations, sites that can help us a lot. Examples. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet.

We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. Professional Aspirations. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of fiorina fall, things (English, French. ) and a lot of other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in professional, the world. Osseointegration By Branemark Essay. To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is many information in the internet. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is professional bad for people.

Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of essay, useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. If young people use the Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the aspirations, most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the world are using the examples monopoly, Internet, including the elderly. We communicate with each other using the internet and it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of professional aspirations, our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the monetary system, the well.

So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for us. Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on aspirations, the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for Implants: Essay example i use internet for learning English, reading news and doing research for professional my tasks. Distributorship. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for it? . Look carefully. What's this everyday object?

Play Wordshake and see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for aspirations cultural relations and educational opportunities. A registered charity: 209131 (England and Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).

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Essay on the CDF Appeals Decision. By Cosette Creamer, USA. About the aspirations CDF Trial. The Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) issued an indictment against Dental Osseointegration by Branemark Essay the three accused. persons of the Civil Defence Forces (CDF), Sam Hinga Norman, former Deputy Defence.

Minister and professional aspirations later Minister of fiorina fall Internal Affairs; Moinina Fofana, alleged to be the National. Director of the CDF; and Allieu Kondewa, alleged to be the High Priest of the CDF between. March and June 2003. Professional Aspirations? The indictment include 8-counts for crimes against humanity, violations. of Article 3 Common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II (commonly. known as war crimes), and other serious violations of essay international humanitarian law. Sam Hinga Norman being the First accused made his initial appearance at the temporary. courthouse on Bonthe Island on 15 March 2003. Mr. Norman pleaded not guilty to professional aspirations, all charges. against him.

Messrs. Fofana and Kondewa, Second and Third accused respectively also pleaded. not guilty to all the charges against them when they were arraigned before the Court at dell distributorship the. temporary courthouse on July 1, 2003. The Prosecution presented its case from 3 June 2004 to 14 July 2006 presenting 75 witnesses.

From 19 January to 18 October 2006, the Defence presented 44 witnesses. Closing arguments. were made from 28-30 November 2006. The specifics of the charges include: 2. Aspirations? Violence to life, health and physical or mental well-being of persons, in examples monopoly particular murder *2. Physical violence and mental suffering. 3. Inhumane acts *1. 4. Violence to aspirations, life, health and physical or mental well-being of persons, in particular cruel treatment *2. Looting and burning.

Terrorizing the civilian population and collective punishments. 6. Acts of terrorism *2. 7. Collective punishments *2. Use of child soldiers. 8. Conscripting or enlisting children under the distributorship age of aspirations 15 years into armed forces or groups or using them to. participate actively in hostilities. Following that, first accused Hinga Norman was. hospitalized in Dakar to undergo a surgery. Unfortunately, he passed away on 22 February 2007. in Dakar.

On 20 July 2007, the Court issued its judgement and Fofana was found guilty on. Counts 2, 4, 5 and 7. Kondewa is found guilty on Counts 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8. The case against Hinga. Norman was dropped since he is deceased. The Trial Chamber sentenced Fofana to 6 years and. Kondewa to 8 years.

The Appeals phase- Second Accused Moinina Fofana and Third Accused Allieu Kondewa- was. concluded on 28 May 2008. The Appeals Chamber re-sentenced Fofana to 15 years as opposed. to the original 6 year term and a light in august Kondewa to aspirations, 20 years as opposed to the original 8. Mr. Fofana.

never appealed his original sentence. Examples Monopoly? Kondewa appealed but in either case, it was the. Prosecution’s appeal for aspirations higher sentences that was ruled upon. In August? The convicts are still at the. Special Court premises in Sierra Leone. One of the most controversial aspects of the aspirations Civilian Defense Forces (CDF) trial before the. Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) has been whether and how the idea of a ‘just cause’ is.

relevant to the prosecution of international criminal law violations. The idea that the CDF were. fighting for a ‘just cause’ - namely the restoration of the democratically elected government of. President Tejan Kabbah - has been raised as a defense to the crimes committed, as material to. establishing the elements of the crimes charged, and as a mitigating factor in sentencing.

decisions. Some argue that the fiorina fall idea of a ‘just cause’ has absolutely no place in aspirations adjudicating. crimes under international humanitarian law, which does and should apply equally to all parties. to a conflict regardless of their reasons for fighting. Others argue that claims of a ‘just cause’ are. relevant to fiorina fall, establishing the nature of the crimes committed and professional aspirations as a mitigating factor in.

sentencing decisions. Both the Osseointegration by Branemark Majority Opinion in the CDF Appeal Judgment1 and the. Honourable Justice George Gelaga King’s dissenting opinion adopt a different approach and. attempt to professional aspirations, differentiate between claims of a ‘just cause’ and the reasons a group has for fighting. In doing so, both opinions help illuminate how the distributorship ‘reasons for professional fighting,’ regardless of the. perceived justness of the punctuality essay cause, may be legally and evidentially relevant to adjudicating.

international crimes. While claims of a ‘just cause’ imply that a party was fighting for a. legitimate purpose, or on the ‘right’ side, references to a party’s ‘reasons for aspirations fighting’ do not. imply such a normative judgment, and instead are merely descriptive of the end goal or objective. Given that the idea of dell distributorship a ‘just cause’ is often viewed as a divisive political issue, it might make. sense for aspirations internationalized criminal tribunals to absolutely prohibit such considerations from. entering into judicial proceedings. To be sure, claims of a ‘just cause’ do not provide an dell distributorship excuse. for violations of international humanitarian or criminal law. If one looks at the underlying. tenants of Just War Theory, as propounded by 16th and 17th century philosophers, a just cause. only provides a group with an excuse to resort to war as such.

In fact, one of the defining. elements of a Just War was that the party must fight the war ‘justly’ - that is, abide by the laws. of war, which today would include international humanitarian and criminal law. While in. principle claims to a ‘just cause’ have no place in determining whether or not parties to a conflict 1 See Prosecutor v. Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, SCSL Appeals Chamber, Case No. SCSL-04-14-A (May 28, 2008) [hereinafter CDF Appeal Judgment]. 2 See Prosecutor v. Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, “Partially Dissenting Opinion of professional aspirations Hon. Justice George Gelaga. King,” SCSL Appeals Chamber, Case No. SCSL-04-14-A (May 28, 2008) [hereinafter King’s Dissenting Opinion].

are permitted to violate the laws of war, the ‘reasons for fiorina fall fighting’ themselves may sometimes be. evidentially material to establishing the requisite elements of aspirations crimes against humanity, completely apart from the ‘justness’ of these reasons. This paper will provide a brief summary. and analysis of the CDF Appeal Judgment and Justice King’s dissenting opinion, paying. particular attention to the monetary system, how the professional aspirations ‘reasons for monopoly fighting’ may be separated from considerations of.

‘just cause,’ their legal relevance in charges that the CDF committed crimes against humanity. and their use as a mitigating factor in sentencing decisions. ‘Reasons for Fighting’ and the General Requirements of Crimes Against Humanity. The CDF Trial Judgment entered verdicts of not guilty for both accused, Moinina Fofana and. Allieu Kondewa, for Counts 1 and 3, charging crimes against humanity of murder and other. inhumane acts.3 A majority of the Appeals Chamber, with Justice George Gelaga King and. Justice Jon Kamanda partially dissenting, reversed these decisions and entered guilty verdicts for. both counts.

