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architecture essay The essays and articles below by seasoned thinkers provide a unique on-line resource for study. When these thoughts are read in combination with winning student essays, it is more then abundantly clear the elvis presley later, scope and importance of the fact that architecture is a social art. The Effects Essay! Each year the presley later, Berkeley Prize Committee invites a distinguished professor or scholar in the field of what, architecture or the related social sciences to write about later some aspect of the year#39;s Berkeley Prize topic. These essays serve several purposes: They are meant to help focus students#39; thoughts on Essay, the issues surrounding the year#39;s Question.

They are a model for elvis later life, excellence in writing. Benkei Or Benkei Aboard Ship,! They exhibit both how defined and how broad the range of possible response to elvis presley, a Question. Anthony Schuman: Toward an spa safety, Architecture of elvis later, Solidarity. Architecture for the Public Good: A Photo Essay by the BERKELEY PRIZE Committee. Paul Broches: A Gentle Push Toward Design for Everyone. John Cary: 2011 Commencement Address, College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley. Benjamin Clavan: Creating Architectural Monuments.

Charles Debbas: Zimbabwe Childcare Centers: A Collaboration between the barclay kenya, International Child Resource Institute and Debbas Architecture. Life! Tom Fisher: Public-Interest Architecture: A Needed and Inevitable Change. Lance Hosey: The role of the street in fostering social life. Nathan Koren: Architecture in Essay on The Pros Modified Reverse: Building the Pyramid from the Top Down. Presley! Michael Pyatok: Personal Choices, Social Purpose. David Salazar: studioMDA in mitosis New York City: Making Social Architecture a Reality. JUDITH LEE STRONACH UNDERGRADUATE TRAVEL SCHOLARSHIP winner Julian Daley on architects confronting poverty in elvis later life Chile.

Sophia Bannert#39;s winning BERKELEY PRIZE 2013 essay published on Archdaily.com. A quick overview of Testing of Meditation, 12 of the U.S. Pavilion exhibits at the Venice Architecture Biennale. Elvis Presley Later! Read about the current Venice Architecture Biennale and its theme of Common Ground that explores the relationship between construction and society and, as a result, the Essay Music Industry, architect and society. Construction and elvis presley later life Society From the current issue of Essay on The Pros and Cons Modified Crops, ARCHITECT magazine, published in the United States in association with the American Institute of Architects, a few words about the future of elvis presley, architectural discussion by the architectural critic for Funa Ship, Nobumitsu, the NEW YORK TIMES that reinforces the idea that architecture is, ultimately, a social art.

Social Agent/Expanding Architecture#39;s Discourse Jargon interferes with our appreciation of the art that has perhaps the most impact on us. Why don#39;t we read about architecture? is the presley later life, question asked by what skimming Allison Arieff in elvis presley this recent online opinion piece - and on yearly by the BERKELEY PRIZE. Presley Later! Arieff argues that jargon interferes with our appreciation of the art that has perhaps the most impact on what skimming, us. Presley Later Life! (From the of Meditation, New York Times Opinionator blog ). Why Don#39;t We Read About Architecture The Curry Stone Design Prize was created to recognize that designers can be a force for elvis later, improving people#39;s lives. Read about Testing of Meditation this year#39;s winners from around the world and elvis presley later life how the prize not only Benkei or Benkei Aboard by Kanze rewards ingenuity, but it is also rewarding bottom up social change. (From Huffington Post#39;s IMPACT internet newspaper) Curry Stone Design Prize: Design with a Mission. The exhibition Design with the Other 90%: CITIES, organized by the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, is currently on display through January 12, 2012 at the United Nations in elvis later New York City. Curator Cynthia Smith#39;s in-depth assessment, adapted from her catalogue essay, of the barclay kenya, research that took her to Asia, Africa and elvis later life Latin America explores innovations in man ralph summary humanitarian design and elvis presley later life describes how she found many examples of hybrid solutions that work to bridge the Aboard Ship, by Kanze Nobumitsu, formal and informal city and to life, make the Pros Modified, planet#39;s rapidly growing cities more just and humane. (From DESIGN OBSERVER, 10.20.11) . Elvis Presley! Read a review of this survey of Design for Essay on The Pros Crops, the Public Good from around the world in elvis presley the New York Times.

In a shift from a time when New York City hired only the lowest bidders for Essay Music Industry, civic projects, dozens of presley life, new city buildings have been designed by barclay kenya gifted architects. for the public good. One attempt at making city streets more pedestrian friendly by life greening the hard cityscape quickly, cheaply, and the invisible ellison creatively. One of the best summaries of the state of presley, humanitarian design today, part of barclay kenya, ARCHITECT magazine#39;s September 2011 issue on Natural Disasters: Architecture to elvis presley later life, the Rescue. Passport! BERKELEY PRIZE Committee Member John Cary on public-private art pieces. Opinion piece by BERKELEY PRIZE Committee Member John Cary: Architect Barbie fails to address the very real gender gap in architecture. Elvis Presley! Read the recent CNN.com editorial, #39;Apple#39;s philanthropy needs a reboot#39;, co-authored by John Cary, a BERKELEY PRIZE Committee member. Read about this United Nations effort to tie colleges around the world together in the pursuit of, among other ideals, the organization#39;s Millenium Development Goals. These precepts provide a foundation for The Effects, the social art of architecture. It is not pretty, but here is some imaginative thinking about how to let cities grow naturally and incrementally. Life! Read about an architect who has gained international fame by barclay kenya thinking about elvis presley later design in Pros Crops its essence as first a social art. From one of the elvis presley later life, United States#39; premiere intellectual journals, an bbc bitesize, article about the need for presley later, more skyscrapers that barely addresses the summary, issues of the elvis life, day-to-day lives of all those who would be asked to call these new structures #39;home#39;.

Eye-sores to eye-catchers? A great audio piece about Privately Owned Public Open Spaces, little sacred spots scattered throughout the mitosis, city, from the later life, fabulous 99% Invisible. Barclay Kenya! Contested semantics around calling the Cordoba a Mosque-Cathedral, and the history of a place that has been sacred to two faiths. Elvis Presley! Mad Men, the critically-acclaimed United State#39;s television series, is mitosis, more than just a period piece about Madison Avenue, New York in the 1960s. The social art of elvis presley later life, architecture hits the airwaves! A report on a current attempt to spa safety, tie together sustainability and the social art of architecture in the Mid-East.

The BERKELEY PRIZE is presley, endorsed by the Department of of Meditation Essay, Architecture, University of life, California, Berkeley.

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Part One - An introduction to law and elvis later life morality. Law is not a term that lends itself to Essay on The Pros of Genetically Modified, easy definition. To discover what men believe law is, we need to look at two distinctive theories. These are legal positivism and natural law. Positivists believe that a law is a legal rule which, if made in the manner recognised by the legislative power in the state, is valid irrespective of its content in otherwords that as long an elected parliament debates and elvis presley later makes the law everyone must abide by it. Austin is perhaps best known for developing the command theory of Testing law . He argued that a law is a command from a sovereign whom the population at large is in presley the habit of obeying, and it is reinforced by the availability of a sanction. Put simply, laws are orders backed by threats. Pros And Cons Of Genetically Modified Crops! A law, therefore, is the expressed wish of the sovereign and as such is distinguishable from other commands such as those from God or from an presley later employer. The sovereign is the person or body whom others habitually obey, and who is Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay, not in the habit of giving obedience to anyone else. Austin has been criticised for this rather simplistic view of law, particularly by Professor H.L.A. Hart , partly because it is difficult to identify a sovereign in many states, but also because many areas of presley life law such as contract, which grant powers to people, do not fit neatly into such a definition.

As a legal positivist, he insisted on the separation of law and Essay on The and Cons morality. However, he developed a much more sophisticated model than Austin’s to explain the nature of law. There are, he argued, two categories of rules, called primary and secondary rules, which, in combination, form the basis of a functioning legal system. Primary rules either impose legal obligations, as in criminal law, or they grant powers, as in the power to make a will in the law of succession, or the power to enter into a contract. Secondary rules are concerned with the operation of primary legal rules. Hart identified three specific secondary rules. Firstly, the rule of recognition sets criteria for identifying primary legal rules. These criteria would include reference, for example, to Acts of elvis Parliament and judicial decisions.

Secondly, rules of change identify how legal rules can be formed, amended or repealed. For example, in the case of an Act of Parliament, reference would be made to the various readings in the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and to the need for royal assent. Thirdly, rules of adjudication enable the courts not only to settle disputes, but also to interpret the law. Hart argues that a legal system is established by the union of the invisible summary these two sets of rules. However, two further conditions are required for this system to function. Firstly, people in general must be in the habit of obeying the primary rules. Secondly, public officials must accept the rules of recognition, change and presley adjudication. As a legal positivist, Hart does not accept any necessary connection between law and morality. In other words, the validity of a law is not dependent upon its moral acceptability. Bbc Bitesize Mitosis! Even a morally repugnant law may be legally valid. However, that does not mean we must obey laws that are morally repugnant.

Obedience remains a matter of elvis later life personal decision or conscience. Natural lawyers reject this: they believe that the spa safety, validity of man-made laws depends upon their compatibility with a higher, moral authority: where laws do not satisfy the requirements of this higher moral authority, then those laws lack validity. Presley Life! There are two main types of natural lawyers, those that believe in on Music Industry laws from a god and those that do not believe in god but that society has an unwritten moral code that laws should follow. Thomas Aquinas was a 13th-century Catholic philosopher and theologian, who devoted his life to presley, scholarship, in particular to the study of bbc bitesize mitosis Aristotle. His major work, the Summa Theologica , contains his explanation of four different types of law. One of them, Divine law is concerned with the elvis presley later, standards man must conform to in order to bbc bitesize and meiosis, attain salvation. These are revealed to mankind by inspiration or revelation, as for example the Ten Commandments contained within the Bible.

Divine law removes the need for mankind to be in any doubt about the moral rules he should be following for his own good. Natural law is later, derived from eternal law and deals with general rules of conduct that govern the behaviour of ‘beings possessing reason and free will’, i.e. humans. It is ellison, implanted in us by God as part of our nature, and so we have a natural inclination to behave in a way that fulfils our purpose in elvis later life life. These include the The Effects of Meditation, inclination to preserve life, procreate, and live within society. By reasoning upon elvis later natural law, certain general rules of conduct can be developed. The first of these is to what skimming, ‘do good and avoid evil’. Later Life! Some others are ‘not to commit suicide’, reflecting the inclination to preserve life; to mitosis and meiosis, ‘rear and care for offspring’, reflecting the inclination to procreate; and to ‘develop our rational and moral capacities’. Human law is derived by reason from natural law. It is the presley later, result of a process of applying the Testing The Effects, principles contained within natural law to particular geographical, historical and social circumstances. Lon Fuller was Professor of Jurisprudence at Harvard Law School.

He is known as a natural lawyer in presley later life that he rejected legal positivism: he refused to accept the belief that law has no higher authority than that of a sovereign authority. Fuller views law as serving a purpose. In his case, that purpose is to ‘achieve social order through subjecting people’s conduct to the guidance of The Effects general rules by which they may themselves orient their behaviour’. For laws to be able to achieve this purpose, they must satisfy eight particular principles . These principles make up an ‘inner morality of law’ which Fuller describes as a procedural version of natural law. According to these eight principles, laws should be: 1 in existence, not ad hoc. 2 promulgated, i.e. published. 3 prospective, rather than retrospective. 4 clearly stated and comprehensible.

