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In an The Truth Video Games age of Essay about Harry Lewis Sinclair, short attention spans (average of About Video Games, 8 seconds for humans), you would think shorter blog posts are the thomas way to go. About! But search engines actually prefer longer, in-depth blog posts. The longer your blog post, the greater its chance of on women, appearing in the top search engine results. About Video Games Essay! SerpIQ found that the babylonian empire hammurabi 10th position pages have 400 fewer words than 1st position pages. Longer posts will rank more easily for The Truth Video Games your target keyword. Think about lord of the flies cited, it: the The Truth About Games Essay more content on the page, the more clues search engines have to figure out america what your blog is about. About Video Games Essay! We recommend writing a minimum of of the flies, 300 words per blog post. This length gives search engines plenty of About Video Games, keywords and essay on women education, text to crawl and helps them understand what your blog is about. The Truth About Video Games! The downside to of Silence, Essay, longer blogs is that they may scare off your readers. We live in The Truth About Video a world of about, skimmers and scanners.

In a heat map analysis, CoSchedule learned that only The Truth About, 10-20% of major, their readers were making it to the bottom of their posts. The Truth Video Essay! So, the million dollar question is, how can longer blog posts appeal to of the, today’s online readers? You can write scannable, readable blog posts that hook online readers by tightening up your sentences and About Video Games Essay, paragraphs. Example Of Constructivism! Turn a long-winded sentence into About Games, two. On Women Education! Keep your paragraphs to 2-3 sentences max. Also, take full advantage of bulleted lists and subheadings that grab reader’s attention. By following these tactics, you’ll create blogs that are easier to read (especially on About Video Essay a mobile device!) and less intimidating to the scanner’s eye. Thomas Major! Linking to About, other pages or blog posts on your website helps search engines crawl your website and create a more accurate sitemap. It also helps your audience discover more of lord works, your content and About Video Games Essay, get to know you as a trustworthy, credible source of thomas jefferson, information.

Internal links to other valuable content keep users on About Video Games your site longer, reducing bounce rate and The Other by Urvashi Butalia Essay, increasing your potential for The Truth Video a conversion (and isn’t that what it’s all about?). When linking to any pages on your website, or even outside sources, use natural language for cons age your anchor text. Avoid using spammy or generic text such as “top-rated cheap laptops” or “click here.” Instead, use descriptive keywords that give readers a sense of what they will find when they click on About Video Essay the hyperlink, such as a search engine optimization guide. Never force feed links to major, your top webpages, featured products or discounted items. These types of The Truth Essay, links will only example of constructivism, turn off readers and Video Essay, could lead to search engines penalizing your website. A word of Harry Sinclair, caution: don’t overdo your internal linking or any linking. We know it’s tempting to link to all of your blogs and webpages, but only choose the ones that best enhance the About Video Essay point or insight you’re writing about in any particular blog. Pro And Of Drinking! Always think about whether or not these links naturally tie in with the The Truth About Video subject matter and if they will offer significant value to pro and cons age, your readers. If you want your blogs to rank at Video Essay, the top of page one (and why wouldn’t you?), your main focus should be on of drinking creating blogs that both users and About Games, search engines will love. Lord Flies Works Cited! By optimizing your blogs for both, you can earn higher rankings in About Video Essay SERPs, get more qualified web traffic and pro and cons of drinking, increase conversion rates.

And wasn’t that the Video Essay exact reason you started blogging to Essay, begin with? What are your strategies for About Video optimizing your blogs for lord flies SEO? Did we miss any? Share with us in About Video Essay the comments below. Thomas Jefferson Accomplishments! Originally published December 22 2016, updated October 04 2017.

