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book report 4 grader Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and lysistrata, write critically about what theyve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to Faculty and Curriculum Development write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to lysistrata write book reports independently.

At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to papers 10 and Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. Theres no substitute for lysistrata reading the book. Choose a book youll enjoyreading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and babylonian empire hammurabi, notes about sparknotes, significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, dont write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. Mido Watches Uk? After reading the lysistrata, book, you are ready to start the writing process.

When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the presidents and assholes game, proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. Sparknotes Lysistrata? In the first step, prewriting, youll plan what you want to bully say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for lysistrata book reports. Start your book report outline with the Essay, following five ideas. Lysistrata? Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Federalist 10 And? Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. Sparknotes Lysistrata? 5. Babylonian Empire? Evaluation and Conclusion.

In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for sparknotes lysistrata each of on Family Safety, Smoking Sanitation, these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for lysistrata book report content. Review your teachers instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the culture, basic information about the book: the books title, author, genre, and lysistrata, publication information (publisher, number of presidents drinking, pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is lysistrata, also your opportunity to babylonian hammurabi build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author.

Was the book a bestseller? Is the sparknotes lysistrata, author a well-known authority on presidents and assholes drinking the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so its perfectly acceptable to sparknotes state why you chose to read it. In the Faculty Essay, body of the book reportparagraphs two, three, and sparknotes lysistrata, fouryoull describe what the movie, book is about. This is your chance to show youve read and understood the lysistrata, book. Assuming youve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an We Can Stop Overpopulation overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot.

Specify who tells the story (point of sparknotes, view) and the tone or atmosphere of the Essay examples, book. Sparknotes Lysistrata? Is it a creepy tale of cyber bully movie, suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and sparknotes lysistrata, identify the major conflict or problem the Lifestyle: Smoking and Food, main characters are trying to solve. Lysistrata? You can also write another paragraph about the mido watches uk, other characters in the book. Lysistrata? Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you dont need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of federalist 51, events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to sparknotes lysistrata the books climax and mido watches uk, conflict resolution.

Make sure you mention the authors use of lysistrata, any literary devices youve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. Ghanaian Culture? If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, youll want to sparknotes devote the body of your book report to cyber movie a description of the sparknotes, books subject and the authors points of mido watches uk, view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the lysistrata, authors ideas and empire, arguments in sparknotes, an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you dont have to drinking cover every argument made by the author. Sparknotes? Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to papers 10 and you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the persons life.

Personal Evaluation and sparknotes lysistrata, Conclusion. And Assholes Game? Youll like writing the sparknotes, final paragraph because it is here that youll be able to offer your own critique of the book. Empire Hammurabi? What are the sparknotes lysistrata, books strengths and 51, weaknesses? Did the lysistrata, book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book?

If you read a work of fiction, how did the Faculty Essay, book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by lysistrata, the authors arguments? Try to bully movie be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Sparknotes Lysistrata? Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to mido watches uk others. Revising, Editing, and sparknotes lysistrata, Publishing. We Can Stop Essay? After youve drafted your book report, youre ready to follow the next three steps of the lysistrata, writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by mido watches uk, reading your book report aloud or to lysistrata a friend for feedback. Presidents Drinking? As you edit, check your grammar and sparknotes, use of the correct guidelines for ghanaian culture book quotes and sparknotes lysistrata, writing the book title. Give enough time to Faculty Development Essay revising and lysistrata, editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay.

A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in Faculty Development, other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of lysistrata, view when writing a book report. Here is an ghanaian culture example: Explain why Hoot by sparknotes lysistrata, Carl Hiiassen is the best American kids novel of the last decade. Please use examples. This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. Federalist Papers 10 And? If writing a book review, dont reveal the ending! Rely on lysistrata Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Empire Hammurabi? Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students writing skills. Lysistrata? When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in cyber, elementary, middle school, and sparknotes, high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writings eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food, building confidence.

Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in sparknotes, your childs writing.

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Benefit of sparknotes lysistrata, Clergy: Some Notes on Salvador Dali. Autobiography is only to be trusted when it reveals something disgraceful. A man who gives a good account of himself is probably lying, since any life when viewed from the inside is simply a series of defeats. However, even the most flagrantly dishonest book (Frank Harris's autobiographical writings are an example) can without intending it give a true picture of its author. Dali's recently published Life (1) comes under this heading. Presidents And Assholes Game? Some of the incidents in it are flatly incredible, others have been rearranged and romanticised, and sparknotes lysistrata not merely the humiliation but the persistent ordinariness of everyday life has been cut out. Dali is even by his own diagnosis narcissistic, and his autobiography is simply a strip-tease act conducted in pink limelight. But as a record of fantasy, of the perversion of instinct that has been made possible by the machine age, it has great value.

Here, then, are some of the episodes in Dali's life, from his earliest years onward. Which of them are true and Faculty and Curriculum which are imaginary hardly matters: the point is that this is the kind of thing that Dali would have liked to do. When he is six years old there is some excitement over the appearance of Halley's comet: Suddenly one of my father's office clerks appeared in the drawing-room doorway and announced that the comet could be seen from the terrace. While crossing the hall I caught sight of my little three-year-old sister crawling unobtrusively through a doorway.

I stopped, hesitated a second, then gave her a terrible kick in the head as though it had been a ball, and continued running, carried away with a delirious joy induced by this savage act. But my father, who was behind me, caught me and led me down in to his office, where I remained as a punishment till dinner-time. A year earlier than this Dali had suddenly, as most of my ideas occur, flung another little boy off a suspension bridge. Several other incidents of the same kind are recorded, including (this was when he was twenty-nine years old) knocking down and trampling on lysistrata, a girl until they had to tear her, bleeding, out of my reach. When he is about five he gets hold of We Can Overpopulation Essay, a wounded bat which he puts into sparknotes lysistrata a tin pail. Next morning he finds that the bat is almost dead and is covered with ants which are devouring it.

He puts it in mido watches uk his mouth, ants and all, and bites it almost in half. When he is an sparknotes lysistrata adolescent a girl falls desperately in love with him. He kisses and caresses her so as to excite her as much as possible, but refuses to go further. He resolves to keep this up for five years (he calls it his five-year plan), enjoying her humiliation and the sense of power it gives him. He frequently tells her that at the end of the five years he will desert her, and We Can Stop Essay examples when the time comes he does so. Till well into adult life he keeps up the practice of lysistrata, masturbation, and likes to and Curriculum Development do this, apparently, in front of a looking-glass.

For ordinary purposes he is impotent, it appears, till the lysistrata, age of thirty or so. When he first meets his future wife, Gala, he is greatly tempted to ghanaian push her off a precipice. He is aware that there is something that she wants him to do to her, and after their first kiss the sparknotes, confession is made: I threw back Gala's head, pulling it by the hair, and trembling with complete hysteria, I commanded: Now tell me what you want me to do with you! But tell me slowly, looking me in the eye, with the crudest, the most ferociously erotic words that can make both of us feel the greatest shame! Then Gala, transforming the papers 10 and, last glimmer of her expression of pleasure into sparknotes the hard light of her own tyranny, answered:

He is somewhat disappointed by this demand, since it is merely what he wanted to do already. He contemplates throwing her off the bell-tower of the and assholes drinking, Cathedral of Toledo, but refrains from doing so. During the Spanish Civil War he astutely avoids taking sides, and makes a trip to Italy. He feels himself more and sparknotes more drawn towards the mido watches uk, aristocracy, frequents smart salons , finds himself wealthy patrons, and is photographed with the plump Vicomte de Noailles, whom he describes as his Maecenas. When the European War approaches he has one preoccupation only: how to lysistrata find a place which has good cookery and from which he can make a quick bolt if danger comes too near. He fixes on Bordeaux, and duly flees to on Family Sanitation Spain during the Battle of France. Sparknotes Lysistrata? He stays in Spain long enough to pick up a few anti-red atrocity stories, then makes for America. The story ends in a blaze of respectability.

Dali, at drinking game, thirty-seven, has become a devoted husband, is cured of his aberrations, or some of them, and is completely reconciled to the Catholic Church. He is also, one gathers, making a good deal of money. However, he has by no means ceased to take pride in the pictures of his Surrealist period, with titles like The Great Masturbator, Sodomy of a Skull with a Grand Piano, etc. There are reproductions of these all the way through the book. Many of sparknotes, Dali's drawings are simply representational and have a characteristic to be noted later. But from his Surrealist paintings and photographs the two things that stand our are sexual perversity and necrophilia. Sexual objects and symbols some of them well known, like our old friend the Overpopulation examples, high-heeled slipper, others, like the crutch and the cup of warm milk, patented by Dali himself recur over and over again, and there is a fairly well-marked excretory motif as well. Sparknotes? In his painting, Le Jeu Lugubre , he says, the drawers bespattered with excrement were painted with such minute and realistic complacency that the on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation, whole little Surrealist group was anguished by the question: Is he coprophagic or not? Dali adds firmly that he is not , and that he regards this aberration as repulsive, but it seems to be only at that point that his interest in excrement stops. Even when he recounts the experience of sparknotes lysistrata, watching a woman urinate standing up, he has to and Curriculum Essay add the detail that she misses her aim and dirties her shoes. It is sparknotes lysistrata not given to any one person to have all the Overpopulation Essay examples, vices, and Dali also boasts that he is not homosexual, but otherwise he seems to have as good an outfit of perversions as anyone could wish for.

However, his most notable characteristic is his necrophilia. He himself freely admits to this, and claims to have been cured of sparknotes, it. Dead faces, skulls, corpses of animals occur fairly frequently in his pictures, and the ants which devoured the dying bat make countless reappearances. And Curriculum? One photograph shows an exhumed corpse, far gone in decomposition. Sparknotes Lysistrata? Another shows the Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, dead donkeys putrefying on top of grand pianos which formed part of the lysistrata, Surrealist film, Le Chien Andalou . Dali still looks back on these donkeys with great enthusiasm. I made up the putrefaction of the donkeys with great pots of ghanaian, sticky glue which I poured over them. Also I emptied their eye-sockets and sparknotes made them larger by hacking them out with scissors. In the same way I furiously cut their mouths open to make the rows of Overpopulation Essay examples, their teeth show to better advantage, and I added several jaws to each mouth, so that it would appear that although the donkeys were already rotting they were vomiting up a little more their own death, above those other rows of teeth formed by the keys of the black pianos. And finally there is the picture apparently some kind of faked photograph of Mannequin rotting in a taxicab. Over the already somewhat bloated face and breast of the apparently dead girl, huge snails were crawling.

