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10 Maid of Honor Speech Ideas Tips to Help you Give a Killer Toast. Gearing up to give a maid of Students' the System honor speech? Sisters and Criticism Essay, BFFs, you can make it funny and Perception in the, sweet by D-Day and its Victory, following these 10 tips. Students' Towards The System In The? Here#x27;s a quick guide to delivering an absolutely unforgettable maid of honor toast ! Too often maid of honor speeches devolve into a series of platitudes: She#x27;s the best! She#x27;s so pretty! She#x27;s so funny! While all of this might be true, this kind of generic praise doesn#x27;t have any heart. Use the toast as your moment to bring the workplace communication skills bride to life. So, use stories to back up exactly how the bride embodies all of these qualities. This leads us to the next tip.

There#x27;s a reason stories are passed down from generation to generation: they resonate. We don#x27;t remember numbers. Or platitudes. Or generic advice. But stories? They stick with us.

They breathe life into the bride and the groom, and Students' Perception of Tuition in the University of Mindanao, do a better job of the invisible man ralph summary getting your point across than making a blanket statement. There#x27;s a big difference between simply saying: Sarah is such a great friend! She#x27;d do anything for towards the System of Tuition of Mindanao me! vs. really telling a story. Instead, try something like: When we were freshmen in D-Day collegethousands of Perception towards the System of Payment of Tuition of Mindanao miles apart and head office, pennilessI had just been dumped by a boyfriend. I was devastated and spent my days crying. Sarah got a loan from the family she babysat for so she could come and visit me.

She spent four days sleeping on my dorm room floor, reminding me of Perception the System of Tuition of Mindanao how much better off I would be, but that it would take time to get there. While a lot of the stories you tell should be about your time with the bride, you should not be the focal point. There#x27;s nothing worse than a speaker who goes on and on about herself! You hear about her parents, her ideas for the future, how she overcame adversity and then finallyfinally!she mentions the bride. This isn#x27;t your moment. You#x27;re simply the the canterbury tales vehicle to explain why the Students' towards the System of Payment of Tuition of Mindanao newlyweds are so fantastic. Only bring yourself into the mix as necessary, and instead focus on the couple of the hour. Criticism Of William Blake’s Poetry? You have a treasure trove of stories about towards of Payment of Tuition in the of Mindanao, your best friend#x27;s dating life. The guy (or girl) who claimed he was an attorney, when in snap fitness head office fact he was just taking the LSAT. The System Of Payment In The University? The guy who insisted he be called El Jefe whenever they got intimate.

The guy with extreme mommy issues. There#x27;s no doubt that these tales are hysterical, but they#x27;re also embarrassing. No one wants to skills, be reminded of their dating failures, particularly in front of their families, friends, and new life partner. So, as tempting as it is, save the ex-talk for your next girls#x27; night. 5. Start with the Bride, End with the Couple.

You#x27;re likely giving a speech because you#x27;ve been extremely close to the bride for Students' towards the System of Payment of Tuition in the of Mindanao a long time. Of everyone at the wedding, you have the best insight of how much their partner has changed your friend for the better. Workplace Communication? Your speech needs to be about the friend you knew long before she met her partner, and then pivot to what role the they have played in your friend#x27;s life. Maybe she#x27;s even funnier now thanks to her new partner#x27;s sense of humor, or perhaps their support has empowered her to take risks in new ways. Maybe you#x27;ve simply never seen her so happy and content. The longer your speech, the more opportunities you#x27;ll have for people to start losing attention and missing your jokes. Students' Perception The System In The University? Start the speech off on a funny note and you#x27;ll capture the attention of the audience for a minute or two. Whenever you say a joke, be sure to pause for a few seconds afterward to let the audience laugh. When you tell a joke and on Fluoride, then immediately start speaking right afterward, you won#x27;t give people a chance to laugh or even understand what you#x27;re about to say next. You and the System of Payment of Tuition in the, the bride may have shared some incredibly funny moments that still make you laugh out loud to D-Day and its Victory Essay, this day. If the Students' Perception the System of Tuition joke or the situation is the knight, something other wedding guests would have to be there to understand, avoid using it in Perception in the University your speech.

If people don#x27;t understand the context behind a situation or a joke, it will go over their heads. The Canterbury Tales? It#x27;s okay to make a little bit of fun of the bride, maybe for her childhood taste in movies or music, but keep it light. Don#x27;t say anything that would embarrass her or make her feel uncomfortable. Leave out any R-rated embarrassing anecdotes about the bride being intoxicated during spring break, or anything else that can make her look like a hot mess. 10.

Practice Reading Your Maid of Honor Speech. The more times you practice your speech before the Students' in the of Mindanao wedding day, the better it will sound when you read it for the invisible man ralph ellison real. Practice your speech twice a day and record yourself a couple of times so you can hear your pacing and Students' Perception towards of Mindanao, your tone. The more times you do this, the easier it will be when you do it in skills person. You#x27;ll feel confident because you#x27;ll have practically committed the words to memory. Students' Perception Towards Of Tuition University Of Mindanao? Rehearse the speech in Essay on Fluoride front of friends, too, in order to see if your jokes get a laugh. Get a year of BRIDES, plus 2 free gifts! 2017 Conde Nast.

All rights reserved. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of towards of Payment our User Agreement (effective 1/2/2016 ) and Privacy Policy (effective 1/2/2016 ). Brides may earn a portion of sales from products that are purchased through our site as part of our Affiliate Partnerships with retailers. Your California Privacy Rights The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Conde Nast.

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competence essay Copyright 2001 Eric S. Raymond. As editor of the Jargon File and author of a few other well-known documents of similar nature, I often get email requests from enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) how can I learn to be a wizardly hacker?. Back in 1996 I noticed that there didn't seem to be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one. A lot of hackers now consider it definitive, and I suppose that means it is. Still, I don't claim to be the towards of Payment in the of Mindanao exclusive authority on workplace, this topic; if you don't like what you read here, write your own. If you are reading a snapshot of this document offline, the current version lives at http://catb.org/ Note: there is a list of Frequently Asked Questions at the end of this document. Please read thesetwicebefore mailing me any questions about this document. The five-dots-in-nine-squares diagram that decorates this document is called a glider . It is a simple pattern with some surprising properties in a mathematical simulation called Life that has fascinated hackers for many years. Towards The System Of Payment In The! I think it makes a good visual emblem for what hackers are like abstract, at tales the knight, first a bit mysterious-seeming, but a gateway to a whole world with an intricate logic of its own.

Read more about the glider emblem here. If you find this document valuable, please support me on Perception towards of Tuition in the University, Patreon. And consider also supporting other hackers who have produced code that you use and value. Lots of Essay on Fluoride Ion-Selective Electrodes, small but continuing donations add up quickly, and can free the people who have given you gifts of Students' the System of Payment University of Mindanao, their labor to create more value. The Jargon File contains a bunch of definitions of the Essay term hacker, most having to Students' towards the System of Payment of Tuition in the of Mindanao, do with technical adeptness and a delight in solving problems and overcoming limits. If you want to on Fluoride, know how to become a hacker, though, only two are really relevant. There is a community, a shared culture, of expert programmers and networking wizards that traces its history back through decades to Students' Perception University of Mindanao, the first time-sharing minicomputers and the earliest ARPAnet experiments.

The members of this culture originated the term hacker. Skills! Hackers built the Internet. Hackers made the Perception of Payment in the Unix operating system what it is today. Hackers make the World Wide Web work. If you are part of this culture, if you have contributed to snap head office, it and other people in it know who you are and call you a hacker, you're a hacker. The hacker mind-set is not confined to this software-hacker culture. Perception Towards The System Of Payment In The! There are people who apply the hacker attitude to other things, like electronics or music actually, you can find it at the highest levels of any science or art. Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and may call them hackers too and summary some claim that the hacker nature is really independent of the particular medium the hacker works in.

But in of Payment, the rest of this document we will focus on and its Victory Essay, the skills and attitudes of software hackers, and in the the traditions of the shared culture that originated the term hacker. There is tales the knight, another group of people who loudly call themselves hackers, but aren't. These are people (mainly adolescent males) who get a kick out of breaking into Students' of Payment of Tuition in the University of Mindanao, computers and phreaking the D-Day Essay phone system. Real hackers call these people crackers and want nothing to do with them. Real hackers mostly think crackers are lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright, and object that being able to break security doesn't make you a hacker any more than being able to Students' Perception towards the System of Tuition, hotwire cars makes you an automotive engineer.

Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been fooled into using the ellison word hacker to describe crackers; this irritates real hackers no end. The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackers break them. If you want to the System in the University of Mindanao, be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to be a cracker, go read the alt.2600 newsgroup and get ready to workplace, do five to ten in the System of Tuition University, the slammer after finding out you aren't as smart as you think you are. And that's all I'm going to say about crackers. Hackers solve problems and the knight build things, and they believe in freedom and voluntary mutual help. To be accepted as a hacker, you have to behave as though you have this kind of attitude yourself. And to Perception towards of Tuition of Mindanao, behave as though you have the the canterbury attitude, you have to Students' the System in the University, really believe the attitude.

But if you think of cultivating hacker attitudes as just a way to Electrodes, gain acceptance in the culture, you'll miss the point. Becoming the kind of person who believes these things is important for you for Students' Perception towards of Payment of Tuition of Mindanao, helping you learn and keeping you motivated. As with all creative arts, the Essay most effective way to become a master is to imitate the mind-set of masters not just intellectually but emotionally as well. Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it: To follow the towards of Payment University of Mindanao path: look to Sociological Criticism Blake’s Poetry, the master, follow the master, walk with the master, see through the master, become the master. So, if you want to Students' Perception towards the System in the, be a hacker, repeat the following things until you believe them: 1. The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved. Being a hacker is lots of fun, but it's a kind of fun that takes lots of effort. The effort takes motivation.

Successful athletes get their motivation from a kind of Essay, physical delight in Perception towards of Payment of Tuition in the University, making their bodies perform, in Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s, pushing themselves past their own physical limits. Similarly, to be a hacker you have to get a basic thrill from solving problems, sharpening your skills, and exercising your intelligence. If you aren't the kind of Perception the System of Payment of Tuition of Mindanao, person that feels this way naturally, you'll need to become one in order to make it as a hacker. Otherwise you'll find your hacking energy is sapped by distractions like sex, money, and Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry social approval. (You also have to develop a kind of faith in your own learning capacity a belief that even though you may not know all of what you need to solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of towards of Payment in the, it and learn from that, you'll learn enough to solve the the canterbury tales the knight next piece and so on, until you're done.)

2. No problem should ever have to towards the System of Payment in the University of Mindanao, be solved twice. Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. They shouldn't be wasted on re-inventing the the canterbury tales wheel when there are so many fascinating new problems waiting out there. To behave like a hacker, you have to towards the System of Tuition in the University of Mindanao, believe that the ellison summary thinking time of Students' Perception towards the System of Tuition in the University of Mindanao, other hackers is precious so much so that it's almost a moral duty for you to share information, solve problems and workplace communication skills then give the solutions away just so other hackers can solve new problems instead of having to perpetually re-address old ones. Note, however, that No problem should ever have to towards of Payment of Tuition of Mindanao, be solved twice. Ion-Selective Electrodes! does not imply that you have to consider all existing solutions sacred, or that there is Students' Perception towards of Tuition in the, only one right solution to any given problem. Often, we learn a lot about the problem that we didn't know before by studying the first cut at man ralph, a solution. It's OK, and often necessary, to decide that we can do better.

What's not OK is artificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers (like closed-source code) that prevent a good solution from being re-used and force people to re-invent wheels. (You don't have to Students' towards University, believe that you're obligated to give all your creative product away, though the head office hackers that do are the ones that get most respect from other hackers. It's consistent with hacker values to Perception in the University of Mindanao, sell enough of it to keep you in food and rent and Ion-Selective computers. It's fine to Students' Perception the System of Payment in the, use your hacking skills to support a family or even get rich, as long as you don't forget your loyalty to your art and your fellow hackers while doing it.) Hackers (and creative people in general) should never be bored or have to drudge at stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they aren't doing what only they can do solve new problems. This wastefulness hurts everybody. On Fluoride Ion-Selective! Therefore boredom and drudgery are not just unpleasant but actually evil. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe this enough to want to Students' Perception of Payment in the of Mindanao, automate away the boring bits as much as possible, not just for yourself but for the canterbury tales the knight, everybody else (especially other hackers). (There is one apparent exception to this.

Hackers will sometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to an observer as a mind-clearing exercise, or in Students' of Payment of Tuition in the, order to of William Blake’s Poetry, acquire a skill or have some particular kind of experience you can't have otherwise. But this is by choice nobody who can think should ever be forced into a situation that bores them.) Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. Anyone who can give you orders can stop you from Perception towards of Payment of Tuition of Mindanao solving whatever problem you're being fascinated by and, given the way authoritarian minds work, will generally find some appallingly stupid reason to do so. The Canterbury Tales The Knight! So the authoritarian attitude has to Students' the System, be fought wherever you find it, lest it smother you and other hackers.

(This isn't the same as fighting all authority. Communication! Children need to be guided and criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to accept some kinds of authority in order to get something he wants more than the time he spends following orders. But that's a limited, conscious bargain; the kind of Students' Perception towards of Payment, personal surrender authoritarians want is not on offer.) Authoritarians thrive on censorship and secrecy. And they distrust voluntary cooperation and information-sharing they only like cooperation that they control. Essay Ion-Selective! So to Students' Perception the System of Payment of Tuition University, behave like a hacker, you have to develop an instinctive hostility to censorship, secrecy, and the use of Sociological Criticism of William Blake’s Poetry Essay, force or deception to compel responsible adults. And you have to be willing to act on Students' towards in the of Mindanao, that belief.

5. Attitude is no substitute for competence. To be a hacker, you have to office, develop some of Students' the System University, these attitudes. But copping an attitude alone won't make you a hacker, any more than it will make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Workplace! Becoming a hacker will take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work. Therefore, you have to learn to distrust attitude and Students' the System of Tuition in the University respect competence of every kind. Hackers won't let posers waste their time, but they worship competence especially competence at hacking, but competence at anything is valued. Competence at man ralph, demanding skills that few can master is especially good, and competence at demanding skills that involve mental acuteness, craft, and concentration is Students' towards the System in the University of Mindanao, best. If you revere competence, you'll enjoy developing it in yourself the hard work and Sociological Poetry Essay dedication will become a kind of intense play rather than drudgery. That attitude is vital to becoming a hacker.

The hacker attitude is vital, but skills are even more vital. Attitude is towards of Tuition in the of Mindanao, no substitute for competence, and there's a certain basic toolkit of skills which you have to of William Blake’s Poetry, have before any hacker will dream of Students' Perception the System of Payment University, calling you one. This toolkit changes slowly over time as technology creates new skills and on Fluoride Electrodes makes old ones obsolete. For example, it used to include programming in machine language, and didn't until recently involve HTML. Students' Perception The System Of Payment! But right now it pretty clearly includes the Essay following: This, of course, is the Perception the System of Tuition in the University fundamental hacking skill. If you don't know any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python. It is cleanly designed, well documented, and relatively kind to beginners. Despite being a good first language, it is not just a toy; it is very powerful and flexible and well suited for large projects.

I have written a more detailed evaluation of workplace skills, Python. Good tutorials are available at the Python web site; there's an excellent third-party one at Computer Science Circles. I used to recommend Java as a good language to Students' Perception towards the System of Payment University of Mindanao, learn early, but this critique has changed my mind (search for The Pitfalls of Java as a First Programming Language within it). Man Ralph Summary! A hacker cannot, as they devastatingly put it approach problem-solving like a plumber in Students' Perception towards of Payment in the University of Mindanao, a hardware store ; you have to know what the components actually do . Now I think it is probably best to learn C and Lisp first, then Java. There is snap fitness head, perhaps a more general point here. Towards Of Tuition In The! If a language does too much for workplace communication, you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for production and a bad one for learning. It's not only of Tuition in the, languages that have this problem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Django may make it too easy to reach a superficial sort of understanding that will leave you without resources when you have to tackle a hard problem, or even just debug the D-Day and its Essay solution to an easy one.

If you get into serious programming, you will have to learn C, the core language of Perception in the, Unix. C++ is very closely related to C; if you know one, learning the Essay other will not be difficult. Neither language is a good one to try learning as your first, however. And, actually, the more you can avoid programming in C the more productive you will be. C is very efficient, and very sparing of towards the System of Payment of Tuition in the University of Mindanao, your machine's resources. Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by requiring you to do a lot of on Fluoride, low-level management of Students' Perception towards of Payment in the of Mindanao, resources (like memory) by hand. Fitness Office! All that low-level code is complex and bug-prone, and will soak up huge amounts of your time on debugging. With today's machines as powerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff it's smarter to use a language that uses the Students' the System in the of Mindanao machine's time less efficiently, but your time much more efficiently.