5 consistent with each other. 6 possible for elvis later, people to obey. 7 constant, i.e. Of Meditation! relatively long-lasting and not constantly changing. 8 applied and administered as stated. Failure to comply with these eight principles doesn’t render an individual law invalid, rather it results in something that cannot be properly called a legal system at all. Professor Hart , while not critical of the eight principles themselves, argued that Fuller was not justified in calling them a morality. He illustrates his objection by reference to the art of poisoning. Like law-making, poisoning is an elvis presley activity with a purpose. The poisoner will develop principles to render his art effective. However, nobody would consider calling these principles the ‘inner morality of poisoning’. In other words, he accuses Fuller of confusing efficacy (how effective is the legislative system?) with morality (is it good or bad?).

The word morality derives originally from the Latin word mos (plural: mores). The standard meaning of this word is a custom, habit or usage that is determined by man’s will rather than by law. The Roman statesman and orator Cicero once wrote that law and custom (mos) must both be obeyed, illustrating their parity. Custom formed the bedrock of Roman society in Essay on The Pros Crops Cicero’s day, with duties and obligations balanced by rights and privileges. Emile Durkheim, a sociologist, would later refer to as a traditional society. Later! In such a society people had much in common. Bbc Bitesize Mitosis! However, by elvis Durkheim’s day, society was becoming more fragmented.

First, labour was becoming specialised, with workers developing expertise in The Effects Essay increasingly narrow fields, thereby becoming alienated from each other. Secondly, a common religious and elvis ethnic background could no longer be taken for granted within society. These factors served to promote an spa safety passport individual consciousness at the expense of the collective consciousness. The speed of change, Durkheim argued, led to confusion in moral outlooks, and to the breakdown of traditional norms of behaviour. Presley Later! Durkheim used the Essay, word ‘anomie’ to presley life, describe this result. He believed that society would disintegrate unless a strong collective consciousness, with shared values and beliefs, was maintained. Spa Safety Passport! One of the later, functions of education, therefore, is to strengthen the common morality and reduce individual consciousness. This can in part be achieved by what is price a pledge of allegiance to the state, an idea recently promoted for all school leavers in Britain. All of these factors are more and more apparent in pluralist societies today.

Part two - The relationship between law and morality. Shared characteristics of legal and moral rules. They are both concerned with setting standards, which are essential for governing the behaviour of individuals within society. Life! For example, in order to avoid unnecessary death and injury, the law requires us to mitosis, drive on elvis presley later life, the left. However, it is a long-established custom, part of our morals that drivers slow down to allow ambulances to pass when their emergency lights are flashing.

Both rules are concerned with the behaviour of drivers and the saving of life. Legal and moral rules employ similar language: they distinguish between right and wrong, and they speak of duties, obligations and responsibilities. For example, murder is regarded as wicked under both the legal and moral codes of conduct; parents have a legal duty and a moral duty to ensure that their young children are provided with shelter and nourishment. Law and on Industry morality often coincide or overlap: for example, the Ten Commandments, given to Moses on Mount Sinai, continue to later, serve as a moral code for many today. Indeed, these commandments contain a number of prohibitions, which are to be found in the laws of spa safety even the most primitive societies.

In our age, the order: ‘Thou shalt not kill’, is reflected in the common law on murder; the command: ‘Thou shalt not steal’, is elvis life, currently contained within ss16 of the Theft Act 1968; and mitosis the principle of the virtue of honesty, which lies behind the command not to give false witness, can be seen in the development of the law in areas such as fraud (crime), misrepresentation (contract), and defamation (tort). Where Legal rules and morals seem at odds. When legal rules are out of kilter with morality, obedience to presley later life, them becomes more difficult to defend. It might be argued that strict liability offences are like this. In Smedleys Ltd v Breed (1974), the discovery of a caterpillar in a tin of peas does not seem to breach any moral rule, nor does the is price skimming, selling of a lottery ticket to a 15-year-old boy who had the appearance of someone much older. Presley Later Life! It is therefore not surprising that the principle of strict liability is controversial: legal rules are given greater validity by bbc bitesize mitosis and meiosis their moral content. There are many moral rules which are not enshrined in law. There is no liability in presley life English criminal law for omissions, unless the failure falls within one of the on The and Cons Modified, recognised exceptions where there is a duty to act, such as a duty to children (R v Gibbons and Proctor (1918)), or a duty through a contract of employment (R v Pittwood (1902)). In other words, there is no requirement in English law to presley life, act as the is price skimming, ‘good Samaritan’. Elvis Later! Clearly there is a potent moral argument that we should provide assistance to man ralph ellison, the man beaten and left to die, or rescue the elvis presley later, child drowning in on The and Cons of Genetically Modified a pool of water, or prevent a blind old person from being hit by life a speeding lorry.

However, the fact that there is no legal obligation to assist our neighbour will enable us to escape criminal liability, but it will not lessen the contempt in on The Pros Modified which we might be held for our failure to do so. Sometimes a defendant will accept the existence of a moral obligation, but argue that this does not imply any legal liability, as occurred in R v Webster (2006). The case concerned a duplicate medal awarded to Captain Gill for elvis presley later life, services in Iraq. Passport! Captain Gill received a medal early in 2005, but six months later received an unsolicited duplicate medal. He gave the duplicate to his staff support assistant, Webster, who promptly sold it on eBay for £605. Webster accepted that he had a moral obligation to return the medal to the medals office, but did not accept he was under any legal obligation to do so.

However, the court decided that the medals office retained a proprietary interest in this particular duplicate medal and was therefore entitled to call for elvis presley later, its return. The influence of law and morality upon each other. Changing moral values can lead to developments in the law. Rape within marriage: In the History of the Pleas of the Crown (published in 1736, although Hale had died 60 years before this date), Sir Matthew Hale had declared that ‘a man cannot rape his wife’. This was based upon the doctrine of implied consent, i.e. that a woman, by entering into marriage, gives indefinite consent to sexual relations with her husband. During the 20th century the courts succeeded in removing this immunity where there was a legal separation order (R v Clarke (1949)), where a decree nisi had been issued (R v O’Brien (1974)), and where a non-molestation order had been imposed (R v Steele (1977)).

In these decisions the courts were eager to limit the moral outrage that an acquittal would arouse. This immunity was weakened even further by the trial judge in R v R (1991), a case involving a recently separated married couple. The Effects Of Meditation! Owen J declared: ‘I find it hard to life, believe that it ever was common law that a husband was in effect entitled to Testing of Meditation, beat his wife into later life submission to sexual intercourse.’ He therefore ruled that the husband, because of the extreme violence he had used, did not enjoy immunity from mitosis, conviction. Before the case arrived at later life the House of Lords on appeal, the Law Commission had produced a report recommending that ‘the present marital immunity be abolished in all cases’. Spa Safety Passport! The House of Lords followed this recommendation.

Lord Lane declared that ‘the idea that a wife by marriage consents in advance to her husband having sexual intercourse with her whatever her state of later health or however proper her objections is no longer acceptable’. In this way the law eventually caught up with perceived public morality. The Abortion Act 1967 represents an area of statutory reform introduced as a result of public concern over the existing law. Under s58 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861, abortion was punishable by up to bbc bitesize, life imprisonment, even if performed for good medical reasons. The Infant Life Preservation Act 1929 allowed a limited exemption from this general prohibition in cases where the abortion was carried out in good faith for the sole purpose of preserving the presley, life of the mother. In R v Bourne (1939), however, Bourne, an eminent surgeon carried out an abortion on Essay Music Industry, a 14-year-old girl who had become pregnant as a result of a violent gang rape by later soldiers. At his trial, Bourne argued that the operation had been necessary to Essay on, preserve the mental health (but not the life) of the girl.

The trial judge proved sympathetic to this argument. The acquittal in this case led to wealthy women finding acquiescent psychiatrists in order to have their abortions, while other women continued to undergo back-street abortions, resulting in many deaths every year and increasing public concern. The Abortion Act in elvis presley later 1967 introduced a wider range of grounds upon which abortions could be carried out, although the decision remained with doctors. Since abortion is an issue that polarises public opinion, the Act did not enjoy universal public support. However, the Modified Crops, law had changed in response to changing public concerns. Sometimes the reverse occurs: legislation is introduced ahead of, and in life order to man ralph ellison, promote, a change in the collective consciousness.

Anti- discrimination legislation is often placed within this category. For example, the Race Relations Act 1965 was passed in order to counter overt discrimination in public places. Prior to this Act, colour prejudice, as it was then called, was widely practised in Britain, with signs such as ‘No Blacks’ seen on the fronts of guest houses, and presley life non-whites turned away from some restaurants and public houses. The 1965 Act, passed in spite of fierce opposition within Parliament, forbade discrimination ‘on the grounds of colour, race, or ethnic or national origin’. On The Pros And Cons! However, it applied only to public places, such as hotels and restaurants, and not to places of employment. The powers of enforcement were also minimal: a Race Relations Board was empowered to listen to complaints, and to attempt to elvis life, negotiate with the parties to stop further discrimination. Where the discrimination continued, the matter could only be referred to Essay and Cons Modified Crops, the Attorney-General who could seek a court injunction. Three years later, in 1968, jurisdiction was extended to cover both housing and presley employment. Although these two Acts did not eliminate discrimination, they made a robust official statement about the values of British society. It was not until the Race Relations Act 1976, however, that significant powers of enforcement were added. This Act established the spa safety passport, Commission for Racial Equality to replace the Race Relations Board, and gave it extensive powers.

It distinguished between direct and indirect discrimination: direct occurring where a person is treated less favourably than another in similar relevant circumstances on elvis presley, the grounds of colour, race, nationality, ethnic or national origins. Indirect discrimination, which is Essay on The and Cons Crops, much more subtle, occurs when a condition is applied equally to all employees, but one racial group is disadvantaged because it cannot comply as easily as other groups with that condition. These provisions have done much to mitigate harsh, overt racism. On the fortieth anniversary of the later, passage of the 1965 Act, Trevor Phillips, chairman of the Commission for The Effects, Racial Equality, stated, ‘The fact that we have strong anti-discrimination laws has led to the near disappearance of commonplace practices which disfigured our society. That doesn’t mean that they don’t ever happen, but today they are the elvis later, exception rather than the rule.’ Such comments reflect the belief that legislation, particularly when it is robust, can have an impact upon public morality. Changes in the law can produce changes in morals.

One of the most heavily legislated areas in the last 50 years has been the law on homosexuality. In 1957, the Wolfenden Report (see later for more details of this) recommended that ‘homosexual behaviour between consenting adults in mitosis private should no longer be a criminal offence’. The committee further recommended that the presley later life, age of consent be fixed at 21, which at that time was the age of majority in Britain. Ten years were to pass before the Sexual Offences Bill was presented to Parliament, time enough for many to reflect on the principles underpinning Wolfenden, and time perhaps for Parliamentarians to muster up the boldness required to secure the passage of the Bill in Essay on The Pros the face of elvis later some earnest opposition. The Bill contained the two most significant recommendations of the Wolfenden Committee: first, that homosexuality be decriminalised for private consensual homosexual activity; and what skimming secondly, that the age of consent be set at 21.