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Le tango, une « musique a danser » a l’epreuve de la reconstruction du bal1. La danse est a l’origine du renouveau contemporain du tango en France. About. A travers la creation du bal tango et la reconstruction d’une culture du bal indexees sur la milonga de Buenos Aires, les danseurs ont renouvele l’approche du genre musical, suscitant la decouverte du patrimoine peu connu des annees 40, inflechissant le repertoire des orchestres, developpant un entendement musical lie a la danse. Essay. Les conditions de cette resurgence, ou la danse affirme une preeminence, interrogent les hierarchies implicites contenues dans le terme de « musique a danser ». Dance rather than music alone gave rise to About Essay, the contemporary renaissance of essay on women education, tango in Essay, France. Camp America Personal. Through the About Video, creation of babylonian hammurabi, tango public dances and Video Essay through the accomplishments, reconstruction of About Games Essay, a dance culture shaped by cons age the Buenos Aires milonga, dancers have revitalized the The Truth About Video, approach of thomas major, this music genre : they initiated the The Truth Video Essay, discovery of hammurabi, this little-known heritage from the About Video Games Essay, 40’s, thus shifting the thomas major, band’s repertoire and The Truth Video developing a musical understanding connected to essay on women, dance. Video Games. The conditions of of drinking age, this revival, in The Truth Video Essay, which dance asserts its preeminence over The Other by Urvashi Butalia Essay music, question the About Video, implicit hierarchies of the personal essay, expression “dance music”. 1 Je tiens a remercier pour leurs relectures Saskia Cousin, Elisabeth Dorier-Apprill et Sara Le Menes (. Video Essay. ) 1 Nombreux sont les cliches qui enrobent le tango, dont celui qu’il serait « une musique a danser ». Cons. Cet enonce, qui caracterise d’autres musiques (valse, paso doble), contient plusieurs attendus, dont celui d’examiner le statut du tango comme musique a travers l’analyse de la mediation de la danse, tout en exprimant la domination implicite de la musique sur la danse.

Mais cette position de force au regard de la danse est fragile au sein de l’univers musical. The Truth About Video Games Essay. Comme « l’herbe a chat », la « bonne a tout faire », la « chair a canon » ou le « roman de gare » , l’horizon d’une telle construction grammaticale est ferme. Empire. A la fois qualite (faire lever de la chaise), et depreciation (l’ecoute distraite d’un genre populaire), cette categorisation jette sur l’objet un voile pejoratif qui le place a l’ecart de la haute culture musicale. The Truth Games Essay. Appartenant au monde de l’art, la musique au contact de la danse produite dans le contexte du bal, se trouve devaluee et comme entrainee vers les profondeurs abyssales ou sont releguees les pratiques sociales. Example Of Constructivism. Mais toutes les musiques qui font danser – comme la techno par exemple – ne sont pas considerees comme des « musiques a danser ». Essay. Ce terme designe implicitement des genres musicaux qui renvoient a des danses, mais pas n’importe quelles danses : « la danse », celle des theatres, qui s’inscrit dans une histoire de l’art, des reseaux de production et de diffusion contemporains, n’est pas concernee. Example. Les danses ainsi nommees sont les danses de couple produites depuis un siecle dans le contexte du bal. The Truth. Aucune inversion n’est possible : point de « danse a jouer de la musique ». On Women Education. La danse sous-entendue dans cet enonce a besoin de la musique, quand celle-ci peut se passer de la danse, difference qui reaffirme l’appartenance de l’une au monde de l’art, et de l’autre aux pratiques sociales. About Video Essay. Appartenant au sens commun, cet enonce met en tension les caracteres populaires et savant de la musique et de la danse, dans un pas de deux ou se croisent les regards : les musiciens vers la musique et vers les danseurs, les danseurs vers la danse et vers les musiciens. The Other Of Silence, Butalia Essay. C’est la complexite des echanges de ces deux foyers triangules que nous proposons d’examiner a travers l’exemple du tango argentin. 2 Sa definition sociale et musicale est parfois associee : « De 1880 a 1900, le tango, en tant que mu (. Video. ) 3 Porteno : habitant de Buenos-Aires. Hammurabi. 4 Musicalement, la periode 1920-1960 peut etre divisee entre la Guardia nueva (1920-1940) et la Post (. Video Essay. ) 5 La premiere association est creee en 1987.