Thus, Python. Other languages of particular importance to hackers include Perl and LISP. Perl is worth learning for practical reasons; it's very widely used for active web pages and system administration, so that even if you never write Perl you should learn to read it. Criticism Of William Poetry! Many people use Perl in the way I suggest you should use Python, to Students' Perception towards of Payment in the University of Mindanao, avoid C programming on jobs that don't require C's machine efficiency. You will need to be able to understand their code. LISP is Essay, worth learning for a different reason the profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it.

That experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. (You can get some beginning experience with LISP fairly easily by writing and modifying editing modes for the Emacs text editor, or Script-Fu plugins for the GIMP.) It's best, actually, to learn all five of towards of Payment in the University, Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and and its Victory Essay LISP. Students' Perception Towards Of Tuition University! Besides being the Essay most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to programming, and each will educate you in valuable ways. But be aware that you won't reach the Students' Perception the System in the University of Mindanao skill level of a hacker or even merely a programmer simply by accumulating languages you need to learn how to think about programming problems in a general way, independent of skills, any one language. To be a real hacker, you need to get to the point where you can learn a new language in days by relating what's in the manual to the System in the of Mindanao, what you already know. This means you should learn several very different languages. I can't give complete instructions on the canterbury tales, how to learn to program here it's a complex skill. But I can tell you that books and courses won't do it many, maybe most of the best hackers are self-taught. You can learn language features bits of knowledge from in the University of Mindanao books, but the Essay Electrodes mind-set that makes that knowledge into Students' the System of Tuition in the, living skill can be learned only by practice and apprenticeship.

What will do it is (a) reading code and (b) writing code . Peter Norvig, who is one of Google's top hackers and the co-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written an communication excellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years. His recipe for programming success is worth careful attention. Learning to Students' towards the System University of Mindanao, program is like learning to write good natural language. Ellison Summary! The best way to do it is to read some stuff written by masters of the form, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a little more, read a lot more, write some more . and Perception towards the System of Payment of Tuition in the of Mindanao repeat until your writing begins to the canterbury the knight, develop the kind of strength and Perception the System economy you see in the invisible summary, your models. I have had more to say about this learning process in How To Learn Hacking. It's a simple set of instructions, but not an easy one. Finding good code to read used to be hard, because there were few large programs available in source for the System of Payment of Tuition in the, fledgeling hackers to read and tinker with. This has changed dramatically; open-source software, programming tools, and operating systems (all built by hackers) are now widely available. Ellison! Which brings me neatly to our next topic.

2. Get one of the open-source Unixes and learn to use and run it. I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access to one. (Take a moment to appreciate how much that means. Students' Perception The System Of Payment! The hacker culture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive that individuals could not own them.) The single most important step any newbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy of Linux or one of the D-Day and its Victory Essay BSD-Unixes, install it on of Tuition in the University, a personal machine, and run it. Yes, there are other operating systems in the canterbury tales the knight, the world besides Unix. But they're distributed in binary you can't read the code, and Students' Perception towards the System in the of Mindanao you can't modify it.

Trying to learn to hack on a Microsoft Windows machine or under any other closed-source system is like trying to learn to snap fitness, dance while wearing a body cast. Under Mac OS X it's possible, but only part of the system is open source you're likely to the System of Payment in the University, hit a lot of walls, and you have to be careful not to develop the D-Day and its bad habit of depending on Apple's proprietary code. Perception Towards The System Of Tuition In The Of Mindanao! If you concentrate on the Unix under the D-Day and its Essay hood you can learn some useful things. Unix is the operating system of the Internet. While you can learn to use the Internet without knowing Unix, you can't be an Internet hacker without understanding Unix. For this reason, the hacker culture today is towards the System of Payment of Tuition University, pretty strongly Unix-centered. (This wasn't always true, and some old-time hackers still aren't happy about it, but the symbiosis between Unix and the Internet has become strong enough that even Microsoft's muscle doesn't seem able to seriously dent it.) So, bring up a Unix I like Linux myself but there are other ways (and yes, you can run both Linux and Microsoft Windows on the same machine). Learn it.

Run it. Skills! Tinker with it. Students' The System Of Payment In The! Talk to the canterbury the knight, the Internet with it. Read the Perception towards the System of Payment of Tuition in the of Mindanao code. Communication Skills! Modify the code. You'll get better programming tools (including C, LISP, Python, and of Tuition in the Perl) than any Microsoft operating system can dream of hosting, you'll have fun, and you'll soak up more knowledge than you realize you're learning until you look back on it as a master hacker.

For more about learning Unix, see The Loginataka. You might also want to have a look at The Art Of Unix Programming. The blog Let's Go Larval! is a window on the learning process of a new Linux user that I think is unusually lucid and helpful. Skills! The post How I Learned Linux makes a good starting point. To get your hands on a Linux, see the Linux Online! site; you can download from there or (better idea) find a local Linux user group to towards the System in the, help you with installation.

During the first ten years of this HOWTO's life, I reported that from a new user's point of snap, view, all Linux distributions are almost equivalent. But in Students' towards of Payment of Tuition, 2006-2007, an actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu. While other distros have their own areas of strength, Ubuntu is ellison summary, far and away the most accessible to Linux newbies. Beware, though, of the Students' towards of Payment of Tuition University hideous and nigh-unusable Unity desktop interface that Ubuntu introduced as a default a few years later; the Xubuntu or Kubuntu variants are better. You can find BSD Unix help and resources at communication, www.bsd.org. A good way to dip your toes in the water is to towards the System of Payment in the of Mindanao, boot up what Linux fans call a live CD, a distribution that runs entirely off a CD or USB stick without having to modify your hard disk. This may be slow, because CDs are slow, but it's a way to get a look at workplace communication, the possibilities without having to Students' Perception towards University of Mindanao, do anything drastic. I used to recommend against installing either Linux or BSD as a solo project if you're a newbie. Nowadays the installers have gotten good enough that doing it entirely on your own is possible, even for a newbie.

Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your local Linux user's group and asking for help. It can't hurt, and on Fluoride Ion-Selective may smooth the process. 3. Learn how to use the World Wide Web and write HTML. Most of the things the Students' towards the System of Payment in the of Mindanao hacker culture has built do their work out of sight, helping run factories and offices and universities without any obvious impact on how non-hackers live. The Web is the one big exception, the huge shiny hacker toy that even politicians admit has changed the world. For this reason alone (and a lot of other good ones as well) you need to learn how to work the Essay Web. This doesn't just mean learning how to drive a browser (anyone can do that), but learning how to write HTML, the Web's markup language. If you don't know how to Students' Perception of Payment in the of Mindanao, program, writing HTML will teach you some mental habits that will help you learn. The Canterbury! So build a home page. But just having a home page isn't anywhere near good enough to make you a hacker.

The Web is full of home pages. Most of them are pointless, zero-content sludge very snazzy-looking sludge, mind you, but sludge all the same (for more on this see The HTML Hell Page). To be worthwhile, your page must have content it must be interesting and/or useful to other hackers. And that brings us to the next topic. 4. If you don't have functional English, learn it. As an American and native English-speaker myself, I have previously been reluctant to suggest this, lest it be taken as a sort of cultural imperialism. But several native speakers of other languages have urged me to point out towards University that English is the working language of the hacker culture and the Internet, and that you will need to know it to function in the canterbury, the hacker community. Back around 1991 I learned that many hackers who have English as a second language use it in technical discussions even when they share a birth tongue; it was reported to me at of Payment in the University, the time that English has a richer technical vocabulary than any other language and is therefore simply a better tool for the job.

For similar reasons, translations of technical books written in English are often unsatisfactory (when they get done at all). Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in English (it apparently never occurred to him to do otherwise). Electrodes! His fluency in English has been an Perception towards the System of Mindanao important factor in fitness office, his ability to recruit a worldwide community of developers for Linux. It's an example worth following. Being a native English-speaker does not guarantee that you have language skills good enough to function as a hacker. If your writing is semi-literate, ungrammatical, and riddled with misspellings, many hackers (including myself) will tend to ignore you. While sloppy writing does not invariably mean sloppy thinking, we've generally found the correlation to be strong and we have no use for sloppy thinkers. If you can't yet write competently, learn to. Like most cultures without a money economy, hackerdom runs on reputation.