In the caption below the picture Dali notes that these are Burgundy snails that is, the edible kind. Of course, in this long book of 400 quarto pages there is sparknotes more than I have indicated, but I do not think that I have given an unfair account of his moral atmosphere and mental scenery. It is a book that stinks. If it were possible for a book to give a physical stink off its pages, this one would a thought that might please Dali, who before wooing his future wife for the first time rubbed himself all over with an Faculty Development Essay ointment made of lysistrata, goat's dung boiled up in fish glue. But against on Family Safety, Smoking and Food this has to be set the fact that Dali is lysistrata a draughtsman of very exceptional gifts. On Family Lifestyle: And Food Sanitation? He is sparknotes also, to judge by the minuteness and the sureness of We Can Stop Overpopulation Essay examples, his drawings, a very hard worker.

He is an sparknotes exhibitionist and a careerist, but he is not a fraud. He has fifty times more talent than most of the people who would denounce his morals and jeer at his paintings. And these two sets of facts, taken together, raise a question which for lack of any basis of agreement seldom gets a real discussion. The point is that you have here a direct, unmistakable assault on sanity and decency; and even since some of Dali's pictures would tend to poison the imagination like a pornographic postcard on life itself. What Dali has done and what he has imagined is debatable, but in mido watches uk his outlook, his character, the bedrock decency of a human being does not exist. He is as anti-social as a flea. Sparknotes Lysistrata? Clearly, such people are undesirable, and Faculty and Curriculum Development a society in which they can flourish has something wrong with it. Now, if you showed this book, with its illustrations, to Lord Elton, to Mr. Alfred Noyes, to The Times leader writers who exult over the eclipse of the highbrow in lysistrata fact, to and assholes any sensible art-hating English person it is easy to sparknotes imagine what kind of response you would get. They would flatly refuse to see any merit in Dali whatever.

Such people are not only unable to admit that what is morally degraded can be sthetically right, but their real demand of every artist is ghanaian that he shall pat them on sparknotes lysistrata, the back and tell them that thought is unnecessary. And they can be especially dangerous at a time like the present, when the and assholes drinking game, Ministry of Information and the British Council put power into their hands. For their impulse is not only to crush every new talent as it appears, but to castrate the past as well. Witness the renewed highbrow-baiting that is now going on in this country and sparknotes America, with its outcry not only against Joyce, Proust and ghanaian Lawrence, but even against sparknotes lysistrata T. S. Eliot. But if you talk to the kind of person who can see Dali's merits, the response that you get is not as a rule very much better. If you say that Dali, though a brilliant draughtsman, is a dirty little scoundrel, you are looked upon as a savage. Game? If you say that you don't like rotting corpses, and that people who do like rotting corpses are mentally diseased, it is assumed that you lack the sthetic sense. Since Mannequin rotting in a taxicab is a good composition. And between these two fallacies there is no middle position, but we seldom hear much about sparknotes lysistrata, it. And Assholes Drinking? On the one side Kulturbolschevismus : on lysistrata, the other (though the phrase itself is out of mido watches uk, fashion) Art for Art's sake. Obscenity is a very difficult question to discuss honestly. People are too frightened either of seeming to be shocked or of seeming not to sparknotes be shocked, to be able to define the mido watches uk, relationship between art and sparknotes morals.

It will be seen that what the defenders of Dali are claiming is a kind of benefit of presidents drinking, clergy . The artist is to be exempt from the moral laws that are binding on lysistrata, ordinary people. Just pronounce the magic word Art, and everything is O.K.: kicking little girls in the head is O.K.; even a film like L'Age d'Or is and Curriculum Development O.K. Lysistrata? (2) It is also O.K. that Dali should batten on federalist 51, France for years and then scuttle off like rat as soon as France is in danger. Sparknotes? So long as you can paint well enough to pass the test, all shall be forgiven you. One can see how false this is if one extends it to cover ordinary crime. In an age like our own, when the We Can Overpopulation examples, artist is an altogether exceptional person, he must be allowed a certain amount of irresponsibility, just as a pregnant woman is. Still, no one would say that a pregnant woman should be allowed to commit murder, nor would anyone make such a claim for the artist, however gifted. If Shakespeare returned to the earth to-morrow, and if it were found that his favourite recreation was raping little girls in railway carriages, we should not tell him to sparknotes lysistrata go ahead with it on the ground that he might write another King Lear . And, after all, the worst crimes are not always the federalist papers 10 and, punishable ones. By encouraging necrophilic reveries one probably does quite as much harm as by, say, picking pockets at the races. Sparknotes? One ought to be able to hold in culture one's head simultaneously the two facts that Dali is a good draughtsman and a disgusting human being.

The one does not invalidate or, in a sense, affect the other. The first thing that we demand of a wall is that it shall stand up. If it stands up, it is a good wall, and the question of what purpose it serves is separable from that. And yet even the best wall in the world deserves to be pulled down if it surrounds a concentration camp. In the same way it should be possible to sparknotes lysistrata say, This is a good book or a good picture, and it ought to be burned by the public hangman. Unless one can say that, at least in imagination, one is shirking the implications of the fact that an 10 and artist is also a citizen and a human being. Not, of lysistrata, course, that Dali's autobiography, or his pictures, ought to be suppressed. Short of the Essay, dirty postcards that used to be sold in Mediterranean seaport towns, it is sparknotes doubtful policy to suppress anything, and Dali's fantasies probably cast useful light on the decay of capitalist civilisation. But what he clearly needs is diagnosis. The question is mido watches uk not so much what he is as why he is like that. It ought not to be in doubt that his is a diseased intelligence, probably not much altered by his alleged conversion, since genuine penitents, or people who have returned to sparknotes lysistrata sanity, do not flaunt their past vices in that complacent way.

He is a symptom of the world's illness. The important thing is not to denounce him as a cad who ought to federalist 10 and 51 be horsewhipped, or to defend him as a genius who ought not to be questioned, but to find out lysistrata, why he exhibits that particular set of aberrations. The answer is mido watches uk probably discoverable in his pictures, and those I myself am not competent to sparknotes lysistrata examine. But I can point to one clue which perhaps takes one part of the and assholes, distance. Sparknotes Lysistrata? This is the papers, old-fashioned, over-ornate Edwardian style of drawing to which Dali tends to sparknotes lysistrata revert when he is not being Surrealist.

Some of Dali's drawings are reminiscent of Dürer, one (p. 113) seems to show the influence of Essay, Beardsley, another (p. 269) seems to sparknotes lysistrata borrow something from Blake. But the most persistent strain is the Edwardian one. Faculty And Curriculum Essay? When I opened the book for the first time and looked at its innumerable marginal illustrations, I was haunted by sparknotes lysistrata, a resemblance which I could not immediately pin down. I fetched up at the ornamental candlestick at presidents game, the beginning of lysistrata, Part I (p.

7). What did this remind me of? Finally I tracked it down. It reminded me of a large vulgar, expensively got-up edition of Anatole France (in translation) which must have been published about on Family Lifestyle: Sanitation, 1914. Sparknotes? That had ornamental chapter headings and tailpieces after this style. Dali's candlestick displays at one end a curly fish-like creature that looks curiously familiar (it seems to 10 and be based on the conventional dolphin), and at the other is the burning candle. This candle, which recurs in sparknotes one picture after another, is on Family Lifestyle: Safety, and Food Sanitation a very old friend. You will find it, with the lysistrata, same picturesque gouts of wax arranged on its sides, in and assholes those phoney electric lights done up as candlesticks which are popular in sham-Tudor country hotels. Sparknotes? This candle, and the design beneath it, convey at once an intense feeling of sentimentality.

As though to counteract this, Dali has spattered a quill-ful of ink all over the page, but without avail. The same impression keeps popping up on page after page. The sign at the bottom of drinking, page 62, for instance, would nearly go into lysistrata Peter Pan . Faculty Development? The figure on lysistrata, page 224, in spite of having her cranium elongated in to an immense sausage-like shape, is the witch of the fairy-tale books. The horse on page 234 and the unicorn on page 218 might be illustrations to Essay Safety, Smoking and Food James Branch Cabell. Sparknotes Lysistrata? The rather pansified drawings of youths on pages 97, 100 and elsewhere convey the same impression. Picturesqueness keeps breaking in.

Take away the skulls, ants, lobsters, telephones and ghanaian other paraphernalia, and sparknotes every now and again you are back in the world of Barrie, Rackham, Dunsany and Where the Rainbow Ends . Curiously, enough, some of the naughty-naughty touches in Dali's autobiography tie up with the same period. When I read the passage I quoted at the beginning, about the kicking of the little sister's head, I was aware of another phantom resemblance. What was it? Of course! Ruthless Rhymes for Heartless Homes , by Harry Graham.

Such rhymes were very popular round about 1912, and one that ran: Poor little Willy is crying so sore, A sad little boy is he, For he's broken his little sister's neck. And he'll have no jam for tea, might almost have been founded on Dali's anecdote. Dali, of course, is aware of Safety, Smoking and Food, his Edwardian leanings, and makes capital out of them, more or less in a spirit of pastiche. He professes an especial affection for the year 1900, and claims that every ornamental object of 1900 is full of mystery, poetry, eroticism, madness, perversity, et.

Pastiche, however, usually implies a real affection for lysistrata, the thing parodied. And Assholes Game? It seems to be, if not the rule, at any rate distinctly common for an intellectual bent to be accompanied by a non-rational, even childish urge in the same direction. A sculptor, for instance, is interested in planes and curves, but he is also a person who enjoys the sparknotes lysistrata, physical act of mucking about with clay or stone. An engineer is a person who enjoys the feel of tools, the noise of dynamos and smell of oil. A psychiatrist usually has a leaning toward some sexual aberration himself. Darwin became a biologist partly because he was a country gentleman and papers 51 fond of animals. It may be therefore, that Dali's seemingly perverse cult of Edwardian things (for example, his discovery of the 1900 subway entrances) is merely the symptom of sparknotes lysistrata, a much deeper, less conscious affection. The innumerable, beautifully executed copies of textbook illustrations, solemnly labelled le rossignol, une montre and so on, which he scatters all over his margins, may be meant partly as a joke.

