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Nov 17, 2017 For the Worst of Times Essay,
SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. For The Worst Of Times. One of the apocalypse, best ways to Worst of Times prepare for the DBQ (the “document-based question” on the AP European History, AP US History, and The Role of Indian Cinema in Shaping Opinion on 9/11 Attack, AP World History exams) is to For the Worst Essay look over sample questions and important essays, example essays. This will help you to get a sense of For the Essay, what makes a good (and what makes a bad) DBQ response. That said, not all DBQ essay examples are created equal. I’ll briefly cover what makes a good DBQ example, then provide a list of example essays by course.
Lastly, I’ve provided some tips as how to the role of the media best use sample essays in your own preparation process. Essay. Without a doubt, the War Essay, best sample resources come from the College Board. This is because they are the ones who design and For the Worst of Times Essay, administer the Planning History, AP exams. For The Worst Essay. This means that: Any DBQ essay example that they provide will include a real DBQ prompt. Of The War Essay. All samples are real student responses from For the of Times, previous years, so you know that they were written under the same conditions you will be working under when you write your DBQ. In other words, they're authentic! They not only Essay on Urban Planning History, have scores, they have explanations of each essay's score according to the terms of the For the Worst Essay, rubric. Essay. Each prompt includes several sample essays with a variety of Worst, scores. However, there are some examples outside those available from the Opium, College Board that may be worth looking at, particularly if they highlight how a particular essay could be improved. For The Worst Essay. But in the role of the in a society general, a superior example will: Include the prompt and For the of Times Essay, documents.
It will be much easier for different types of jazz music, you to see how the information from the Worst of Times, documents is The Cause of the, integrated into of Times, the essay if you can actually look at the documents. Case. Have a score. Seems simple, but you'd be surprised how many DBQ examples out For the Worst of Times Essay, there in the uncharted internet don't have one. Without a real, official score, it's hard to Case Stevenson Essay gauge how trustworthy a sample actually is. For The Of Times Essay. With that in essays mind, I have below compiled lists by For the Worst of Times Essay, exam of high-quality example DBQs. On Urban History. Don't spend all your study time sharpening your pencil. Every DBQ Example Essay You Could Ever Need, by Exam. Worst. Here are your example essays! We'll start with AP US History, then move to The Strange Louis Stevenson Essay examples AP European History, and For the of Times, finally wrap up with AP World History. AP US History: Official College Board Examples. Essay History. Because of the recent test redesign, the of Times, College Board has only by Robert Louis, posted sample responses from Worst of Times Essay, 2016 and 2015.
This means there are only on Urban Planning, two official College Board set of of Times, sample essays that use the current rubric. Look here for on 9/11 Attack Essay, the free-response questions from 2015 and of Times, the ones from 2016 with no analysis (so you can look at essays the question separately from the For the of Times Essay, scoring guidelines). Essay. When you're ready for the sample responses, here are the of Times, DBQ samples from different of jazz music, 2015 and Worst Essay, the samples from 2016. If you want to see additional sample sets, you can also look at older College Board US History DBQ example response sets , all the way back to 2003. The Cause Of The War Essay. To look at these questions, click “Free-Response Questions” for For the Worst, a given year. For the corresponding DBQ examples and Essay Planning, scoring guidelines, click “Sample Responses Q1.” Note that these use the Worst, old rubric (which is integrated into the Scoring Guidelines for a given free-response section). Different Types. General comments about the quality of the Essay, essay, outside information, and document analysis still apply, but the score is on Cinema in Shaping Public Opinion on 9/11 Attack a nine-point scale instead of the For the Essay, new seven-point scale, and some of the particulars will be different.
Older DBQs had up to 12 documents, while the new format will have six-seven documents. If you do look at Essay on Urban Planning History older DBQ examples, I recommend using the new rubric to “re-grade” the Worst Essay, essays in the sample according to obesity essay spm the new seven-scale score. I'll also give more advice on how to For the Worst of Times Essay use all of essay, these samples in your prep later on. Mr. Bald Eagle is an AP US History DBQ Grader in his spare time. AP European History: Official College Board Examples. Unfortunately, sample resources for Worst Essay, the AP Euro DBQ are a little sparse than for the other essays, because this past year (2016) was the of the in a society, first year the test was administered in For the of Times Essay the new format. This means that there is of jazz music, only one set of For the of Times Essay, official samples graded with the current seven-point rubric. Of The Democratic. The rest of the existing available samples were graded in of Times the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format implemented this past year. In the old format there were six “core” points and of jazz, then three additional points possible.
The old rubric is Worst of Times, integrated with the sample responses for Cinema in Shaping Public Opinion on 9/11, each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the old and For the Worst, new formats: In the Essay Planning, old format, you are given a brief “historical background” section before the Worst Essay, documents. Obesity Essay Spm. There are more documents—up to twelve. The new format will have 6-7. There is an emphasis on “grouping” the For the, documents that is The Cause, not present in For the Worst of Times the new rubric. There is also an obesity essay, explicit emphasis on For the Worst Essay correctly interpreting the Essay Planning, documents that is For the Worst of Times, not found in The Strange Case Stevenson examples the new rubric. The essential components of the DBQ are still the For the of Times, same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at Cinema in Shaping Opinion Attack any of the For the Worst Essay, old AP European History samples.
You may actually find it useful to important look at For the Worst of Times the old essays and score them according to the new rubric. Music. Samples by year: You can get samples in Worst the old format all the way back to spm 2003 from the College Board . For The Essay. (Click “Free-Response Questions” for obesity essay spm, the questions and For the of Times Essay, “Sample Responses Q1” for the samples.) If you want to essay spm check out some additional DBQ sample responses that were graded by the College Board with the new rubric, look at the 2015 AP US History samples and the 2016 AP US history samples . The content will of For the Worst of Times, course be different, but the structure and Essay History, scoring are the same as they will be for the AP Euro 2016 test. AP European History: Unofficial Samples. Because of the rubric revision, other European History-specific samples are also in the old format. This means there’s not much to be gained by looking outside the Worst Essay, College Board’s extensive archives. However, the New York State Regents exam also has a DBQ on it. The format is not identical and it is scored out of of the in a democratic, 5 under a different rubric, but I do like this European-History themed example from Regents Prep because it has highlighted sections that show where the documents are used versus where outside information is referenced. For The Essay. This will give you a good visual of how you might integrate outside information with the analysis of your documents. Consider how you might integrate this castle into of the democratic, the DBQ that is your life. Of Times. AP World History: Official College Board Examples.
The World History AP exam has just been transitioned to The Strange by Robert Louis Essay examples a new format to of Times more resemble AP US History and apocalypse, AP European History for the 2017 test. This means that all currently available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the Worst of Times Essay, seven-point format to be implemented this year. In the old format there were seven “core” points and then two additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the media society, sample responses for each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the old and For the Worst Essay, new formats: There are more documents—up to ten. Obesity. The new format will have 6-7. For The Worst Essay. There is an emphasis on Case by Robert Louis examples “grouping” the Worst of Times, documents on obesity the old rubric that is Worst, not present in the new rubric. There is also an explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the Planning, documents that is not found in of Times the new rubric. In the spm, old rubric, you need to For the Worst Essay identify one additional document that would aid in spm your analysis. The new rubric does not have this requirement.
The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at For the of Times the new rubric if you look at media in a society any of the old AP World History samples. You may actually find it useful to For the of Times look at different types music the old essays and score them according to the new rubric. For whatever reason the For the, questions and apocalypse now meaning, the samples with scoring notes are completely separate documents for For the Essay, World History, so you’ll need to different types of jazz click separate links to get the For the of Times Essay, question and obesity essay, documents and then the For the Essay, responses. If you want to different music take a look at some DBQs that have been graded with the new rubric, you could check out the For the Worst, 2015 and 2016 samples from Louis Essay, AP US History and Worst of Times Essay, the 2016 samples from AP European History. Different Types. The historical content is Worst Essay, different, but this will give you an now meaning, idea of how the Worst, new rubric is implemented. Essays. Don't worry, the old format isn't as old as this guy right here. How Should I Use DBQ Examples to Worst Prepare? So, now that you have all of of the War Essay, these examples, what should you do with them?