You're trying to solve interesting problems, but how interesting they are, and whether your solutions are really good, is something that only of Tuition in the University of Mindanao, your technical peers or superiors are normally equipped to judge. Accordingly, when you play the hacker game, you learn to keep score primarily by what other hackers think of your skill (this is why you aren't really a hacker until other hackers consistently call you one). This fact is obscured by Victory the image of hacking as solitary work; also by a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the late 1990s but still potent) against admitting that ego or external validation are involved in one's motivation at Students' towards of Payment of Tuition in the, all. Specifically, hackerdom is what anthropologists call a gift culture . You gain status and reputation in snap office, it not by dominating other people, nor by being beautiful, nor by having things other people want, but rather by giving things away. Students' The System Of Payment! Specifically, by giving away your time, your creativity, and the results of the invisible man ralph ellison, your skill.

There are basically five kinds of things you can do to Students' Perception towards the System of Payment of Mindanao, be respected by communication skills hackers: The first (the most central and the System of Payment of Tuition University most traditional) is to write programs that other hackers think are fun or useful, and give the program sources away to the whole hacker culture to use. (We used to call these works free software, but this confused too many people who weren't sure exactly what free was supposed to mean. Most of tales, us now prefer the towards in the term open-source software). Hackerdom's most revered demigods are people who have written large, capable programs that met a widespread need and given them away, so that now everyone uses them. But there's a bit of a fine historical point here. Tales The Knight! While hackers have always looked up to in the University of Mindanao, the open-source developers among them as our community's hardest core, before the mid-1990s most hackers most of the time worked on closed source. This was still true when I wrote the first version of this HOWTO in 1996; it took the mainstreaming of open-source software after 1997 to tales the knight, change things.

Today, the hacker community and open-source developers are two descriptions for what is essentially the same culture and Perception towards the System of Payment population but it is tales, worth remembering that this was not always so. (For more on Perception towards the System of Payment of Tuition of Mindanao, this, see the section called Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software.) 2. Help test and debug open-source software. They also serve who stand and debug open-source software. In this imperfect world, we will inevitably spend most of our software development time in Essay Ion-Selective Electrodes, the debugging phase. That's why any open-source author who's thinking will tell you that good beta-testers (who know how to describe symptoms clearly, localize problems well, can tolerate bugs in a quickie release, and are willing to apply a few simple diagnostic routines) are worth their weight in rubies. Even one of these can make the Students' towards in the University difference between a debugging phase that's a protracted, exhausting nightmare and on Fluoride Ion-Selective Electrodes one that's merely a salutary nuisance. If you're a newbie, try to find a program under development that you're interested in and be a good beta-tester. There's a natural progression from helping test programs to helping debug them to Perception towards in the, helping modify them. Fitness Office! You'll learn a lot this way, and generate good karma with people who will help you later on. Another good thing is to collect and filter useful and interesting information into web pages or documents like Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists, and make those generally available.

Maintainers of major technical FAQs get almost as much respect as open-source authors. 4. Help keep the infrastructure working. The hacker culture (and the engineering development of the Internet, for University of Mindanao, that matter) is the invisible man ralph, run by volunteers. There's a lot of towards of Tuition University of Mindanao, necessary but unglamorous work that needs done to fitness head, keep it going administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups, maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and other technical standards. People who do this sort of thing well get a lot of respect, because everybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and not as much fun as playing with code. Students' Perception Towards Of Mindanao! Doing them shows dedication. 5. Serve the hacker culture itself.

Finally, you can serve and propagate the culture itself (by, for example, writing an accurate primer on how to become a hacker :-)). This is not something you'll be positioned to do until you've been around for while and become well-known for one of the first four things. The hacker culture doesn't have leaders, exactly, but it does have culture heroes and tribal elders and Essay historians and spokespeople. Of Payment In The! When you've been in the trenches long enough, you may grow into one of these. Beware: hackers distrust blatant ego in their tribal elders, so visibly reaching for this kind of fame is of William Poetry Essay, dangerous. Rather than striving for it, you have to Students' towards the System of Payment of Mindanao, sort of position yourself so it drops in your lap, and then be modest and gracious about your status. Contrary to popular myth, you don't have to be a nerd to snap fitness office, be a hacker. Perception The System Of Payment In The! It does help, however, and many hackers are in the canterbury, fact nerds.

Being something of a social outcast helps you stay concentrated on the really important things, like thinking and hacking. For this reason, many hackers have adopted the label geek as a badge of pride it's a way of of Tuition of Mindanao, declaring their independence from normal social expectations (as well as a fondness for the invisible, other things like science fiction and strategy games that often go with being a hacker). The term 'nerd' used to be used this way back in the 1990s, back when 'nerd' was a mild pejorative and 'geek' a rather harsher one; sometime after 2000 they switched places, at least in U.S. Students' Perception Of Payment Of Mindanao! popular culture, and head there is now even a significant geek-pride culture among people who aren't techies. If you can manage to concentrate enough on hacking to be good at it and still have a life, that's fine. This is a lot easier today than it was when I was a newbie in Perception the System of Payment of Mindanao, the 1970s; mainstream culture is much friendlier to techno-nerds now.

There are even growing numbers of people who realize that hackers are often high-quality lover and spouse material. If you're attracted to hacking because you don't have a life, that's OK too at least you won't have trouble concentrating. Maybe you'll get a life later on. Again, to be a hacker, you have to enter the hacker mindset. There are some things you can do when you're not at a computer that seem to help. They're not substitutes for the knight, hacking (nothing is) but many hackers do them, and Perception towards the System of Payment of Tuition University feel that they connect in some basic way with the essence of hacking. Learn to write your native language well. Though it's a common stereotype that programmers can't write, a surprising number of hackers (including all the most accomplished ones I know of) are very able writers. Read science fiction. Go to science fiction conventions (a good way to meet hackers and proto-hackers).

Join a hackerspace and the knight make things (another good way to Students' the System University of Mindanao, meet hackers and proto-hackers). Train in a martial-arts form. The kind of mental discipline required for martial arts seems to be similar in important ways to what hackers do. The most popular forms among hackers are definitely Asian empty-hand arts such as Tae Kwon Do, various forms of ellison, Karate, Kung Fu, Aikido, or Ju Jitsu. Western fencing and Asian sword arts also have visible followings. The System Of Payment University Of Mindanao! In places where it's legal, pistol shooting has been rising in popularity since the late 1990s.

The most hackerly martial arts are those which emphasize mental discipline, relaxed awareness, and Essay on Fluoride Ion-Selective Electrodes precise control, rather than raw strength, athleticism, or physical toughness. Study an actual meditation discipline. The perennial favorite among hackers is Zen (importantly, it is possible to benefit from Zen without acquiring a religion or discarding one you already have). Other styles may work as well, but be careful to choose one that doesn't require you to believe crazy things. Develop an analytical ear for Students' towards of Payment of Tuition in the, music. Learn to Essay on Fluoride, appreciate peculiar kinds of music. Learn to play some musical instrument well, or how to sing.

Develop your appreciation of the System of Mindanao, puns and wordplay. The more of these things you already do, the more likely it is that you are natural hacker material. Skills! Why these things in Students' Perception towards in the University of Mindanao, particular is workplace skills, not completely clear, but they're connected with a mix of left- and right-brain skills that seems to be important; hackers need to the System of Tuition in the of Mindanao, be able to both reason logically and step outside the apparent logic of a problem at a moment's notice. Work as intensely as you play and play as intensely as you work. For true hackers, the boundaries between play, work, science and art all tend to the knight, disappear, or to merge into a high-level creative playfulness.

Also, don't be content with a narrow range of skills. Though most hackers self-describe as programmers, they are very likely to be more than competent in several related skills system administration, web design, and PC hardware troubleshooting are common ones. A hacker who's a system administrator, on the other hand, is likely to be quite skilled at script programming and web design. Towards! Hackers don't do things by Essay halves; if they invest in a skill at all, they tend to get very good at the System of Tuition in the University, it. Finally, a few things not to do.

Don't use a silly, grandiose user ID or screen name. Don't get in flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else). Don't call yourself a cyberpunk, and Poetry don't waste your time on anybody who does. Don't post or email writing that's full of spelling errors and bad grammar. The only reputation you'll make doing any of these things is the System in the of Mindanao, as a twit. Hackers have long memories it could take you years to the invisible ellison summary, live your early blunders down enough to be accepted. The problem with screen names or handles deserves some amplification. Concealing your identity behind a handle is a juvenile and Students' Perception the System of Payment of Mindanao silly behavior characteristic of workplace, crackers, warez d00dz, and other lower life forms. Hackers don't do this; they're proud of what they do and Perception of Payment of Tuition University of Mindanao want it associated with their real names. So if you have a handle, drop it.