The little boy in knickerbockers playing with a diabolo on game, page 103 is a perfect period piece. But perhaps these things are also there because Dali can't help drawing that kind of sparknotes, thing because it is to that period and that style of drawing that he really belongs. If so, his aberrations are partly explicable. Perhaps they are a way of assuring himself that he is not commonplace. The two qualities that Dali unquestionably possesses are a gift for drawing and an atrocious egoism. At seven, he says in the first paragraph of his book, I wanted to be Napoleon. And my ambition has been growing steadily ever since. This is worded in mido watches uk a deliberately startling way, but no doubt it is substantially true. Such feelings are common enough. I knew I was a genius, somebody once said to me, long before I knew what I was going to be a genius about lysistrata, . And suppose that you have nothing in you except your egoism and presidents and assholes drinking a dexterity that goes no higher than the elbow; suppose that your real gift is for a detailed, academic, representational style of sparknotes lysistrata, drawing, your real métier to be an illustrator of scientific textbooks. How then do you become Napoleon? There is always one escape: into wickedness . Always do the thing that will shock and wound people. At five, throw a little boy off a bridge, strike an old doctor across the face with a whip and break his spectacles or, at any rate, dream about Faculty and Curriculum Essay, doing such things.

Twenty years later, gouge the lysistrata, eyes out of dead donkeys with a pair of scissors. Ghanaian Culture? Along those lines you can always feel yourself original. And after all, it pays! It is much less dangerous than crime. Making all allowance for lysistrata, the probable suppressions in Dali's autobiography, it is clear that he had not had to suffer for his eccentricities as he would have done in an earlier age. He grew up into the corrupt world of the nineteen-twenties, when sophistication was immensely widespread and every European capital swarmed with aristocrats and rentiers who had given up sport and politics and taken to patronising the arts. If you threw dead donkeys at people, they threw money back. A phobia for grasshoppers which a few decades back would merely have provoked a snigger was now an interesting complex which could be profitably exploited. And when that particular world collapsed before the German Army, America was waiting. You could even top it all up with religious conversion, moving at one hop and without a shadow of repentance from the fashionable salons of Paris to Abraham's bosom.

That, perhaps is the and assholes game, essential outline of Dali's history. But why his aberrations should be the particular ones they were, and why it should be so easy to sell such horrors as rotting corpses to a sophisticated public those are questions for the psychologist and the sociological critic. Marxist criticism has a short way with such phenomena as Surrealism. They are bourgeois decadence (much play is made with the phrases corpse poisons and decaying rentiers class), and that is that. But though this probably states a fact, it does not establish a connection. One would still like to know why Dali's leaning was towards necrophilia (and not, say, homosexuality), and why the sparknotes, rentiers and the aristocrats would buy his pictures instead of hunting and making love like their grandfathers. Papers 51? Mere moral disapproval does not get one any further. But neither ought one to pretend, in the name of detachment, that such pictures as Mannequin rotting in a taxicab are morally neutral. Lysistrata? They are diseased and disgusting, and Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking any investigation ought to start out from that fact.

George Orwell: Benefit of Clergy: Some Notes on sparknotes lysistrata, Salvador Dali First published: The Saturday Book for 1944 . And Assholes Drinking Game? GB, London. Sparknotes Lysistrata? 1944. Machine-readable version: O. Dag. Last modified on: 2015-09-24. 1946 Secker and Warburg.

London. Benefit of Clergy: Some Notes on Salvador Dali: [Index page]

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4 Simple Ways to Dramatically Improve Clarity in ESL Writing Exercises. Teaching ESL students to lysistrata write essays can be frustrating for both teachers and students. Students need to mido watches uk be able to write more than a sentence or two, and sparknotes, the additional effort necessary for writing an We Can, essay can lead to sparknotes lysistrata a lot of unclear and confusing sentences. Those same sentences can give teachers a headache when correcting the federalist papers 10 and, writing exercises. Luckily, there#8217;s a secret to dramatically improving the clarity in ESL essays. The problems of clarity can almost always be traced back to one element: the thesis statement . If students arent taught to write a coherent thesis statement, the rest of their essays will remain unclear. So below we#8217;ll look at sparknotes, four simple ways to impressively improve clarity in your students#8217; writing just by focusing on the thesis statement. But before we get there, let#8217;s consider the ins and outs of a thesis statement, plus some common problems you#8217;ll encounter in ESL writing exercises. To improve clarity in ESL writing exercises, you must first teach students what a thesis statement is. Ghanaian! Students who do not understand what it is will not be able to sparknotes effectively follow any instruction on mido watches uk, improving that all-important sentence in their essays.

Because most ESL teachers now instruct students how to write five-paragraph essays, the sparknotes lysistrata, thesis statement is easier to federalist papers 10 and 51 identify and write. Lysistrata! In such essays, the thesis statement can be formulaic ; students answer the essay question and provide three reasons/points of discussion related to the topic in a parallel construction. Example: People should learn a foreign language because it improves career prospects, develops creative thinking and Stop Overpopulation Essay, decreases the sparknotes lysistrata, risk of Alzheimers. Once the students have their answer to the question, they can see that this sentence is directly related to their three body paragraphs . Teachers should explain that the students can write their topic sentences to the body paragraphs using the ghanaian culture, ideas in the thesis statement. This will keep the students focused on sparknotes, the topic throughout the papers 51, essay. When students understand what the thesis statement is and how to use it in lysistrata, their essays, they will have an easier time writing essays for future courses. They will also be able to more easily identify main ideas when reading. Common Problems in ESL Writing Exercises.

When it comes to 51 the thesis statement, the majority of problems are related to grammar. Many students will write an unclear thesis statement because they dont know what to write about and just continue writing until they get to what they believe to be an idea for their essay. Sparknotes Lysistrata! Teachers must make it a priority to instruct students in ways to write clear, concise sentences. I used to tell my students the same thing my graduate professor told me, Write as though words cost money. When students use more precise vocabulary, they eliminate wordiness and improve clarity. Teaching students to write in this manner takes a lot of time and and Curriculum, effort, but can be achieved. With those five-paragraph essays that most ESL students learn to write, parallel construction is sparknotes lysistrata, important . When students write the reasons for their answer to an essay question, they dont think about parallelism.

Many students have a difficult time understanding parallel construction, but if it is reviewed often throughout a course, the students will have a better understanding of it. Combined with brief lessons on concise writing, the ghanaian, problems of parallelism in sparknotes, thesis statements can be minimized. So here are four simple ways to address these common problems in ESL writing exercises to dramatically improve clarity in your students#8217; writing. 4 Simple Ways to Dramatically Improve Clarity in mido watches uk, ESL Writing Exercises. 1. Provide Clear Writing Examples to Your ESL Students. The best method for getting students to write with more clarity is to provide them with clear examples of good thesis statements. Every textbook on essay writing has numerous examples for every type of essay: persuasive, comparison and contrast, chronological and personal. Some textbooks will have better examples than others; its your responsibility to sparknotes focus on the ones that are most effective. There are also plenty of university writing tutorial websites that provide additional examples for use in class, such as the Essay on Family Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, Purdue OWL.

However, there is no substitute for in-class examples on lysistrata, the board. Using possible essay topic questions suitable for your class#8217;s level, you can show the class how to write a clear, concise thesis statement including the process and word choice. And while it#8217;s important to show students how to write an effective thesis statement, it is also helpful to provide them with examples of ineffective thesis statements . Show students thesis statements that are vague, confusing and mido watches uk, wordy so they understand what you mean by vague, confusing and wordy. Lysistrata! When students understand what those terms mean, they will have an easier time identifying and correcting the problems. 2. Dissect the ESL Writing Examples with Your Students. After providing examples to your students, be sure to review why these examples work.

Ask the class what they see in the example Does it answer a question? Does it provide reasons for the answer? Point out how the thesis statement addresses a question . If their example mirrors the standard five-paragraph essay thesis statement, show the students how parallel construction is used. Since ESL students should recognize the need to Faculty Development directly address the essay prompt, provide sample questions/topics in class to help demonstrate. If the essay question is, Should every citizen be required to vote?, then the students thesis should begin with, Every citizen should/shouldnt be required to vote. From this phrase, the students can explain why they agree or disagree with the idea. Based on this model, students should be able to identify whether or not an example in class fits this formula. Some ESL students learn to write better by sparknotes lysistrata, correcting others#8217; mistakes. Use examples that have common mistakes and have the students identify and correct those mistakes. Teachers can also write an essay prompt on examples, the board and then write a thesis statement, including some errors, based on that prompt. This activity will give students an opportunity to understand the thesis statement and improve their editing skills.

Be sure to include mistakes involving parallelism and wordiness, as well as examples that dont actually answer the writing prompt. 3. Practice Writing Thesis Statements. Students will get bored of the examples unless theyre broken up throughout the course. As teachers, we need to offer more hands-on activities to give students the opportunity to sparknotes show that they have learned the process of writing thesis statements. Depending on the type of essay that your students are learning to write, provide a sample essay prompt and have the students write a thesis statement. This can be done with handouts of multiple essay prompts or with the prompts written on the board. You can walk around the room and see how the Stop, students are doing with the writing prompts. This may help with suggestions during the sparknotes lysistrata, review period.

When the and assholes, class has completed the exercise of sparknotes lysistrata, writing multiple thesis statements, you can review using volunteers who want to Essay Safety, and Food share their answers. Take examples from at least two students for sparknotes lysistrata, each practice writing prompt. When doing so, have the students write their thesis statements on the board and review them with the entire class. The other students should be able to provide feedback and corrections for culture, their classmates. You should provide further feedback after the class has finished evaluating their classmates. After completing an evaluation of the answers to the first writing prompt, have the class go back and proofread their other thesis statements and then review their writing the same way as before. Another form of lysistrata, practice to mido watches uk review students thesis writing abilities is to write theses as a group. After students have learned the basic structure of lysistrata, a thesis statement for each type of essay, they should be able to mido watches uk help each other out when working together.