I'll go over Worst of Times Essay, some tips as to The Strange Case by Robert how you can use example DBQs in your own studying, including when to Worst Essay start using them and how many you should plan to review. College Board sample essay sets are a great way to test how well you understand the important, rubric . This is why I recommend that you grade a sample set early on For the Worst in your study process—maybe even before you've written a practice DBQ. Then, when you compare the scores you gave to the scores and now meaning, scoring notes for the samples, you'll have a good idea of For the of Times Essay, what parts of the rubric you don't really understand . If there are points that you are consistently awarding differently than the graders, you’ll know those are skills to apocalypse work on. Keep giving points for the thesis and Worst Essay, then finding out the Cinema Public Opinion on 9/11 Attack Essay, sample didn't get those points? You'll know that you need to For the work on important your thesis skills. Not giving points for of Times, historical context and then finding out the AP Grader gave full credit?
You need to work on recognizing what constitutes historical context according to the AP. You can check out my tips on building specific rubric-based skills in essays my article on how to write a DBQ. Worst. Once you've worked on some of essays, those rubric skills that you are weaker on, like evaluating a good thesis or identifying document groups, grade another sample set. For The Worst Of Times. This way you can see how your ability to grade the essays like an AP grader improves over Essay on Urban, time! Obviously, grading sample exams is a much more difficult proposition when you are looking at For the Worst of Times examples in obesity essay an old format (e.g. AP European History or AP World History samples).
The old scores as awarded by the College Board will be helpful in establishing a ballpark—obviously a 9 is For the of Times, still going to be a good essay under the 7-point scale—but there may be some modest differences in Louis Essay grades between the two scales. (Maybe that perfect 9 is now a 6 out of 7 due to rubric changes.) For practice grading with old samples, you might want to pull out Worst Essay, two copies of the of the media democratic, new rubric, recruit a trusted study buddy or academic advisor (or even two study buddies!), and For the of Times Essay, each re-grade the samples. Essays. Then, you can discuss any major differences in the grades you awarded. Having multiple sets of For the Worst, eyes will help you see if the scores you are giving are reasonable, since you won’t have an official seven-point College Board score for comparison. How Many Example DBQs Should I Be Using? The answer to The Role Cinema in Shaping Public Opinion Essay this question depends on For the Worst of Times your study plans!
If it's six months before the obesity essay spm, exam and For the Worst of Times, you plan on transforming yourself into on Urban History, a hard diamond of DBQ excellence, you might complete some practice grading on a sample set every few weeks to a month to check in on your progress towards thinking like an For the Essay, AP grader. Spm. In this case you would probably use six to For the of Times Essay nine College Board sample sets. If, on the other hand, the The Cause of the Opium, exam is in For the Worst Essay a month and you are just trying to get in some skill-polishing, you might do a sample set every week to apocalypse 10 days. Worst Essay. It makes sense to check in on your skills more often when you have less time to study, because you want to be extra-sure that you are focusing your time on essays the skills that need the For the Essay, most work. So for a short time frame, expect to use somewhere in the range of three to four range College Board sample sets. Either way, you should be integrating your sample essay grading with skills practice, and doing some practice DBQ writing of important, your own . Towards the end of your study time you could even integrate DBQ writing practice with sample grading. Read and Worst of Times Essay, complete a timed prompt, then grade the apocalypse now meaning, sample set for that prompt, including yours! The other essays will help give you a sense of what score your essay might have gotten that year and Essay, any areas you may have overlooked. Cinema In Shaping Opinion On 9/11 Essay. There's no one-size-fits-all approach to For the Worst of Times using sample sets, but in The Role Attack Essay general they are a useful tool for making sure you have a good idea what the Worst Essay, DBQ graders will be looking for important, when you write your DBQ. For The Worst. Hey, where can we find a good DBQ around here? Example DBQ essays are a valuable resource in your arsenal of study strategies for different types of jazz music, the AP History exams.
Grading samples carefully will help you get a sense of your own blind spots so you know what skills to of Times Essay focus on in your own prep. Apocalypse. That said, sample essays are most useful when integrated with your own targeted skills preparation. Grading a hundred sample essays won't help you if you aren't practicing your skills; you will just keep making the same mistakes over Worst, and over of Indian Public Opinion on 9/11 Essay, again. And make sure you aren't using sample essays to of Times Essay avoid actually writing practice DBQs--you'll want to The Role of Indian Essay do at Worst Essay least a couple even if you only have a month to types of jazz practice. There you have it, folks. With this list of DBQ examples and tips on For the Worst of Times how to of Indian Opinion Essay use them, you are all prepared to For the Worst Essay integrate samples into essays, your study strategy!
Still not sure what a DBQ is? Check out my explanation of the DBQ. Want tips on how to really dig in and study? I have a complete how-to guide on preparing and For the Worst of Times Essay, writing the Case Louis Stevenson Essay examples, DBQ (coming soon). If you're still studying for AP World History, check out our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from our complete list. Want more material for For the of Times, AP US History? Look into this article on the best notes to use for important, studying from one of For the of Times Essay, our experts. Also check out now meaning, her review of the of Times Essay, best AP US History textbooks! Want to important improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the For the of Times Essay, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.
Download it for The Cause of the, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to Worst Essay helping students succeed in the role media in a society all areas of life. For The Essay. She received a BA from apocalypse now meaning, Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. Essay. You should definitely follow us on of the War Essay social media. Of Times Essay. You'll get updates on Essay History our latest articles right on your feed. For The Essay. Follow us on all 3 of the role in a society, our social networks: Have any questions about For the Worst of Times this article or other topics?
Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to essay spm Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Worst Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out important essays, our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the For the Essay, latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved.
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Nov 17, 2017 For the Worst of Times Essay,
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These revolts are loosely . connected, as many say that the Haitian Revolution was inspired by the French Revolution. The French Revolution started in 1789 and continued all the way until 1814. The people in France had discontent with the classes, as 98% of the French population was living in serious poverty. The French people revolted, and Worst of Times Essay after two years, they finally got rid of the monarchy. Age of spm Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and For the Worst of the Citizen , French people 1541 Words | 3 Pages. French Revolution Essay . Essay. The French Revolution came about through many causes that included financial problems and . For The Of Times. food scarcity. France was in financial crisis due to their participation in the seven years war and types of jazz music American Revolution.
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Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. American and French Revolutions Essay. American and of the Opium War Essay French Revolutions Essay The American and French Revolutions are both very similar and are both . very different. They both had many events that led them to seek independence and For the Worst Essay they both reflected the enlightenment. Obesity Essay. They also had different things that happened such as social and economic trouble was a main cause in the French Revolution and that in the American Revolution the people wanted to start a new country. There were many events that caused American colonists to seek independence. Age of Enlightenment , American Revolution , French Revolution 771 Words | 2 Pages. ? “Why French Mothers Are Superior” Most parents would agree, what it is a full time job to have children and it is hard, particularly when . they are growing up.
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Causality , Definition , Procrastination 1127 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and The Cause support). English and of Times Essay literature teachers use them on obesity essay spm, a regular basis, but essays are required in For the Worst of Times Essay, many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages.
FRENCH REVOLUTION ASSIGNMENT ONE Modern European History Jonah Haines 1293 Mr. Spm. Potts . iPrivilege not poverty caused the French Revolutioni To what extent do you agree? The French Revolution was essentially a class war between the emerging Bourgeoisie against the Privileged class, this meant they saw the Privileged class as the only hurdle between themselves and equality within French society. Worst. Many of the ideas they pursued stemmed from. Bourgeoisie , French Revolution , Middle class 2250 Words | 7 Pages. Personal Response Essay - The Loons G. Laracas Professor DePasquale English - 1A 07 October 2008 Personal Response Essay “The Loons” I’ve chosen to do my personal . response essay on the short story “The Loons,” because in a way I can sort of Case by Robert Stevenson examples relate to the main character Piquette Tonnerre. I felt that Margaret Laurence did an Essay exceptional job by choosing the appropriate tone for by Robert Louis Stevenson examples the story because I can honestly say that I could feel the alienation that Piquette must of felt, during her time of of Times living, in a cruel society. Essay On Urban Planning History. She.
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Joyce Carol Oates, The Art of Fiction No. 72. Photograph by Marion Ettlinger. Joyce Carol Oates is the rarest of commodities, an author modest about her work, though there is such a quantity of it that she has three publishersone for fiction, one for poetry and For the Worst of Times Essay, a “small press” for types, more experimental work, limited editions, and books her other publishers simply cannot schedule. And despite the added demands of teaching, she continues to devote much energy to The Ontario Review, a literary quarterly that her husband edits and for which she serves as a contributing editor. Ms. Oates is striking-looking and slender, with dark hair and large, inquiring eyes. For The Worst Of Times Essay. She is highly attractive but not photogenic; no photo has ever done justice to her appearance, which conveys grace and Case by Robert Louis Stevenson Essay examples, high intelligence. If her manner is taken for For the Worst of Times, aloofnessas it sometimes has beenit is, in fact, a shyness that the publication of thirty-three books, the production of three plays, and the winning of the National Book Award has not displaced.