In the hacker culture it will only D-Day and its Essay, mark you as a loser. Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software. When I originally wrote this how-to in late 1996, some of the conditions around it were very different from the way they look today. A few words about these changes may help clarify matters for people who are confused about the relationship of open source, free software, and of Payment in the University Linux to the invisible summary, the hacker community. If you are not curious about this, you can skip straight to the FAQ and bibliography from here. The hacker ethos and community as I have described it here long predates the emergence of Linux after 1990; I first became involved with it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to the early 1960s. But before Linux, most hacking was done on either proprietary operating systems or a handful of quasi-experimental homegrown systems like MIT's ITS that were never deployed outside of Students' towards of Payment of Tuition in the, their original academic niches. While there had been some earlier (pre-Linux) attempts to change this situation, their impact was at best very marginal and confined to the invisible man ralph, communities of dedicated true believers which were tiny minorities even within the hacker community, let alone with respect to the larger world of Students' Perception of Payment in the University, software in general.

What is now called open source goes back as far as the hacker community does, but until 1985 it was an unnamed folk practice rather than a conscious movement with theories and manifestos attached to it. This prehistory ended when, in 1985, arch-hacker Richard Stallman (RMS) tried to give it a name free software. But his act of naming was also an the invisible ellison act of claiming; he attached ideological baggage to the free software label which much of the existing hacker community never accepted. As a result, the free software label was loudly rejected by a substantial minority of the Perception of Payment of Tuition University hacker community (especially among those associated with BSD Unix), and used with serious but silent reservations by a majority of the remainder (including myself). Despite these reservations, RMS's claim to define and lead the hacker community under the free software banner broadly held until the fitness head office mid-1990s. It was seriously challenged only by Students' Perception the System the rise of Linux. Workplace Communication Skills! Linux gave open-source development a natural home. Many projects issued under terms we would now call open-source migrated from proprietary Unixes to Linux. Students' Perception Towards Of Payment Of Tuition! The community around Linux grew explosively, becoming far larger and more heterogenous than the pre-Linux hacker culture. Communication Skills! RMS determinedly attempted to Students' towards the System of Payment in the, co-opt all this activity into his free software movement, but was thwarted by both the exploding diversity of the Linux community and the public skepticism of Essay Ion-Selective Electrodes, its founder, Linus Torvalds. Towards In The University Of Mindanao! Torvalds continued to Essay on Fluoride, use the term free software for lack of Perception towards the System of Tuition in the University, any alternative, but publicly rejected RMS's ideological baggage.

Many younger hackers followed suit. In 1996, when I first published this Hacker HOWTO, the hacker community was rapidly reorganizing around Linux and a handful of other open-source operating systems (notably those descended from BSD Unix). Community memory of the fact that most of Essay Electrodes, us had spent decades developing closed-source software on closed-source operating systems had not yet begun to fade, but that fact was already beginning to seem like part of Perception towards of Payment in the of Mindanao, a dead past; hackers were, increasingly, defining themselves as hackers by their attachments to open-source projects such as Linux or Apache. The term open source, however, had not yet emerged; it would not do so until early 1998. When it did, most of the hacker community adopted it within the following six months; the exceptions were a minority ideologically attached to the invisible man ralph ellison summary, the term free software. Since 1998, and Students' Perception towards of Payment of Tuition of Mindanao especially after about 2003, the identification of 'hacking' with 'open-source (and free software) development' has become extremely close. Today there is little point in attempting to man ralph, distinguish between these categories, and it seems unlikely that will change in the future.

It is worth remembering, however, that this was not always so. Paul Graham has written an essay called Great Hackers, and towards of Tuition in the another on workplace communication, Undergraduation, in Students' Perception towards of Tuition, which he speaks much wisdom. Younger hackers might find Things Every Hacker Once Knew interesting and useful. I have written a paper, The Cathedral and the Bazaar , which explains a lot about how the Linux and Sociological Criticism Blake’s Poetry Essay open-source cultures work. I have addressed this topic even more directly in its sequel Homesteading the Noosphere . Rick Moen has written an excellent document on how to run a Linux user group. Rick Moen and I have collaborated on another document on How To Ask Smart Questions. This will help you seek assistance in a way that makes it more likely that you will actually get it. If you need instruction in the basics of how personal computers, Unix, and the Internet work, see The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO. When you release software or write patches for software, try to Students' towards the System in the University of Mindanao, follow the Sociological Poetry guidelines in the Software Release Practice HOWTO.

How do I tell if I am already a hacker? Ask yourself the following three questions: Do you speak code, fluently? Do you identify with the goals and values of the hacker community? Has a well-established member of the hacker community ever called you a hacker? If you can answer yes to Students' Perception of Payment, all three of these questions, you are already a hacker.

No two alone are sufficient. The first test is communication skills, about skills. Perception Towards The System In The! You probably pass it if you have the skills minimum technical skills described earlier in this document. You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of code accepted by an open-source development project. The second test is about attitude.

If the five principles of the hacker mindset seemed obvious to you, more like a description of the way you already live than anything novel, you are already halfway to passing it. That's the inward half; the other, outward half is the degree to which you identify with the hacker community's long-term projects. Here is an incomplete but indicative list of some of those projects: Does it matter to you that Linux improve and spread? Are you passionate about software freedom? Hostile to monopolies? Do you act on the belief that computers can be instruments of empowerment that make the world a richer and Perception towards of Payment in the of Mindanao more humane place? But a note of caution is in order here. The hacker community has some specific, primarily defensive political interests two of them are defending free-speech rights and fending off intellectual-property power grabs that would make open source illegal. Some of those long-term projects are civil-liberties organizations like the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the outward attitude properly includes support of them.

But beyond that, most hackers view attempts to Essay on Fluoride Ion-Selective Electrodes, systematize the hacker attitude into an explicit political program with suspicion; we've learned, the Students' of Payment of Tuition of Mindanao hard way, that these attempts are divisive and distracting. If someone tries to recruit you to march on on Fluoride Ion-Selective, your capitol in the name of the hacker attitude, they've missed the point. The right response is probably Shut up and show them the code. Perception University! . The third test has a tricky element of recursiveness about it. The Canterbury! I observed in the section called What Is a Hacker? that being a hacker is partly a matter of belonging to a particular subculture or social network with a shared history, an inside and an outside.

In the far past, hackers were a much less cohesive and self-aware group than they are today. But the importance of the social-network aspect has increased over the last thirty years as the Internet has made connections with the core of the hacker subculture easier to develop and maintain. One easy behavioral index of the Perception towards of Payment of Tuition in the University of Mindanao change is that, in this century, we have our own T-shirts. Sociologists, who study networks like those of the hacker culture under the head office general rubric of invisible colleges, have noted that one characteristic of such networks is that they have gatekeepers core members with the social authority to endorse new members into Students' Perception the System of Tuition, the network. Because the invisible college that is Criticism Blake’s Poetry, hacker culture is a loose and Perception towards the System of Tuition informal one, the role of gatekeeper is informal too. But one thing that all hackers understand in their bones is that not every hacker is a gatekeeper.

Gatekeepers have to have a certain degree of seniority and accomplishment before they can bestow the the canterbury title. How much is hard to quantify, but every hacker knows it when they see it. Will you teach me how to hack? Since first publishing this page, I've gotten several requests a week (often several a day) from people to teach me all about Students' of Payment, hacking. Unfortunately, I don't have the time or energy to do this; my own hacking projects, and workplace communication skills working as an open-source advocate, take up 110% of my time. Even if I did, hacking is an towards the System of Payment University attitude and Essay on Fluoride skill you basically have to Students' of Tuition University, teach yourself. You'll find that while real hackers want to help you, they won't respect you if you beg to the canterbury, be spoon-fed everything they know. Learn a few things first. Students' Towards Of Payment Of Tuition University Of Mindanao! Show that you're trying, that you're capable of learning on your own. Then go to the hackers you meet with specific questions. If you do email a hacker asking for advice, here are two things to know up front.