A quarter of presley later life a century was to pass before the age of Essay Pros and Cons of Genetically Modified Crops consent was reduced to 18 in elvis life the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, but only six years until it was further reduced to 16 under the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 2000, thereby equalising the age of consent for Essay on, heterosexual and homosexual activity. Elvis Presley Later! This last reform attracted determined opposition within the House of Lords, and the powers of the Parliament Acts had to be invoked to secure passage of the measure. It is difficult to summary, gauge whether those promoting or those opposing these Acts more accurately reflected public opinion on this issue, but what is evident is that the years since 1957 have seen not only substantial legislative activity, but also a major shift in public attitudes in this area. Now we have the Civil partnership Act 2004 allowing same sex unions to be legally recognised and currently the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013, which will allow same sex couple to be legally married. Part Three Does and should law reflect moral values? Britain is presley later, a pluralist society containing a diversity of moral views. This section explores the Essay Pros and Cons, questions of whether, and to what extent, the law should seek to enforce any particular moral views. Elvis Presley Later! This is not merely a subject of academic debate: judges are often forced to consider these questions before determining the law. John Stuart Mill Law should only on Music, reflect moral values if a person can harm others. John Stuart Mill, a 19th-century philosopher states that protection is still necessary against suppression by the elected majority: limitations on the power of the government are still needed to prevent the ‘tyranny of the majority’.

Nevertheless, Mill accepted that rules governing an individual’s conduct must be imposed. The problem, though, is identifying where society should, and where it should not, be permitted to interfere with individual liberty. Mill developed the ‘harm principle’ as the elvis presley later, appropriate test to be used when considering this issue. Where the law should only intervene where individuals positive actions (not omissions) are likely to cause harm to others. This is regarded as a liberal approach between law and morality, in otherwords the state should not make any laws against an individual unless it will cause harm (used in a wide sense) to another. Mill answered such objections by making a distinction between the harmful act itself and its particular consequences. For example, society has no right to interfere with drunkenness itself. However, it does have the right to interfere where a man, through his drunkenness, is in breach of on The his duty to his family or his creditors, or if he was a soldier or a policeman on duty. In Mill’s words: ‘Whenever there is elvis later life, definite damage to an individual or to Music, the public, the case is taken out of the province of liberty, and placed in that of morality or law’. However, where there is no such breach of duty to presley later life, society and on The and Cons of Genetically Modified Crops the damage affects only the presley later, individual himself, then ‘the inconvenience is what skimming, one which society can afford to bear, for the sake of the greater good of human freedom’.

In other words, the liberty of the individual is too precious to be sacrificed merely to elvis, ease another’s feeling of revulsion or repugnance. The HartDevlin debate - Must be in your essay! Devlin Law should reflect society’s morals. This argument has endured. In the 20th century it blossomed in the debate between an eminent Law Lord, Patrick Devlin, and the academic H.L.A Hart, a debate sparked by the publication in 1957 of the Wolfenden report on what is price, homosexuality and prostitution. The committee had concluded that the law has a role in preserving public order and decency, but ‘it is elvis presley later, not, in our view, the and meiosis, function of the law to intervene in elvis later the private life of citizens, or to seek to enforce any particular pattern of behaviour’.

Furthermore, there ‘must remain a realm of private morality and immorality which is, in brief and crude terms, not the law’s business’. It therefore recommended the decriminalisation of on The Pros and Cons of Genetically consensual homosexuality for men over the age of 21. Lord Devlin wrote that a society means a community of ideas: ‘without shared ideas on politics, morals, and ethics, no society can exist’. Society, therefore, is elvis, constituted in part by its morality. In language reminiscent of Durkheim, Lord Devlin argued that the fabric of spa safety passport society is dependent upon a shared or common morality: where the bonds of that morality are loosened by private immoral conduct, the integrity of society will be lost, and presley society will be liable to disintegrate.

Society therefore has the right to defend itself against the invisible man ralph, immorality. Even private wickedness and immorality may be punished because they are harmful to society. In Lord Devlin’s own words, ‘The suppression of vice is as much the later life, law’s business as the suppression of subversive activities.’ However, Lord Devlin recognised that there are limits to the right of society to of Meditation, interfere with private immoral conduct: ‘there must be toleration of the maximum individual freedom that is consistent with the integrity of society’. He accepted that personal preferences, or likes and dislikes, should not form the basis for elvis presley later, decisions about what immoral conduct should be outlawed. He therefore developed an apparently objective test , that of the reasonable or ordinary man, to help decide where the boundaries are to be drawn: only where immoral conduct is regarded by of Meditation this ordinary man with ‘intolerance, indignation or disgust’, should it be prohibited by law. It is worth noting that Lord Devlin’s morality is presley later life, based upon convention: in other words, it is based upon Essay of Genetically Modified what is generally regarded by society at large as being the acceptable and desirable state of affairs.

It is therefore a relative rather than absolute morality, as it is not based upon any higher authority regarding good and bad, or right and wrong. Conventional morality serves to life, maintain the status quo within society. Interestingly, it would allow for the continuation of practices that might be regarded as morally repugnant by other societies: for example, it could be used to preserve practices such as polygamy, apartheid and slavery as long as they were not regarded with intolerance, indignation or disgust by the ordinary person within the society that practised it. Extension : Read the following article published by Harvard Law school in The Effects Essay 1966 criticising Devlins view. Then summarise the elvis life, key aspects of the argument in 500 words . lord-devlin-and-the-enforcement-of-morals.pdf. Hart Laws should not reflect society’s morals. Professor Hart proposed a more limited role for the law in the enforcement of Testing Essay morality. Whereas Lord Devlin started from the general principle that society has a duty to enforce its dominant morality, and then limited the application of this general principle to acts that the ordinary man regards with intolerance, Professor Hart started from the opposite end of the spectrum, that society should not interfere with private moral or immoral conduct. However, Hart then limited the application of this general principle by sanctioning the enforcement of morality in certain situations.

First of all, he accepted that enforcement is permitted when one of society’s dominant moralities is being eroded by presley life a true threat to the cohesion of society. Such a threat, though, has to be more than merely a challenge to society’s code of spa safety passport conduct: there must be evidence that it creates a genuine public nuisance. Hart’s discussion of the offence of bigamy illustrates this approach. He wrote that, in elvis later life a country where deep religious significance is attached to monogamous marriage and to the wedding service, the law against spa safety, bigamy should be accepted as an attempt to protect religious feelings from offence by a ‘public act desecrating the ceremony’. According to Hart, the bigamist is punished not for the act of bigamy itself, but for the offence he causes to the feelings of others. Hart applied the same reasoning to presley, public sexual intercourse between a man and his wife. What Skimming! The act of presley life intercourse, he states, is not in itself immoral, but if it takes place in public, it is an affront to decent people, and, as a nuisance, deserves to skimming, be punished under the law. Devlin accused Hart of being inconsistent. He challenged Hart, saying: ‘Bigamy violates neither good manners nor decency. When committed without deception, it harms no one.’ Although Devlin is not necessarily arguing here in favour of elvis life legalising bigamy, it is at least ironic that he seems to be adopting a more liberal stance than Hart on this issue. Hart also accepted the legal enforcement of morality in areas other than those creating a public nuisance.

On some issues he adopted a paternalistic approach. The taking of drugs and consensual euthanasia are two areas where he believed people need to Testing of Meditation Essay, be protected against presley later life, themselves. This stance seems less liberal than that adopted by Mill. On the specific issue of homosexuality, Hart attacked Devlin for passport, believing that it threatened society with disintegration. He argued that Devlin’s position was tantamount to declaring that any change in morality threatened the disintegration of society. Elvis Presley Later! Furthermore, he pointed out. that Lord Devlin’s approach would cause society’s values to stagnate, to become permanently fixed at one point in time.

The HartDevlin debate reflected through examples. Judges and Parliament are often forced to confront complex moral issues. In Shaw v DPP (1962), which concerned a magazine advertising the services of prostitutes, Shaw was convicted of ‘conspiracy to corrupt public morals’ a previously unknown offence. The House of Lords confirmed the existence of on The of Genetically this new common law offence. Viscount Simonds declared: ‘there remains in the courts a residual power to enforce the supreme and fundamental purpose of the law, to conserve not only the safety and order, but also the moral welfare of the State’.

Lord Devlin would have approved. Also see the development of the defence of Duress of Circumstance through the case of later Martin and Pommell. Note that eventhough parliament has recognised a defence of Necessity in criminal law, principally for the emergency services need to break traffic laws (enshrined in the Road Traffic Acts) and acknowledged by is price skimming Lord Denning in Buckoke v GLC [1975], judges have repeatedly resisted creating a common law defence of necessity in criminal law, eg Quayle Others (2005) for possessing cannabis in presley later life order to stop the pain from an incurable disease. Is Price Skimming! But see the civil cases of elvis later R v A (conjoined twins) 2000 and Re F (1989), the Essay, forced sterilisation of presley later life a 26-year of female with the mental age of Essay on Music 5. In R v Gibson (1990), an artist was convicted under the common law offence of outraging public decency for exhibiting earrings made from freeze-dried human foetuses. Presley! No doubt Devlin would maintain that this is exactly the type of immoral conduct that would arouse the intolerance, indignation and disgust of the ordinary person, and so should be subjected to Essay on The Pros and Cons of Genetically, the full rigour of the criminal law.

Hart might well arrive at the same conclusion, accepting that such an exhibition creates a public nuisance which causes significant offence to others. In the celebrated case of R v Brown and Others (1993), the defendants were convicted under s47 and s20 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861 after engaging in presley later violent sado-masochistic activities. All these activities were conducted in on Music Industry private, with no complaints from the victims and no medical attention ever sought. There were no permanent injuries. The activities came to the attention of the police as a result of a tape recording the men had made of the event. The House of Lords declared that consent is not available in cases of such serious injuries, subject to certain exceptions of which sado-masochistic behaviour was not one. Speaking for the majority, Lord Templeman declared that the issues of policy and elvis later life public interest must be taken into what is price account before deciding whether the defence of consent should be extended to sado-masochistic activities.

Then, in words resonant of Lord Devlin, he expressed his own opinion: ‘Society is entitled and bound to protect itself against a cult of violence. Pleasure derived from the infliction of pain is an evil thing. Cruelty is uncivilised.’ He dismissed the men’s appeal. Lord Mustill, dissenting, declared, in words reminiscent of Professor Hart, that: ‘the state should interfere with the rights of an individual to live his or her life as he or she may choose no more than is necessary to ensure a proper balance between the special interests of the individual and the general interests of the elvis life, individuals who together comprise the bbc bitesize, populace at elvis presley large.’ He conceded that many people would find the defendants’ conduct repulsive. Nevertheless, that feeling of repulsion did not, in Testing of Meditation Essay his view, justify the men’s conviction. The defence of consent was also considered in the case of R v Wilson (1996). At his wife’s request, Alan Wilson branded his initials (‘AW’) on her buttocks.

Hearing the appeal against conviction for ABH, Russell LJ explained: ‘Consensual activity between husband and wife, in the privacy of the matrimonial home, is elvis, not, in our judgment, a proper matter for criminal investigation, let alone criminal prosecution.’ It is possible that this result would be welcomed by both Devlin and Hart, the former because the ordinary man might well regard Wilson’s conduct with amusement rather than disgust, the and meiosis, latter because such activity falls within the realm of private morality and does not create a public nuisance. This case illustrates concern for the autonomy of the individual, a concern also evident in the Court of Appeal judgment in elvis St George’s NHS Healthcare Trust v S (1998). In 1996, a woman who was approximately 36 weeks pregnant was diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and advised that she needed urgent attention, otherwise her life and that of the summary, unborn child would be in danger. When she rejected this advice, she was detained under s2 of the Mental Health Act 1983, and a court order was granted to carry out elvis presley a caesarean section operation without her consent. The Court of Appeal ruled that an adult of sound mind is mitosis, entitled to presley, refuse medical treatment, and this entitlement is not reduced because her decision might appear morally repugnant, bizarre or irrational.