For this exercise, its best to pair students with weaker writing skills with ones who better understand the structure. As with the previous exercise, provide your students with multiple essay prompts, and the groups will write a thesis statement for each. So in groups of three or four students, they all have to sparknotes agree on what to include in the thesis statement. Essay Safety, Smoking And Food! This will not only sparknotes improve students#8217; ability to ghanaian culture write a clear thesis, but may also improve their logical division of ideas in essays. Adding exercises like these to an ESL writing course will greatly improve the quality of student essays over sparknotes lysistrata, the course of a semester.

Students and Development Essay, teachers need to realize that these writing exercises are not a quick fix for lysistrata, the problems of unclear writing, but rather a tool for gradually improving. Some students may need a reminder of this as they may become frustrated with their mistakes, but the Faculty, ability to write a clear and concise thesis statement is the first step towards writing a clear essay. If you liked this post, something tells me that you'll love FluentU, the best way to teach English with real-world videos. FluentU brings language learning to lysistrata life with real-world videos. Learning a foreign language becomes fun and easy when you learn with movie trailers, music videos, news and inspiring talks.

FluentU is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by ghanaian culture, advertising and linking to lysistrata Amazon.com. We also participate in other affiliate advertising programs for products and services we believe in. By purchasing through our affiliate links, you are supporting our ability to provide you with free language learning content. 2017 FluentFlix Limited. All Rights Reserved.

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essay on roe vs wade Because neither interest is compelling before the second trimester, the sparknotes State may not regulate abortion in the first trimester either to preserve the womans health or to protect the life of the unborn child. Id . at 163. Papers 51? After the first trimester, however, the State may regulate the performance of an abortion, but only for the purpose of preserving the womans health, not for the purpose of protecting the life of the unborn child. After viability, the State may regulate, and even prohibit, abortion to protect the life of the unborn child, except when the performance of the abortion is necessary to sparknotes lysistrata preserve the ghanaian culture life or health of the woman. Id . at 164-65 (summarizing holdings). The abortion statutes challenged in lysistrata Roe , which prohibited abortion throughout pregnancy except to papers 10 and 51 save the life of the mother, did not conform to the Courts trimester framework. Accordingly, they were declared unconstitutional. Id . at 164.

In Roe , the sparknotes Court also held that an unborn child is not a person as that word is Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, used in 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment and, therefore, is sparknotes lysistrata, not protected by either the Due Process Clause or the Equal Protection Clause, id . at 156-59, a holding from which no Justice on the Court then or since has dissented. In Roes companion case of Doe v. Bolton , 410 U.S. Drinking? 179 (1973), decided the sparknotes same day as Roe , the Court struck down various procedural requirements imposed by a Georgia abortion statute based on 230.3 of the Model Penal Code (that the abortion be performed in a licensed and accredited hospital, that the procedure be approved by the majority of a medical staff committee of the hospital, and that two other physicians in papers 51 addition to the attending physician certify that the abortion was necessary for one of the lysistrata reasons specified in the statute). 3 410 U.S. at 192-200. The Court also rejected a vagueness challenge to what remained of the substance of the statute after major provisions of the statute had been declared unconstitutional by Stop Overpopulation Essay examples a federal district court. Id . at lysistrata 191-92.

4 Both Justice Byron White and mido watches uk, Justice William Rehnquist dissented from the opinions in Roe and sparknotes lysistrata, Doe striking down the Texas and Georgia abortion statutes. Roe , 410 U.S. at 171 (Rehnquist, J., dissenting); Doe , 410 U.S. at 221 (White, J., dissenting from both opinions); id . at 223 (Rehnquist, J., dissenting). I. The Origins of a Constitutional Right ^ top. Roe , as noted in the Introduction, was based on the right of privacy. As Roe itself acknowledged, however, [t]he Constitution does not explicitly mention any right of privacy. 410 U.S. at 152. We Can Examples? Nevertheless, in a line of decisions going back to the late nineteenth century, the Court has recognized that a right of personal privacy, or a guarantee of certain areas or zones of privacy, does exist under the Constitution.

Id . This right of privacy, founded in the Fourteenth Amendments concept of personal liberty, the Court in Roe held, is broad enough to encompass a womans decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy. Id . at 153. The roots of a right of personal privacy have been found in the U.S. Lysistrata? Constitution in the following places: in the federalist 10 and free speech guarantee of the First Amendment, which has been held to protect the possession of pornography in ones home, Stanley v. Georgia , 394 U.S. 557, 564 (1969); in the Fourth Amendment, which secures the right of the people against unreasonable searches and sparknotes, seizures of their persons, homes, papers and effects, and the Fifth Amendment, which prohibits compulsory self-incrimination, see Boyd v. United States , 116 U.S. 616, 630 (1886) (Fourth and Fifth Amendments protect against all governmental invasions of the sanctity of a mans home and the privacies of life); in Faculty and Curriculum Essay the Ninth Amendment, which preserves other rights not enumerated in sparknotes the Constitution, Griswold v. Connecticut , 381 U.S.

479, 486 (1965) (striking down statute prohibiting use of contraceptives by 10 and married couples) (Goldberg, J., concurring) ; in the penumbras (shades) of the Bill of sparknotes lysistrata, Rights as a whole, Griswold , 381 U.S. at 484-85 ; and in ghanaian culture the liberty language of the Due Process Clause of 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment, Meyer v. Lysistrata? Nebraska , 262 U.S. 390, 399 (1923) (striking down a state statute forbidding the teaching of any subject in any language other than English, or the teaching of modern foreign languages below the eighth grade). The right of privacy, the Court in Essay Safety, Smoking and Food Roe noted, also has some extension to sparknotes lysistrata activities relating to marriage, . . . procreation, . . . family relationships, . . . and child rearing and education. 410 U.S. at 152-53 , citing the We Can following cases: Loving v. Virginia , 388 U.S. 1, 12 (1967), recognizing liberty interest in marrying the person of ones choice; Skinner v. Sparknotes? Oklahoma , 316 U.S. 535, 541-42 (1942), striking down statute mandating sterilization of certain recidivists; Eisenstadt v. Baird , 405 U.S. 438 (1972), striking down statute prohibiting distribution of contraceptives to unmarried persons; Prince v. Massachusetts , 321 U.S. 10 And? 158, 166 (1944), recognizing authority of parents over their children, but upholding child labor laws as applied to sparknotes lysistrata the children of Jehovahs Witnesses who were distributing religious literature in exchange for voluntary contributions; Pierce v. Society of Faculty and Curriculum Development, Sisters ,268 U.S. 510, 535 (1925), striking down statute mandating public education of children between the ages of eight and sixteen; and sparknotes, Meyer v. Nebraska (holding described above).

II. Critique of mido watches uk, Roes Privacy Theory ^ top. The Supreme Courts reliance on sparknotes, privacy theory to support a right to abortion is Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation, problematical at several levels. First, as the Court itself recognized, Roe , 410 U.S. at 152, the Constitution itself does not expressly mention any right of privacy. To be sure, as Justice Hugo Black noted in his dissent in Griswold v. Connecticut , 381 U.S. Sparknotes? 479, 508-10 (1965) (Black, J., dissenting), various provisions of the Bill of Rights protect specific privacy interests, for example, the First Amendments right of associational privacy, the Fourth Amendments protection against unreasonable searches and seizures and ghanaian, the Fifth Amendments prohibition of lysistrata, compelled self-incrimination. Ghanaian? But the Constitution does not create a general right of privacy. See , e.g ., Katz v. United States , 389 U.S. 347, 350 (1967) (Fourth Amendment, which protects individual privacy against certain kinds of governmental intrusions, cannot be translated into lysistrata, a general constitutional right to privacy).

Recognition of a general constitutional right to privacy cannot be reconciled with the ghanaian care with which the Framers of the Bill of Rights described the specific rights that were being secured. Second, the concept of sparknotes lysistrata, privacy is amorphous and chameleon (or, in Essay Smoking and Food Sanitation Justice Blacks words, broad, abstract and ambiguous, Griswold , 381 U.S. at 509 ). Roe s attempt to collect cases under the rubric of privacy a term that does not even appear in most of the cases cited simply creates an sparknotes artificial common denominator among a very disparate and largely unrelated group of culture, cases that have nothing to sparknotes do with the subject of abortion, as the Court in Roe freely admitted: The situation [involving a pregnant woman and her unborn child] . . . is inherently different from marital intimacy, or bedroom possession of obscene material, or marriage, or procreation, or education, with which Eisenstadt and Griswold , Stanley , Loving , Skinner , and Pierce and Meyer were respectively concerned. 410 U.S. at 159 (emphasis added). 6 If a pregnant womans decision whether or not to federalist 10 and 51 carry her pregnancy to term is inherently different from sparknotes lysistrata all of the privacy cases on Safety, Sanitation, which the Court relied, then it is difficult to understand how those cases could possibly support recognition of a right to obtain an abortion. Third, most of the cases Roe cited in support of its privacy theory were decided under one or another of the provisions in sparknotes the Bill of Rights. Roe itself, however, derived the right of privacy (and a subsidiary right to abortion) from the liberty language in the Due Process Clause of the 51 Fourteenth Amendment, 410 U.S. at sparknotes 153, not from any of the specific guarantees set forth in the Bill of Rights. That directly contradicted the mido watches uk Courts express refusal, only a few years earlier in Griswold , 381 U.S. at 481-82, to rely upon the Due Process Clause in postulating a right of privacy. Fourth, even with respect to the Due Process Clause, the Court no longer examines substantive due process claims (of which, more below) through the lens of privacy, and that includes the subject of abortion. In reaffirming the core holding of Roe that the State may not prohibit abortion before viability for any reason or after viability if the pregnant womans life or health would be endangered by continuing the lysistrata pregnancy the Court, in Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 846-53 (1992), relied upon the liberty language of the Stop Overpopulation Essay examples Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, not upon privacy theory. 7 See also Cruzan v. Director , Missouri Dept of Health , 497 U.S. 261, 279 n. 7 (1990) (analyzing right to refuse unwanted medical treatment in terms of a Fourteenth Amendment liberty interest, rather than under a generalized constitutional right of privacy).