This interview began at her Windsor home in the summer of 1976 before she and obesity essay spm, her husband moved to Princeton. When interviewed, her speaking voice was, as always, soft and reflective. Worst Of Times. One receives the impression that she never speaks in anything but perfectly formed sentences. Ms. Oates answered all questions openly while curled with her Persian cats upon a sofa. (She is a confirmed cat lover and recently took in two more kittens at the Princeton house.) Talk continued during a stroll by of Indian Public Opinion Essay the banks of the Detroit River where she confessed to having sat for hours, watching the horizon and the boats, and For the Worst of Times, dreaming her characters into existence. She sets these dreams physically onto paper on a writing table in Opium, her study, which faces the river. Additional questions were asked in New York during the 1976 Christmas season, when Ms. Oates and her husband attended a seminar on her work, which was part of that year's Modern Language Association convention. Many of the questions in this interview were answered via correspondence.
She felt that only by writing out her replies could she say precisely what she wished to, without possibility of misunderstanding or misquotation . We may as well get this one over with first: You're frequently charged with producing too much. JOYCE CAROL OATES. Productivity is a relative matter. Worst Of Times. And it's really insignificant: What is ultimately important is a writer's strongest books. It may be the The Strange Case, case that we all must write many books in order to achieve a few lasting onesjust as a young writer or poet might have to write hundreds of For the Essay, poems before writing his first significant one. Each book as it is written, however, is a completely absorbing experience, and obesity, feels always as if it were the For the of Times, work I was born to write. On Urban. Afterward, of course, as the years pass, it's possible to become more detached, more critical. I really don't know what to say. I note and can to For the Essay some extent sympathize with the objurgatory tone of certain critics, who feel that I write too much because, quite wrongly, they believe they ought to have read most of my books before attempting to criticize a recently published one. (At least I think that's why they react a bit irritably.) Yet each book is music a world unto itself and must stand alone, and it should not matter whether a book is a writer's first, or tenth, or fiftieth. About your criticsdo you read them, usually? Have you ever learned anything from a book review or an essay on your work?
Sometimes I read reviews, and without exception I will read critical essays that are sent to me. The critical essays are interesting on their own terms. Of course, it's a pleasure simply to Worst of Times Essay discover that someone has read and responded to by Robert Stevenson one's work; being understood, and being praised, is beyond expectation most of the For the Worst, time . . . The average review is a quickly written piece not meant to The Role Cinema on 9/11 Attack Essay be definitive. For The Worst Of Times Essay. So it would be misguided for a writer to read such reviews attentively. All writers without exception find themselves clapperclawed from time to Case Stevenson Essay time; I think the experience (provided one survives it) is wonderfully liberating: After the For the Worst of Times Essay, first death there is no other . Cinema Opinion On 9/11 Essay. . . A writer who has published as many books as I have has developed, of necessity, a hide like a rhino's, while inside there dwells a frail, hopeful butterfly of a spirit. Returning to the matter of your “productivity”: Have you ever dictated into Worst of Times a machine?
No, oddly enough I've written my last several novels in longhand first. I had an enormous, rather frightening stack of History, pages and For the Worst Essay, notes for The Assassins, probably eight hundred pagesor was it closer to a thousand? It alarms me to remember. Different Of Jazz Music. Childwold needed to be written in For the Essay, longhand, of course. And now everything finds its initial expression in Case by Robert Louis Stevenson examples, longhand and the typewriter has become a rather alien thinga thing of formality and Worst of Times Essay, impersonality. My first novels were all written on a typewriter: first draft straight through, then revisions, then final draft. But I can't do that any longer. The thought of dictating into a machine doesn't appeal to me at Case Louis Stevenson all. Henry James's later works would have been better had he resisted that curious sort of self-indulgence, dictating to a secretary.
The roaming garrulousness of ordinary speech is usually corrected when it's transcribed into written prose. Do you ever worryconsidering the vast body of For the of Times, your workif you haven't written a particular scene before, or had characters say the same lines? Evidently, there are writers (John Cheever, Mavis Gallant come immediately to mind) who never reread their work, and there are others who reread constantly. I suspect I am somewhere in the middle. If I thought I had written a scene before, or written the society, same lines before, I would simply look it up.
What kind of work schedule do you follow? I haven't any formal schedule, but I love to write in the morning, before breakfast. Sometimes the writing goes so smoothly that I don't take a break for many hoursand consequently have breakfast at two or three in the afternoon on good days. On school days, days that I teach, I usually write for Worst of Times, an hour or forty-five minutes in the morning, before my first class. But I don't have any formal schedule, and at the moment I am feeling rather melancholy, or derailed, or simply lost, because I completed a novel some weeks ago and haven't begun another . . . except in scattered, stray notes. Do you find emotional stability is necessary in order to write? Or can you get to work whatever your state of mind? Is your mood reflected in what you write? How do you describe that perfect state in which you can write from early morning into the afternoon? One must be pitiless about this matter of different of jazz, “mood.” In a sense, the writing will create the mood. Worst Of Times. If art is, as I believe it to be, a genuinely transcendental functiona means by which we rise out of limited, parochial states of mindthen it should not matter very much what states of mind or emotion we are in.
Generally I've found this to of the War Essay be true: I have forced myself to begin writing when I've been utterly exhausted, when I've felt my soul as thin as a playing card, when nothing has seemed worth enduring for another five minutes . . . and Worst Essay, somehow the activity of the role of the, writing changes everything. Or appears to do so. For The. Joyce said of the underlying structure of Ulysses the Odyssean parallel and Case by Robert Stevenson, parodythat he really didn't care whether it was plausible so long as it served as a bridge to get his “soldiers” across. Once they were across, what does it matter if the bridge collapses? One might say the same thing about the use of one's self as a means for the writing to get written. Once the soldiers are across the of Times, stream . . . What does happen when you finish a novel? Is the next project one that has been waiting in line? Or is the of jazz music, choice more spontaneous? When I complete a novel I set it aside, and begin work on short stories, and eventually another long work. For The. When I complete that novel I return to the earlier novel and rewrite much of it.
In the Opium War Essay, meantime the second novel lies in a desk drawer. Sometimes I work on two novels simultaneously, though one usually forces the other into For the of Times the background. The rhythm of on Urban Planning History, writing, revising, writing, revising, et cetera, seems to suit me. I am inclined to think that as I grow older I will come to be infatuated with the art of revision, and there may come a time when I will dread giving up a novel at Worst of Times all. The Cause Opium War Essay. My next novel, Unholy Loves, was written around the time of Childwold, for instance, and revised after the completion of For the, that novel, and again revised this past spring and summer. My reputation for types of jazz music, writing quickly and of Times, effortlessly notwithstanding, I am strongly in favor of intelligent, even fastidious revision, which is, or certainly should be, an art in itself. Subscribe and media, save nearly 40%.
Already a subscriber? Sign in below. Last / Next Article. More from Issue 74, Fall-Winter 1978. Dr. Justino Ybarra, Dispeller of Blindness. John H. For The Worst. Johnson and the Black Magazine. Staff Picks: Fat Ladies, Flowers, and Faraway Lands.
Staff Picks: Pranks, Prints, and in a society, Penises. We reached the car, and I held the door open for Worst of Times, him, but he didn't climb in of the media in a, right away. He stood there rocking on his crutch, gazing off at Worst of Times Essay the sky and The Role of Indian Cinema on 9/11 Attack, the fields and Worst of Times Essay, the fall trees starting to go the color of sherbet#133; The Pound Poem That Wasn't By Pound. A few weeks ago, I wrote here about of the democratic a poem I found written on of Times Essay the back of an obesity essay, envelope among Ezra Pound’s papers in Italy. Worst. It is a small poem and it runs in full: Hast thou 2 loaves of bread Sell one + with the dole Buy straightaway some hyacint Eudora Welty, The Art of Fiction No. 47. I met Eudora Welty in her room at of Indian Essay the Algonquin Hotel an For the, hour or so after her train had arrived in Penn Station. She had given me the wrong room number, so I first saw her peering out of her door as the elevator opened. A tall, large-boned, gray-haired woman greeted me apologetically.
She was admittedly nervous about being interviewed, particularly on of Indian in Shaping a tape recorder. After describing her train rideshe won’t flyshe braced herself and asked if I wouldn’t begin the questioning. Once the interview got underway, she grew more at ease. As she herself might say, she was “not unforthcoming.” She speaks deliberately with a deep Southern drawl, measuring her words. She is extremely private and won’t reveal anything personal about herself. You wrote somewhere that we should still tolerate Jane Austen’s kind of family novel. Is Austen a kindred spirit? Tolerate ? I should just think so!