First, we've found that people who are lazy or careless in their writing are usually too lazy and careless in their thinking to make good hackers so take care to spell correctly, and use good grammar and punctuation, otherwise you'll probably be ignored. Secondly, don't dare ask for a reply to an ISP account that's different from the D-Day Essay account you're sending from; we find people who do that are usually thieves using stolen accounts, and we have no interest in rewarding or assisting thievery. How can I get started, then? The best way for you to get started would probably be to go to a LUG (Linux user group) meeting. You can find such groups on the LDP General Linux Information Page; there is probably one near you, possibly associated with a college or university. Perception Towards Of Tuition Of Mindanao! LUG members will probably give you a Linux if you ask, and will certainly help you install one and get started. Your next step (and your first step if you can't find a LUG nearby) should be to tales the knight, find an open-source project that interests you.

Start reading code and the System of Tuition in the of Mindanao reviewing bugs. Learn to contribute, and Essay on Fluoride Ion-Selective Electrodes work your way in. The only Perception the System University, way in is by ellison summary working to improve your skills. If you ask me personally for advice on how to get started, I will tell you these exact same things, because I don't have any magic shortcuts for Students' the System of Payment of Mindanao, you. I will also mentally write you off as a probable loser - because if you lacked the the knight stamina to read this FAQ and the intelligence to understand from it that the only way in is by working to Students' Perception towards the System University of Mindanao, improve your skills , you're hopeless.

Another interesting possibility is to go visit a hackerspace. There is a burgeoning movement of office, people creating physical locations - maker's clubs - where they can hang out to work on hardware and software projects together, or work solo in a cogenial atmosphere. Hackerspaces often collect tools and specialized equipment that would be too expensive or logistically inconvenient for individuals to Perception of Payment of Tuition, own. Hackerspaces are easy to snap head office, find on the Internet; one may be located near you. When do you have to start? Is it too late for me to learn?

Any age at which you are motivated to Students' the System of Payment of Tuition in the of Mindanao, start is a good age. Most people seem to get interested between ages 15 and 20, but I know of exceptions in both directions. How long will it take me to snap fitness office, learn to hack? That depends on Perception of Payment of Tuition in the University, how talented you are and how hard you work at it. Most people who try can acquire a respectable skill set in ellison, eighteen months to two years, if they concentrate. Don't think it ends there, though; in hacking (as in many other fields) it takes about Students' Perception towards of Payment University of Mindanao, ten years to achieve mastery.

And if you are a real hacker, you will spend the rest of your life learning and perfecting your craft. Is Visual Basic a good language to start with? If you're asking this question, it almost certainly means you're thinking about trying to hack under Microsoft Windows. This is snap head, a bad idea in Students' towards of Payment in the of Mindanao, itself. When I compared trying to learn to hack under Windows to workplace communication skills, trying to learn to the System of Payment of Tuition, dance while wearing a body cast, I wasn't kidding. Don't go there. It's ugly, and it never stops being ugly.

There is a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainly that it's not portable. Though there is a prototype open-source implementations of the invisible man ralph ellison summary, Visual Basic, the applicable ECMA standards don't cover more than a small set of its programming interfaces. On Windows most of its library support is towards of Payment of Tuition in the University, proprietary to a single vendor (Microsoft); if you aren't extremely careful about which features you use more careful than any newbie is really capable of being you'll end up locked into only those platforms Microsoft chooses to support. The Invisible! If you're starting on a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Python, for example. Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is Perception towards the System of Payment University of Mindanao, a poorly-designed language that will teach you bad programming habits.

No, don't ask me to describe them in detail; that explanation would fill a book. Learn a well-designed language instead. One of the invisible man ralph ellison summary, those bad habits is becoming dependent on a single vendor's libraries, widgets, and development tools. In general, any language that isn't fully supported under at Students' Perception towards the System of Tuition in the, least Linux or one of the BSDs, and/or at least three different vendors' operating systems, is a poor one to learn to snap fitness office, hack in. Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to Students' Perception towards the System University of Mindanao, crack? No. Workplace Communication Skills! Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQ is too stupid to be educable even if I had the time for tutoring. Any emailed requests of this kind that I get will be ignored or answered with extreme rudeness. How can I get the password for someone else's account? This is cracking. Students' Towards In The! Go away, idiot.

How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email? This is cracking. Get lost, moron. How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC? This is cracking. Begone, cretin. I've been cracked. Sociological Blake’s Essay! Will you help me fend off further attacks? No. Perception Towards The System Of Payment Of Tuition In The University! Every time I've been asked this question so far, it's been from some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. It is not possible to effectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the code and architecture simply have too many flaws, which makes securing Windows like trying to bail out a boat with a sieve.

The only reliable prevention starts with switching to the canterbury, Linux or some other operating system that is designed to Perception the System of Tuition University, at least be capable of security. I'm having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me? Yes. Snap Office! Go to a DOS prompt and type format c:. Students' Towards In The University Of Mindanao! Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes. Where can I find some real hackers to talk with?

The best way is to find a Unix or Linux user's group local to you and go to their meetings (you can find links to several lists of user groups on head office, the LDP site at ibiblio). (I used to say here that you wouldn't find any real hackers on Students' of Payment of Tuition University of Mindanao, IRC, but I'm given to understand this is changing. Apparently some real hacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and the canterbury tales Perl, have IRC channels now.) Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects? I maintain a Linux Reading List HOWTO that you may find helpful. The Loginataka may also be interesting.

For an introduction to Python, see the tutorial on the System of Mindanao, the Python site. Do I need to be good at math to snap head office, become a hacker? No. Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic. In particular, you won't usually need trigonometry, calculus or analysis (there are exceptions to this in Perception towards of Tuition in the University, a handful of Ion-Selective Electrodes, specific application areas like 3-D computer graphics).

Knowing some formal logic and Boolean algebra is good. Some grounding in finite mathematics (including finite-set theory, combinatorics, and graph theory) can be helpful. Much more importantly: you need to be able to think logically and Perception towards of Payment in the follow chains of man ralph summary, exact reasoning, the way mathematicians do. While the content of Students' Perception towards the System University of Mindanao, most mathematics won't help you, you will need the discipline and intelligence to D-Day and its Victory Essay, handle mathematics. If you lack the intelligence, there is little hope for you as a hacker; if you lack the Perception of Payment University discipline, you'd better grow it. I think a good way to find out if you have what it takes is to pick up a copy of Raymond Smullyan's book What Is The Name Of This Book? . Smullyan's playful logical conundrums are very much in the hacker spirit. Being able to solve them is a good sign; enjoying solving them is an even better one. What language should I learn first?

HTML if you don't already know it. There are a lot of glossy, hype-intensive bad HTML books out Essay on Fluoride Ion-Selective Electrodes there, and distressingly few good ones. The one I like best is HTML: The Definitive Guide . But HTML is not a full programming language. When you're ready to start programming, I would recommend starting with Python. You will hear a lot of people recommending Perl, but it's harder to Students' Perception towards of Tuition, learn and the invisible (in my opinion) less well designed. C is really important, but it's also much more difficult than either Python or Perl.

Don't try to learn it first. Windows users, do not settle for Visual Basic. It will teach you bad habits, and it's not portable off Windows. Avoid. What kind of hardware do I need? It used to be that personal computers were rather underpowered and memory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits on a hacker's learning process. This stopped being true in the mid-1990s; any machine from an Intel 486DX50 up is Students' Perception towards the System University, more than powerful enough for development work, X, and Internet communications, and the smallest disks you can buy today are plenty big enough. The important thing in choosing a machine on man ralph summary, which to learn is whether its hardware is Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible, should you choose to go that route). Again, this will be true for towards of Payment in the, almost all modern machines.

The only really sticky areas are modems and Sociological Criticism Essay wireless cards; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won't work with Linux. There's a FAQ on of Payment of Tuition of Mindanao, hardware compatibility; the latest version is here. I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on? No, because I don't know your talents or interests. Essay! You have to Perception the System of Payment of Tuition in the University of Mindanao, be self-motivated or you won't stick, which is why having other people choose your direction almost never works.

Do I need to hate and bash Microsoft? No, you don't. Not that Microsoft isn't loathsome, but there was a hacker culture long before Microsoft and there will still be one long after Microsoft is history. Any energy you spend hating Microsoft would be better spent on loving your craft. Sociological Criticism Poetry! Write good code that will bash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma. But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living? This seems unlikely so far, the open-source software industry seems to be creating jobs rather than taking them away. If having a program written is a net economic gain over not having it written, a programmer will get paid whether or not the towards of Tuition program is going to be open-source after it's done. And, no matter how much free software gets written, there always seems to be more demand for new and customized applications. I've written more about this at the Open Source pages. Where can I get a free Unix?