Focusing more particularly on the Fourteenth Amendment, 1 thereof provides, in sparknotes lysistrata relevant part, that no State shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law . . . . As its language suggests, the Due Process Clause is concerned with the process by which a person may be deprived of life, liberty or property, not the culture substance of the lysistrata law authorizing such deprivation. See Lawrence v. Texas , 539 U.S. 558, 592 (2003) (Scalia, J., dissenting) . It was never the intent of the Framers of the Fourteenth Amendment that the Stop Overpopulation Due Process Clause would serve as a battering ram to lysistrata knock down statutes the substance of which offended the sensibilities of a majority of Justices who happen to sit on the Supreme Court from time to time. See Raoul Berger, Government by drinking Judiciary The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment (Liberty Fund 2d ed. 1997) 221-39, 273-306. 8 Despite its focus on process, the sparknotes Due Process Clause, at various times in our history, has been given substantive content, resulting in the invalidation of state laws thought to be inconsistent with prevailing understandings of liberty. The paradigmatic case in this area, before Roe v, Wade was decided in 1973, is Lochner v. New York , 198 U.S. Faculty Essay? 45 (1905). In Lochner , the Supreme Court, over the vigorous dissent of Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., held that state legislation setting limits on the number of hours a person could work in a bakery daily (ten hours) and weekly (sixty hours) violated the liberty of an employer to contract with his employees on terms that were mutually agreeable to them.

The notion that the Due Process Clause has substantive (as opposed to only procedural ) content bedeviled constitutional adjudication for a generation, until it was laid to rest, at sparknotes least with respect to the review of social and economic legislation, in Essay Lifestyle: Smoking West Coast Hotel v. Parrish , 300 U.S. Sparknotes Lysistrata? 379 (1937), which upheld a minimum wage law. Twenty-five years later, the Supreme Court could state that it had returned to the original constitutional proposition that courts do not substitute their social and economic beliefs for the judgment of legislative bodies. Ferguson v. Skrupa , 372 U.S. 726, 730 (1963). Despite the interment of what may be called economic substantive due process, libertarian substantive due process is Essay on Family Lifestyle: Smoking and Food, alive and well. Under this strand of substantive due process analysis, the Due Process Clause provides heightened protection against government interference with certain fundamental rights and liberty interests. Washington v. Glucksberg , 521 U.S. 702, 720 (1997). Lysistrata? Roe v. Wade , while sounding in privacy theory, was ultimately based on the liberty language of 1 of the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, see Roe , 410 U.S. at 153, and, therefore, may justly be regarded as the modern paradigm of (libertarian) substantive due process analysis.

See Richard Epstein, Substantive Due Process by culture Any Other Name , 1973 Sup. Ct. Rev. 159, 184. But Roe flunks the test the Court uses for sparknotes, evaluating substantive due process claims.

In determining whether an asserted liberty interest (or right) should be regarded as fundamental for purposes of substantive due process analysis (infringement of which would call for strict scrutiny review), the mido watches uk Supreme Court applies a two-prong test. First, there must be a careful description of the asserted fundamental liberty interest. Glucksberg , 521 U.S. at 721 (citation and internal quotation marks omitted). Second, the sparknotes lysistrata interest, so described, must be firmly rooted in the Nations history, legal traditions, and Stop Overpopulation Essay, practices. Id. at 710. An asserted interest in (or right to) abortion does not meet the lysistrata second prong of the Glucksberg test. Quite the contrary. As much research has established, especially that of Professor Dellapenna ( see n. 4, supra ) , abortion was a crime in English and American common law, at least after quickening (that stage of pregnancy when the woman first detects fetal movement, usually sixteen to eighteen weeks gestation), and very possibly without such a limitation. With the Essay Lifestyle: Smoking and Food Sanitation gradual replacement of common law crimes by statutory crimes in the nineteenth century, the overwhelming majority of States had made the performance of an abortion at any stage of pregnancy a crime well before the Fourteenth Amendment was adopted in 1868. Lysistrata? And the case law interpreting these statutes revealed that the principal, if not exclusive, purpose in enacting these statutes was to protect unborn human life, not (or not solely) to Essay Smoking and Food safeguard women from lysistrata dangerous medical and/or surgical procedures.

See Paul Benjamin Linton, Planned Parenthood v. Casey : The Flight from Reason in the Supreme Court , XIII St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 15, 109-15 (1993). In light of the foregoing, an interest in (or right to) abortion cannot be said to be firmly rooted in papers our history, legal traditions, and practices. III. Applications of Roe ^ top. The Supreme Court has decided almost three dozen abortion cases since and including Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton . A detailed analysis of the holdings in these cases would unduly prolong the length of this essay. The principal holdings, however, may be briefly summarized:

In addition to the Texas abortion statutes struck down in lysistrata Roe , the Court has struck down state statutes prohibiting particular abortion methods, Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Federalist Papers 10 And? Danforth , 428 U.S. 52, 75-79 (1976) (saline amniocentesis), Stenberg v. Carhart , 530 U.S. 914 (2000) (partial-birth abortion), but more recently has upheld the federal Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Gonzales v. Lysistrata? Carhart , 550 U.S. 124 (2007). The Court has upheld statutes prohibiting non-physicians from federalist papers 10 and performing abortions, Mazurek v. Armstrong , 520 U.S.

968 (1997) ( per curiam ) and has held that non-physicians may be prosecuted for sparknotes lysistrata, performing abortions, Connecticut v. Menillo , 423 U.S. 9, 11 (1975) ( per curiam ) . The Court has struck down statutes and ordinances requiring all abortions (or all abortions after the first trimester) to be performed in hospitals, Doe v. Bolton , 410 U.S. Essay Safety, Sanitation? 179, 193-95 (1973) (all abortions), City of Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive Rights ( Akron Center I ) , 462 U.S. Sparknotes Lysistrata? 416, 431-39 (1983) (all abortions after the first trimester), Planned Parenthood Assn of Kansas City , Missouri , Inc. v. Ashcroft , 462 U.S. 476, 481-82 (1983) (all abortions after the first twelve weeks of pregnancy), but has upheld a statute requiring all second trimester abortions to be performed in either a hospital or a licensed outpatient clinic, Simopoulos v. Virginia , 462 U.S. 506, 510-19 (1983). The Court has struck down parental consent and mido watches uk, notice statutes and ordinances if they did not contain a judicial bypass mechanism that would afford the pregnant minor the lysistrata opportunity to avoid obtaining the consent of (or giving notice to) her parents or legal guardian, 9 Danforth , 428 U.S. at 72-75 (one-parent consent), Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at 439-42 (one-parent consent without judicial bypass), Bellotti v. Baird , 443 U.S.

622 (1979) (two-parent consent) (inadequate judicial bypass), Hodgson v. Minnesota , 497 U.S. 417, 450-55 (1990) (two-parent notice without judicial bypass), 10 but has upheld statutes that contained an adequate judicial bypass, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation 490-93 (one-parent consent). Hodgson , 497 U.S. at 497-501 (Kennedy, J., concurring in sparknotes lysistrata the judgment in part and dissenting in part), id. at 461 (OConnor, J., concurring in part and concurring in the judgment in federalist papers part) (two-parent notice with judicial bypass), Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health ( Akron Center II ) , 497 U.S. 502 (1990) (one-parent notice with judicial bypass), Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 899-900 (1992) (one-parent consent), Lambert v. Wicklund ,520 U.S. 292 (1997) (one-parent notice) ( per curiam ) . Lysistrata? The Court has struck down statutes requiring a married woman to obtain the consent of, or give notice to, her husband before undergoing an abortion, Danforth , 428 U.S. at 67-72 (consent), and Casey , 505 U.S. at 887-98 (notice) . The Court has upheld state and federal statutes restricting public funding of abortions, Beal v. Doe , 432 U.S. 438 (1977), Maher v. We Can Stop Overpopulation? Roe , 432 U.S. 464 (1977), Harris v. McRae , 448 U.S. Sparknotes? 297 (1980), and Williams v. Zbaraz , 448 U.S. 358 (1980), as well as state statutes and mido watches uk, municipal government policies prohibiting the performance of abortions by public employees within the sparknotes lysistrata scope of their employment or in publicly owned and operated facilities (other than those necessary to save the life of the ghanaian culture mother), Poelker v. Sparknotes? Doe , 432 U.S.

519 (1977), and Webster v. Reproductive Health Services , 492 U.S. 490, 507-11 (1989). The Court has also upheld federal administrative regulations (since rescinded) requiring physical and financial separation of Title X family planning projects from We Can Essay other projects operated by Title X grantees that perform, counsel or refer for abortion, Rust v. Sullivan , 500 U.S. 173 (1991). The Court has upheld a requirement that a pathology report be prepared for all fetal tissue obtained in the course of an abortion, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at 486-90 , but has struck down a requirement that fetal remains be disposed of in a humane and sanitary manner, Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at 451-52 . The Court has upheld some record keeping and reporting requirements, Danforth , 428 U.S. at 79-81 , Casey , 505 U.S. at 900-01 , while striking down others, Thornburgh v. American College of lysistrata, Obstetricians Gynecologists , 476 U.S. 747, 765-68 (1986), because of what the Court perceived as inadequate guarantees of patient confidentiality. Presidents Game? The Court has upheld a requirement that a second physician be present during the performance of a post-viability abortion to provide immediate medical care for a viable child who survives an abortion procedure, Ashcroft , 462 U.S. at 482-86 , but has struck down a second-physician requirement that did not contain an express or implied exception for medical emergencies, Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 769-71 . The Court has also struck down standards of sparknotes lysistrata, care for the performance of post-viability abortions that were either vague, Colautti v. Franklin , 439 U.S. 379, 397-401 (1979), or posed an unacceptable risk to the mothers health, Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 768-69 , but has upheld a statute mandating fetal viability testing at culture twenty weeks gestation, Webster , 492 U.S. at 513-21 . In a pair of decisions, later overruled in part by sparknotes Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833 (1992), which is discussed in the next part of this essay, infra , the Court held that States and municipalities could not require a short waiting period before the performance of a non-emergency abortion; that they could not required detailed informed consent information to be given to the pregnant woman seeking an We Can Stop examples abortion; and that they could not require portions of the informed consent information to be conveyed in person to the patient by the attending physician, see Akron Center I , 462 U.S. at 442-51 and Thornburgh , 476 U.S. at 759-65 . 11.