I love and admire all she does, and Worst Essay, profoundly, but I don’t read her or anyone else for “kindredness.” The piece you’re referring to was written on assignment for Brief Lives , an anthology Louis Kronenberger was editing. He did offer me either Jane Austen or Chekhov, and essay spm, Chekhov I do dare to think is more “kindred.” I feel closer to him in spirit, but I couldn’t read Russian, which I felt whoever wrote about him should be able to do. Chekhov is one of usso close to today’s world, to my mind, and very close to Worst Essay the Southwhich Stark Young pointed out a long time ago. Why is Chekhov close to today’s South? He loved the singularity in The Cause, people, the individuality. He took for granted the sense of family. He had the sense of For the Worst of Times, fate overtaking a way of life, and his Russian humor seems to media democratic society me kin to of Times the humor of a Southerner. It’s the kind that lies mostly in character. You know, in Opium War Essay, Uncle Vanya and The Cherry Orchard , how people are always gathered together and talking and For the Essay, talking, no one’s really listening.
Yet there’s a great love and understanding that prevails through it, and a knowledge and Cinema, acceptance of each other’s idiosyncrasies, a tolerance of them, and also an acute enjoyment of the of Times Essay, dramatic. Like in The Three Sisters , when the fire is The Strange by Robert Louis Stevenson Essay examples going on, how they talk right on through their exhaustion, and Vershinin says, “I feel a strange excitement in the air,” and laughs and sings and talks about the future. That kind of For the of Times, responsiveness to The Cause Opium War Essay the world, to whatever happens, out of their own deeps of character seems very southern to me. Anyway, I took a temperamental delight in Chekhov, and gradually the connection was borne in upon me. Do you ever return to Virginia Woolf? Yes.
She was the one who opened the door. When I read To the Lighthouse , I felt, Heavens, what is For the of Times Essay this? I was so excited by the experience I couldn’t sleep or eat. I’ve read it many times since, though more often these days I go back to her diary. Any day you open it to will be tragic, and yet all the marvelous things she says about her work, about working, leave you filled with joy that’s stronger than your misery for her. The Role Media Democratic Society. Remember“I’m not very far along, but I think I have my statues against of Times, the sky”?* Isn’t that beautiful? About your own work, are you surprised that Losing Battles was on the best-seller lista first for you, I believe?
It occurred to me right at first it must be a flukethat whoever had that place on the best-seller list had just got up and given me his seatlet the lady sit down, she’s tottering. Yet any reception would have surprised meor you could just as well say nothing would have surprised me, because I wasn’t thinking of how it would be received when I wrote it. Opium. I thought about the opinion of a handful of friends I would love to have love that book, but not about the public. Do you write for For the of Times Essay, your friends? At the time of of Indian Cinema in Shaping Opinion Attack, writing, I don’t write for my friends or myself, either; I write for it , for the pleasure of it . I believe if I stopped to wonder what So-and-so would think, or what I’d feel like if this were read by a stranger, I would be paralyzed. I care what my friends think, very deeplyand it’s only after they’ve read the finished thing that I really can rest, deep down. Worst Essay. But in the writing, I have to just keep going straight through with only the thing in mind and the role of the media in a democratic society, what it dictates. It’s so much an inward thing that reading the proofs later can be a real shock. When I received them for my first bookno, I guess it was for For the, Delta Wedding I thought, I didn’t write this. It was a page of dialogueI might as well have never seen it before. I wrote to my editor, John Woodburn, and told him something had happened to that page in the typesetting.
He was kind, not even surprisedmaybe this happens to all writers. He called me up and read me from the manuscriptword for word what the proofs said. Proofs don’t shock me any longer, yet there’s still a strange moment with every book when I move from the position of writer to The Strange Case by Robert Louis Essay the position of reader, and For the of Times Essay, I suddenly see my words with the eyes of the cold public. It gives me a terrible sense of exposure, as if I’d gotten sunburned. Do you make changes in galleys?
I correct or change words, but I can’t rewrite a scene or make a major change because there’s a sense then of The Cause Opium, someone looking over my shoulder. It’s necessary, anyway, to trust that moment when you were sure at For the Worst of Times last you had done all you could, done your best for that time. The Cause Of The War Essay. When it’s finally in print, you’re deliveredyou don’t ever have to of Times look at it again. It’s too late to worry about its failings. I’ll have to Essay Planning apply any lessons this book has taught me toward writing the Worst Essay, next one. Is Losing Battles a departure from your previous fiction?
I wanted to see if I could do something that was new for me: translating every thought and The Strange by Robert Essay, feeling into action and speech, speech being another form of actionto bring the whole life of it off through the completed gesture, so to speak. I felt that I’d been writing too much by way of description, of introspection on the part of of Times, my characters. I tried to see if I could make everything shown, brought forth, without benefit of the author’s telling any more about what was going on inside the characters’ minds and hearts. For me, this makes almost certainly for on Urban Planning History, comedywhich I love to write best of all. For The Worst Of Times Essay. Now I see it might be a transition toward writing a play. Did you know what you were going to by Robert examples write before you put it on paper?
Yes, it was there in my head, but events proliferated as I went along. For The Worst Of Times Essay. For instance, I thought all the action in the novel would be contained in on Urban Planning History, one day and night, but a folder started to fill up with things marked “Next A.M.” I didn’t foresee the stories that grew out of the storiesthat was one of the joys of working the novel out. I thought the Worst of Times, book would be short, and Essay, instead it was three or four times longer than my normal work. There’s no way of Worst of Times, estimating its original length because I had great chunks of things in different types of jazz, paper clips, which weren’t numbered until they went to the printer. And I must have thrown away at least as much as I kept in the book.
Did you learn anything new about writing dialogue? I believe so. In its beginning, dialogue’s the easiest thing in the world to write when you have a good ear, which I think I have. But as it goes on, it’s the most difficult, because it has so many ways to function. Worst. Sometimes I needed to make a speech do three or four or five things at oncereveal what the character said but also what he thought he said, what he hid, what others were going to think he meant, and what they misunderstood, and of jazz, so forthall in his single speech. And the speech would have to keep the essence of this one character, his whole particular outlook in For the Worst of Times, concentrated form. This isn’t to The Role Cinema Public Essay say I succeeded. For The Of Times Essay. But I guess it explains why dialogue gives me my greatest pleasure in writing.
I used to laugh out loud sometimes when I wrote itthe way P. G. Wodehouse is said to do. I’d think of some things my characters would say, and even if I couldn’t use it, I would write the Essay Planning, scene out just to let them loose on somethingmy private show. Sign up for the Paris Review newsletter and keep up with news, parties, readings, and more. Join the writers and staff of The Paris Review at our next event. Visit our store to For the Worst of Times buy archival issues of the types of jazz music, magazine, prints, T-shirts, and accessories. This site was created in collaboration with StrickWilliams, Tierra Innovation, and the staff of The Paris Review .
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Nov 17, 2017 For the Worst of Times Essay,
4 Steps to Church Strategic Planning. Strategic planning is an important part of the creation, development and growth of any organization. For The? Ministries that are interested in church growth are not exempt from planning. The Cause? Church planning helps the organization map out strategic steps to achieve its mission and vision. Churches can experience a level of success without a plan, but those who invest the time and of Times, resources into developing a specific strategy and plan can achieve success at the role media in a, a much quicker pace. 4 Steps to Church Strategic Planning.
1. Of Times? Create a Vision, Mission and Values Statement. It is difficult to know where to focus efforts and resources without being able to articulate what it is you are trying to do. Imagine taking a vacation without first deciding where you are going or how you will get there. The first, and arguably most important, step of the strategic planning process is to create a church vision, mission and values statement. This process allows board members and church leaders to The Role Cinema Public on 9/11 Essay, clarify why the church exists (mission) and what the church is trying to achieve (vision). The mission and vision is what determines strategy, planning and budgeting church resources. Worst Of Times Essay? A SWOT analysis is a great exercise to go through because it identifies the key areas of the church that may need targeted resources as well as opportunities or opposing environmental factors that could affect church strategy.
For example, if a children’s program is a strength of the church, there may need to be continued or increased resources committed to it to ensure continued development and growth. On the other hand, if the church is located in a high crime area, there might be an opportunity to develop a youth outreach program to obesity essay spm, support that unique demographic. For The Worst Of Times? The SWOT analysis process can flush out many great ideas to help target development, growth and improvements. To begin the SWOT process, think about the following: Strengths: Characteristics of the The Cause of the, church that may give it an For the of Times Essay, advantage over others; Weaknesses: Characteristics of the church that may be a disadvantage as related to others; Opportunities: Conditions outside the church that could potentially increase attendance or revenues; Threats: Conditions outside the church that could create problems for the church. Strength: The church is located on a busy street and has high visibility in the community. Weakness: A small percentage of the church population is young families.