The right to refuse medical treatment in this situation is only available where the woman is deemed to be competent. This language is skimming, reminiscent of the decision of the House of Lords in Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority and the DHSS (1985). The mother of girls under the age of consent had sought a court declaration that their doctors would not be allowed to prescribe contraceptive pills to her daughters without her knowledge. The House of later Lords declared that a ‘competent child’, who had sufficient understanding of the issues involved, could decide for herself without her parents being informed. The decisions in Essay on Industry both these cases illustrate how the autonomy of the individual can override other considerations, such as the interests of the presley later, unborn child, and parental responsibility. However, such autonomy is not absolute.

Diane Pretty suffered from motor-neurone disease, a terminal condition. She wanted her husband to be allowed to help her to end her life peacefully and The Effects of Meditation with dignity. Presley Life! In 2001, the House of Lords and the European Court of Human Rights rejected her application, ruling that a right to life does not include a right to end life. Her application conflicted with broader issues of Essay public morality. Parliament must also confront issues of public morality. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 introduced regulations for the creation, storage and use of human embryos outside of the presley, human body. It also introduced a statutory licensing authority to oversee the operation of the Act. In 2004, as a result of the invisible ellison advances in reproductive medicine and changes in public morality, the government began a review of the 1990 Act, leading to later life, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill 2008. Among its features are:

1 a new concept of parenthood for a mother’s female partner: 2 statutory approval to be given to ‘saviour siblings’, i.e. children born from the invisible man ralph, embryos that have been genetically screened to ensure they share the same tissue type as the sick, live sibling. 3 in relation to later life, children born after surrogacy arrangements, same sex couples and unmarried opposite sex couples to passport, enjoy the same rights to parenthood as married couples now an increase in the type of embryo research that will be permitted, including the use of later life hybrid embryos. This Bill has been described in on Parliament as ‘a pragmatic fusion between science and the social morals of today’. Elements of it are certainly consistent with other recent legislation. In 2004, the Civil Partnership Act allowed partners of the same biological sex to enter into elvis later life a civil partnership giving them the same rights and responsibilities as heterosexual married couples. What Is Price! These include property rights, exemptions on presley, inheritance tax, pension rights, and next-of-kin rights. In 2006, Parliament passed the Equality Act. This forbids schools, businesses and other agencies from discriminating on the basis of ellison age, disability, gender, race, religion or sexual orientation. Under the terms of this Act, adoption agencies have to consider applications for adoption from homosexual couples. The Roman Catholic Church sought an exemption from this provision, arguing that this went against its teachings.

However, the government refused to yield ground, instead granting religious adoption agencies 21 months to prepare to implement the new rules. Task : Complete the activity on Law and morality and topical issues by presley later completing the attached research activity. The research activity page with links to all relevant issues in the word document. Below are two video clips that may help you understand the issues: Mandatory life Sentence and the European Convention on Human Rights.

Anti terrorsm Laws and search and arrest procedures. Task: Write the following essay on Law and Morality using the essay plan at this link. Consider the man ralph, view that there is a close relationship between law and morality. Examine the debate as to whether the law should reflect moral values, and discuss issues which show the continuing importance of that debate. (30marks + 5 QWC)

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The Ultimate List of life, AP English Literature Tips. The AP English Literature and Composition exam is designed to Music test your ability to think critically and analyze literary excerpts. The test is three hours long and consists of a multiple-choice portion (worth 45% of elvis, your grade) and an essay portion (worth 55% of bbc bitesize and meiosis, your grade). Here are some tips to help you get on your way to making a 5 on the AP Literature exam. Before you start studying for the AP Literature exam at the end of the later life, year, you need some tips on how to survive the course itself. Advance Placement (AP) courses are deliberately designed to be more difficult than the standard high school classes; they are meant to challenge you. AP courses, English Literature included, require a great deal of studying to make good grades throughout the year.

The assignments you are graded on throughout the the invisible ellison summary, year help you prepare for presley, the AP exam at the end of the year. Here are some helpful hints to getting you through the AP English Literature course. 1. Complete Any and what is price All Summer Work Assigned: AP Literature, as its title indicates, requires a lot of reading. Elvis Later Life! Chances are, your teacher will provide you with a reading list and expect the the invisible, required titles to be read when you walk into your first day of class. In some cases, you may even be assigned a report or project to be completed before you begin the class. This is more for the teacher to presley later view what literary skills you already possess and what skills will need to be taught to mitosis and meiosis you.

However, this doesnt mean you should take the work assigned lightly. If you take it seriously and complete a proficient assignment, it will show your teacher that you are in the course to learn. This attitude will make the school year a lot more bearable for both you and presley life your instructor. 2. Go to Class: Missing class leads to missing material. Missing material leads to lower scores on assignments. Lower scores on assignments lead to lower scores on the exam at the end of the passport, year. Elvis Later Life! The bottom line is: dont miss class if you can help it. 3. Teach Yourself the Material: AP English Literature instructors dont have time to teach you everything. Since you are probably only in mitosis and meiosis, their presence for an hour or two, they have learned to prioritize the material they have to teach. Because of this, you wont get as in-depth of explanations on some concepts as others. You need to learn how to teach yourself the material to really make the most out of this course.

You can really get creative with this. You can teach yourself by conducting good old fashioned research, or just by reading the elvis, assigned texts. Or, you can expand your knowledge a little more. You can look up videos on YouTube concerning the topics you need help understanding. You can also use Albert.io to test yourself on different areas covered in a typical AP English Literature class.

4. Testing Of Meditation Essay! Learn How to Analyze Text: Analyzing literary text is an incredibly large portion of the AP English Literature course. Its important that you learn how to examine the text as a whole, and in part. Generally speaking, its important that you analyze the setting, characters, and plot of the piece. However, its also imperative that you understand how to elvis presley later look deeper within the words. Deconstruct the text and examine its theme, look for literary devices, and motives. 5. Read: This is literature! Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of reading done. Bbc Bitesize Mitosis! This does not necessarily mean that you have to aim to read an elvis, outrageous number of books or anything.

You just need to at least make an attempt to read every day. The Effects Of Meditation Essay! As you read, try to dissect the depth of the text. After a few days of this, youll be surprised at elvis later life, how easy analysis can come to you once you train your mind to question everything. 6. Ask Questions: Your teacher is there to help; its their job. If theres anything you dont understand, be sure to ask your instructor. Theres nothing wrong with asking for help, and in bbc bitesize mitosis, the end, youll be thankful you did. Understanding a concept you previously had trouble with is sure to be a huge weight off of your shoulders. 7. Life! Form a Study Group: Studying with other people has been proven to help test scores. It provides an opportunity to approach subject matter from different angles.

Some people in your group may know certain concepts better than you, and man ralph vice versa. One of the best ways to make sure you know the material is to teach it to others. 8. Experiment: Everyone has different preferences when it comes to studying. Maybe youre a visual learner. Life! Perhaps you like to what skimming listen to material to really understand it. Elvis Presley Later! The best way to find out what form of studying helps you best is to experiment. Skimming! Try different methods to see what works best for presley life, you. Plus, keeping a variety in your study routine helps keep boredom at bay. Now that you have a grasp on how to get through the actual coursework of mitosis, your AP English Literature and Composition class, its time to learn how to presley later study for the exam at bbc bitesize mitosis, the end of the year. First, well take a look at some tips that are sure to elvis presley later help you ace the first portion of the summary, AP Literature exam: the life, multiple-choice section.

This portion is worth 45% of your total score and Essay Pros and Cons Crops it consists of several passages to read and 55 questions to answer, which you have exactly one hour to complete. Lets get started. Start your AP English Literature Prep today. AP English Literature Multiple-Choice Tips. 1. First, Read the Passages: Yes, you read that correctly. Its a common misconception that you should read the questions before reading the elvis later, passage, so you can work quickly and scan the text for what is price, the correct answer.

One vital thing to remember is this: quicker isnt always better. On a timed exam, it is important to work at elvis presley later life, a brisk pace, but do not move so quickly that you make simple mistakes. Its best to read the Essay and Cons of Genetically Modified, passages before even glancing at the questions because it prevents error. Later Life! By merely scanning the passage for the answers, youre missing out on a plethora of spa safety, content that could be vital to answering questions correctly later on in the test. 2. Look Deep Within the Text: Its extremely important that you analyze the passages within the elvis presley later life, exam very carefully. Chances are, there will be questions on Essay Pros and Cons Crops, the tone of the passage, or the later life, authors purpose for writing it. Was it to inform or persuade the audience? Perhaps the author used some literary devices like allusions or irony.

Closely read the passages and you will have no problem identifying the answers to questions that are specific to the literature side of AP English. 3. Carefully Read the Questions: If you dont understand what the skimming, question is asking, you cant possibly expect to know the answer. Take a deep breath and life calmly read the questions, dissecting them completely. This will be easier to do for passport, some questions than for others. Presley Later! Once you understand what it is spa safety, exactly the question is asking, try to later life recall where in the passage the answer could be located. Also be sure to read the question in its entirety. Sometimes, the writers of the test will throw in certain words or phrases that lead the question in a different direction. For example, the words EXCEPT and NOT are often used at the end of questions, and this can confuse you. If you hadnt read that one tiny word, all of the answers may seem right and you may waste time stumped on a question.

4. Read Every Answer Choice: Some questions will be more difficult than others. Some questions are even designed to trip you up. Be sure to read every single word in every single answer choice; sometimes one word can make all the difference as to whether or not an passport, answer is correct. 5. Elvis Later! Reread Parts of the Passage: If time permits, reread the of Meditation Essay, parts of the text in which answers are located. Be sure the information matches one of the answer choices. Elvis Life! You may even want to spa safety put a star, dash, or some other marking beside portions of the text that contain answers.

That way, if you have extra time at presley, the end of the test, you can go back and check your answers more quickly. 6. Use Your Time Wisely: This is a timed exam. 60 minutes to complete 55 questions. This allows for an average of a minute per question, with some leftover time to account for reading passages. You have absolutely no time to Essay sit at later life, your desk staring blankly at questions you dont quite understand. Luckily, there is no penalty for answers marked wrongor answers not marked at allon the AP English Literature exam.

This means you should definitely skip the questions youre unsure of. Mark them in some sort of way so that it is noticeable that you havent answered them yet. Then, if you have some time at the end of the test, you can go back and see if you can come up with the answer. Alternatively, if you cant seem to man ralph summary find an later, answer: guess! Remember, youre only graded on the number of questions you get right; theres absolutely no penalty for getting a question wrong. 7. Formulate Summaries: If you are a fast worker, this tip may prove extremely helpful for you.

A few of the Pros and Cons of Genetically Crops, multiple-choice questions may test your overall comprehension of the passages you read. In the margins of the page beside the elvis later, passage, jot down a few bullet points outlining the plot progression. Pros And Cons Modified! This way you can refer back to your notes when answering questions rather than searching the entire text. 8. Make Flashcards: Flashcards are a great way to study specific terms or brief concepts. Since you will be tested on your understanding of certain terms, it is important that you know them like the back of your hand. Try making flashcards of different literary devices and review them periodically throughout the semester. 9. Study Everywhere: This may seem a bit extreme, but it really helps. Take the presley later, flashcards youve made with you wherever you go.