IV. Sparknotes? Roe Revisited: Planned Parenthood v. Casey ^ top. In 1992, the Supreme Court revisited Roe and, in a Joint Opinion authored by Justices Sandra Day OConnor, Anthony Kennedy and David Souter, substantially modified its holdings. Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833 (1992). In Casey , the Court reaffirmed what it characterized as the essential (or central) holding of Roe , consisting of three parts: First, a woman has the right . Federalist Papers 10 And 51? . . Sparknotes Lysistrata? . to choose to have an abortion before viability and to obtain it without undue interference from the State. Faculty Essay? Before viability, the sparknotes States interests are not strong enough to mido watches uk support a prohibition of abortion or the imposition of a substantial obstacle to lysistrata the womans effective right to elect the procedure. 505 U.S. at 846. Second, the State has the Faculty and Curriculum power to restrict abortions after fetal viability, if the law contains exceptions for pregnancies which endanger the lysistrata womans life or health. Id . And, third, the State has legitimate interests from the outset of the pregnancy in mido watches uk protecting the health of the woman and the life of the fetus that may become a child. Id . While reaffirming the essential (or central) holding of lysistrata, Roe , the authors of the Joint Opinion rejected Roes trimester framework as an unnecessarily rigid construct which in its formulation . . . misconceives the nature of the pregnant womans interest, and in practice . Safety, Smoking And Food? . . undervalues the lysistrata States interest in potential life . . . We Can Stop Overpopulation? . Id . at 872-73. The trimester framework misconceives the nature of the pregnant womans interest because [w]hat is at stake is [her] right to make the ultimate decision [to obtain an abortion prior to viability], not a right to be insulated from sparknotes all others in doing so. Id . at 877. Though the woman has a right to choose to terminate or continue her pregnancy before viability, the Joint Opinion explained, it does not at all follow that the State is prohibited from taking steps to Essay and Food ensure that [her] choice is thoughtful and informed. Id . at lysistrata 872.

The trimester framework undervalues the States interest in potential life, the Joint Opinion continued, because the State has a substantial state interest in potential life throughout pregnancy, id . at 876, not just after viability. In light of their dissatisfaction with the trimester framework of Safety, Smoking Sanitation, Roe and how it had been applied in subsequent cases, the lysistrata authors of the mido watches uk Joint Opinion developed a new standard for reviewing pre-viability abortion regulations, the so-called undue burden test. Casey , 505 U.S. at sparknotes lysistrata 874-79. Under that test, a state regulation [that] has the presidents and assholes game purpose or effect of placing a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus is sparknotes lysistrata, unconstitutional. Id . at 877. Applying that test to the statutes challenged in Casey (multiple provisions of the Pennsylvania Abortion Control Act of 1982, as amended), a majority of the Court upheld the detailed informed consent requirement (including the mandated twenty-four hour waiting period), the parental consent requirement and the record keeping and reporting requirements, id . at 881-87, 899-901, but a differently constituted majority struck down the spousal notice requirement , id . at 887-98 . 12 In upholding the We Can Stop Overpopulation Essay examples informed consent requirement (and the accompanying waiting period), the Court overruled, in part, its earlier conflicting precedents in Akron Center I and Thornburgh . Id . at 881-82. 13. Both Justice Harry Blackmun and Justice Paul Stevens dissented from the sparknotes lysistrata Joint Opinions abandonment of Roes trimester framework and the strict scrutiny standard of review, while Chief Justice William Rehnquist, joined by Justices Byron White, Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas, dissented from the reaffirmation of the essential holding of Roe , arguing that the rational basis standard should be applied to Stop Essay examples all regulation of abortion.

14. The Joint Opinion in Casey is sparknotes lysistrata, notable in five respects: First, in reaffirming what it characterized as the essential (or central) holding of Faculty and Curriculum, Roe , the authors of the Joint Opinion raised the issue but refused to state whether they believed that Roe had been correctly decided as an original matter of constitutional interpretation, Casey , 505 U.S. at 871 ([w]e do not need to say whether each of us, had we been Members of the Court when the valuation of the state interest [in the protection of potential life] came before it as an original matter, would have concluded, as the Roe Court did, that its weight is insufficient to justify a ban on abortions prior to viability even when it is subject to certain exceptions), 15 relying instead on principles of institutional integrity and the rule of stare decisis [deferring to precedent]. Id . at 845-46; see also id. at 854-69. Sparknotes? Second, the Joint Opinion provided no principled basis for mido watches uk, distinguishing between the essential (or central) and the inessential (or peripheral) holdings of Roe , reaffirming the former and overruling the lysistrata latter. As Justice Scalia commented, I must . . . confess that I have always thought, and I think a lot of other people have always thought, that the arbitrary trimester framework, which the Court today discards, was quite as central to Roe as the arbitrary viability test, which the Court today retains. Id . at 993. (Scalia, J., concurring in the judgment in federalist 51 part and dissenting in part). Sparknotes? Third, in reaffirming the essential holding of Roe , the Joint Opinion abandoned Roes reliance on privacy theory, resting its analysis, instead, on the liberty language of 1 of the Stop Overpopulation Essay Fourteenth Amendment. Fourth, the Joint Opinion tacitly abandoned Roes characterization of the lysistrata right to abortion as fundamental. 16 And, fifth, the Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation Joint Opinion substituted a new standard of review undue burden in place of the strict scrutiny standard employed in Roe for evaluating fundamental rights, which clearly allows for a broader scope of sparknotes, regulation (but not prohibition) of Essay on Family and Food Sanitation, pre-viability abortions.

17. The strict scrutiny standard of judicial review applies to laws that either interfere with the exercise of a fundamental constitutional right ( e.g ., voting) or discriminate on sparknotes, the basis of a suspect classification ( e.g ., race). A law reviewed under this standard is presumed to be un constitutional and will not be upheld unless its proponents are able to demonstrate that it is mido watches uk, necessary to lysistrata promote a compelling state (or governmental) interest. Few, if any, laws reviewed under this standard survive. At the opposite end of the spectrum is the rational basis standard of review, which applies to almost all other legislation. 18 Under this standard, a law is presumed to be constitutional and Essay, will be upheld so long as it has a rational relationship to any legitimate state (or governmental) purpose.

Most laws reviewed under this standard survive constitutional scrutiny. V. The Roberts Court and the Future of Abortion Jurisprudence ^ top. Under the leadership of Chief Justice John Roberts, the Supreme Court has taken a more cautious approach to the review of abortion regulation. Most obviously, the Court, in an opinion by Justice Kennedy, upheld the federal Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act in Gonzales v. Carhart , 550 U.S. 124 (2007) ( Carhart II ), after a differently constituted Court struck down a similar (but more vaguely worded) state statute only seven years earlier in Stenberg v. Carhart , 530 U.S. 914 (2000) ( Carhart I ). Less obviously, the Court has suggested that, at sparknotes least with respect to the regulation of abortion, facial challenges, i.e ., a claim that a given statute is unconstitutional in its entirety, are disfavored, Carhart II , 550 U.S. 124 at federalist 10 and 130 (these facial attacks should not have been entertained in lysistrata the first place), and as-applied challenges, i.e ., a claim that a statute is unconstitutional in particular circumstances, are preferred, id . at 168 ([a]s-applied challenges are the basic building blocks of constitutional adjudication) (citation and internal quotation marks omitted).

Relatedly, in another decision of the federalist 51 Roberts Court, the lysistrata Court unanimously held, in an opinion by Justice OConnor, that when only Faculty a limited number of applications of an sparknotes lysistrata abortion statute would be unconstitutional, the We Can Stop Essay proper remedy (if otherwise consistent with legislative intent) is to enjoin enforcement of those applications only, not to declare the sparknotes entire statute unconstitutional. Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of Essay on Family Safety, Smoking, Northern New England , 546 U.S. 320, 328-31 (2006) (reviewing parental notice law). Significantly, in Ayotte , Justice OConnor acknowledged that the Court did not take this more circumspect approach in Carhart I, id . at 330-31 (explaining that the parties . . Sparknotes? . Federalist? did not ask for, and lysistrata, we did not contemplate, relief more finely drawn than complete invalidation). 19. In light of the Roberts Courts more cautious approach to the review of abortion legislation, fewer challenges to abortion statutes may be expected.

Moreover, even with respect to Essay on Family Smoking those challenges that are brought and are determined to have merit, both the Supreme Court and the lower federal courts are likely to sparknotes strike down the statute and enjoin its enforcement only with respect to Stop its invalid applications, not in its entirety. VI. A Comment on the Scope of the sparknotes lysistrata Health Exception ^ top. Finally, a brief comment on an unresolved area of abortion law the scope of the health exception required by mido watches uk Roe (as reaffirmed in Casey ). In Roe , the lysistrata Supreme Court held that the States may prohibit abortion after viability except when it is and Curriculum Development, necessary to preserve the life or health of the mother. 410 U.S. at sparknotes lysistrata 164. The Court, however, did not define the term health. In the companion case of Doe v. Mido Watches Uk? Bolton , the Court considered a challenge to what remained of the Georgia abortion statute after major provisions of the statute had been declared unconstitutional by a federal district court. As a result of the district courts decision, a physician could perform an abortion whenever he determined, in his best clinical judgment, that the abortion was necessary. At issue in Doe was whether this standard was impermissibly vague. The Court concluded that it was not: [T]he medical judgment [as to whether an sparknotes abortion is necessary] may be exercised in presidents and assholes drinking the light of sparknotes lysistrata, all factors physical, emotional, psychological, familial, and the womans age relevant to the well-being of the patient.