The Statute of the professional SCSL defines crimes against punctuality essay humanity as the commission of. “crimes as part of a widespread or systematic attack against any civilian population.” order to establish the commission of aspirations a crime against humanity (CAH), the Prosecution needed to. prove beyond a reasonable doubt, inter alia, that attacks by the CDF and the Kamajors were. directed “against any civilian population.” This is a light in august one of the general or ‘chapeau’ requirements. for crimes against humanity that must be proven in addition to the actual commission of the. specific crime, i.e. murder.5 The Trial Chamber found that the Prosecution had not established. this requirement beyond reasonable doubt, based on evidence that attacks by the CDF and the.

Kamajors were directed against rebel forces, specifically the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and the professional aspirations Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC), and the Prosecution’s admission that the. CDF and the monetary the Kamajors “fought for the restoration of democracy.”6. On its first ground of appeal, the Prosecution submitted that the Trial Chamber had erred in both. law and fact in not finding this general requirement of an attack directed against any civilian. population.7 The Prosecution first submitted that the aspirations Trial Chamber erred as a matter of law in 3 See Prosecutor v. System? Norman, Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, SCSL Trial Chamber I, Case No. SCSL-04-14-J. (August 2, 2007) [hereinafter CDF Trial Judgment].

4 See the Statute of the professional aspirations Special Court for dell Sierra Leone, Article 2. 5 See Steven R. Ratner and Jason S. Abrams, Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy, 2nd Ed. Aspirations? (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 58-79. 6 CDF Trial Judgment, para. 693.

7 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 2.5. basing its finding on dell evidence that attacks were directed against the rebels or juntas.8. Prosecution argued the Trial Chamber effectively adopted the view that, as a matter of law, an. attack cannot be directed against a civilian population if there are civilian casualties during an. attack against opposing military forces.

The Prosecution further argued the Trial Chamber erred. as a matter of law in finding that the CDF ‘fought for the restoration of democracy,’ because this. is not and should not be a material consideration in aspirations determining whether or not crimes against. humanity were committed, given that international humanitarian law applies equally to Dental Implants: Osseointegration, all parties. To this end, the Prosecution submitted that a distinction must be drawn between. the purpose and the target of the attack, and professional that the purpose - i.e. Monopoly? fighting for the restoration of. democracy - is not relevant to ascertaining the target - i.e. a civilian population. In its Response Brief, the professional aspirations Defense for Fofana maintained that the CDF attacks were never. directed against the civilian population but against military targets, and that many acts of the. Kamajors were isolated, random and unauthorized by the CDF.10 In addition, the Defense.

submitted that the CDF’s policy was never to terrorize civilians, since this would be contrary to. protecting civilians from rebel forces, the main purpose behind the establishment of the CDF.11. The Defense counsel for Kondewa submitted that the finding that the CDF fought to monopoly, restore the. democratically elected government is in fact relevant to establishing that the civilian population. was not the professional specific or primary target of the attacks.12 This argument implies that the reasons for.

fighting, which sometimes may unfortunately be portrayed as a ‘just cause,’ should have legal. importance for establishing or disproving the necessary context for crimes against humanity. Kondewa’s defense essentially argued that the fiorina fall existence of a plan or policy -which is often. established through evidence of a party’s ‘reasons for fighting’ or their objective - has been. found relevant to proving that an attack was directed against a civilian population in the. jurisprudence of the professional aspirations International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR).13.

For this reason, it should also be. evidentially relevant to punctuality, proving that an attack was not directed primarily against a civilian. population. The Defense’s argument is subtle and one must be careful not to place too much 8 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 2.16; CDF Trial Judgment, para. Professional? 693. 9 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 2.51.

10 Fofana Response Brief, para. 6. To support this, Fofana’s Defense refers to the Trial Chamber’s finding that. “[a]lthough the CDF were a cohesive force under one central command, there were some fighters who acted on their. own without the knowledge of central command.” Ibid., para. 7. 11 Ibid., para. 16. 12 Kondewa Response Brief, para. 1.8.

13 Ibid. See also, CDF Appeal Judgment, para. 241. emphasis on how the reasons for fighting can help establish the absence rather than the presence. of a particular policy.

Nevertheless, it highlights the fact that descriptive evidence of a party’s. reasons for fiorina fall fighting are evidentially relevant to elucidating the underlying objective - and thus in. some cases the object or target - of a party’s military operations. If one considers in more detail the required context for the commission of crimes against. humanity, one begins to see how and why the reasons for fighting are legally and professional evidentially. relevant.14 Firstly, it is important to note that the concept of an ‘attack’ in the context of CAH is. distinct from the concept of an attack or armed conflict in the context of war crimes.

A military. operation is not necessarily an attack against a civilian population even if - or because - breaches of the laws of war occur or there are heavy civilian casualties. The contextual CAH. prerequisite of an fiorina fall ‘attack’ is professional only established to punctuality essay, the extent that a military operation can be shown. to be aimed or directed at a civilian population. More specifically, a court must determine that. the attack was directed primarily against a civilian population, and was not just the professional aspirations consequence. of an excessive use of military power.

The CDF Trial Chamber did adopt this dictum from the. ICTY Appeals Chamber15 that ‘directed against’ in the context of CAH implies that the civilian. population is the primary object rather than an incidental target of an attack. An attack can still. be considered as primarily directed against a civilian population if the court is examples monopoly satisfied that in. pursuance of a military purpose, a party to a conflict has specifically or indiscriminately targeted. the civilian population within those places over which it wished to gain military control.

However, civilian casualties do not in and of themselves render the attack as one directed. ‘against a civilian population’ for the purposes of CAH. The question then is how a Court. ascertains that an attack is directed against a civilian population, particularly if it is in pursuance. of a military purpose. Here the ad hoc tribunals have largely relied on evidence of professional whether there. is a political objective or a plan pursuant to which the attack is perpetrated or an ideology, in the. broad sense of the word, to destroy, persecute or weaken a community.16 The Blaskic Trial 14. For good overviews of the punctuality essay development of crimes against professional humanity and their elements, as well as pertinent.

judicial decisions, see Anthony Cassese, International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003): 64- 95; Kriangsak Kittichaisaree, International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002): 85-128; Gunal Mettraux, “Crimes Against Humanity in the Jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunals for the. Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda,” 43 Harvard International Law Journal (2002): 237-316. 15 See Prosecutor v. Kunarac et al, Judgment, ICTY Appeals Chamber, Case No. IT-96-23 IT-96-23/1-A (12 June.

2002) [hereinafter Kunarac Appeal Judgment], para. 92. See also CDF Trial Judgment, para. 114. 16 See Prosecutor v. Tihomir Bla#61676;kic, Judgement, ICTY Trial Chamber, Case No. IT-95-14-T (3 March 2000) [hereinafter Blaskic Trial Judgment], paras. 203-206.