Keep them in your wallet, in your purse, or even in your car. Whenever you have a moment of free time, instead of scrolling through Twitter or Facebook on your phone, run through a review of bbc bitesize mitosis, your terms. Itll stick better in your memory and help your AP Literature exam score in the long run. 10. Test Yourself: The most helpful and effective way to prepare for the multiple-choice portion of the AP English Literature exam is by testing yourself. Elvis Later! Prepare early in the semester for the exam. Periodically, take practice multiple-choice tests on the content youve learned so far. Mitosis! There are several websites out life, there dedicated to helping you quiz yourself for the AP Literature exam.

One of these is Albert.io , which allows you to test your abilities on nearly every concept covered in on The Pros Crops, the AP English Literature course. 11. Elvis! Dont Stress It: The AP English Literature exam is one big test. Testing Of Meditation Essay! Sure, it affects the amount of presley, college credit you receive coming out of bbc bitesize, high school. But at the end of the day, its just a test. Anxiety and stress can severely affect your ability to function correctly. Over time, it can even start to have negative effects on your mind and body.

Some people even develop anxiety disorders. Just remember, your mental health is more important than your grades. Take a deep breath periodically throughout the test. Elvis Presley! Itll help calm your body and soothe your mind so you can concentrate better. Now that you have some tips on how to tackle the multiple-choice portion of the AP English Literature exam, its time to focus on the most challenging part: the free response portion.

In this portion, you have two hours to complete three essays. This section tests your ability to analyze passages and dissect them to form logical interpretations to be illustrated in your essays. Start your AP English Literature Prep today. Here are some tips for nailing the free response portion of the what skimming, AP English Literature and Composition exam: AP English Literature Free Response Portion Tips. 1. Later! Read the Question: The first step towards writing an awesome essay on the AP Literature exam is reading (and understanding) the question. What are the authors of the test asking for specifically?

The answer to this question is the key to writing a well-rounded essay. The scorers of the free response portion want essays that are clear and is price straight to the point. Simply restating the prompt will result in a huge deduction of points. Elvis Later! Regurgitating the question will show the reader that you may not be confident in your ability to dissect passages. This is an Testing The Effects Essay, extremely bad impression to give, since the interpretation of text is the basis of the entire course. 2. Come Up with a Thesis: A well-written thesis is the later life, basis of all successful essays. As mentioned previously, do NOT restate the question. Come up with your own unique topic sentence to answer the question. Make it brief and to bbc bitesize mitosis and meiosis the point. You have the rest of the essay to elaborate on your thesis; that will be your body.

3. Stay Organized: Organization is presley life, key to writing a great essay. Prepare an outline within the first few minutes of writing your essay. Perhaps even use a diagram, if youre a visual learner. Essay Of Genetically Modified Crops! A clear and precise outline can help prevent rambling when answering the question in your essay. 4. Use a High-Level Vocabulary: Since this is an exam for an Advanced Placement English course, it is imperative that you use a vocabulary that reflects a higher level of education.

However, be sure that you use your impressive vocabulary in context. Nothing looks worse than using a word incorrectly in your essay. Be careful: only use words in which you know the definition. 5. Use Your Resources: On the first two essays, you will be asked to read a passage and analyze it according to the instructions given in the question. Use the passage to your advantage. Life! Frequently refer back to specific parts of the Essay on The Pros and Cons, text. Presley! This will show the readers that you paid very close attention to detail when reading the passage. Passport! The specific references display the ability to close read, which is a skill covered frequently in elvis life, an AP English Literature course.

6. Prepare Early: The third free response question on the AP Literature exam is what is price, more open ended than the later, first two. You will be asked a question and you will be given the opportunity to answer it pertaining to a work of literature that you have read in class. Its important that you keep this particular essay question in mind as you work throughout the semester. If a particular work of literature stands out to you, prepare early to choose this as the piece to Testing of Meditation write about in your third essay. 7. Practice, Practice, Practice: As they say, practice really does make perfect.

A good option for practicing free response questions involves searching the Internet for old exam rubrics. These show you exactly what the scorers are looking for in an essay. The AP Literature section of AP Central, a website created by the College Board to elvis later help with studying for exams, has several practice exams for your use. Take advantage of this and practice writing essays using different prompts from previous exams. 8. Use a Good Writing Utensil: Nothing is worse than getting halfway through an and Cons of Genetically, essay and having your pen run out of life, ink, or your pencil getting smudged. Often, readers prefer the look and clarity of black ink to colored ink or the graphite of pencil. Take that into mind when going into the free response portion of the exam.

9. Pace Yourself: Before the free response portion begins, work out how much time you need to spend on each question. It may even be helpful to bring a watch to time yourself on each essay. Testing The Effects Of Meditation Essay! You need to give yourself ample time to complete each question. However, you also need to be sure that you are not rushing through the questions and leaving vital information out of your essays. 10. Write Neatly: The clarity of your writing is elvis presley, necessary for a good score on your essay. On Industry! If the reader cannot decipher your chicken scratch, how can they possibly score it? 11. Dont Leave Questions Blank: Although this may be acceptable for the multiple-choice portion of the life, exam, it is absolutely inexcusable for your essays.

You only get three chances to prove your competency in the free response portion. Take advantage of this opportunity to show the readers how much youve learned from Essay on taking this AP course. 12. Understand What the Readers are Looking For: As we said earlier, rubrics are a great resource to use when preparing for the AP Literature exam. They reflect exactly how your essay will be scored. Its vital to understand exactly what the readers are looking for in a good essay. This includes:

a) Plot comprehension: Whether or not you understand what is happening in the passages given to you to read. Pay close attention to the plot and how it develops as the story progresses. b) Theme comprehension: Whether or not you understand the theme of the passage. The theme is the dominating central idea in a work. Its vital that you recognize the elvis presley, theme very early on Essay on Music Industry, in your essay.

c) Plot References: The more references to the plot that you have in your essay, the better. However, this does not mean restate the entire storyline. Elvis Presley Life! This will bore the reader and make it seem like you are dancing around the question. Spa Safety! Scorers like for you to be very clear and to the point in your essays. d) Mature Voice: The voice of your essay is an incredibly important characteristic used in scoring. If it is too lighthearted, it may come across that you care little about the elvis presley later life, exam. However, if your voice is bbc bitesize, too serious, your reader may get confused or overwhelmed. A happy median should be found right away to provide your essay with clarity and maturity.

13. Listen to Your Teacher: This is perhaps the most important of all the free response tips. Over the course of the semester, your teacher will provide you with ample advice for the exam. Pay close attention to your teachers guidance. If the information your teacher gives you wasnt relevant, they wouldnt waste their time giving it to you. Your instructor knows the exam; its only logical to follow their advice. The AP English Literature and elvis presley Composition exam is all about analysis of Essay on The and Cons of Genetically Modified, different literary works.

Hopefully these tips will help you tackle this massive exam with ease. Tips Submitted by AP English Literature Teachers. 1. Always remember the elvis, authors purpose. Retelling what happened in the story is not an analysis. You must understand and relay why the bbc bitesize mitosis, author wrote it the way he/she did and what he/she is elvis presley, trying to tell readers! Thats crucial! Thanks for the tip from bbc bitesize mitosis Kim F. from Tavares High. 2. Be original. Elvis! Think about the fact that the passport, AP Test readers have been looking at essays on the same topics for three days.

What will you do to be original and elvis later stand out that will surprise the mitosis, reader at 4:30 pm on day three? Brainstorm what everyone else will say before writing. Then, dont write on those topics. Elvis Later Life! Thanks for the tip from Mike G. from MPS. 3. Box the but because shift happens. That way they remember to always look for any kind of shift because that will usually lead to complexity in bbc bitesize mitosis and meiosis, meaning. Later! Thanks for the tip from Amber B. at man ralph, Madison County Schools.

4. Answer the question as it is actually asked. Its easy to see a title or an author and later jump to conclusions, and sometimes that means students are writing about what they think the question is skimming, asking instead of what the question actually is asking. In the pressure to complete three essays in presley, 120 minutes, its an easy mistake to make and a good one to avoid! Thanks for the tip from Heather I. from Niles North. 5. Answer the question in the introduction. Thanks for the tip from Rhonda G. from Sante Fe Public Schools. 6. Focused writing on two or three aspects of the text (characterization, use of devices, etc) accompanied with analysis will generate a higher score than lightly touching on 5 to 7 aspects. As a reader we are happy that you can identify techniques, but what we are looking for is analysis. Thanks for the tip from Matt U. at Liberty High. 7. Always answer the question: So What? Yes, the writer used an extended metaphor, so what? Why did they chose that metaphor?

How does that choice reflect the authors intent? What effect does it create within the text and Essay on The Crops within the reader? Provide the reader with the so what to help drive your analysis deeper. Thanks for the second tip from Matt U. at Liberty High. 8. Brush up on your vocabulary if you dont understand the presley later life, vocabulary used in the questions and/or answers, you will not be able to find the correct answer. There are many words with multiple meanings / nuances of meaning that will bring you to the wrong conclusion. Pay attention to The Effects the wording of the questions and answers! Thanks for the tip from Susan R. from Palm Beach Gardens High. 9. Students who read widely and regularly are far more prepared to write and communicate clearly with a deeper understanding than students who do not read. Reading expands knowledge, vocabulary usage and comprehension and enables students to make connections within and between content areas which real world applications.

Thanks for the tip from Elizabeth B. from Harrison High. 10. Dont worry about writing a fully-developed introduction and conclusion. Presley! Instead, use your time to focus on meaning. What important insights do you have to share? Make sure you provide much more analysis than plot summary.

Begin with a clear thesis and end with one strong concluding statement. Thanks for the tip from Julie H. from Greenville High. 11. Read Huck Finn and Hamlet (or Othello), plus a modern play (Death of a Salesman works) for your big guns for Essay Pros of Genetically, question 3. Elvis Presley Later! Mark your essay questions (circle action verbs and underline focus) and create a quick outline before writing. The time spent will prevent the heartache of not addressing the The Effects of Meditation, prompt. Itd be Peggy C. from Cherokee County Schools. 12. Each essay is worth the same amount of points, but one is set for you to shine know three books really well so that you can rock the free-response essay. On the test do it first while your mind is elvis, still fresh. Thanks for the tip from Diane S. from man ralph ellison summary Frederick High School.

13. Go online to the AP test page and check out the various student essays from prior years. What makes an essay a 9? 7? or even a 4? There are usually reader comments at the end of the essay which adds further clarity to how readers score essays. Studying how other students have answered prompts acts as a guide and elvis presley later life serves as exemplar models for best writing. Learning how to write well from those who have done well is a practice students appreciate. Thanks for and Cons of Genetically Crops, the tip from Pam W. from Sandpoint High. 14.

Find a good literary timeline to conceptualize what you read in terms of the art movement and historical time period. These can provide insight into the texts as well as help you remember what you have read. Thanks for the tip from Paul H. at Walled Lake Central High. 15. Have four novels of literary quality and one play that the student is elvis life, comfortable analyzing so no question #3 can stump the student. Thanks for bbc bitesize mitosis, the tip from Bill O. from elvis presley life El Molino High.

16. What Skimming! For all poetry: a. analyze the central purpose, b. explain the speakers attitude toward the subject, c. Analyze any figurative language. Thanks for elvis presley, the second tip from mitosis and meiosis Bill O. from El Molino High. 17. Never be unacceptably brief: Even if the selections is difficult therell be something in it all students can analyze. Analyze that and then keep writing! Thanks for the third tip from Bill O. from later life El Molino High. 18. Learn and practice using the language and function of Essay on, literature, poetry, and rhetoric. Plan and execute their usage in your style, syntax, and art, and use the language when critiquing in workshops and later life discussing classics. Thanks for the tip from Jon A. from Arts and Communication Magnet Academy.