All these factors may relate to and Curriculum Essay health. Whether Doe , properly understood, mandates an open-ended health exception for sparknotes lysistrata, post-viability abortions is debatable. Although there is the merest hint in one older case that the mido watches uk Court (as then constituted) may have regarded the broad language in Doe as a limitation on the States authority to prohibit post-viability abortions, see Colautti v. Franklin , 439 U.S. 379, 400 (1979), the Court has never directly considered the validity of a post-viability ban. Lower federal courts have read Doe as a gloss on the scope of the health exception that must be included in any post-viability ban, 20 but that reading misinterprets Doe , as Justice Thomas noted in his dissent from the sparknotes denial of certiorari in Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Voinovich v. Womens Medical Professional Corp . , 523 U.S.

1036 (1998): Our conclusion that the statutory phrase at issue in Doe [whether the abortions was necessary] was not vague because it included emotional and psychological considerations in no way supports the proposition that, after viability, a mental health exception is lysistrata, required as a matter of 10 and 51, federal constitutional law . Doe simply did not address that question. 523 U.S. at sparknotes lysistrata 1039 (emphasis in original). As things now stand, whether the open-ended health language of Doe is a limitation on Essay on Family Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation, the authority of the States to prohibit post-viability abortions remains an open question, but one that should be answered by a challenge to an appropriately drafted statute. Given the present composition of the Court, there is reason to believe that such a statute would be upheld. In recognizing a constitutional right to abortion, the Court in Roe believed that it was meeting the profound problems of the present day. 410 U.S. at 165. The problems which the Court thought would be ameliorated by sparknotes its decision included the medical risks associated with pregnancy, a distressful life and future for the pregnant woman confronted with an drinking unwanted pregnancy, [p]sychological harm, the difficulty in providing child care, the distress, for all concerned, associated with the unwanted child, the problem of bringing a child into a family already unable, psychologically or otherwise, to care for sparknotes, it, and, for some, the additional difficulties and continuing stigma associated with unwed motherhood . . . . Id . at 153. More than thirty years of experience with legalized abortion has failed to solve these problems, as well as others for mido watches uk, which abortion was touted as a panacea (crime and sparknotes lysistrata, poverty). Indeed, the regime of Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Smoking Sanitation, legal abortion has aggravated them. See Clarke D. Forsythe and Stephen B. Presser, The Tragic Failure of Roe v. Lysistrata? Wade: Why Abortion Should be Returned to the States . 10 Tex.

Rev. of Law Politics 85, 108-36 (Fall 2005). In reaffirming, as modified, Roe in Casey , the Supreme Court call[ed] the contending sides of a national controversy to mido watches uk end their national division by accepting a common mandate rooted in the Constitution. 505 U.S. at 867. Given the issues at stake in abortion, that call, not surprisingly, has not been heeded. The abortion liberty has no roots in lysistrata the Nations history, traditions and legal practices. And the national division over the abortion controversy, which Roe created and Casey continued, will not end until, initially, the drinking Supreme Court returns the issue of abortion to sparknotes the States and, eventually, the ghanaian Constitution is amended to protect the lives of all unborn children. A discussion of the various standards of judicial review may be found in Part IV of sparknotes, this essay, infra . back. When Roe was decided, an unborn child was viable, i.e ., capable of living outside of Stop Overpopulation, his or her mother, at twenty-eight weeks of gestation.In light of medical advances made since Roe , viability may occur at sparknotes twenty-three to on Family Lifestyle: Safety, and Food Sanitation twenty-four weeks, or, in some instances, even earlier, as the Supreme Court recognized almost twenty years ago in Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 860 (1992) (noting that viability may occur at twenty-three to twenty-four weeks). back.

Section 230.3 of the Model Penal Code, one version or another of which was adopted by thirteen States before Roe v. Sparknotes Lysistrata? Wade , allowed abortion whenever the physician believed that there was a substantial risk that continuance of the pregnancy would gravely impair the federalist 10 and physical or mental health of the mother, that the child would be born with grave physical or mental defect, or that the pregnancy resulted from rape, incest, or other felonious intercourse.In Doe , the Court also struck down a requirement that an abortion could be performed only upon a bona fide resident of the State of Georgia. Doe , 410 U.S. at 200. Lysistrata? back. As a result of the district court's judgment, a physician could perform an abortion whenever, in his best clinical judgment, the procedure was necessary. Essay? back. Interested readers, however, may wish to consult some of the following sources. An early critique of the lysistrata Court's handiwork in Roe , which includes a brief review of the initial academic responses to Roe (both favorable and unfavorable) is Essay on Family Safety, Smoking and Food Sanitation, John T. Noonan, Jr.'s, A Private Choice: Abortion in America in the Seventies (The Free Press 1979).

Dennis J. Horan, Edward R. Grant and sparknotes lysistrata, Paige C. Cunningham (eds.), Abortion and the Constitution: Reversing Roe v. Wade Through the Courts (Georgetown University Press 1987), is a compendium of We Can Essay examples, articles written by a variety of authors criticizing various aspects of the sparknotes holdings and mido watches uk, analysis in Roe . Sparknotes Lysistrata? The most comprehensive and thorough analysis of mido watches uk, Roe's treatment of the sparknotes lysistrata historical treatment of abortion in English and American law, as well as the restatement of that history in James C. Mohr's Abortion in ghanaian culture America (Oxford University Press 1978), is sparknotes, Joseph W. Dellapenna's Dispelling the Myths of Abortion History (Carolina Academic Press 2006) (an extremely abbreviated version of Professor Dellapenna's analysis appears in Abortion and the Constitution , supra , at 137-58). A concise critique of the Court's historical excursus in Roe , particularly its explanation for the reasons nineteenth century abortion statutes were enacted, may be found in Appendix A to Paul Benjamin Linton's article, Planned Parenthood v. Casey : The Flight from Reason in federalist 10 and the Supreme Court , XIII St. Louis U. Pub. Sparknotes Lysistrata? L. Rev. 15, 103-19 (1993). The poor quality of the analysis and reasoning in Roe has led some academics to rewrite the opinion.

A collection of such opinions and opposing dissents, along with a useful selected bibliography, appears in Jack M. Balkin (ed.), What Roe v. Wade Should Have Said (New York University Press 2005). back. All of the holdings in these cases, and the full citations thereto, appear in Part I of this essay, supra . back. Planned Parenthood v. Essay Lifestyle: Smoking? Casey is discussed in more detail in Part IV of this essay, infra . Lysistrata? back. Justices Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Louis D. Brandeis and We Can Overpopulation Essay examples, Hugo Black, as well as Judge Learned Hand, who served on the Second Circuit Court of Appeals for decades, all agreed that the sparknotes use of the liberty language of the Due Process Clause to invalidate the substance of state enactments is fundamentally illegitimate. See Berger, Government by Judiciary , at 227-28 n. Presidents Drinking Game? 27 (Black), 282 n. 46 (Holmes, Brandeis and Hand). Sparknotes? back. Consent of (or notice to) a parent or legal guardian may be waived by a court in a judicial bypass hearing if the minor can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the court that she is mature enough to make the decision to ghanaian culture obtain an abortion without the consent of sparknotes lysistrata, (or notice to) her parent(s) or legal guardian, or, alternatively, that obtaining consent (or giving notice) would not be in her best interests. The Court has upheld both consent statutes, see , e.g ., Planned Parenthood v. Casey , 505 U.S. 833, 899-900 (1992), and We Can Overpopulation examples, Planned Parenthood Ass'n of Kansas City , Missouri v. Ashcroft , 462 U.S. 476, 490-93 (1983), and sparknotes, notice statutes, see , e.g ., Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health , 497 U.S.502 (1990), and Hodgson v. Minnesota , 497 U.S. 417 (1990). back. See also Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of Northern New England , 546 U.S.

320 (2006) (one-parent notice statute could not be enforced constitutionally in medical emergencies requiring the immediate performance of an abortion). back. A general and non-specific requirement that a physician obtain the ghanaian culture informed consent of the patient before performing an sparknotes abortion was upheld in Danforth , 428 U.S. at 65-67. Faculty And Curriculum Essay? back. The Court also upheld the medical emergency definition. Casey , 505 U.S. at 879-80. back. The holdings in Akron Center I and sparknotes, Thornburgh are discussed in and Curriculum Development Essay Part III, supra . back. These alternative standards of review are discussed below. back.

See also id. at 853, 858, 864, 869. back. Nowhere in the Joint Opinion is the right to abortion described as fundamental. back. The Joint Opinion in Casey has been subjected to withering criticism. See Paul Benjamin Linton, Planned Parenthood v. Casey : The Flight from Reason in the Supreme Court , XIII St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 15, 103-19 (1993); Michael Stokes Paulsen, The Worst Constitutional Decision of sparknotes, All Time , 78 Notre Dame L. Rev. 995 (2003). Casey is culture, also extensively discussed and critiqued in lysistrata Professor Dellapenna's magnum opus , Dispelling the Myths of Abortion History , supra , n. 4. back. Under federal constitutional equal protection doctrine, an We Can Overpopulation Essay examples intermediate standard applies to classifications based on sex or illegitimacy.

Under that standard, often referred to as heightened scrutiny, the classification must be substantially related to an important state (or governmental) interest. back.

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chefs resume format Education and Qualifications. Professional Qualifications and Training. Work Experience/Unpaid Employment. Other Relevant Experience / Skills.

Hobbies and sparknotes lysistrata Interests. Gaps in Chronology. Example Functional CV. Example Targeted CV. Example Student / Graduate CV. Firstly, always remember that your CV is a sales and marketing tool. It is your advert that documents your experience and skills with the all-important objective of getting an interview.

It has to: Interest the reader enough to want to Development, know more and lysistrata therefore invite you for interview. But you must not overload your CV with too much information. There are a few basic rules to and assholes drinking, follow that almost every personnel professional agrees on. Quick and easy to sparknotes, read. Truthful (It is our advice that you should never be tempted to lie on a CV) Your CV will continue to ghanaian culture, work as a sales and sparknotes marketing tool even if you get an interview. It can direct the interviewer(s) towards your achievements and skills prior to, and during the interview. It is also very likely that the interviewer will make notes on culture, your CV during the interview and reread your CV and their notes before deciding who to appoint. If your CV suitably highlights the skills and sparknotes lysistrata experience they are looking for it could help you move on Essay, to the second stage or even get the job. Before writing you CV you need to decide which format will best represent you in the job market.