Chamber, for instance, did consider whether the attacks in question were designed to be. responses to military aggression or had military objectives.17 In the fiorina fall context of the professional aspirations conflict in the. former Yugoslavia and the systematic nature of attacks that were directed against specifically. Muslim civilian populations, it concluded that the the monetary attacks could not have been justified by. The ICTY has adopted a liberal interpretation of the term ‘civilian,’ which the SCSL has largely. followed. For instance, the professional aspirations ICTY has held that ‘civilian’ includes victims who at one time bore. arms, and that at a minimum the “Prosecution must show that the perpetrator could not. reasonably have believed that the victim was a member of the armed forces.”18. international law, as well as the jurisprudence of the punctuality essay ICTY and ICTR, the victims of aspirations CAH may.

include military personnel or rebel forces who are hors de combat - who have laid down arms or. are injured.19 However, the distributorship targeted population must still be predominantly civilian in nature, and non-civilians are victims because of their membership or presence within the civilian. population that is targeted by the accused or the attack. The ad hoc tribunals have also emphasized the policy of professional aspirations targeting civilian populations as an. important part of the context of CAH. In fact, “[i]t is the existence of such a policy that endows. the criminal act with a great dimension which warrants its punishment as a crime against.

A policy of attacks against a civilian population is one of the main aspects of. proving the commission of a CAH, and is often used to Dental Implants: Osseointegration, establish the ‘systematic’ component of. such attacks. This supports the argument that the grounds for commission or the reasons for. fighting - which are often outlined within a group or organization’s official policy - are very. much relevant to professional, elucidating whether or not such a policy was intentionally targeting civilian. populations or alternatively solely military targets or rebel forces. While they are not necessarily. determinative, the reasons for fighting do provide evidence either supporting or undermining the. contention that particular attacks were direct against a civilian population, and system thus cannot.

automatically be discounted. Both the Majority Opinion and Justice King’s Dissenting Opinion 17 See ibid., paras. 425-28, 573-79, 623-34, 676-78. 18 Prosecutor v. Aspirations? Kunarac et al, Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber, Case No. Dell? IT-96-23-T IT-96-23/1-T (22 February. 2001) [hereinafter Kunarac Trial Judgment], para.

435. 19 See Prosecutor v. Mrksic and Others (Vukovar Hospital Case), Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber II, Case No. IT- 95-13/1 (27 September 2007), paras. 29-32; Blaskic Trial Judgment, paras.

210, 216; Prosecutor v. Kayishema and. Ruzindana, Judgment, ICTR Trial Chamber, Case No. ICTR-95-1-T (21 May 1999) [hereinafter Kayishema Trial. Judgment], para. 127. 20 Kayishema Trial Judgment, paras.

124-6. recognize this, but address the professional aspirations distinction between a ‘just cause’ and the reasons for fighting. differently, based on how they interpret the argument that the CDF were fighting for fiorina fall the. restoration of a democratically elected government. The Appeals Chamber, in its majority opinion, first denied the Prosecution’s argument that the. Trial Chamber made its finding that the professional CDF fought for the restoration of democracy a decisive. consideration in its judgment.21 Not surprisingly, it emphatically rejected the idea that fighting.

for the restoration of democracy could provide a justification for examples monopoly the commission of crimes. against humanity. However, instead of attempting to differentiate between the idea of a ‘just. cause’ as justification and professional the ‘reasons for fighting’ as material to the determination of the. context of CAH, the Appeals Chamber instead decided to Dental Implants: Osseointegration Essay, interpret the Trial Chamber’s judgment. as not heavily relying on the finding that the aspirations CDF were fighting for the restoration of democracy. For this reason, the Appeals Chamber did not consider whether or how the finding could be. material to the contextual elements of CAH. It did, however, note the argument of Kondewa’s. Defense Counsel that because the reasons for fighting can be evidentially material to system, establishing.

a policy of aspirations attacking civilian populations, they should also be evidentially material to. establishing the absence of such a plan.22. The Appeals Chamber also denied the examples monopoly Prosecution’s alternative submission of legal error, that. the Trial Chamber had rejected the possibility that civilians were targeted merely because there. was evidence of attacks directed against rebel forces. The Appeals Chamber was unable to. conclude that the Trial Chamber considered as a matter of law that a military attack cannot. coexist with an aspirations attack directed against Dental Implants: by Branemark Essay any civilian population.23 Thus the Appeals Chamber did. not reverse the Trial Chamber’s verdict of not guilty on the basis of the misapplication of professional the.

legal principles of CAH. In his dissenting opinion, Justice King first considered whether the dell finding that the CDF was. ‘fighting for professional aspirations the restoration of democracy’ is a material consideration in determining whether a. civilian population is the punctuality primary object of an attack. While he agreed with the Prosecution’s. contention that international humanitarian law applies equally to all sides of a conflict, he did not. think the Trial Chamber was necessarily referring to which side of the conflict was in the right.

21 CDF Appeal Judgment, para. 247-9. 22 Ibid., para. 241. 23 Ibid., para. Professional Aspirations? 251-2. For him, the Trial Chamber was actually referring to the fact that the object of attacks by the. CDF and punctuality the Kamajors was the AFRC and the RUF, in order to restore the elected government. For Justice King, this is a relevant factor in aspirations evaluating the a light in august “totality of the evidence” to professional aspirations, determine. whether or not the attacks were primarily directed against the monetary civilians or, alternatively, rebel. forces.24 In particular, it is a relevant factor in determining whether the professional aspirations charges put forth in fiorina fall the.

Prosecution’s indictment - that the CDF was fighting to gain control of the professional territory and. population of fiorina fall Sierra Leone - had been sufficiently proven.25. Justice King argued that the evidence did not support these charges, given that the CDF were. fighting to restore the democratically elected government and not to “gain complete control over. the population of professional aspirations Sierra Leone.”26 While he stated numerous times that the fiorina fall reasons for fighting. were materially relevant, he did not specify how exactly they might be important in determining. whether the professional attacks were directed against distributorship the civilian population. One could further elaborate on. Justice King’s position to professional aspirations, argue that the a light reasons for fighting provide evidence of the object of. attack and not simply the purpose of the attack.

Often, the reasons for fighting or the professional aspirations purpose of. an attack - the very policy behind the fiorina fall attack that must be established to prove the systematic. requirement of the CAH - will inform which objects of attack are chosen. Aspirations? While the distributorship two are not. equivalent, they are also not mutually exclusive.

The purpose of the aspirations attack can elucidate what. the intended targets were, but it is not exclusively determinative of those targets. The second issue raised by the Prosecution on Implants: appeal was whether the Trial Chamber erred as a. matter of fact in finding the aspirations absence of essay attacks directed against a civilian population. In. reviewing the professional Trial Chamber’s findings that attacks were not directed against any civilian. population, the Appeals Chamber first noted that this conclusion was “devoid of essay articulation of. its reasoning” and that the Trial Chamber “misdirected itself when applying the [legal] principle. it had already stated, by confusing the target of the attack with the purpose of the aspirations attack.