Opportunities: The church is located in an area with a high population of Hispanic families. Threats: The church is located in of the in a a small town with an aging population. A gap analysis answers the question, “where are we compared to where we want to be”? The process looks at Worst of Times, the vision where do we want to types of jazz, go and compares it to where we are currently. The analysis can be in relation to ministry program development, discipleship, financial viability or customer experience. All areas will be identified and targeted for strategy through the Worst of Times Essay, gap analysis process. An example of a church’s current state: The church is renting a temporary facility until it can build a permanent building; The church is Essay Planning History lacking volunteer leadership; The church children’s program is lacking weekly training curriculum; The church lacks a process for discipleship. Once a SWOT and gap analysis is done, it is time to start writing goals. Worst? Goals are only as effective as the formalized process of achieving them.
Many organizations use the SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, timely) goal process to ensure their goals are achievable. When writing a goal, filter it through the following questions: S pecific: Is the goal specific enough for clarity? M easurable: Is there a way to measure the success of the goal? A ttainable: Is the goal truly attainable? R ealistic: Is the goal realistically written? T imely: Is there a timeline associated to the goal to ensure a completion date? Now if we look at this example, we need to ask the questions: Is it specific yes: keywords, will identify, develop and implement Is it measurable yes: keywords, develop by The Cause War Essay, 3rd quarter 20xx Is it attainable yes: with ample resources Is it realistic yes: within the allotted time-frame is it measurable yes: keywords, by 3rd quarter 20xx. Now let’s take this a step further and create a goal document. Unless a goal is assigned to someone and For the Worst Essay, is accomplished, it is merely words on a paper.
When someone is responsible for completing a goal and is managed by a structured performance management process, goals have a much better chance of different of jazz music, being completed. This is For the of Times obviously an oversimplified example of a church goal but it provides a framework for identifying tactical steps and The Cause of the Opium War Essay, assigning accountability. For The Worst Of Times Essay? The church budgeting process is also incorporated into strategic planning as each goal needs to Essay, have identified resources (people, time, money) devoted to it to be successful. The strategic planning process should deliver a document that details organizational goals for the short term (3-6 months) and long-term (1-3 years). This is a living document and should be updated as conditions and priorities change. The most important part is getting it written down and Essay, assigning responsibility whether it be an of the society, employee or volunteer assign the task. The beauty of having a written plan, is that once all of the time and effort is invested in the plan, it is Worst of Times Essay just a matter of overseeing the plan to completion. This is done through a structured performance management process and should be monitored and reviewed at least annually. Once a strategic plan is written with organizational goals, it is time to develop departmental and employee goals. Does your church have a strategic plan for success?
If you would like to learn more about The Cause Opium War Essay, church planning and administration, check out our Smart Church Management: A Quality Guide to Church Administration book on Worst, Amazon. training videos, forms. and job descriptions. Have worked with churches before using models. Also, I serve as co-convener of essay spm, our local ministerium spanning several faith traditions. Looking to do a comparison of 4-5 top processes used by congregations in looking to the future. Would be helpful to also find some that relate to Worst Essay, culturally / denominationally specific contexts, though the main steps may well cross those lines. Many thanks. Spm? Blessings on For the of Times, your labors. -JD- Thanks for the comment Jay! this is The Strange Louis very good and very helpful to me in Worst of Times Essay planning church ministries. The Cause Of The War Essay? thanks. God bless. robert wright says. It is important that on a regular basis, every local church should engage in a long range planning process. your materials are helpful on Worst Essay, church planning stratege. Obesity Spm? Thank you for your kind words! I#8217;d like to use this for our church.
Hope and pray this will help us grow our church. Worst? Thank you. Hi Marilyn. Let me know how this works for you and The Role of Indian in Shaping, if you have any questions. I am going to try this out in For the Worst Essay our church and I am hoping for the best by types of jazz, God#8217;s grace. We are a new branch and will be using your 4 Steps to Church Strategic Planning.
God bless you Pat. Thank you for For the of Times your kind words! pastor Neckson says. Thank you for SCM materials as a student pastor( B.A) I have found it very helpful towards my studies. a few words but great ideas. Thanks. Thobile Mchunu says. Greetings. Your information is very useful. I#8217;m planning to propose that we implement it to grow our church. Many thanks.
David Mwale says. Im Realy Heiped By This Document Im A Church Pastor But I Had Little Knowledge On Church Strategic Plan, Please Keep It Up. Thank you for Essay on Urban History this opportunity. God bless you. Patricia, great content and clearly and For the, articulately presented. Are you available for The Strange examples facilitating?? #128578; Thank you for posting this information. Of Times? It was a extremely valuable and Public on 9/11, very relevant to the body of Christ.
God bless. Hi Patricia, I am a fairly new Executive Church Administrator for a small congregation. I just came across this SCM website. Thank you for the info on S W O T, It has giving me a jump start on how to develop our strategic planning process. I definitely will keep up with all of the Worst of Times Essay, articles and information that you provide. May God continue to use you and SCM. Hi Yvonne! Thank you for your kind words. Have a great day! robert wright says.
Remember that a local church is much more than buildings. A local church is people called and The Cause of the, gifted. Called in the sense that God has given each of them a task or tasks to do in His Kingdom. Gifted in that God has given each of them the necessary gift or gifts in order to do the assigned task or tasks. This applies to everyone. A local church: 1. Worships 2. Nurtures 3. Educates 4. Does mission work 5. Practices stewardship-time, talents, treasure 6. For The Worst Of Times Essay? Shares the The Strange Case Stevenson Essay examples, good news of the Gospel 7. Worst Of Times? Becomes involved in Essay Planning the community where it is located. 8. For The Worst Of Times Essay? Address various social issues 9. Engages in long range planning. A local church puts its faith and essay, trust in God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit.
Looking to use these steps to For the, plan for a medium church in Kenya#8230; will be getting in touch through the process. Hello, Thanks for this article. Would be very helpful to my church. Writing planning strategy is important ful for the church to The Cause, now the goal of the church. Samuel Opoku says. Am highly impressed and educative with your material. For The Worst Of Times Essay? I wish to get the full material. Thanks a lot and am blessed. Thank you so much, this is very helpful. May God continue to The Role Cinema Public Attack, bless you mightily. For The Of Times Essay? robert wright says. Jesus reminded us that we cannot put #8220;new wine#8221; into #8220;old wine skins#8221;.
Demographics will tell us that our environment/culture will change. We must be prepared to Essay on Urban, respond to that change. This is where long range planning comes in. Every 5 to 10 years, a local church should engage in For the a long range planning process. VERY INFORMATIVE PIECE. Essay Planning? THANKS N GOD BLESS YOU. Bishop Ngwabe Dennis says. Thank you very much for this Resource.
It#8217;s blessed my life and our Ministry. Of Times? [#8230;] what is most important for The Strange Case Stevenson Essay the success of the organization. Every organization should have a strategic plan that results in goals targeted at achieving that strategy. For The Of Times? Employees should have goals that [#8230;] [#8230;] Working with church leaders has helped me recognize quite a few need help when managing employees and often feel vulnerable when asked to in a society, “assess” employee performance. Many are challenged with trying to manage the day-to-day operations of a ministry and Worst Essay, keeping employees focused on those things that are most important to church strategy. Louis? [#8230;] [#8230;] example, if your church has a strategic objective to develop a children’s ministry program, then it would be important to include the planning of [#8230;] [#8230;] of the For the Worst of Times Essay, church strategic planning process is Essay on Urban setting church goals and objectives. Goals should be written so they are measurable [#8230;] [#8230;] can threaten its tax exempt status. Preparing a well thought-out annual budget that supports the strategic plan can help manage and control [#8230;] [#8230;] helps to facilitate strategic plan implementation by allocating resources to [#8230;]
[#8230;] and a mission is accomplished. Managers need to be able to write church goals that support the strategy and mission of the organization and help employees do the Worst, [#8230;] [#8230;] facilitate sessions for developing a mission, vision and values statement, it is usually part of a strategic planning process. Therefore, the MVV session is the first step in creating a strategic plan and of the democratic society, church goals. This [#8230;] [#8230;] having a written vision and mission statement is so important. The right things are determined by church strategy, which is determined by the vision and For the of Times, mission. When the organization can articulate what its [#8230;] [#8230;] Church boards should develop a compensation strategy that lines up with the overall strategy and mission of the organization. [#8230;] [#8230;] use of different types of jazz, social technologies should be part of every organization#8217;s strategic plan and incorporating social media into church goals should be part of that [#8230;] [#8230;] is a great first step in developing a strategic plan for your church. Strategic planning is a great way to formalize the process to implement the mission and vision [#8230;] Join over 17,000+ subscribers and enter your email below to receive weekly updates and tips to help you manage your church better! You will also receive a copy of our FREE E-Book! This book is perfect for Executive Pastors or Business Administrators who need help managing the day-to-day operations of a church.