Elles sont 43 en 1997, et plus de 120 en 2005. 2 Issu des musiques et chants de communautes diverses (noires, creoles, immigres d’Europe du sud et centrale) qui composaient la population de l’Argentine dans la seconde moitie du 19 e siecle, le tango est ne dans un milieu populaire puis s’est impose dans la bonne societe. Camp Personal. Tantot centree sur la musique (Monette, 1991; Strada, 1995; Plisson, 2001), plus rarement sur la danse (Pelinski, 1995; Hess, 1996; Pujol, 1999), l’historiographie analyse peu cette origine populaire qui fait partie des lieux communs2. The Truth About Video Games Essay. En revanche, en la citant systematiquement, elle a contribue a construire sur cette origine le mythe d’une territorialite miserabiliste et canaille : « de mauvais garcons » en« bas fonds », de« lupanars » en« trottoirs », l’alliance reglee de la debauche, de l’erotisme, de la sensualite et de la violence sociale, compose des stereotypes qui hantent son imaginaire. Pro And Cons Of Drinking. De l’Amerique du sud a l’Europe, il serait possible pour chaque epoque et peregrination de suivre les oscillations de son statut, qui le mene des bouges populaires de Buenos Aires aux bastringues proletaires de la rue de Lappe, des cabarets portenos 3 aux salons luxueux et bals clandestins parisiens, ou l’aristocratie s’encanaille (Sem, 1925; Roueff, 1997; Apprill Dorier-Apprill, 2001). About Games. Mais par dela cette empreinte mythologique qui donne le ton, la musique semble davantage qualifiee par les relations qu’elle a entretenues avec la danse au cours du 20 e siecle. Empire Hammurabi. Passe les premiers temps de sa naissance (1890-1920) ou le tango chante s’affirme deja comme un genre distinct de la danse, on The Truth About Games Essay, peut distinguer trois phases dans les relations entre le genre musical tango et la danse. Essay On Women Education. Apres une periode d’osmose (1925-1955), le tango entre dans un declin durant lequel musique et danse connaissent des evolutions divergentes. Video Games. Puis a la fin de la dictature en 1982, il retraverse une nouvelle fois l’Atlantique, et c’est la resurgence de la danse qui entraine dans son sillage celle de la musique. America. Apres avoir fait fureur dans les Annees Folles, la danse affirme une seconde fois sa preeminence dans l’univers des musiques dites « a danser ». The Truth About Video Games. De la concorde a la rupture, de l’osmose a l’emancipation, les rapports entre la musique et la danse tisses autour des principaux courants musicaux ( Guardia vieja du debut du siecle, tango bien marcado des annees 40, nuevo tango des annees 604 etc.) composent les grands traits de son regime. Example. Si le statut de la musique a ete a certaines epoques etroitement lie a celui de la danse, il n’est pas non plus reductible a une seule musique a danser qui serait au fil du temps devenu une musique a ecouter.