When. the target of the attack is the civilian population, the purpose of that attack is a light immaterial.”27. While this latter statement is certainly true, the professional Appeals Chamber put the cart before the horse. The issue before both the Trial and the Appeals Chamber was whether a civilian population was. the target, and the purpose of the attack can be evidentially relevant in punctuality essay adducing whether this is 24 King’s Dissenting Opinion, paras. 28-9. 25 CDF Indictment, para. Professional? 19. 27 CDF Appeal Judgment, paras. 298, 300. the case; only if and when it is found that a civilian population was the the monetary system target, does the purpose.

of the attack lose its relevance and become immaterial. In other words, the professional aspirations purpose of the attack. is material to whether a civilian population is the target but only becomes immaterial when a. civilian population is the fiorina fall target. The Appeals Chamber then reviewed the record with respect to professional, each attack and found sufficient. evidence of targeted attacks against civilians as a group or population. The Monetary? Of particular importance. for the Appeals Chamber was the Trial Chamber’s own finding that there were incidents when. the CDF or the Kamajors committed crimes after combat operations against the AFRC had.

The Appeals Chamber thus granted the Prosecution’s submission of an error of. fact and professional reversed the acquittals on the basis of its own findings of of a monopoly fact. This is particularly. important if one considers the rationale behind and normative desirability of appellate review of. acquittals, addressed below.

Justice King dissented as to whether the attacks by the CDF and Kamajors were in fact directed. against any civilian population. He disagreed with the Appeals Chamber’s findings that in. Tongo, Bo, Kenema and Korbondo, the Kamajors and the CDF engaged in attacks directed. against the civilian population. He first considered whether attacks in these areas had a military.

objective, and supported the Trial Chamber’s findings, for aspirations example, that these attacks were. military operations against rebels in Tongo and examples of a monopoly that there were only eleven civilian casualties in. Although this is never fully elaborated, Justice King could have further argued that. such attacks cannot be considered directed against a civilian population, because they were. military operations not directed against civilians per se (so do not satisfy the systematic or policy. requirement for CAH), and the extent of civilian casualties was not sufficiently widespread to. constitute a crime against humanity (under the alternative widespread requirement). Justice King argued that the Trial Chamber looked for professional aspirations relevant legal authority and principles and.

applied those principles to the factual findings made. He thus disagreed with the Appeals. Chamber’s contention that the punctuality Trial Chamber’s opinion is devoid of “articulation of its. He also disagreed with the Prosecution’s charge that it is “apparent” from the Trial. Chamber’s findings that it considered, as a matter of law, that an professional attack is not “directed against. the civilian population if civilians are attacked in the course of attacks directed against opposing 28 CDF Appeal Judgment, para. 305; CDF Sentencing Judgment, para. 85. forces,” a contention that a majority of the Appeals Chamber also rejected.29 Justice King. argued that this view cannot be attributed to fiorina fall, the Trial Chamber, because it did examine the.

evidence and then arrived at the conclusion that the evidence did not prove beyond a reasonable. doubt that the civilian population was the primary - as opposed to an incidental - object of professional the. Justice King also did not agree with the Appeals Chamber’s view that the Trial Chamber. confused “the target of the attack with the purpose of the attack.”30 For Justice King, the Trial. Chamber was actually saying that the examples of a monopoly Prosecution had not proven that the civilian population was. the primary object or target of the attack, and that there was substantial evidence supporting a. finding the primary object was the AFRC and its allies (a military target) and not the civilian. population.31 Though Justice King never explicitly makes this point, he could have argued that. while the purpose of the attack may not be determinative, it is in fact entirely relevant to. establishing the target of the attack, given that the objective or purpose of a particular attack. partly determines the objects or targets against which it is aspirations directed.

This is punctuality especially relevant in. ascertaining whether the contextual requirements for CAH - a widespread or systematic attack. against any civilian population - have been established. Justice King’s dissent partially derives from the role he argued the Appeals Chamber should. adopt in reviewing findings of fact, particularly on appeals from professional, acquittals. Punctuality? For Justice King, the. Appeals Chamber should not usurp the professional Trial Chamber’s power to enter findings of fact in the. first instance, because it “has not heard the evidence and punctuality essay it might select pieces of aspirations evidence which. tend to dell, support its findings of fact, whereas countervailing evidence may, in the circumstance, not be given the weight that the Trial Chamber, which saw and heard the witnesses, gave to it.”32. Thus the aspirations Appeals Chamber should largely defer to the Trial Chamber’s findings of fact, and it is.

“only where the fiorina fall evidence relied on by the Trial Chamber could not reasonably have been. accepted by any reasonable person that the Appeals Chamber can substitute its own finding for. that of the Trial Chamber.”33 This is particularly true when the Appeals Chamber is considering. an appeal from an acquittal. While legally, under international law, an appellate court can. reverse an acquittal on the basis of errors of law and fact, from a normative point of view one 29 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 2.16. 30 CDF Appeal Judgment, para. 304. 31 King’s Dissenting Opinion, para.

53. 32 Ibid., para. 44. 33 King’s Dissenting Opinion, para. 55, quoting ICTY Delalic et al, Appeal Judgment, para. 458. can argue that it should be especially careful in professional doing so solely on the basis of errors of fact, given that this conflicts with the of a monopoly idea of double jeopardy in some legal systems.

While civil and professional common law systems differ substantially in the scope of appeals permitted, if. one reviews the various proposals put forth during the drafting of the ICTY Statute, on which the. SCSL Statute is largely based, only one proposal put forth by the Organization of the fiorina fall Islamic. Conference suggested that prosecutorial appeals should be permitted on both issues of professional law and. fact.34 The majority of the proposals either suggested no basis for prosecutorial appeals, or that. such appeals should be limited to reviewing errors of law. With no clear rationale or.

commentary, but arguably to appease all of the negotiating parties, the adopted ICTY Statute. provided for a wide scope of appeal for both the prosecution and the defense. supports the idea of a broad provision of ‘equality of distributorship arms.’ However, the primary justifications. for appellate review in ad hoc tribunals, namely consistency of decisions and the development of. law, do not usually apply to appellate review of findings of fact, given that factual decisions have. little if any relevance beyond the individual case.35.

Common law systems generally do not allow factual review of acquittals in trials by professional a jury or. bench trials, since this violates the presumption of innocence. Monopoly? Civil law systems vary depending. on the structure and trial process of professional their lower and Implants: Osseointegration Essay upper courts. One justification put forth for a. broad scope of professional appellate review is justice in the individual case. Appellate review of factual. issues in the case of reviews of convictions certainly does further the interest of justice in the. individual case, given the severity of the a light punishment that accompanies a conviction. It is. debatable whether appellate review of factual issues in the case of acquittals also furthers this. interest.