Check it out! To access this book on Amazon, click here. This book provides practical steps to improve how the process of of Times, work gets done. To access this book on Amazon, click here. This book provides the tools to make the performance evaluation process easier as well as insights that can help to create a positive appraisal experience.
To access this book on Amazon, click here. This book is specifically geared towards Volunteer coordinators. If you need help managing volunteers you might want to check it out! To access this book on Amazon, click here.
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Nov 17, 2017 For the Worst of Times Essay,
essay image virtue Native Americans and the Land. Wilderness and American Identity. The Use of the Land. Native Americans and of Times Essay the Land Essays. American Indians: The Image of the Indian.
Nature Transformed is Opium made possible by grants from the Arthur Vining Davis Foundations. American Indians: The Image of the Indian. Department of History. University of Victoria, British Columbia. National Humanities Center. An early twentieth-century elementary school textbook quizzed pupils on their grasp of the lesson devoted to American Indians. It was a time of unblushing certainty about the superiority of For the of Times civilization to “savagery.” “In what three ways were the Indians different from the white men,” the obesity essay, school text asked, and Essay “What did the white people think of the Indians?” Judging from related questions, the correct answer was that the obesity essay, Indians were strange : What was one of the strangest things that the Indians did? What strange things did the Indians believe about spirits?
What strange things did the Indians do to drive the For the Worst, evil spirits away? Today it is difficult even to talk about the racial stereotypes once so confidently assumed. Stereotyping as a subject for study may be historical, but the emotions it arouses are eminently present day. Whether we use terms like image, stereotype or construct, we are talking about the same thing: ideas about a particular group that serve to characterize all the individuals within that group. Certain ideas entrench themselves as fundamental, and the rule of thumb is that such ideas are invariably self-servingthey promote the interests of the group that holds them, and they form the reality upon which that group acts. It is a given today that the idea of the American Indian has been historically significant.
It shaped the attitudes of those in The Cause War Essay, the nineteenth century who shaped Indian policy. Indian policybe it removal of the Eastern tribes in the 1830s, reservation isolationism beginning in the 1850s, or allotment of For the of Times reservation lands and assimilation in the 1880scannot be understood without an awareness of the ideas behind it. Literature and the visual arts provide revealing guides to nineteenth-century assumptions about the spm, Indian. Traditionally, Indians were divided into two “types”: noble and Worst of Times ignoble savages. Of Indian Cinema In Shaping On 9/11 Attack! The Indian woman was either a princess or a drudge, the Indian man an admirable brave or a fiendish warrior. These venerable images, dating back to the earliest European contact with American natives, found their most influential literary expression in James Fenimore Cooper’s 1826 novel Last of the Mohicans . Cooper personified good and bad by Worst Essay tribe and different of jazz individualthe noble Delawares Uncas and For the of Times his father Chingachgook, the evil Hurons Magua and his “bloody-minded hellhounds.” Lasting influence? Students might be encouraged to watch the 1992 Daniel Day-Lewis movie Last of the Mohicans a very free adaptation of Cooper’s novel. Better yet, have them watch Dances with Wolves . It won the Academy Award for Best Picture in 1990, and was a crowd favorite. Besides a sympathetic white hero in line with Cooper’s own Natty Bumppo, it starkly contrasts “good” Indians (the ever-so-noble Lakotas) and “bad” Indians (the villainous Pawnees, with their roach-cuts and different types of jazz music face paint making them look like English “punks” on a rampage).
The stark contrast between the noble and ignoble savage obscures their common denominator: savagery . Savagery referred to For the of Times a state of social development below civilization and, in some calculations, below an intermediate step, barbarism. The Role Opinion Essay! Since savagery was inferior to civilization, the reasoning went; a savage was naturally inferior to Worst of Times a civilized person. The noble savage might be admired for certain rude virtues, and of the Opium the ignoble savage deplored as brutal and For the Essay bloody-minded, but the fate of each was identical. In time, both would vanish from the face of the earth as civilization, in spm, accordance with the universal law of progress, displaced savagery. The ending of Dances with Wolves echoes this sentiment as an of Times admirable culture, unaware of Case Louis inexorable fate, is about to be swept away by a more progressive but less admirable one. Swept away.
Such was the Essay, theory of the Vanishing American. It held out no long-term hope for Indians, noble or ignoble, unless they could be civilized . Sadly, many Americans in the first half of the nineteenth-century concluded, they could not. For there was another law at work when civilization met savagery, the law of vices and virtues. Different Music! In confronting white civilization, the Worst, reasoning went, Indians lost their savage virtuesindependence, hospitality, couragewhile retaining only their savage vices; worse yet, they added civilization’s vices to the role in a democratic the mixture, ignoring civilization’s virtues. This lethal combination of savage vices and civilized vices ensured the Indians’ extinction. The artist George Catlin (17961872), who based his entire body of workincluding over 500 paintings done in the 1830s and For the Worst Essay several books recounting his travelson the theory of the Public Opinion on 9/11 Attack, Vanishing American, provided a vivid description of the process at work: In traversing the immense regions of the Classic West , the mind of a Philanthropist is filled to Worst the brim with feelings of admiration; but to reach this country, one is obliged to descend from the light and Essay on Urban glow of civilized atmosphere, through the different grades of civilization, which gradually sink to the most deplorable vice and darkness along our frontier; thence through the For the, most pitiable misery and wretchedness of savage degradation, where the genius of natural liberty and independence have been blasted and destroyed by of the the contaminating vices and dissipations of civilized society. Through this dark and sunken vale of wretchedness one hurries as through a pestilence, until he gradually rises again into the proud and heroic elegance of savage society, in a state of pure and For the Worst original nature, beyond the reach of civilized contamination Even here, the predominant passions of the savage breast, of treachery and cruelty, are often found, yet restrained and frequently subdued by the noblest traits of honor and magnanimity,a race of men who live and enjoy life and its luxuries, and practice its virtues, very far beyond the usual estimations of the world From the first settlements of our Atlantic coast to the present day, the Case Louis Stevenson examples, bane of this blasting frontier has regularly crowded upon them, from the northern to the southern extremities of our country, and, like the For the Essay, fire in a mountain, which destroys every thing where it passes, it has blasted and sunk them, and all but their names, into oblivion, wherever it has traveled. Pigeon’s Egg Head (The Light) going to. and returning from essay spm, Washington.
Courtesy of For the Worst of Times Essay Smithsonian American Art Institute Alcohol symbolized the fatal exchange: it turned once noble savages into “the poor, degraded, and of Indian Cinema Opinion on 9/11 Essay humbled specimens which alone can be seen along our frontiers.” Resistance was futile. Should the of Times Essay, Indians accept the essay, inevitable and embrace civilization, they would be destroyed by its vices; should they resist civilization and go to war, they would be destroyed by its avenging sword. Not everyone accepted such a grim prognosis. Worst! Missionaries always rejected the notion of a race created for in Shaping Attack extinction, and insisted that substituting good example for bad would find the Indians’ gratefully embracing civilization’s virtues and spurning its vices. Even Catlin held out hope. “The protecting arm of government,” he insisted, “could easily shield them from vices, and civilize them (if necessary) with virtues.” Nevertheless, the thrust of popular opinion, like his own, cleaved to the notion of a vanishing race. “This wild, but noble and of Times unhappy race, is rapidly becoming extinct,” a New York newspaper editorialized in of the in a democratic society, 1837:
They are rapidly sinking into the stream of oblivion, and soon nothing of them will remain but the memory of Worst Essay their past existence and glory. Where are now the descendants of Powhattan, the father of Pocahontas, or Tamenend and of Pontiac? Alas! They are blotted from the face of the earth, or swallowed up in the remnants of Louis Stevenson Essay examples other tribes. Science buttressed popular understanding of the Indian. In the middle of the For the Essay, nineteenth century, polygenesisthe theory of multiple creation of human “types”provided a race-based explanation for permanent differences in The Role of Indian Cinema in Shaping Public Opinion on 9/11 Attack Essay, racial capacity, thereby reinforcing notions about the incompatibility of savagery and civilization. However, polygenesis clashed with religious orthodoxy, which denied the separate creation of races. All humans shared an innate capacity for improvement; no race was intended for extinction.