19. Do not merely skim to point out literary devices. (I used to say Dont Wheres Waldo the is price, device but this may be a copy write issue.) Zoom deep into the text to identify the device, explain in detail how the device is functioning and then zoom out to explain how it works to support the passage as a whole and how it connects to the universal human condition. This means the difference between writing a college level paper and writing a high school level paper. Thanks for the tip from Jodi G. from Saugus High. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 20. Deconstruct the elvis, prompt make sure you understand exactly what it is asking you to do then use it as a focus for your annotation of the text on mitosis, Q1 and elvis later Q2 and as a launching point for your notes and thesis for Q3. Essay On! Thanks for the tip from elvis later life Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 21. Focus on two primary ideas (literary devices, elements of composition, etc) for Essay on The Pros Crops, each essay in order to go deeper in analysis of each.

Do not try to say something about everything you see, say everything about one or two somethings! Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 22. Take 10-12 minutes to later life read and deconstruct the prompt, annotate the poem or passage and develop a thesis before you begin writing the essay. That thinking and planning time will help you remain focused which will ensure that your essay is Modified Crops, clear and cohesive. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High.

23. Watch your time and MAKE SURE to write every essay a blank essay score is very difficult to overcome! Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 24. Use something youve read in later life, AP Lit for Q3 you will have spent more time and analytical energy on those books and plays than you did in any other English class. Prepare for Q3 before the exam by reviewing everything youve read in AP Lit.

Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 25. Pick two texts, one classic and on Industry one modern, get to know them backward and forward as well as the historical context around them. Elvis! Thanks for the tip from is price Michelle Y. from Forest Park High. 26. Address all aspects of the prompt! Look for elvis, complexity! Thanks for the tip from Lori Mill Creek High School. 27.

Audience, Occasion Purpose Whether youre speaking, reading or writing, youre thinking: Audience, Occasion Purpose. Thanks for the tip from Mike L at Tilton School. 28. Turn your words into pictures and Essay on Industry your pictures into words. Meaning: If you have an idea, anchor it to something concrete. Later Life! If you have something concrete, associate it with an idea. Thanks for the tip from Jeff T at Lynden Christian High School. 29. When writing essays, always tie your thoughts to the text (embed quotes)!

Always linking your points back to the text forces you to use evidence for each claim you make. 30. Analyze not summarize! Thanks for the tip from Lynne B. at Buchholz High School. 31. Debate the the invisible man ralph, questions. Get students to debate the answers to elvis later AP multiple choice questions without your help. After they quiz on a passage and the questions for it, ask them how they think they did.

The answer is always mixed, so give them an option: Keep the score they currently have OR discuss the answers in the invisible man ralph, a large group without teachers help and take that community grade. They always pick the latter. Participating in the discussion helps students practice justifying their answers (tell them you will keep track to make sure that everyone participates as least ___ time(s).) As you observe their process, you will gain all kinds of presley later, insight into students thinking process, they will learn from the ways their classmates explain their choices, and what their scores are almost always 100! Thanks for the tip from Wendy R from Weslaco East High School. Are you a teacher or student? Do you have an awesome tip? Let us know!

Start your AP English Literature Prep today. Looking for AP English Literature practice? Educators, are you looking to improve student outcomes? Rigorous, standards-aligned interactive learning for all AP courses. College Entrance. Up-to-date learning supplements for SAT and ACT. Differentiated Foundations. Math, literacy, and writing supplements for school-wide implementations.

NGSS Engage. An innovative CCSS-aligned supplement to accelerate NGSS adoption. Ahhh.grammatical error in your textyou need a period or exclamation point after literature. Presley Life! (See below) 5. Read: This is a literature Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of. Thank you for catching that. We have fixed it! These tips will be very helpful for me during this year of AP Lit.

I found tip 23 most important because I always take to the invisible man ralph summary much time on things like the intro that I dont realize Im wasting much of my time. Thanks for sharing what you found most helpful, Antonio! *AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of the presley, College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and Industry does not endorse this product. ACT is a registered trademark of ACT, Inc., which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GMAT is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council, which was not involved in elvis presley life, the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

GRE is a registered trademark of of Meditation, Educational Testing Services (ETS), which was not involved in the production of, and later life does not endorse, this product.

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A(Mary)can, Again: Work. Run. Travel. Sleep. Repeat. I don't have an big travel plans in the works as of right now, but I'm attending grad school soon and I'm trying some new running/racing feats, so I'll talk about elvis presley, that for now. This was, for a time, a recounting of my travels, including my time in Peace Corps in Cambodia, as well as stories of my travels to what skimming, Nicaragua, Ireland, Tanzania, and all over the US. Presley! Essay 1: Peace Corps service presents major physical, emotional, and intellectual challenges.

You have provided information on how you qualify for Peace Corps service elsewhere in the application. In the space below, please provide a statement (between 250 - 500 words) that includes: #8226; Your reasons for the invisible ellison wanting to elvis life, serve as a Peace Corps Volunteer; and. #8226; How these reasons are related to your past experiences and Essay, life goals. #8226; How you expect to satisfy the Peace Corps 10 Core Expectations (please be specific about which expectations you expect to find most challenging and how you plan to overcome these challenges). When an e-mail advertising a volunteer opportunity in presley life Tanzania arrived in my inbox, I jumped at the chance to apply. Testing The Effects! After anxiously awaiting my acceptance, I was thrilled to have the opportunity to presley later, experience Africa, a lifelong dream of mine. Despite my continued interest in sexual health, I expected teaching about AIDS to be a challenge. People are afraid to speak about the bbc bitesize, disease and misinformation abounds because of excessive stigma. Presley Life! In African culture, the disease functions as something that not only wears away an individual#8217;s body, but tears at the heart of the community. Traveling to Tanzania transformed me in innumerable ways, but the most obvious being a much-needed boost to my drive to help others. After two years at a university in Los Angeles, I had become disheartened in my volunteer efforts and Essay and Cons Crops, my impact on the community.

I felt that my efforts were mired in the egocentric culture of presley later Hollywood, and man ralph, my disappointment began to affect my education plans. All of that changed upon presley later life my return home from Tanzania. Summary! I am now interning with Planned Parenthood in education, a choice that teaching abroad empowered me to make. Presley! I am planning to pursue a graduate degree in public health, because it is a growing field of study that I am very passionate about, in the hopes that it will prepare me with the background information and skills to Essay on Music, eventually work abroad in an HIV-related field. Upon reflecting on my trip to elvis life, Sub-Saharan Africa, I realized that although I went to help others, I ended up helping myself more. I found within myself a strength I never knew I had. With this realization, I know that I can fulfill the 10 Core Expectations, if not with ease, then with the spa safety passport, strength I pull from within myself. The only problem I could foresee facing is that I am a woman of strong opinions who is always willing to share if asked. Elvis Presley Life! However, my experience with cultures that are not my own has taught me to be more sensitive in sharing my values. Ultimately, I feel that I will be able to tactfully handle whatever is Music thrown my way in my Peace Corps experience. Essay 2: Your success as a Peace Corps Volunteer is based on the trust and confidence you build by living in, and respectfully integrating yourself into, your host community and culture (Core Expectation #4).

Describe an experience you have had in living or working in a social or cultural environment different from elvis presley later life, your own. Testing The Effects Of Meditation Essay! What specific challenges did you face concerning trust, confidence, and/or integration? What did you learn from presley later life, this experience that you will bring with you to your Peace Corps service? While in this market, I learned perhaps one of the and meiosis, most significant lessons of traveling: the importance of language. Elvis Later Life! Language has enormous power to either unite or isolate people. I will never forget the passport, look on the face of a woman at a stall when a fellow American volunteer broke out in almost perfect Swahili. Not only elvis presley, did we get a price reduction, but we changed their perception of us as mere tourists.

I learned a valuable lesson about language: bridge the passport, gap, and people will be more accepting of what you have to presley life, offer them. Essay On The Modified Crops! In a situation such as volunteer work, I learned that I can only help as much as my help is accepted, and that it is my responsibility to do all I can to bridge that gap through honest communication. When I travel, I do my best to fit in with the local people wherever I may go. While my appearance may help me to elvis life, integrate into some countries with ease, in other countries it alerts people to the fact that I am most definitely a traveler. I believe that becoming fluent in the language and attempting to dress the part of a local, while respecting the people and their cultural traditions, is the best recipe for acceptance.

While in Tanzania, I went to great lengths to attempt to fit in, both by getting my hair braided weekly and by wearing locally made clothes whenever I could. Those around me appreciated my efforts, or at least found humor in it, which I learned is another way of Essay on Music bridging gaps. Every time I would return from a trip to the braider, my home-stay mama would exclaim, #8220;Albeeno!#8221; and then just laugh and laugh. I loved these encounters, because my mama spoke very little English, so watching her laugh and smile at my jokes, facial expressions, and my attempts to try to elvis presley later, be Tanzanian is one of the fondest memories I have of her. Through this experience I learned that I could have an impact on somebody without ever having to use words.

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Engagement and Learning What Is_? Programme. 'How was your performance today?' I could be asking a teacher, a driver, a stockbroker or a lover. 'Performance' is later life, a recurrent term within today's general lexicon, yet practitioners and theorists in the field of Performance Studies disagree as to what constitutes this nebulous art form. Essay On The Pros And Cons? In the context of the contemporary art world it allows us to suggest a practice full of paradoxes, wilfully refusing to be fenced in. As a starting point, allow me to guide you through an undulating path of definitions or suggestions on the road to understanding Performance Art. Presley Later Life? I will not be directing you towards a signpost marked 'Performance Art' because there is no such thing. But if there were, you would find a plethora of practioners squabbling at its base, with the live durational performance artists staging an bbc bitesize, infinite sit-in. Performance is an 'essentially contested concept'. 1 Practitioners and theorists occupy this space of disagreement, allowing the field to unfold and incorporate a multitude of later practices. Amelia Jones explains that Body art and passport performance art have been defined as constitutive of postmodernism because of their fundamental subversion of modernism's assumption that fixed meanings are determinable through the formal structure of the work alone. 2 Performance Art cannot be described simply in terms of a particular structure or work.

All forms and media are at the artist's disposal. Santiago Sierra's work Veterans of the later life, Wars of Northern Ireland, Afghanistan and Iraq facing the The Effects of Meditation, corner, 2011 at the Manchester Gallery of Art simply installed a performer in a bare room for seven hours a day over nine days. Pauline Cummins and Louise Walsh collaborated on their 1992 Sounding the Depths video, photographic and sound installation, projecting mouths onto each other's bodies; proclaiming bodily ownership amid this turbulent period of lack of control over Irish women's bodies. Indeed, Performance Art cannot be said to stem from presley later any one particular discipline: theatre, dance or the visual arts. London's Live Art Development Agency describe Live Art as 'a gene pool of artists, whose work is rooted in a broad church of disciplines, they have crossed each other's paths, blurred each other's edges and, in the process, opened up new creative forms.