For example, if the appellate court reaches a different conclusion regarding the facts, this in itself might demonstrate ‘reasonable doubt,’ indicating that the prosecution has not. fulfilled its burden of proof. In the ad hoc courts, an acquittal by a three-judge panel is arguably. less likely to be subject to evidentiary misunderstandings than a jury verdict or a verdict by professional aspirations a. single judge, and thus the punctuality essay practical need for prosecutorial appeals from acquittals on questions of. fact is reduced.36. In fact, if any error in aspirations interpreting or evaluating the system evidence is made, it is more. likely to be made by the Appeals Chamber, which is further from the record and professional aspirations the witnesses. 34 See Mark C. Fleming, “Appellate Review in the International Criminal Tribunals,” 37 Texas International Law. Journal (2002): 111-155, at 118-19. 35 Ibid., pp. 135-6.

36 It should be noted that this criticism does not apply to prosecutorial appeals on issues of distributorship fact where the defendant. bears the burden of proof, for instance if the Trial Chamber acquitted on professional aspirations the basis of an insanity defense. One commentator has argued that the “legitimacy of the international tribunals, which relies in. large part on their ability to deliver fair justice through fair procedures, could be compromised if. the accused is in danger of being convicted as long as one of two chambers concludes that he is. guilty.

The interest in preserving justice in the individual case recommends that a conviction. stand only if both chambers agree that a conviction is reasonable in light of the evidence.”37. because Article 20 of the Statute of the SCSL provides for a broad scope of prosecutorial appeal. on acquittal does not in itself normatively justify appellate review of questions of fiorina fall fact in the case. of an acquittal and does not lessen the severity of the criticisms levied against this practice. While in the near future, a broad scope of prosecutorial appeal is likely to be retained in the ad. hoc tribunals, it is an issue underpinning Justice King’s dissent in the CDF Appeal Judgment and. one that deserves further consideration as international criminal procedure develops. Mitigating Factors in Sentencing Decisions: CDF’s ‘Just Cause’ and Motive of Civic Duty. The sentencing inquiry undertaken by Trial Chambers in the ad hoc tribunals entails wide.

discretion and professional aspirations is similar to that in a light in august common law countries, where there are no fixed penalties and. courts are not constrained by previous sentences that have been handed down. Instead, sanctions. are purportedly tailored to fit the unique circumstances of each offence and professional the individual. circumstances of the offender. Central to dell, this inquiry is the principle of professional aspirations proportionality - that the. severity of the examples of a monopoly sanction should be commensurate with the gravity of the offence.38. the length of aspirations a sentence, a Trial Chamber is first required to establish a penalty proportionate to. the seriousness of the crime and then required to Dental Implants: Osseointegration by Branemark Essay, take into professional account any individualized. aggravating and mitigating circumstances, though the ad hoc tribunals have rarely indicated the. weight given to each consideration.

The aggravating circumstances should be proven beyond. reasonable doubt, while mitigating factors may include those not directly related to the offence. and only fiorina fall, need to be established by a balance of probabilities.39. Although the tribunals have proffered a number of rationales for sentencing, their decisions. rarely elaborate on how the sentences imposed will actually further these objectives. As some. commentators argue, international sentencing law is professional aspirations so “indeterminate that sentencers are free to 37 Fleming, p. Fiorina Fall? 140. 38 For an overview of the sentencing practices of the ad hoc tribunals, see Mirko Bagaric and professional John Morss, “International Sentencing Law: In Search of system Justification and professional aspirations a Coherent Framework,” 6 International Criminal Law. Review (2006): 191-255. 39 See, for example, Prosecutor v. Dragan Nikolic, Sentencing Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber II, Case No.

IT-94-2- S (18 December 2003), para 145. switch from one rationale to another as they choose.”40. Another commentator has suggested that. international sentencing practices may actually undermine the legitimacy of the international. criminal justice system and its contribution to local or more holistic processes of transitional. justice, by not adequately “relating the the monetary outcomes of international sentencing to local perceptions. of justice.”41 Supporting this skepticism is the fact that it is difficult to empirically substantiate.

claims that international sentences do in aspirations fact contribute to the rationales often advanced, such as. peace, reconciliation, retribution or deterrence. This implies that the gap between “what victims. and victimised communities perceive as justice and what passes as international criminal justice” Though it is the monetary debatable whether this critique can really be generalized to all ad hoc. tribunal decisions, the difficulty of relating an internationalized form of justice in the form of. international sentences to the local context of Sierra Leone is particularly apparent in the diverse.

reactions by Sierra Leoneans to the CDF Appeals Judgment. The Trial Chamber in the CDF case held, with Justice Bankole Thompson dissenting, that there. was no defense of ‘necessity’ in professional international criminal law, and that ‘necessity’ could not be. taken into account as a mitigating factor in sentencing. However, the Trial Chamber did. consider as mitigating factors that the Defendants and the CDF/Kamajors were “fighting to. support a legitimate cause which. was to restore the democratically elected government of.

President Kabbah,” that they fought with the support of ECOMOG, and that this “contributed. immensely to re-establishing the rule of law.”43 It also concluded that “the contribution of examples monopoly the. two Accused Persons to the establishment of the much desired and awaited peace in Sierra Leone. and the difficult, risky, selfless and for a very sizeable number of their CDF/Kamajors, the. supreme sacrifices that they made to professional, achieve this through a bloody conflict, is in itself a factor. that stands significantly in mitigation in fiorina fall their favour.”44. With regard to motive of professional civic duty, it. found that the Defendants did not join the conflict for ‘selfish reasons’ and that they “acted from. a sense of civic duty rather than for personal aggrandizement or gain.”45. 40 Bagaric and Morss, at distributorship 208.

41 Ralph Henham, “International Sentencing in the Context of Collective Violence,” 7 International Criminal Law. Review (2007): 449-468, at professional 451. 43 CDF Sentencing Judgment, paras. 79, 83, 87. 44 Ibid., para.

91. 45 Ibid., para. 94. On appeal, the Prosecution alleged ten errors of the Trial Chamber in its sentencing decision. The Appeals Chamber gave credence to only one alleged error, that of fiorina fall “treating the ‘just cause’ of the professional Accused as a mitigating factor” and considering motive of ‘civic duty.’46 The Prosecution.

submitted that the Trial Chamber effectively found that fighting on the ‘right’ side of a conflict. could serve as a mitigating factor in sentencing, and that accepting the so-called ‘justness’ of the. party to the conflict during mitigation would “almost certainly lead to a total disregard for. humanitarian law.”47 The Prosecution finally submitted that the distributorship Trial Chamber’s treatment of. ‘motive of professional civic duty’ as a mitigating factor was also based on an assumption that the Defendants. were fighting on the ‘right’ side of the conflict. In response, the Defense for Fofana submitted that motives of either so-called ‘just cause’ or. ‘civic duty’ are part of the factual and fiorina fall contextual differences that the Trial Chamber must. consider in individualizing the punishment, and that the Trial Chamber didn’t consider whether. the Defendant fought on professional the ‘right’ side of the conflict per se, but merely whether he had a ‘good. motive.’48 The Defense for Kondewa also submitted that because an ‘evil motive’ can be.

considered an fiorina fall aggravating factor in sentencing decisions, a ‘good motive’ can similarly be. considered a mitigating factor.49. The Appeals Chamber first noted that as a general matter, motive may be considered for. sentencing purposes, although it does not constitute a defense against criminal liability. Professional? This is.

supported by the fact that the ICTR, to which the a light in august SCSL may refer for sentencing practices, often. considers the character and motive of the accused during the conflict as a mitigating factor.50. However, the Appeals Chamber then argued that the political motive of ‘just cause’ had no place. in international criminal justice, and that international humanitarian law “specifically removes a. party’s political motive and the ‘justness’ of a party’s cause from consideration.”51 While this is. certainly true, political motives only have no place in professional international humanitarian law when.

considering the guilt or innocence of the accused. Though the ad hoc tribunals generally render. their judgments and distributorship sentencing decisions together, for reasons of procedural efficiency, 46 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 4. 47 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 9.39. 48 Fofana Response Brief, paras. Professional Aspirations? 193-6. 49 Kondewa Response Brief, paras. 9.38-9.39, citing Blaskic Trial Judgment, para.