Each has its advantages and disadvantages. The Performance CV is the lysistrata best option for most people, however if you are seeking to change career or find that a Performance CV is Stop Overpopulation, not suitable for any other reason then you may wish to consider the Functional CV or Targeted CV. In this format emphasis is placed on employment history, including job titles, companies, responsibilities and achievements in a professional capacity. Are seeking employment within the same field as previous experience. Want to highlight their professional achievements such as promotions. Want the names of sparknotes lysistrata their employers and their duties to be clearly evidenced. It is not suitable if: You want a change in career. You have frequently changed employer or not stayed in a job for a great period of time. You have been out of work for periods of time for any reason. Your achievements are not in line with the career you wish to pursue now.

What to presidents drinking game, include. 3 to 6 functional headings. Select headings that are appropriate to sparknotes lysistrata, the new position you are applying for mido watches uk, You should have 2 to 5 bullet points under each heading evidencing your experience and skills. Professional Qualifications and Training. Education and Qualifications.

Hobbies and lysistrata Interests. Back to CV Types Menu ^ This format picks out your responsibilities and achievements across your whole career. Individual employers are less important as the Stop Overpopulation Essay emphasis lies on the skills gained in general. are planning to sparknotes, change career or direction. want to ghanaian, emphasise skills that were not utilised in lysistrata their most recent jobs. have had a large number of jobs, perhaps in different fields, and culture wish to lysistrata, describe skills and experience across their career as a whole. want to include voluntary/unpaid employment. have been out of work for periods of time for any reason.

It is not suitable if: you want to highlight achievements and career growth in Stop a particular job. you have been doing similar work and therefore have few varied skills to sparknotes, pick out. What to include: 3 to We Can Essay examples, 6 functional headings. Select headings that are appropriate to the new position you are applying for You should have 2 to 5 bullet points under each heading evidencing your experience and sparknotes skills. Professional Qualifications and Training. Education and Qualifications. Hobbies and We Can Stop examples Interests. Back to CV Types Menu ^ This CV highlights skills and experience most suitable to a specific job target. It is appropriate for those trying to make a decisive career change.

Are planning to sparknotes lysistrata, change career or direction. Want to on Family Lifestyle: and Food Sanitation, emphasise skills that were not utilised in their most recent jobs. Have had a large number of sparknotes jobs, perhaps in different fields, and wish to describe skills and presidents and assholes drinking game experience across their career as a whole. Want to include voluntary/unpaid employment. Have been out of sparknotes work for periods of time for any reason. Have several different job targets and culture need to create a distinctive CV for each one. Have several different job targets and need to create a distinctive CV for each one. You want to highlight achievements and career growth in lysistrata a particular job. What to include: Key Skills - select skills that are appropriate to the new position you are applying.

A targeted CV is best kept on one sheet of A4. This CV is only suitable for creative careers, e.g. Papers 10 And 51? writing, advertising, fashion design. Student / Graduate CV. The main purpose of this CV is to highlight your academic achievements and any activities or vacation work you have been involved in that is sparknotes, appropriate to the job you are applying for. Have recently left education.

Are applying for Sanitation, their first full-time job. Wish to include vacation and sparknotes lysistrata part-time work. It is Essay, not suitable if: You want to lysistrata, focus on previous employment. You have not completed a course and therefore not attained the qualification. What to include. Achievements - at this stage in your career you may not have any achievements that would suitably be included in this section so you may wish to leave it out.

Education and Qualifications - you may wish to list modules that you studied as part of Essay on Family Lifestyle: and Food Sanitation your degree that are particularly relevant to the job you are applying for. Hobbies and sparknotes lysistrata Interests. Presentation is one of the most important things to consider when writing a CV, Your CV needs to attract the reader's attention and make information quick and easy to federalist 51, find. Always use a word processor. Never use a typewriter as you will look old-fashioned and out of date. Use a clear font such as Arial, stick to lysistrata, 10-12pt. Stick to bright white paper. Use a good quality printer such as a laser printer. Use plenty of 'white space' Keep paragraphs short.

Make you sentences short and punchy. Use appropriate headings and section breaks. Use bold for headings - lots of underlining and italics can look distracting. Use bullet points to break up the text under headings. Length of your CV. Your CV should be a maximum of 2 pages of A4. A CV will only get about 2 minutes reading on a first trawl, you need your skills and experience to drinking game, stand out and not get lost in a lot of waffle. Sparknotes? The employer needs just enough information to Stop, decide whether to interview you or not. Below is a list of sections that you can include in sparknotes lysistrata your CV.

Check against Faculty and Curriculum Development Essay you selected format and the example CVs below to sparknotes, decide which are the most appropriate for you. Education and Lifestyle: and Food Qualifications. Professional Qualifications and Training. Work Experience/Unpaid Employment. Other Relevant Experience/Skills. Hobbies and Interests. You do not have to include pictures unless specifically asked to lysistrata, do so. Contact telephone numbers (home, work, mobile) Driving License and whether it is clean. Nationality (if you are applying abroad) It is unnecessary to put marital status and gender.

List you education and qualifications in reverse chronological order (the most recent first), including grades and dates. Stop Overpopulation Examples? For example: GCE A Levels: Physics (A), Chemistry (A), Maths (A), Hertfordshire School, 1995-1997. GCSEs: Physics (A), Chemistry (A), Maths (A), Biology (B), English (B), Geography (B), French (B), History (C), Hertfordshire School, 1993-1995. It is unnecessary to put: A Level and sparknotes lysistrata GCSE exam boards. Minor qualifications, you can list these elsewhere. You may wish to list modules that you studied as part of your university degree if they are particularly relevant to the position you are applying for.

Concentrate on your two most recent jobs as these are the ones the employer will be most interested in. Start with you most recent position. You should include: The job title of the and assholes drinking game person you reported to. The dates of you employment. The name of the company. A brief description of the lysistrata service provided by the company.

Your main responsibilities, achievements, duties and skills. Remember to federalist papers 10 and 51, give examples to back up skills and experience. Sparknotes? Choose examples that are most appropriate to Essay Lifestyle: Safety, Sanitation, the new position you are applying for. If you have any other relevant qualifications or qualifications you gained while in employment that are relevant to sparknotes lysistrata, the new position then list these in mido watches uk a separate section. Membership to sparknotes lysistrata, any professional bodies and professional ID numbers. Work related training courses. Work Experience / Unpaid Employment. This will be particularly important if you are at culture, the beginning of your career and don't have an extensive employment history yet. Detail skills and sparknotes knowledge that you acquired. Other relevant Experience / Skills. Again this will be most important to those who have not been working for very long.

Charity work, but only if it is relevant to the position you are applying for, otherwise include this in the Hobbies and Interests section. Any other appropriate skills you have acquired through means other than academic work or employment. Membership of student committees, organising social events, involvement in the wider community, etc. We Can Stop Overpopulation Essay Examples? You could put these under a separate Responsibilities heading if appropriate. IT skills are becoming increasingly important in lysistrata almost every job and workplace so it is a good idea to list any skills that you have in mido watches uk a separate section: Software and operating system used (e.g. Microsoft Office, Microsoft Windows XP etc.) Typing speed (in words per minute, you would normally be tested for this when registering with a recruitment agency)

If it is lysistrata, appropriate to the job for which you are applying then list your skills in any foreign languages. State whether they are written, spoken business or technical and indicate your level of Overpopulation examples fluency, for example: fluent, good working knowledge, etc. Not everyone agrees on sparknotes, whether hobbies and interests should be included on ghanaian culture, a CV. Some argue that it just uses up valuable space and sparknotes lysistrata the fact that you starred in the Marlow Amateur Dramatics Society production of 'Evita' has very little bearing on your ability to perform well in the given position. On the other hand others say that your interests say a lot about on Family Sanitation, your personality and how you might fit into the company. List any positions of responsibility you hold or held in a club or organisation. Explain your achievements and any relevant skills gained. There is no need to name references on your CV merely state that references are available on request. This often appears at lysistrata, the beginning of a CV. It summarises experience, skills and ambitions. A profile is ghanaian culture, most appropriate for people in mid-career, however anyone can use one and it is a good way to attract the lysistrata attention of the reader and explain straightaway what it is that you are capable of and what you are looking for in a career.

Highly motivated Office Manager with five years experience in administration. Able to We Can Stop Overpopulation Essay, work on own initiative and as part of sparknotes a team. Proven leadership and communication skills, involving organising, managing and developing office administration team to achieve their objectives. Exceptional computer, writing and numeracy skills. Again it is We Can Overpopulation Essay examples, not necessary to include a Key Skills section unless you feel that it is particularly appropriate.

You can use your covering letter to draw together your capabilities that are evidenced across your employment history, experience etc. Make sure that they are appropriate to the position for which you are applying. Explain each one briefly providing practical examples. Be careful not to oversell yourself. Gaps in sparknotes Chronology. Remember when writing your CV that missing months (or even years) may be viewed with suspicion by a potential employer. If you have taken a career break for any reason, for travelling or to Essay Smoking and Food, bring up a family for sparknotes lysistrata, example, then remember to include it. Keeping your CV Up-to-Date. Through the course of a year, be it in study, recreation or employment, you will experience a variety of new things and acquire many new skills. It is We Can Stop Overpopulation, much easier to take a little time to update your CV every month rather than trying to lysistrata, remember what training you did on one day eight months ago. Preparing you CV will always be easier if you are updating and tailoring an existing CV rather than starting from scratch!

Applying for a job by email is ghanaian, one of the fastest and most effective ways to send a CV. Lysistrata? But there are a few things to presidents and assholes game, bear in mind before you press 'Send'. In the subject line of your email clearly state that it is an application and which position you are applying for. This means that your email can be more quickly and effectively dealt with. Be careful not to adopt too personal a tone in your email. Remember that you are making a professional application and your tone should reflect that. Make sure attachments are easily accessible. Stick to .txt or .doc (Notepad or MS Word) formats to ensure that your CV can be received and readable.

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