3 With practices from different art forms performing (excuse the Essay on The and Cons Modified Crops, pun), Performance Art is, then, interdisciplinary, collapsing the boundaries between disciplines. This essay, however, focuses on performance .in the visual arts, a practice ubiquitous in the contemporary art world. Performance Art is contingent, simply, on the presence (and absence) of the elvis, body. The body, site, audience and time are its four pillars, with corporeal action the central axis. Artists turned to the physical body and brought an 'aliveness', a temporality and instability to artworks. Typical understanding of Performance Art is as a solo practice with the artist's body-as-medium at its core; an embodied practice. But the practice may also incorporate other bodies: performers and audience members. In 2010 Dominic Thorpe made a live, durational performance in the 126 gallery, Galway, completely in darkness. Redress State, Questions Imagined gave the audience small torches to illuminate the mitosis, darkened performance site as they wished, engaging the viewer in presley an auditory, sense experience. Thorpe's removal of one of our senses refocused our experience of his work into spa safety a physical, embodied one.

It is the action of the body, the authenticity of an activity, that frames it as Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg describes the context thus: '. the live presence of the elvis life, artist, and the focus on the artist's body, became central to notions of 'the real', and a yardstick for installation and video art. 4. Performance Art, from bbc bitesize mitosis its beginnings, occurred in both alternative and formal locations. Site is elvis presley, a potent element in the framing of the work. A work of live performance on the street will have a distinct reading to one viewed in a gallery context. Indeed a performative video or photograph shot on the street has a different interpretation to one shot in a studio. This essay is littered with examples of live performance works with the site listed as a significant element to Testing The Effects the manifestation of the works. Time, or what is called duration in Performance Art, is presley later life, a critical element. Essay On The Pros And Cons Modified? Performance Art is a time-based practice.

Durational work generally anything over three hours is a particular strand of practice and later inevitably brings with it elements of endurance. What? Endurance comes in presley different forms; from the grande endurance or masochistic performance 5 to the petite endurance, occurring in is price performances that explore everyday life. 6. With the body at the centre of elvis later performance practice, what kind of activity occurs? The influential Performance Studies scholar and theatre director Richard Schechner describes performance as 'an ephemeral event which shares characteristics with a nexus of activities including play, game, sport, and ritual. 7 Consider the passport, following artworks:

Chris Burden, Shoot, 1971. Burden walked into F Space gallery, California and had himself shot in elvis later the arm. Marina Abramovic /ULAY, Rest Energy, 1980, ROSC '80, Dublin. A bow and arrow is of Meditation Essay, held taut by the performers' body weight, the arrow pointed directly at Abramovic's heart. One slip or break in concentration and the arrow could pierce Abramovic's heart. Franko B, I Miss You!, 2002, Tate Modern. Elvis Life? Franko walked up and down a catwalk, bleeding from the on Music Industry, veins in each arm, painting the canvas-covered floor with his blood. Works such as these are often thought of when considering Performance Art; sensational and elvis presley risky, they challenge the very integrity of the corporeal body, and are emblematic of grande endurance works.

Performance practice, even from the 1960s and '70s, also includes works focusing more on participation and what is price transforming everyday actions: Dennis Oppenheim, Reading Position for Second Degree Burn, 1970. A photographic work in two parts. Elvis? Oppenheim lies on the beach, firstly with a book over his chest and latterly without the book, displaying evidence of sunburn with the shadow of the absent book. Joseph Beuys, Bureau for Direct Democracy, 1972. A live performance. Mitosis? Over the elvis presley, 100 days of Documenta 5, Beuys invited the audience to engage in conversation with him on democracy and bbc bitesize mitosis politics. Pipilotti Rist, Ever is Over All, 1997. A performance to presley video. A young woman walks along a city street, smashing the on The Pros and Cons Modified, windows of parked cars with a large tropical flower. Performance Art the Performing Arts.

The Performing Arts refers to theatre, dance, opera and the circus. Cultural anthropologist Victor Turner made a key distinction between Performance Art and the Performing Arts when he declared Performance Art as: 'making, not faking'. 8 Put simply, the elvis, artist is actually shot in the arm, car windows are really smashed, skin is truly sunburned. These are not illusions but actual bodily experiences. In the 1970s, Performance Art stood in direct opposition to of Meditation theatre. As the form has developed this oppositional distinction is not as relevant, due to many crossovers and similarities.

Performance occupies an in-between place. The performance artist is not 'acting' in the traditional theatrical sense. They are not performing themselves but not not performing themselves either. The performance frame is contingent and temporary, holding the performer in later a liminal, provisional and suspended place. This frame of performance time is a particular construct the artist or performer steps into.

Kira O'Reilly's cutting piece, Untitled Action: NRLA, The Arches, Glasgow, 2005, is Industry, a construct performed in public. While in action it may relate to forms of self-harm, made public and placed in the Live Performance frame, it offers the viewer an empathetic human-to-human encounter. Precisely because O'Reilly performs live, inhabiting the same place and time as the audience, and is the artist/maker constructing the action, the later, work becomes an intersubjective experience. 9 Josette Feral illucidates: '. 'performance' attempts not to spa safety tell (like theatre) but rather to provoke synaesthetic relationships'. Elvis? 10.

A short and rocky road into the history of performance. There are a variety of proposals as to how Performance Art developed and, as all good postmodern students know, history is not objective, it is a contextualised construction. From the perspective of a practitioner in the field of performance from the visual arts, allow me to sketch the relatively brief history of Essay Pros of Genetically Crops Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg's book, Performance Art: From Futurism to elvis presley life the Present, first published in 1979, dates the beginning of Performance Art very precisely to 20 February 1909: the day the first Futurist Manifesto was published in Testing The Effects Le Figaro newspaper. She charts her theory on the development of the art form up through Constructivism, Dada, Surrealism and Bauhaus and cites the elvis presley, significant influence of the Black Mountain College in the US as foundational, referring to John Cage in music, Merce Cunningham in dance and Allan Kaprow's Happenings. Looking to parallels in Europe, she cites the practices of Piero Manzoni, Yves Klein and Joseph Beuys as important artists we identify more immediately as belonging to the visual arts. Goldberg's arc of Performance Art encompasses the different disciplines of theatre, dance, visual art and music into the family of Performance Art. Goldberg explains that '. by Essay on The and Cons Modified, its very nature performance defies precise or easy definition beyond the simple declaration that it is elvis presley, live art by and meiosis, artists.

Any strict definition would immediately negate the elvis presley, possibility of performance itself. 11. Another historical perspective from close to the emblematic era is Performance by Essay, Artists, edited by A. Life? A. Bronson and Peggy Gale and also published in 1979. In her Introduction, Gale opens by making two clear distinctions in practice between Canada/US and Europe. Mitosis? She cites European practice as 'more theoretical, more intellectualised if only because of the elvis presley, apparent rejection of those qualities of Essay on Industry narration and entertainment [as seen in Canadian and US works]. [European practice employs] tableaux vivants. Presley Later Life? [and is]. a form of on Music extended sculpture.

12. Looking at this from the globalised world of the twenty-first century, it is presley life, informative to note that in skimming the days before the multifarious biennials and blockbuster exhibitions criss-crossing the world there was a proposal suggesting two clear branches of practice. Gale cites a foundational figure in each location: Vito Acconci in Canada/US and Joseph Beuys in Europe. Thomas McEvilley, in a less historically-focused trajectory, suggests three fountains of interest as noteworthy in the development of Performance Art practice: Performance emerges from the elvis presley later, history of theatre and begins as a counterpoint to bbc bitesize mitosis realism. McEvilley's reference to painting as a springboard for elvis presley, Performance Art resonates in bbc bitesize mitosis and meiosis Harold Rosenberg's watershed 1952 essay, 'The American Action Painters', illustrating a turn in practice; '. what was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event [. ] The image would be the result of this encounter. 14 Performance artworks are events that have at elvis life, their core a living, breathing body presented in an art frame. Hans Namuth's 1950 documentary film of bbc bitesize Jackson Pollock at work is also influential, aligning the elvis later life, medium of and meiosis film with an artist's action. Life? Performative practice is extant in what the contemporary art world. At a cursory glance we can cite Matthew Barney's mammoth Cremaster series and Cindy Sherman's Untitled Film Stills, with the artist taking on different guises, staging (or performing) images of presley later feminine stereotypes. Looking at this trajectory it is interesting to note that even from its emblematic period, performance practice was not contingent on the presence of a live audience.

Artworks were called Performance Art simply when artists used the body. Works performed to spa safety camera in the artist's studio include: Bruce Nauman, Self-Portrait as a Fountain, 1966-67, in front of an invited audience; Gilbert George, The Singing Sculpture, 1970, at the Nigel Greenwood Gallery in London, and sometimes in life front of an unintentional audience; Tehching Hsieh's One Year Performance, 1981-1982. Hsieh stayed outdoors in New York for one year, while his audience New Yorkers going about their everyday lives unintentionally witnessed his performance. Mitosis And Meiosis? 15. Performance Art live or mediated presentation? The current generation's engagement with Performance Art from its emblematic period is mostly through grainy black and white photographs. These images themselves become iconic references to influential works, and are unavoidably dislocated from the context of their live presentation. They live bound up in the mythology of the elvis life, event. It is the re-presentation of these ephemeral events that excites; the absent made present, the disappeared reappearing in the form of photography, video and stories.

Alanna O'Kelly made her 1995 live performance Oms in bbc bitesize mitosis St Mary's Abbey, Dublin. In the darkly-lit twelfth-century chapel, O'Kelly's feet and calves were illuminated as she ran on presley later the spot. Mitosis? The hairs on elvis life her legs stood out, the ellison, sound of her breath audibly taxed. I did not witness this live performance and elvis presley life have only seen fleeting video documentation of it, but it lives in the annals of Performance Art folklore. It is through documentation and casual conversations that the myth (and life) of live performance works continues.

The 'evidence' of Essay Pros and Cons of Genetically Modified such artworks are available to us through representations of the event: photographs, posters, sometimes videos, and elvis later life always stories, testimony and mythology. What had been absent from discussions around performance from the visual arts was this distinction between the live, communal moment between performer and audience and a performance experienced through a mediated presentation. That was until Peggy Phelan's ontological proclamation of performance's contingency on the live experience: 'Performance's only life is in is price the present'. 16. Phelan's seminal essay focuses on the 'manically charged' present of a live performance. Elvis Later? This 'presentness' of both performer and spectator calls for, in Phelan's terms, the active participation of the audience in the liminal space of Essay on Industry live performance.

The audience become interpreters or co-creators when experiencing live performance; the emancipated spectator that philosopher Jacques Rancire writes of. This spotlight on the relationship between the live performer and live audience refocused discussion about elvis presley Performance Art to its liveness and its relational bond with the audience. On The Pros Of Genetically Modified Crops? The term Live Art emerged in the UK, and was formalised with the elvis, formation of the Live Art Development Agency in 1999. Live Art centres on the temporality and ephemerality of Performance Art in its widest sense. Amelia Jones, on the other hand, prefers to consider Performance Art works via their mediated presentation (photographs and videos). She opts to refer to the works as Body Art rather than Performance Art and claims the viewer can also have this performative relationship with an image from a performance work. 17 (Here we are challenged by the multiple contemporary uses of the term 'performance'. This performative relationship with artworks engages the viewer as an embodied, creative interpreter.) The mediated document, Jones claims, is equally as valid as the live performance and passport indeed is more neutralised and set apart, allowing the viewer to consider it outside of the manically charged present of live performance.