785. 50 For an overview of the sentencing practices of the ICTR, see the Human Rights Watch report on “Charging, 51 CDF Appeals Judgment, para. 530-1. sentencing decisions are discrete and punctuality essay independent judgments that take into account different. factors than judgments concerning the professional guilt or innocence of the accused.52. The Appeals Chamber further argued that any motive considered by the Trial Chamber must be. “consistent with sentencing purposes,” referring to those ‘legitimate’ rationales elaborated by the. ICTY, which include: individual and general deterrence; retribution; public reprobation and.

stigmatization by the international community; and rehabilitation. Examples? The Appeals Chamber. considered the primary objectives to be retribution and aspirations deterrence.53 It argued that allowing. mitigation for the personal motives of an accused would undermine the fiorina fall purposes of sentencing. rather than promote them, and would implicitly legitimize the unlawful conduct.54. concluding, the Appeals Chamber noted that the professional most important consideration in sentencing is. the “revulsion of mankind, represented by punctuality essay the international community” and not the “tolerance. by a local community of the crime; or lack of public revulsion in relation to the crimes of such. community; or local sentiments about the persons who have been found guilty of the crimes.”55.

Thus, the aspirations Appeals Chamber held that the Trial Chamber erred by considering ‘just cause’ and. ‘motive of civic duty’ as relevant factors in essay its sentencing decision, and that the Appeals. Chamber had the ability to aspirations, revise these sentences. Justice King dissented on punctuality essay both issues, arguing. that the aspirations Appeals Chamber interfered with the discretion afforded to the Trial Chamber in. determining the appropriate penalties. Justice King argued that the Trial Chamber did not take into account ‘just cause’ as a mitigating. factor, but rather what the Defense had in punctuality essay fact pleaded - that the aspirations fighting was mobilized in order. to restore the democratically elected government of. President Kabbah, without implying any.

normative evaluation about whether this end was ‘just.’56 The Trial Chamber Justices. themselves only mentioned the phrase ‘just cause’ in rejecting the defense of necessity raised by. Justice Bankole Thompson in his Dissenting Opinion. Fiorina Fall? Justice King thus appeared to be arguing. (a) that the professional Defense never pleaded just cause as a mitigating factor, and thus the Trial Chamber.

did not consider it as such; and (b) that when the Trial Chamber considered the argument that the. CDF and the Kamajors were fighting to restore the a light democratically elected government as a 52 For this argument, see Ralph Henham, “Procedural justice and human rights in international sentencing,” 4. International Criminal Law Review (2004): 185-210. 53 Ibid., para. Aspirations? 532. 54 Ibid., para. 534. 55 Ibid., para. 564. 56 King’s Dissenting Opinion, para.

107. mitigating factor, this is not equivalent to considering a ‘just cause’ argument because the Trial. Chamber was considering the personal reasons for fighting held by the accused as individuals. and not necessarily the political justness of the system collective cause. In Justice King’s opinion, a. reasonable person would conclude that the Trial Chamber took into professional account both the the monetary system gravity of.

the offence and the individual circumstances of the accused, and so correctly applied Article 19. of the Statute of the SCSL.57 For this reason, he dissented with the Majority’s view that the Trial. Chamber took into consideration factors that it should not have considered in professional exercising its. sentencing discretion, and the monetary system so the Appeals Chamber did not have the right or the professional aspirations power to. substitute its own discretion.

The essence of the disagreement between the majority of the Appeals Chamber and Justice King. relates to whether the mitigating factors considered by the Trial Chamber were personal motives. or factors, which are entirely pertinent to sentencing decisions, or collective and effectively. ‘political’ motives that do not enter into determinations of penalties. One could argue that the. Appeals Chamber was so concerned with preserving the Dental Osseointegration Essay appearance of impartiality and professional avoiding. a perception of ‘victor’s justice’ that it entirely refused to punctuality essay, consider the guilt of the CDF relative. to the other parties of the conflict. It is perhaps for this reason that the CDF Appeals Sentencing.

Decision gave rise in some circles to the perception of a gap between ‘internationalized justice’ and ‘local justice.’ However, the fact that the Appeals Chamber strove to aspirations, avoid the perception of. ‘victor’s justice’ in punctuality essay and of itself is a laudable undertaking. Yet in doing so, the Court overlooked. the fact that the SCSL is required to take into account individual factors that bear - not on the. relative guilt or innocence of the accused - but on the extent of their punishment. majority of the Appeals Chamber appears to have reached an appropriate judgment in deciding. that the justness of a party’s reasons for fighting is not relevant to sentencing, the personal. reasons of the accused for aspirations fighting - in the descriptive sense - should bear on his or her conduct. during the conflict and thus act as an dell distributorship individualized mitigating factor during sentencing.

In the. future, the ad hoc tribunals should be careful to clearly differentiate between collective political. motives - such as a ‘just cause’ - and these personal political motives that bear on the conduct of. the accused during the conflict. 57 Ibid., para. Professional? 115-116. Prosecutor v. Tihomir Bla#61676;kic, Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber, Case No.

IT-95-14-T (3 March. Prosecutor v. Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, SCSL Appeals Chamber, Case No. SCSL-04- 14-A (May 28, 2008). Prosecutor v. Kayishema and Ruzindana, Judgment, ICTR Trial Chamber, Case No. ICTR-95-1- Prosecutor v. Kunarac et al., Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber, Case No. IT-96-23-T IT-96- 23/1-T (22 February 2001). Prosecutor v. Kunarac et al., Judgment, ICTY Appeals Chamber, Case No. IT-96-23 IT-96-

23/1-A (12 June 2002). Prosecutor v. Fiorina Fall? Mrksic and professional aspirations Others (Vukovar Hospital Case), Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber II, Case No. IT-95-13/1 (27 September 2007). Prosecutor v. Dragan Nikolic, Sentencing Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber II, Case No. Dental Implants: Essay? IT-94-2- S (18 December 2003). Prosecutor v. Professional Aspirations? Norman, Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, SCSL Trial Chamber I, Case No.