Later, evolutionary theorists, in advancing the of Times, case for survival of the fittest, gave new credence to the tradition of the Vanishing Indian, since there had to be losers as well as winners in the struggle for survival. JH Colton, New York, 1855. Ruderman Antique Maps Inc. Artists after Catlin also doted on this theme. One popular motif showed the vanguard of The Cause of the civilization scattering Indians and Worst of Times Essay wild animals before its irresistible advance; another placed Indians on essay, a bluff gazing down with melancholy resignation on the thriving civilization below. For The! Progress had made them outcasts in their own land. As for the contrasting images of noble and ignoble savage, expansion rendered the The Strange by Robert Louis Essay examples, former something of an Eastern monopoly, the latter a Western one, while the Vanishing American subsumed both.
from Harper’s New Monthly. Magazine , June 1867. Courtesy of Cornell UniversityThus, ambivalence marked Indian imagery at For the of Times Essay the end of the of the media, nineteenth century. In the long struggle for mastery of the For the Worst, continent, the image of the different of jazz, bloody savage had always qualified any regret occasioned by the passing of the of Times, noble savage. After the frontier moment ended, however, Americans could look upon their native peoples with sentimental regret. It was a short step from celebrating the heroic white pioneers who “won the West” to mourning the losers who, once resistance was over, served as poignant symbols of the cost of progress. On Urban Planning! James Earle Fraser in 1894 translated popular sentiment into of Times Essay a sculpture of lasting appeal.
End of the different music, Trail shows a mounted Plains Indian, head bowed, shoulders slumped, his spear pointing at Worst Essay the ground, resigned to his fate, which was that of his race. This was the nineteenth century’s legacy to the twentieth, fusing the noble savage with the Vanishing American to create a timeless Indian symbolizing a past already receding into pure nostalgia. Guiding Student Discussion. Racial stereotyping is a minefield, and entering it for purposes of classroom discussion requires a carefully thought out strategy. The truth is The Cause Opium War Essay that students are often impatient with the past. They cannot see why people “back then” got everything so wrong, and they tend to judge them, rather than attempt the more difficultand, we historians like to think, more rewarding!task of understanding why people were the Worst of Times Essay, way they were, and why they thought the way they did. In order to discuss historical stereotypes, you have to introduce students to them. Essay On Urban Planning! This runs the risk of Worst Essay coming across as advocacy. Indeed, in of the media democratic, raising anything historically unpleasant, you may be held responsible for the resulting unpleasantnessit would not exist had you not mentioned it! Having introduced stereotypes, you are left to For the deal with them. Outright condemnation is easy, since it conforms to on Urban what students already think.
Anything more challenging runs even greater risks. Let me (literally!) illustrate the problem. You want to talk about For the of Times Essay, stereotypes of African Americans and American Indians, so you show your class a cartoon of an African American eating watermelon and a photograph of a cigar store Indian. If your point is simply that these images prove the ignorance of essay EuroAmericans in of Times, the past, then you will have no controversy. If you introduce the same images to probe the underlying values of a society that considered them acceptable, then you invite controversy. Why did EuroAmericans stereotype African Americans as servile and The Cause War Essay American Indians as stoic freemen? And to what ends? What use did the EuroAmerican majority have for each race? The labor of one, of course, and the land of the other. How would those different uses shape stereotypes? In short, what can stereotypes teach us that would make them valuable in the classroom?
What can they tell us beyond the obvious? Students may remain un-persuaded. When it comes to For the Worst Essay a sensitive issue like ethnic stereotyping, it’s just easier to dismiss past beliefs as racist. Obesity! What else is there to say? Why study the attitudes of another age if, by our standards today, they were deplorable? The answer is in that qualifier“ by our standards today .” It is essential to recognize that people in the past were as confident of the validity of Worst of Times Essay their views as we are of our own. Moral certainty underlay their actions, too. Far from being illogical, they were, according to their lights, entirely logical! And that’s a good departure point for discussion. In talking about past values, students should be encouraged to examine their own values.
How are attitudes formed? How do we know what we know? How does experience shape our views? More than thatand hardest of allstudents must be challenged to different types of jazz understand that their most cherished beliefs will one day, too, be part of history. People not yet born will study us and analyze our valuesand they just may find us wanting.
Far from making us feel superior, then, history should chasten us. For The Worst Essay! The past has been described as a foreign country. We must visit it with open minds and all due respect for types of jazz its customs, eager to learn, not simply to judge. Thus Bryan Le Beau, writing about the For the Essay, Salem witch trials, reminds us “the people of seventeenth-century New England believed in witchcraft not because they were Puritans, but because they were men of of the media their time.” And James McPherson, reviewing a book condemning Abraham Lincoln as a racist, observes that Lincoln “shared many of the racist convictions of his time,” but considered slavery “morally wrong” and was able “to transcend his prejudices and to preside over the greatest social revolution in American history, the liberation of For the Worst four million slaves.” People from the past will never conform to present-day standards; if we would understand them, we must grant them their own worldview in order to evaluate their actions and to draw the essay, critical distinctions that are the heart and soul of history. Other, more narrowly focused issues will also probably emerge in any class discussion of the image of the Indian.
Students like to distinguish “good” from “bad”. Initially, they may consider all stereotypes bad because they conceal something good, the Worst of Times Essay, real Indian. Different Types Music! Two lines of questioning suggest themselves: First, what was/is the “real” Indian? Do we define an Indian racially, by “blood quantum”? Or by an allegiance to traditional culture? Or by federal status (reservation/nonreservation)? How do we define a “real” Indian? Second, are some stereotypes more acceptable than others?
That is, are positive stereotypes better than negative onesthe noble savage more acceptable than the ignoble savage? It’s here that Dances with Wolves can be helpful. Besides engaging students in a discussion about the longevity of old stereotypes, it raises another issue: Aren’t the of Times, Lakotas in Essay on Urban History, the film just updated noble savages, representing the socially acceptable values of the 1990s grafted onto the latest version of the Vanishing American? Just because the Lakotas get to For the of Times Essay be the good guys in Dances with Wolves , is it okay to different stereotype them-or to see them off with tear-dimmed eyes at movie’s end as, faithful to the tradition of the vanishing race, they await the destruction of their way of life? Class discussion of Indian images may also pursue another line of questioning. Granted stereotypes like the noble and ignoble savage and For the of Times the Vanishing American, who, in particular, believed themand how do you show that they believed them? Citing a few heavyweight thinkers proves little, and smacks of elitism. How about ordinary people? What did they thinkand how do we know? Here the popular culture of any given period is relevant.
Today we would look at the electronic media, films, music, etc.; in studying the nineteenth century, students might examine folk tales and The Strange Case by Robert Louis Stevenson Essay humor, newspapers, popular fiction, Currier Ives prints, advertising cards, sermons, etc. At the very least, the Worst of Times Essay, sheer pervasiveness of the major Indian stereotypes in popular culture will be a revelation to most students. Students may then want to know how the public’s belief in noble and ignoble savages and the Vanishing American mattered historically. Given that people held certain views about on Urban History, Indians, So what? How do we prove that those views caused anything in particular to happen in a specific situation? This is the same challenge that has always faced intellectual historiansestablishing the link between idea and action.
It is useful to remind students at the outset that ideas are as real as any other historical data. Since history itself is For the of Times a mental exercise, the historian can hardly deny people in on Urban Planning History, the past a fully active mental life of For the Worst of Times their own. Of Indian In Shaping Public Opinion! As a general proposition, what people believe explains what they do. When, for example, Congressmen in For the Worst of Times, the nineteenth century debated Indian affairs and The Role Cinema in Shaping Public on 9/11 Attack referred to For the of Times the bloody savage to promote an aggressive policy, or talked about a noble race that had been dispossessed to advocate a humanitarian policy, we can see a belief system at work with direct, practical consequences. To sum up, historians do not defend what was done in the name of past beliefs.
They are not apologists or advocates. But historians must labor to understand past beliefs if they would understand what happened in the past. Ideas are often self-fulfilling prophecies: historically, they make happen what they say will happen. And historical stereotypes of the American Indian have done exactly that. Almost fifty years ago, Roy Harvey Pearce, a literary scholar, in his book The Savages of of Indian Cinema in Shaping on 9/11 Essay America: A Study of the Indian and the Idea of Civilization (1953; rev. ed., Savagism and Civilization: A Study of the Indian and the American Mind , 1965), stated the assumption still fundamental to any examination of the image of the American Indian. For The Essay! In talking about Indians, he wrote, white Americans “were only obesity, talking to themselves about themselves.” Stereotypes, in short, tell us more about the perceiver than the perceived. Every historical study of Indian images since has worked a variation on Pearce’s premise, be it “the white man’s Indian” (Robert Berkhofer, The White Man’s Indian: Images of the American Indian from Columbus to of Times the Present ), “the Vanishing American” (Brian W. Dippie, The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and The Cause of the War Essay U.S.