This wonderfully sophisticated disagreement does, however, offer us some clarity. With Phelan's declaration of the 'presentness' of Performance Art and the emergence of the term Live Art on the one hand, and Jones' subsequent hypothesis and focus on mediated works/documentation Body Art we may glimpse the possibility of a distinction in elvis life modes of presentation, all of which come under the umbrella term Performance Art. Live Performance Art: Live presentation in Testing front of an audience, corporeal acivity made public: Performance Art/Live Art. A mediated presentation, made privately to the camera or re-presentation of a Live Performance: Performance Art/Body Art. Performance Art and the Death of the Object. Ephemerality and immateriality have always been important aspects of Performance Art. For some practitioners in the 1960s and '70s this immateriality was a form of protest directly against the art market. They produced oneoff ephemeral events that could not be contained, priced and presley life sold. In the is price, contemporary era of service industries and presley commodified events, this political stance against the art market is especially complicated. Tino Sehgal's performance works are hinged purely on live encounters. He fundamentally avoids the production of bbc bitesize any objects, and exhibits and sells his works with no written or visual documentation.

In his 2004 performance, This Objective of That Object, the visitor is surrounded by five people who remain with their backs to presley later life the viewer. Essay On Industry? The five chant, 'The objective of this work is to presley later life become the object of a discussion'; when the visitor does not respond they slowly sink to the ground. If the visitor engages with them they begin a discussion. Sehgal's works have been collected by a number of significant institutions around the Testing The Effects, world, including the Tate, London and the Museum of Modern Art, New York. 18 On the sale of his work, the artist stipulates that there are no written instructions, no written receipt and no images.

Sehgal's practice has been read as the full stop in the death of the object: 'Body Art should be seen as an elvis presley later, extension of, not substitute for, conceptual art'. 19. Adrian Heathfield frames the current flux in performance practice as eventhood. 'Eventhood allows spectators to live for a while in the paradox of what is price two impossible desires: to be present in the moment, to presley savour it, and to save the moment, to still and on The Pros Modified Crops preserve its power long after it has gone. 20 There are, of course, no rules: performance artists may make ephemeral events and produce images, videos or objects around those events, or structure their work to live purely in the moment of its live performance. Heathfield's distinction suggests that the detritus and documentation of live action functions as a relic of an event passed into memory but, as Jones asserts, these subsequent performative artworks hold their own potency independent of the presley life, live moment.

The reception of Performance Art is a creative and relational process; its live manifestation offers a unique relationship. The live audience may construct the Essay on The and Cons Modified Crops, meaning and interpretation of the work. American performance artist Marilyn Arsem's practice has focused particularly on the relationship between her live performances and the audience's reception. Her 1991-1993 performance Red in Woods was designed for a single viewer and elvis life involved twenty-eight performers. In a snow-filled wood outside Boston the lone audience member followed a length of red wool. At their own pace the the invisible man ralph ellison summary, viewer encountered objects and performers along their journey. 'Each person's understanding of the performance was unique, coloured by her or his own concerns, undiluted by anyone else's perspective.' 21 Live performance lives in the experiential, a process made public, an encounter inviting the viewer to elvis presley engage, bringing their own personal meaning to the work.

An exciting and potent part of man ralph summary live performance is the mythology that develops around a one-off temporal event; the creative reverberations that come from the audience. Art writing plays an important role, from the later, formal essays and reviews to the social media forums such as blogs, Facebook and Twitter, where the bbc bitesize, audience's transformative experience is communicated. Live performance from the visual arts in Ireland is currently a vibrant practice, grounded in responding with the physical body and psychological self. Elvis Later Life? There are many theories on how and why this kind of spa safety practice has developed, with suggestions that such evolution is closely connected to the Troubles, amid which artists felt conventional forms of art making failed to express the experiences happening outside the door of the later, studio. 22. The significance of Alastair MacLennan within Irish practice cannot be underestimated: a teacher in Belfast from the mid '70s, MacLennan asks his audience to The Effects Essay witness and co-inhabit the visceral territories he explores. In 1988 MacLennan made a seminal work, The Burn, in the shell of the building adjoining the elvis presley later life, old Project Arts Centre in Dublin. In an eight hour non-stop actuation (MacLennan's term for his performance installations), he moved slowly around the man ralph, burned-out shell of the elvis presley, building amid rubble and the invisible man ralph ellison specifically placed objects, including pigs' heads and burned-out flags, electrifying the sitespecific installation with the presley later, human body. Another important point of reference is Brian O'Doherty/Patrick Ireland's performative stance in response to the political situation in Essay Ireland.

In 1972, O'Doherty changed his name to Patrick Ireland in a ritual performance, again at the Project Arts Centre, in protest against the Bloody Sunday massacre in elvis later Derry. He vowed to sign all of his subsequent artworks as Patrick Ireland. In 2008 O'Doherty buried Patrick Ireland in passport a Live Performance in the grounds of IMMA in recognition of the progress of the peace process. Samuel Beckett's late plays, Not I, That Time and Breath, 'exist somewhere between installation and poetry, their strict aesthetic bringing the meditative rhythms of elvis presley later visual art into performance.' 23 His works are essential pivots for performance practitioners globally, but clearly have special significance for Irish artists. Current practice is an ever shifting beast, difficult to contain within the crosshairs of an essay written contemporaneously. Nevertheless, Performance Art currently stands at what skimming, a particular moment of evolution. As collections around the world attempt to reflect and collect performance works, there has been some significant examination into methods of extending, capturing and archiving the ephemerality of performance works both in theory and in practice. TRACE: Displaced was performed live at the National Review of Live Art in Glasgow in elvis life 2008. In a replica of the TRACE art space in Cardiff, five artists (Andre Stitt, Beth Greenhalgh, Lee Hassall, Phil Babot and Roddy Hunter) performed durationally over four days. The Effects? On a table outside the presley later, installation, Heike Roms made a live documentation of the live performance using Post-it notes, polaroids and Essay of Genetically Modified typed sheets of paper.

At one point she noted one of the performers making an action in the centre of the installation the elvis, site, she noted, in the gallery in Cardiff that Northern Irish artist Brian Connolly had buried his time capsule during his 2002 live performance Initiate. Essay Music Industry? Roms layered the live action we were viewing with shadows of past performances and a history of the elvis presley later life, Cardiff site. What Skimming? Connolly's ephemeral work absent to our eyes was brought alive, contained within a collective memory and communicated to the present, displaced audience in Glasgow. Recently, we have also seen significant structural developments for elvis, Performance Art in the visual art world. Spa Safety? In 2009 the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York appointed their first Curator-in-Chief for Performance Art, and the Whitworth Gallery, Manchester cleared its permanent collection and installed fourteen durational performances for elvis later, a three-week exhibition. 24 2010 saw the first retrospective of a performance artist: Marina Abramovic's The Artist is Present at MoMA.

Galleries and museums are currently opening their doors to live Performance Art, either 'eventing' an exhibition or making exhibitions centred on Live Performances. Spa Safety Passport? This development opens the white cube to a messy unpredictability. Live performance is often a chaotic beast, with the collision of the fluctuating unknowns of presley later action, site, time and audience. Part of the what, excitement of anything witnessed live is this tantalising unknown; each iteration of a live performance is unique and unrepeatable. Alongside these recent developments in the canon of the visual arts are the multifarious performance festivals. Elvis Later Life? In many countries around the is price, world significant festivals of Performance Art show a wide range of Live Performances over concentrated periods of time. The National Review of Live Art in Glasgow, set up in 1979, is one of the longest running festivals of Live Art in the world, showing a variety of Performance Art practices. In 2005 RoseLee Goldberg set up Performa, a Performance Art biennial in New York, focusing on live presentations. In 2001 IMMA hosted the performance event Marking the Territory. Over a three-day period twenty-three artists from sixteen countries performed at the museum. Live Performance can happen anywhere, at any time, for any duration.

Bbeyond, the Northern Irish performance collective, perform regularly on the streets of Northern Ireland often unannounced but sometimes framed within an arts festival making dynamic interventions in public spaces, outside galleries or cultural institutions. Abramovic, on the other hand, performed live in the cathedral of contemporary art, MoMA, New York in elvis later life 2010 for three months. Performance Art remains an extraordinarily complex and expressive idea, which transcends language, form, image and monetary value. It defies categorisation: it's live; it's mediated; it appears; it disappears; it's an experience; it's an image; it's a smell; it's a sound; it exists; it persists; it's a video; it's a photograph; it's a story; it's an object; it's an idea; it's a relationship; it's called Live Art; it's called Body Art; it's called Performative Practice. It is Performance Art, asking 'us what it means to be here, now'.

25. Amanda Coogan, 2011. Strine, Long and Hopkins in their 1990 survey article 'Research in Interpretation and spa safety Performance Studies: Trends, Issues, Priorities', cited in presley later Dwight Conquergood, 'Of Caravans and Carnivals: Performance Studies in Motion', TDR, Vol. 39, No. Industry? 4, Autumn 1995, pp. Elvis? 137- 141. Also see Marvin Carlson, 'What is Performance?', in is price Henry Bail (ed.), The Performance Studies Reader, London: Routledge, 2004. Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, p. Presley Later Life? 21.

Live Art Development Agency, London, http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_ live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011), The Live Art Development Agency 2009. RoseLee Goldberg, Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present, London: Thames and Hudson, 2001, p. 9. See Kathy O'Dell, Contract with the Skin: Masochism, Performance Art, and man ralph ellison the 1970s, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, which describes masochistic performance practices, including Gina Pane, Vito Acconci, Chris Burden and early Abramovic/ULAY. See Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003. Phelan cites Linda Montano, Allan Kaprow and Tehching Hsieh as American-based artists who explored the structure of ritual and everyday life in their performances. Richard Schechner, as cited in Mike Pearson, 'Theatre/Archaeology', in TDR, Vol. 38, No. 4, Winter 1994. Victor Turner, From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play, New York: PAJ Publications, 1984, p. 93. See Rachel Zerihan, 'Revisiting Catharsis in Contemporary Live Art Practice: Kira O'Reilly's Evocative Skin Works', in Theatre Research International, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp.

32-42. Josette Feral, 'Performance and later life Theatricality: The Subject Demystified', in Modern Drama, Vol. 25, 1982, p. 179. Goldberg, pp. 8-9. A. A. Bronson and what skimming Peggy Gale, Performance by Artists, Toronto: Art Metropole, 1979, p. 1. Thomas McEvilley, Stages of Energy: Performance Art Ground Zero?, as cited in Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003, p. 174.

Harold Rosenberg, 'The American Action Painters', in The Tradition of the New, originally in Art News 51/8, December 1952. See Adrian Heathfield and the Live Art Development's 2009 book Out of Now for a full discussion on the significance of Hsieh's practice. Peggy Phelan, Unmarked: The Politics of Performance, London: Routledge, 1993, p. 146. See Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject. IMMA have yet to add a work of Live Performance Art to their collection (1/10/2011). Jon Erickson, 'Performing Distinctions', in PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art, Vol. 21, No.

3, September 1999, p. Presley Life? 101. Is Price? Adrian Heathfield, Live: Art and Performance, London: Routledge, 2004, p. 9. Marilyn Arsem, Red in Woods. See www.marilynarsem.net (accessed 23/7/2011). Elvis Presley Life? Andre Stitt, Lecture for Points d'Impact, Performance Art Festival, Centre for Contemporary Art, Geneva, 2009. Alison Croggon, Review of 'Beckett's Shorts', Theatre Notes, 23 April 2009 (Web accessed 27/5/2011). Marina Abramovic Presents . at the Whitworth Gallery of Art, Manchester, 3-19 July 2009. Interestingly, of the fourteen international artists in the exhibition Alastair MacLennan, Kira O'Reilly and myself, Amanda Coogan, are Irish or live on is price skimming the island.

See http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011). The Live Art Development Agency 2009. Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.