SCSL-04-14-J (August 2, 2007). Articles and Books. Mirko Bagaric and John Morss, “International Sentencing Law: In Search of the monetary system Justification and a. Coherent Framework,” 6 International Criminal Law Review (2006): 191-255. Anthony Cassese, International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003). Mark C. Professional Aspirations? Fleming, “Appellate Review in the International Criminal Tribunals,” 37 Texas. International Law Journal (2002): 111-155. Ralph Henham, “International Sentencing in the Context of Collective Violence,” 7 International. Criminal Law Review (2007): 449-468. Ralph Henham, “Procedural justice and dell human rights in international sentencing,” 4. International Criminal Law Review (2004): 185-210.

Kriangsak Kittichaisaree, International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002). Gunal Mettraux, “Crimes Against Humanity in the Jurisprudence of the International Criminal. Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and for aspirations Rwanda,” 43 Harvard International Law Journal. Steven R. Ratner and Jason S. Abrams, Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in. International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy, 2nd Ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, About the Author. Cosette Creamer is a J.D.-Ph.D. candidate at Harvard University, Department of Government. and worked as a legal intern for the Sierra Leone Court Monitoring Program during the Summer. The publication of this essay has been financed by the Open Society Initiative for West. Africa (OSIWA). The Contents of this Publication are entirely the sole responsibility of.

the Sierra Leone Court Monitoring Programme. Sierra Leone Court Monitoring Programme. 30 Wellington Street, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Tel: +232 (0)33 445 287. Photo: The late Hinga Norman, former head of Sierra Leone’s CDF. A new approach in an imperfect world. Commentary By J Boima Rogers, Oxford, UK.* The current Syrian quagmire which has spilled over to Europe in the form of the refugee crisis gives grounds (. Fiorina Fall? ) Analysis | September 2015 | 8539 views. Ebola persists but raging heads fight about politics. By Titus Boye-Thompson, Freetown, Sierra Leone. It is a shame that while Ebola rages in Freetown and professional the North of Sierra Leone some still fail to have a (. Examples Of A? ) Analysis | June 2015 | 8660 views. Credit: Pambazuka News By Karim F Hirji, Tanzania* Retired Professor Hirji, a book addict, has bought copies with frayed, half-torn or missing pages.

He (. ) Analysis | December 2014 | 9111 views. Toronto: Historic APC-Canada branch inauguration at Taj banquet hall. Freetown: RainboCenter may close down soon. JFK makes Commercial Law a priority. Sierra Leone: Threat to peaceful co-existence. Update on APC-Canada inauguration September 30.

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Custom Movie Review: Sicko essay paper writing service. Sicko is a movie written and directed by Michael Moore, famed American film maker. Professional Aspirations! The movie is a documentary that compares the American health care plan with that of the rest of the monopoly, world. While the American health care system is for profit, other countries such as Canada, France, the UK and professional Cuba use the universal nonprofit system. Fiorina Fall! The aim of this movie is to professional inform the Americans about the distributorship, failures of their profit heath care system and what they can borrow from the rest of the world (LASZEWSKI, 2007). The movie begins with the information that fifty million Americans are uninsured and professional aspirations those insured have had a problem with fraud by insurance companies, where they thought they had saved enough to fiorina fall ensure good healthcare and ended up realizing they had nothing. The film then takes us through the history of the American health care system with a 1960’s record held by the American Medical Association where President Ronald Reagan warns that universal health care could lead to socialism. This is disputed by Michael Moore who points out that; schools, the fire department and libraries that are owned socially have not turned The United States of America to a communist state. The movie digs deeper into the history of the Health Maintenance Organizations Act of 1965 and its expansion. It tries to highlight the highly criticized efforts of Hillary Clinton to reform the aspirations, health care system when her husband Bill Clinton was elected as president of the United States of America (about.com, 2011) . Michael Moore visits the essay, United Kingdom where he interviews patients and is told that no out of the pocket payments are ever made. The United Kingdom has a nonprofit universal healthcare system which they call the professional, National Health Service .Drugs in most United Kingdom pharmacies are cheap and fiorina fall free for under sixteen year olds and professional aspirations those older than sixty years.

Most pharmacies have government cashiers who reimburse ailing people of travelling expenses when they visit. Among those interviewed by essay, Moore are a general practitioner and an American woman residing in the United Kingdom (New York Times: movies, 2007). Next scene is in France where Moore is informed that most services are offered by professional, the government for free. This includes university education. France has a system they call the ‘SOS Medecins’ where physicians do house calls twenty four hours a day. Neonatal care is also provided for new mothers. This includes cleaning and laundry. An American woman in France even confesses to a feeling of Osseointegration by Branemark Essay guilt for the good health care she is receiving there while her parents back in professional, the United States have worked all their lives for an inferior system back in the United States. The film takes us back to the United States where we are informed that some rescue workers who volunteered during the September Eleventh Attacks and developed ailments such as respiratory system complications were struggling to pay for their health care. Moore says that even detainees in the Guantanamo bay detainment camp received better treatment for free.

The September eleventh attacks rescuers had been denied funds to treat their ailments by the United States government. The Monetary! Moore decides to seek this free medical treatment and professional aspirations later heads to Havana where the rescuers purchase drugs at dell low quality prices and receive treatment that is low cost (IMDB, 2007). The movie Sicko clearly shows that a public health problem exists in the United States of America. Insurance companies and privately owned healthcare systems are swindling people of their money and do not return its value. While the professional, United States of America has the best physicians and most technologically sophisticated equipment, the cost of treatment using these two factors impedes access to healthcare. Only the rich can afford to be treated in such expensive hospitals. Since most of the healthcare providers work for profit, they do not have time and fiorina fall patience to attend to their patients. Their aim is to work through as many patients as they can in a day to professional maximize their profits.

Hence in the monetary, spite of the quality of professional aspirations healthcare patients do not receive the best treatment that there is. They also seek to cut costs that will come about as a result of patients being well attended to. This results in dell distributorship, poor diagnosis or misguided diagnosis ( Contactmusic.com Ltd, 2011). Patients do not get to professional forge a relationship with their doctor which is dell distributorship usually vital for their healing. This further raises the issue of patient safety. Ninety eight thousand Americans die each year because their doctor did not take the time to ensure their safety that resulted in medical errors. The same applies to pharmacies that are always under pressure to professional provide more drugs to beat the market competition hence end up making pharmaceutical mistakes. There lacks a system that runs preventive services to reduce the number of punctuality essay people having to professional aspirations go through to a doctor.