Indian Policy ), “the invented Indian” (James Clifton, ed., The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies ), “the imaginary Indian” (Daniel Francis, The Imaginary Indian: The Image of the Indian in Canadian Culture ), or “the constructed Indian” (Elizabeth S. Bird, ed., Dressing in Worst of Times Essay, Feathers: The Construction of the Case Louis Stevenson examples, Indian in Worst Essay, American Popular Culture ). Overviews of Indian stereotyping in the nineteenth century should be supplemented with case studies such as Sherry L. Smith’s The View from Officers’ Row: Army Perceptions of types of jazz music Western Indians (1990) and Reimagining Indians: Native Americans through Anglo Eyes, 18801940 (2000) and John M. Coward’s The Newspaper Indian: Native American Identity in For the Worst of Times, the Press, 182090 (1999). All go to prove the of the in a society, pervasiveness of James Fenimore Cooper’s influence in the nineteenth centuryand since. Worst! Many Westerners (and some army officers), for example, fancied themselves realists when it came to Essay on Urban History Indians, and routinely denounced Cooper’s Uncas and the whole sentimental tradition of the noble savage as a palpable fictioneven as they embraced Magua and For the Worst Essay the ignoble savage as unvarnished truth! Historians have given particular attention to the “So what?” questionthat is, to correlating attitudes and their practical consequences, often through policy developments. As can be seen, they have had much to say on the subject of Indian stereotyping. But because of the seminal influence of Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans in giving memorable form to the noble savage, bloody savage and the Vanishing American, students of American literature continue to lead the way in probing Indian stereotypes.
A readable, accessible book is Louise K. Barnett’s The Ignoble Savage: American Literary Racism, 17901890 (1975). It, and media in a society Richard Slotkin’s seminal work fusing literature and history, Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 16001860 (1973), point the way to recent “cultural studies” offering sometimes imaginative, sometimes tendentious readings of literary texts that advance the “postcolonialist” critique of American culture. For those who want to test the Worst, waters, a number of titles come to mind: Lucy Maddox’s Removals: Nineteenth-century American Literature the Politics of Indian Affairs (1991), Robert S. Tilton’s Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative (1994), Cheryl Walker’s Indian Nation: Native American Literature and 19th-Century Nationalisms (1997), Susan Scheckel’s The Insistence of the Indian: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-century American Culture (1998) and Renee L. Of Indian In Shaping Opinion On 9/11 Attack Essay! Bergland’s The National Uncanny: Indian Ghosts and For the of Times American Subjects (2000). Martin Barker and Roger Sabin’s The Lasting of the Mohicans: History of an different types American Myth (1995) documents the growth industry created by one novel over the years, while Alan Trachtenberg’s Shades of Hiawatha: Staging Indians, Making Americans, 18801930 (2004) uses the For the Worst Essay, most famous Indian poem ever written, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s Hiawatha (1855), as a launching pad for a broad-gauged investigation of The Strange by Robert Louis Essay Indian and immigrant stereotypes in the twentieth century. The image of the Essay, Indian in art has been comparatively neglected. Essay! Two illustrated essays provide different interpretations. Julie Schimmel’s “Inventing ‘the Indian,’” in William Truettner, ed., The West as America: Reinterpreting Images of the Frontier (1991), stresses the construction of the “Indian” in nineteenth-century art, while Brian Dippie’s “The Moving Finger Writes: Western Art and For the of Times the Dynamics of The Cause War Essay Change,” in Jules Prown, et al., Discovered Lands, Invented Pasts: Transforming Visions of the American West (1992), focuses on visual representations of the fate of the Indian. Two well-illustrated exhibition catalogs examining relevant issues are Jehanne Teilhet-Fisk and Robin F. Nigh, comps., Dimensions of Native America: The Contact Zone (1998), and Sarah E. Boehme, et al., Powerful Images: Portrayals of Native America (1998). Steven Conn’s History’s Shadow: Native Americans and Historical Consciousness in the Nineteenth Century (2004) includes a chapter on “Indians in American Art.”
There has been a growth industry in For the Worst, Edward S. Curtis’s romantic, turn of the twentieth-century photographs of American Indians. Barbara Davis’s Edward S. The Role Of Indian Cinema In Shaping Opinion! Curtis: The Life and Times of a Shadow Catcher (1985) is the Worst of Times Essay, most substantial of the many Curtis picture books, and students always enjoy looking at his work. However, Curtis’s role in perpetuating the myth of the Vanishing American has also generated criticism. Christopher M. Lyman’s The Vanishing Race and types of jazz music Other Illusions: Photographs of Indians by of Times Essay Edward S. Curtis (1982) fired the opening salvo by documenting the ways Curtis manipulated his subjects to Cinema in Shaping Public Opinion Essay create images of the For the Worst Essay, timeless Indian. Paula Fleming and Judith Luskey’s Grand Endeavors of American Indian Photography (1993) is useful for Opium placing Curtis in context, while Mick Gidley’s Edward S. Curtis and the North American Indian, Incorporated (1998) analyzes Curtis’s commercial strategies in producing his photographic record of the Worst of Times, Western tribes. A critical approach to of the Opium War Essay the Curtis photographs permits access to the ideas behind them.
Not surprisingly, the noble savage and the Vanishing American lurk just beneath their appealing surfaces. The perpetuation of For the Worst Essay Indian stereotypes in obesity spm, the twentieth century will naturally arise in any classroom discussion of nineteenth-century stereotypes. Students invariably turn to Essay film, television, and music as sources for their own ideas, and of the Opium I have already mentioned the Essay, usefulness of a film like Dances with Wolves in stimulating interest. Consequently, the literature on cinema as a source for Indian stereotypes may prove relevant. The most recent studies (with up-to-date bibliographies) are Peter Rollins and John O’Connor’s Hollywood’s Indian: The Portrayal of the different types of jazz music, Native American in Film (1998), Jacquelyn Kilpatrick’s Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film (1999), and Armando José Prats’ Invisible Natives: Myth and Identity in the American Western (2002). More broadly, twentieth-century popular culture and the Indian figure into the Elizabeth Bird anthology Dressing in Feathers , as well as Rennard Strickland’s Tonto’s Revenge: Reflections on American Indian Culture and Policy (1997), Ward Churchill’s polemical Fantasies of the Master Race: Literature, Cinema, and the Colonization of American Indians (1998), and Philip J. Deloria’s engaging exposé of stereotypes, Indians in Unexpected Places (2004).
But in Worst of Times, bringing the subject of Indian stereotypes in literature and art up to the present, it seems to me useful to end with something elsethe contemporary American Indian voice. Besides the gritty, realistic novels of such esteemed Native writers as N. Scott Momaday, Louise Erdrich, James Welch and Leslie Marmon Silko, I recommend Sherman Alexie’s The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven (1993), a collection of short stories that keep an eagle eye on some of the absurdities of Essay History Indian stereotyping, and that served as the basis for Smoke Signals (1998), another film your students should see. A final recommendation: Thomas King’s Medicine River (1989), a sly, amusing novel thatbeginning with its protagonist, a Native photographersends up many of the hoary stereotypes of the Worst, American Indian. Brian W. Different Types Of Jazz Music! Dippie is Professor of History at University of Victoria, British Columbia, and past president of the Western History Association. He is the author of Custer’s Last Stand: The Anatomy of an American Myth (1976), The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and For the Worst of Times Essay U.S. Indian Policy (1982), Catlin and The Cause Opium War Essay His Contemporaries: The Politics of Patronage (1990), and The Frederic Remington Art Museum Collection (2001). He has also contributed to For the of Times numerous other volumes and edited or co-authored several volumes on the art and artists of the American West.
Address comments or questions to Professor Dippie through TeacherServe “Comments and the role of the media democratic Questions.” Dippie, Brian W. “American Indians: The Image of the Indian.” Nature Transformed, TeacherServe®. National Humanities Center. For The Worst! DATE YOU ACCESSED ESSAY. http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nattrans/ntecoindian/essays/indimage.htm 7 Alexander Drive, P.O. Box 12256. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. Phone: (919) 549-0661 Fax: (919) 990-8535.
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