If you don't have a Unix installed on your machine yet, elsewhere on this page I include pointers to where to get the most commonly used free Unix. To be a hacker you need motivation and initiative and the ability to educate yourself. Start now.

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In what ways does gender shape the Perception towards the System of Tuition in the of Mindanao, experience of mental illness? Women and mental health is a vast topic and on Fluoride, we do not presume to cover all aspects of it within the Students' towards of Payment of Tuition of Mindanao, confines of this essay. We will, however, explore a number of relevant themes in some detail by particular reference to peer reviewed literature on the subject. In doing so, we recognise the fact that it is vital to make a critical assessment of the literature as, in any branch of medically related work, it is vital to workplace communication skills, acquire a firm evidence base. (Berwick D 2005). Much of the literature that we have assessed for consideration amounts to little more than simple opinion on a subject, and as such, is only of use as an Students' Perception of Tuition University opinion rather than a fact that has been subject to proper scientific scrutiny. Ellison? (Green Britten 1998). In this essay we take note of opinions but aim to present verifiable facts. We do know that mental illness in Students' Perception towards the System of Payment in the University, the UK is man ralph ellison summary, associated with a significant burden of both disability and morbidity in general, and this will vary with both the severity of the Students' the System in the of Mindanao, illness at communication skills, any given time and Students' Perception towards the System of Payment in the University of Mindanao, also the nature of the illness itself. (Annandale, E1998). A number of studies have shown that, as a lifetime experience, nearly half of the snap fitness head, population will suffer some kind of quantifiable psychological or psychiatric disorder. (Bayer, 1987) The actual incidence of morbidity is hard to Students' Perception towards of Payment in the University of Mindanao, assess accurately. Firstly because doctors tend to under-diagnose positive psychiatric morbidity and secondly because there is a general reluctance to seek medical help with this type of complaint.

It has been suggested that only 40% of people with a significant mood, anxiety or substance misuse problem will actually seek help in the first year of the Sociological Criticism of William, problem becoming apparent. Perception Towards Of Payment In The University Of Mindanao? (Boswell G Poland F 2004) In the context of this essay we should note that, in snap head, broad terms, the overall rates of psychiatric disorder are approximately equal in Perception the System of Tuition in the, both men and women, but the significant differences between the D-Day and its Victory Essay, sexes are found in the patterns of how the disorders manifest themselves. Perception Towards Of Payment Of Tuition University? (Castle DJ et al 2001) It is also fair to comment that an examination of the fitness office, literature seems to suggest that the morbidity which appears to be associated with mental disorders has been the Students' the System of Payment of Tuition in the, subject of Essay, more attention and research than the actual determinants and mechanisms that appear to be significant in both the promotion of Students' of Tuition of Mindanao, mental health, and protection against mental illness, together with those factors which appear to Sociological Blake’s Poetry, give a degree of Students' of Payment in the University, resilience against stress and other adversities which are gender specific. ( Rogers Pilgrim 2002). We do know that a number of psychiatric illnesses have different rates of presentation. Some, such as schizophrenia have gender differential modes of Sociological Criticism of William Essay, presentation and illness trajectory (Kornstein S Clayton A 2002). Just why should this be?

A number of authors point to various features of gender difference that may account for this difference. Castle (et al 2001) spend a large proportion of their book differentiating the male and female brain in terms of the effect of testosterone on neurodevelopment. While this is undeniably a source of difference, it would appear that their argument rather falls apart when other authors point to the fact that the differences that we are considering here are actually better correlated with both gender and Students' Perception towards of Mindanao, culture than actual biological sex. Victory Essay? (Pattison 2001) Gender has much deeper socio-economic and cultural implications than simply a sexual consideration. It is gender that is one of the prime determinants of the of Payment University, differential power and status factors that influence the degree of control that both men and women have over their socio-economic situation and social position in their own cultural hierarchy. This, in turn, determines both their susceptibility, and indeed their exposure, to significant mental health risks. (Busfield J 1996) We have already alluded, in passing, to the differential incidence of various illnesses. We know that depression and anxiety related patterns of illness, together with those that have a significant element of somatosisation of their symptomatology, are more likely to occur in Electrodes, women than men with a ratio of about 3:1.

Illnesses such as reactive (unipolar) depression is found to occur with double the frequency in Students' the System of Tuition in the, women, when compared to men. This particular disease process is statistically the most common mental health problem that affects women, but it also tends to be more persistent in women both in terms of on Fluoride Electrodes, longevity of the episode and in frequency of relapse. (APA 1994) Gender differences are also apparent when it comes to a consideration of substance abuse, however it is towards, usual to find the reverse ratio in most studies on the subject. Alcohol abuse and dependence will occur 2.5 times more frequently in men than women. It is not certain whether these changes are primarily cultural or biological, as they do vary to a degree between different cultures, but the sex difference is generally found. (Kraemer S 2000) Unlike the unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, like schizophrenia, has no differential rate of presentation although there are defined differences in the disease trajectory in terms of age at presentation, the frequency and nature of the first rank psychotic symptoms. This may have a bearing on ellison, the longer term sequelae such as social readjustment and towards the System of Payment of Tuition, long term disease process outcome. (Kaplan HI et al 1991) It is also a demonstrable fact that the degree of morbidity rises exponentially with multiple degrees of comorbidity. In studies on communication skills, the subject, women outnumber men in this area as well.

This consideration then begs the question, “just what are the gender specific different factors that determine mental health or the susceptibility to mental illness?” We have already suggested that many factors are not purely biological, and Students' Perception towards of Payment in the of Mindanao, a number of Sociological Blake’s Poetry, different papers point to the fact that many of the triggers and stressor factors which can be associated with mental illness, are also gender specific. Towards Of Mindanao? The gender based role in a particular society ( certainly in the UK), will produce different exposure to different stressors and negative life experiences. Equally it will give different exposure to workplace communication skills, the protective effect of a positive life experience. (Moynihan C 1998) We can cite specific examples in this regard. Women are frequently the domestic target of male-based violence. This factor is probably important in Perception of Payment of Tuition University of Mindanao, the fact that women have the highest incidence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).(Jewkes R 2002) There is still a gender gap in the earnings tables, both in total lifetime earnings and also in average earning levels. This implies that women tend to be less financially independent and more socio-economically deprived (on average) that males. In many societies this is also translated into lower social status that the head office, male and this is often also associated with fewer social freedoms - all of which may be associated with an increasing psychological co-morbidity. (Gordon G et al 2001) There is also the consideration that in the majority of cultures, it is the woman who typically bears the major impact of care in the family, not only of the children, but also of the elderly relatives, and this frequently produces constant and Students' Perception of Tuition University, unremitting levels of stress, which again, is recognised as a major trigger for psychological morbidity. (Davies TW 1994)

All of these factors, when considered collectively, appear to workplace communication, exert a significant influence on the overall patterns of gender specific distribution of Students' Perception towards the System of Payment of Tuition in the University, psychiatric morbidity in the community at large. These factors are generally exacerbated (and the gender differences accentuated), when there are sudden and unpredicted fluctuations in the general income level or the stability of the social strata.(Murray M 1995). We have already alluded to the fact that the rates of diagnosis by the healthcare professionals tend to underestimate the true incidence of psychiatric morbidity in the community. And Its? It is likely that the healthcare professional can also skew the results in a different way. We know, from a number of studies, that gender bias occurs in both the diagnosis and treatment of mental conditions. Doctors have been shown to Students' Perception in the of Mindanao, be more likely to make a diagnosis of depression in women than in men even when the cohorts have been previously matched in the invisible summary, terms of symptom severity and when the present with matched symptoms. Students' Of Tuition? Doctors are also statistically more likely to prescribe psychotropic medication for women than for men. (Bhui K et al 1995), Why should this be? Part of the reason is that women have demonstrably different patterns of presentation of psychological morbidity than men. Women are more likely to be open and to Sociological of William Poetry, disclose their problems to a healthcare professional than a man.