Lifestyle diseases are the punctuality, most rampant in the United States of professional America. Obesity, heart disease, cancer and arthritis are just a few among the of a, many lifestyle diseases causing a long queue to the doctor’s office. Professional! If a system was put in place to essay educate and encourage Americans to live healthy lives then we would not have to aspirations spend so much on treatment of preventable ailments. Examples Of A Monopoly! Laws have however been put in place to ensure that the insured receive preventive measures from aspirations diseases at no extra costs. There are several factors that contribute to public health problems as seen in examples monopoly, the movie. Professional! The major one is financial inability. For many Americans healthcare is becoming way too expensive to afford. Some people have had to make severe cuts to their standard of living because they were not covered. A scenario is shown where a man had to choose to save one of two fingers severed in examples, an accident is highlighted creating classic case of a modern Sophie’s choice (livelonger).The expensive nature is brought about by privatisation of public health care in the name of capitalism and free market.The concept of free market is twisted as people stay on their current jobs for fear of losing their insurance if they walk away;this does not in any way carry the description of free market.To add on the already heavy burden of finances,insurance companies come in to ensure that one is professional covered. Throughout the Essay, whole documentary,one theme played out glaringly:the role of politics in contributing to aspirations public health problems.It all starts with the Dental Implants: Osseointegration, propaganda set out in the 1950’s that universal health care is pro-communist (HubPages Inc, 2010).Then a record distributed by by The American Medical Association narrates president Ronald Reagan warning Americans that universal health care could lead to lost freedoms and an era of socialism.Enter the Hillary Clinton controversy in trying to change the previous health care system and facing severe criticism from her husband’s detractors who claimed she was trying to make the Americans go the socialised way,something that is aspirations not favoured at all in the United states of America.We are taken back in time to the history of The Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973 to a converastion held between president Nixon and a light in august John Ehrlichman where president Nixon agrees to the for profit health system regarding it to be “very good” and “not so bad.’’ In all these instances the heavy hand of politics is felt in trying to professional make people deviate from the universal health care system.Some politicians are bribed by big pharmaceutical firms in order to push through the provisions of fiorina fall The Health Maintenance Organisation Act of 1975.This would ensure that these drug giants would still remain in business.International ploitics also comes into play when Michael Moore takes the rescuers in professional aspirations, the September Eleventh catastrophe to Havana,Cuba for treatment and Dental Implants: Osseointegration by Branemark Essay drugs at very low costs.A woman is reduced to professional tears when she purchases an inhaler for five cents,for which she requires twenty dollars in the United States of America to acquire (livelonger).When leaving a Cuban brigade salutes Michael and his entourage,changing the perspectives of many Americans on Cuba as anti American socialists (Squidoo, LLC, 2011).

There are also envirronmental determinants that reflect on the public health care a country gives its citizens.The environment under which the medical practitioners work will also create a reason for the state of public health care.Despite being the most advanced country in terms of quality personel and high quality technological inventions,America’s medical personnel works in an environment that does not give them time to diagnose and care for patients in the way rhey are supposed to.They are in punctuality essay, constant hurry to meet figures set by pharmaceutical or insurance companioes that they rarely relax to think about aspirations, their job. Contrastingly,French,cuban and monopoly and Canadian medical practitioners have no figures to chase,they work and aspirations get salaried at the end of the month without having to be asked how many patients have been attending to in that month.The French are even more surprising. With their doctors that are on call for fiorina fall, twenty four hours a day. This has ensured that the professional aspirations, French people’s health is taken care of in spite of the amount of monopoly money one has. If doctors would have a little to do at a time then maybe the ninety eight thousand dying as a result of medical misdiagnosis would reduce to a number that would make it look more like a mistake than a murder spree. There are several measures that can be taken to improve the poor state of health care in the United States of America. Accountability should be enhanced. Professional! Many people do not even know that health care is rationed; this is because the insurance firms and other players in the health care system are not publicly accountable. Dental Implants: Osseointegration Essay! This results in corruption and refusal of insurance companies to cover other costs that result when a person is sick.

This was seen in the movie Sicko where a case of a lady with a yeast infection is highlighted. The Insurance Company denied her treatment as she had not informed the doctor of a yeast infection that had begun a year earlier. A system of socialized health insurance such as the one in Canada should be advocated for. Professional! Many people do not understand the difference between socialized medicine and socialized health insurance. In socialized health insurance the examples monopoly, government pays a person’s insurance premiums to their private insurance company. Professional! That way everyone will be covered and have equal access to medical care. The doctors and in august other practitioners in the medical field will still be able to be paid by the insurance companies or pharmaceutical firms that have hired them. The notion of socialized medicine has been used to misguide people on the concept of aspirations socialized insurance. Socialized medicine is whereby the government is in examples, control of the health care system and aspirations pays the Dental Implants: Osseointegration Essay, doctors. Fears of the fact that the socialized health insurance system will cause government to dictate how people should be treated should be dispelled as the relationship between the doctor and the client is purely confidential (about.com, 2011). The reforms advocated by president Barrack Obama under the Patient protection and Affordable care Act 2010 will go a long way to change the professional aspirations, way the American health care system works.

For instance the new law will have children twenty six and below will be covered under their parents’ insurance plan. Regarding insurance companies, citizens will be allowed to appeal when their insurance cover fails; a process is underway to ensure this happens. Under the same reforms businesses with fifty or more employees will be required to have them insured else face a fine of a light two thousand to three thousand dollars per employee. This will go a long way in cutting down the fifty million figures that represents uninsured Americans. The system put forward by president Barrack Obama holds insurers down to pay patients’ costs for pre existing conditions and no higher health insurance charges will be levied with regard to professional health status or gender (LASZEWSKI, 2007). Some insurers are already offering clients free wellness visits for one year. Seniors enrolled under some insurers will receive substantial discounts on some brands of drugs when they do purchases.

This is Implants: Osseointegration a clear sign that change is already underway. More is expected as the Patient Protection and Affordable care Act 2010 will be implemented over a period of five years. The reforms introduced under the professional, healthcare law will go a long way in ensuring that universal healthcare is achieved in punctuality essay, the United States of America. Insurance companies are finally regulated by the government. The wealthy will pay more in order for a level paying ground to be achieved. This may affect the salaries of the medical practitioners but the margin is going to be small compared to the amount of money Americans are forced to pay out of their pockets.

It is now safe to professional aspirations say that the previously hostile health care system is shifting to a more acceptable social service. Finally the face of the fiorina fall, American health care system is aspirations changing to that of distributorship a more compassionate one (Squidoo, LLC, 2011). The movie Sicko highlights the aspirations, problems citizens of the United States in achieving health care face on a daily basis. A Light! It tells the reality unflinchingly in sync with its punch line ’This might hurt a little’. The documentary brings us to the face of bitter reality rarely addressed in public. It shows how companies defraud unsuspecting citizens in the name of insurance.

It also brings to professional aspirations the fore the role of dirty politics in the suffering of the American health system. The comparison with the health care systems of other countries such as France, Canada the United Kingdom and the monetary system Cuba helps to advance the practical suggestions the United States can use to professional improve what they already have in store. The Monetary System! The movie indirectly advices that socializing a service does not necessarily mean that a state is going to become a socialist society. The movie Sicko is a perfect reality check for the United States and its citizens. It is a critic from its own people (Common Sense Media Inc, 2011).

The best thing about this movie however is the fact that it gives hope that Americans can do better with a little change here and there. Before it ends however the movie gives the audience a light touch of humor where Michael Moore lends a helping hand to professional aspirations his biggest critic Kenefick who was about to close down his blog as he needed $12,000 to cover the medical expenses of of a his ailing wife. When Kenefick refuses the offer, Michael Moore is forced to send the donation anonymously so that Kenefick’s ability to express his opinion would not be trampled upon by the United State’s health system. This is generally a good movie worth watching for one to really feel what it is aspirations like to be American (HubPages Inc, 2010). Buy Movie Review: Sicko essay paper online. Do you want to get an.

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