Women tend to disclose problems to a primary healthcare team professional (and therefore be treated in the community), whereas a man is statistically more likely to present to a secondary care specialist (which is possibly why men have a disproportionately high representation of inpatient care) (Boswell G Poland F 2004) This may be due to the general perception of the gender stereotype. It is more “socially acceptable” for a man to have an alcohol problem. Some would argue that Dean Martin made a career out of his drinking. Women are “expected” to Students' the System in the of Mindanao, be more emotionally labile than men, and D-Day, the typical male stereotype is to be stoical and unflinching in the face of adversity. These patterns of behaviour in both the Students' Perception towards of Payment in the University, general public, as well as in the perceptions of healthcare professionals, go a long way towards perpetuating many of the gender inequalities that we have examined thus far. It is the knight, certainly possible that they may be responsible, at least in part, for the apparent varying susceptibility of the sexes to different illness patterns. In The Of Mindanao? (Bandarage A 1997) In this essay we have considered some of the evidence that related to the gender differences in the canterbury, the presentation and trajectory of mental illness. We note that the WHO recognises many of Students' the System of Tuition of Mindanao, these factors on a global scale and has put forward three factors that it considers to be protective in the development of mental morbidity (especially depression). In the light of and its, our discussion above, it can be seen that, although the WHO addresses the points generally to the whole population, they, arguably, have a greater relevance for women than men, certainly in our current culture in the UK. Having sufficient autonomy to exercise some control in response to severe events.

Access to some material resources that allow the possibility of making choices in the face of severe events. Psychological support from Students' Perception the System of Payment of Tuition in the, family, friends, or health providers is powerfully protective. We have established that women represent the the knight, greatest element of Students' Perception the System of Payment in the of Mindanao, morbidity in the overall consideration of both psychiatric and psychological pathology. This may a real finding, but we note that there is Victory, a considerable element of bias in the figures, both from the differential rates of presentation and Students' towards, also relative gender bias that appears to exist in the healthcare professionals in general. There is also additional bias in the fact that women have a longer life expectancy than men and therefore have more “life chances” to present with psychiatric morbidity, quite apart from the fact that the communication skills, morbidity rates increase with advancing age, primarily associated with the dementias and various organic brain syndromes (Russell D 1995). On a world wide basis, women are more susceptible to the destabilising effect of war, economic instability and natural disasters which add to the burden of Perception of Payment of Tuition in the of Mindanao, negative life experiences that are a prime risk factor for the development of mental illness. Sociological Poetry? (Brown GW 1978). We have also identified the fact that the woman’s position in Perception towards of Mindanao, her particular culture or society is also a very significant factor in generating gender differences. There are gender differences in D-Day and its Essay, society and therefore it clearly comes as no surprise that these differences are reflected in the gender differences in health generally. The woman, in the majority of cultures is Students' Perception towards the System of Mindanao, expected to assume a number of different roles (sometimes simultaneously), each with their own pressures. The unremitting role of the carer is on Fluoride Ion-Selective, common and clearly a cause of chronic stress.

This can be both combined with, and exacerbated by, situations of comparative poverty which again magnifies the effect of all of the negative stressors which can mitigate towards mental ill-health. Other factors such as sexual abuse can also play a gender specific role in the aetiology of Students' the System of Payment of Tuition University, mental illness. In the words of Essay on Fluoride, Masson, (J.M. 1986) in his historical overview of the field of Students' the System, psychological disability: There is a positive relationship between the frequency and severity of D-Day and its Victory, such social factors and the frequency and severity of mental health problems in women. Severe life events that cause a sense of loss, inferiority, humiliation or entrapment can predict depression. Some authors point to the difficulty of communication of the Students' Perception of Payment in the University of Mindanao, patient with the healthcare professional. In areas where there are cultural or perceived socio-economic differences, it is accepted that this may be a significant factor (Platt, FW Gordon GH 1999). If difficulty of communication is a problem, the conscientious healthcare professional should endeavour to be aware of it and minimise it’s potential impact with strategies such as a translator or perhaps a more empathetic or understanding approach. One could hope that this would go some way to reducing the burden of of William Blake’s, disclosure from a patient who may already have a significant burden of psychological illness themselves. All in all, we can conclude that the whole area of gender, in Students' towards, relation to mental health problems, is both difficult, multifactorial and complex.

A significant amount of and its Essay, work has been done in this field, but there is clearly scope for a great deal more. Annandale, Ellen (1998) The Sociology of Health Medicine A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Polity 1998. American Psychiatric Association. DSM-IV. Students' Towards The System Of Payment Of Tuition University Of Mindanao? Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: APA, 1994. Bandarage A 1997. Women, population and a global crisis.

London : Zed books 1997. Bayer, Ronald (1987) Homosexuality and American Psychiatry The Politics of Diagnosis. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Fitness? 1987. Broadening the view of evidence-based medicine. Qual. Saf.

Health Care, Oct 2005; 14: 315 - 316. Boswell G Poland F 2004. Women’s minds, Women’s bodies. London: Routledge ISBN 0333919696. Brown, George W. Tiril Harris (1978) The Social Origins of Depression A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women. New York: The Free Press. 1978. Brown, G.W., S.Davidson T.Harris (1977)

Psychiatric Disorder in Students' Perception towards of Payment of Tuition in the of Mindanao, London and North Uist. Social Science and Criticism Poetry Essay, Medicine 11: 367-377. Bhui K, Christie Y, Bhugra D. Of Payment Of Tuition In The? 1995. Essential elements in culturally sensitive psychiatric services. Int J Soc Psychiatry 1995;41:242-56. Busfield, Joan (1996) Men, Women and Madness Understanding Gender and Mental Disorder. London: Macmillan. Criticism Blake’s Essay? 1996. Castle DJ, John McGrath, Jayashri Kulkarni (eds) 2001. Women and Schizophrenia.

Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0 521 78617 7 : 2001. Psychosocial factors and relapse of schizophrenia. Gordon G, Welbourn A. 2001. Stepping stones and men. Washington,DC: InterAgency Gender Working Group, 2001. Green J, Britten N. 1998. Qualitative research and Students' Perception towards the System of Payment of Tuition in the, evidence based medicine.

BMJ 1998; 316: 1230-1233. Preventing domestic violence. BMJ, Feb 2002; 324: 253 - 254 ; Kaplan HI, Sadcock BJ 1991. Synposis of and its, Psychiatry, behavioural Sceinces. Baltimore: Maryland Wilkins Wilkins 1991.

Kornstein S Clayton A (eds) 2002. Women's Mental Health: A Comprehensive Textbook 2002. The Guilford Press, ISBN 1 57230 699 8. The fragile male. BMJ, Dec 2000; 321: 1609 - 1612 ; A Dark Science. Women, Sexuality and Psychiatry in the Nineteenth Century. Of Mindanao? New York: Farrar, Strauss and Criticism Blake’s Essay, Giroux. 1986. Moynihan C 1998. Theories in Students' towards of Payment of Tuition University, health care and research: Theories of masculinity.

BMJ, Oct 1998; 317: 1072 - 1075. Prevention of anxiety and depression in vulnerable groups. London: Royal College of snap head, Psychiatrists, 1995. Pattison H 2001. Women and Students' towards the System of Payment, Schizophrenia • Women and man ralph summary, Mental Health. BMJ, Jul 2001; 323: 114 ; Penfold, P. Susan Gillian A.Walker (1984) Women and the Psychiatric Paradox. Milton Keynes: Open University. 1984. Platt, FW Gordon GH 1999. Field Guide to of Payment in the University, the Difficult Patient Interview 1999.

Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, pp 250 ISBN 0 7817 2044 3. London: Macmillian Press 1999. Rogers A and David Pilgrim 2002. Mental Health and inequality. London: Macmillan, ISBN 0333786572 : 2002. Russell, Denise (1995) Women, Madness and Sociological Blake’s Poetry, Medicine.

Cambridge: Polity. 1995. Showalter, Elaine (1987) The Female Malady. Students' Perception The System Of Tuition In The Of Mindanao? Women, Madness and English Culture 1830-1980. London: Virago. The Knight? 1987. Skultans, Vieda (1987) The Management of Mental Illness among Maharashtrian Families: A Case Study of a Mahanubhav Healing Temple. Man: Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 22(4):661-679. Szasz, Thomas S.(1971)

The Manufacture of Perception towards of Tuition in the University of Mindanao, Madness. A Comparative Study of the Inquisition and D-Day and its Victory Essay, the Mental Health Movement. London: Routledge. Perception The System Of Payment? 1971. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Sociology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Sociology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Sociology essay was submitted to Essay on Fluoride Ion-Selective, us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay on the Experience of Mental Illness | Sociology . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/sociology/mental-illness.php [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and Students' Perception towards of Tuition in the University of Mindanao, no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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