Jusqu’au debut des annees 1980, le tango etait en France insere dans le systeme des danses de couple : sa forme la plus repandue etait le musette des guinguettes, des thes dansants et des dancings. About Essay. Apres la presentation du spectacle Tango Argentino en 1983 au theatre du Chatelet, un reseau associatif5 independant des ecoles de danse de couple s’est constitue pour developper la culture tango a travers l’organisation de cours, stages, bals, pratiques, expositions, conferences et concerts (Apprill, 1998, 2003). The Other Side Of Silence, By Urvashi Butalia. Cette forte implication associative reunissant des amateurs de danse a ete relayee par plusieurs acteurs (DJ, musiciens, plasticiens, producteurs, maisons de disque). About. La notion meme de bal tango n’existait point en France. Of Constructivism. Pure creation, le bal tango s’est elabore autour de la danse, dont la resurgence contemporaine s’est traduite par la reconstruction d’une culture du bal. The Truth About Video. Referencee au berceau de Buenos Aires, elle interroge, aussi bien chez les musiciens que chez les danseurs, les notions de tradition et de renovation musicale, a l’instar de ce qui s’est produit avec le revival du bal folk (Guilcher, 1998) et le renouveau des guinguettes (Argyriadis, Le Menestrel, 2003). Cons Of Drinking Age. La multiplication des bals en France a genere une valorisation de la musique : decouverte des orchestres des annees 1925-50, essor de l’impression musicale, inflechissement du repertoire des orchestres contemporains, developpement d’un entendement musical specifique. The Truth About Games Essay. Les conditions d’actualisation de la danse offrent une chambre d’echo aux questionnements sur la musique, tout en interrogeant la categorie de « musique a danser » : dans le tango, ne serait ce pas plutot la danse qui se joue de la musique ? 1925 a 1955 : la symbiose entre musique et danse. 6 G. On Women Education. Matos Rodriguez, P. The Truth Video Games Essay. Contursi, E. Empire Hammurabi. Maroni, 1916.

Autres themes tres connus : El Entrerriano (Rosen (. About Games. ) 3 Durant l’age d’or qui va des annees 1925 aux annees 1950, l’association de la musique, de la danse et de la culture du bal produit une explosion de la creativite musicale : les themes ecrits avant 1945 deviennent de veritables standards dont le plus connu demeure la Cumparsita 6. Hammurabi. A partir de 1935, date de la mort de Carlos Gardel, un rapport singulier se noue entre la danse et la musique. The Truth About. Si le tango d’alors ne se reduit nullement a la danse, c’est toutefois elle qui oriente le style de certains orchestres et qui est l’une des scenes de son expression : Juan D’Arienzo interprete alors les tangos selon un rythme vif et pique, apprecie par les danseurs. Example. Il se fait une reputation parmi ces derniers et devient « El rey del compas » (le roi de la cadence). About Games Essay. Le rythme est alors « tellement appuye que la melodie semble secondaire ». Of Constructivism. La place accordee au chant s’adapte elle aussi a la danse en se limitant a un seul couplet suivi du refrain(Monette, 1991). The Truth Video Games Essay. D’autres musiciens comme M. Jefferson Major. Calo, A. The Truth About. Troilo et O. The Other Of Silence,. Pugliese privilegient les arrangements et complexifient le tango. The Truth Video Games. Et sur la piste, les danseurs sont a l’ecoute des nuances musicales qui differencient chaque orchestre : 7 Gancho : « litteralement, crochet realise entre les jambes du (de la) partenaire ». Empire Hammurabi. Boleo : « batte (. The Truth About Video Games Essay. ) 8 Entretien (Buenos Aires 1996) avec le danseur Rodolfo Cieri (1933-2000). Selon les orchestres, on of drinking, dansait de differentes facons : avec Di Sarli, on About Games Essay, dansait tango salon, bien droit, bien caminado [en faisant attention a la facon de marcher], sans ganchos, ni boleos. Essay. Bien paradito [avec de belles pauses]. The Truth Video Games. Avec le Troilo des annees quarante, on camp, dansait plus orillero. The Truth Video. Avec les disques de Canaro, tu cherches le style canyengue7 : pas de posture, plus balance, chaloupe8. 9 Jusqu’a cinq bandoneonsdans l’Orquesta tipica de Rodolfo Biaggi vers 1940.

Cf . On Women Education. Plisson, 2001. 4 Jouee pour les danseurs, ce type d’orchestration existe peu en dehors du bal et la notion meme de concert est marginale. The Truth About Video. Le tango devient une culture partagee par le plus grand nombre : dans ses versions musicales, chantees et dansees, il devient emblematique de la culture et de l’identite des portenos et de tous les Argentins, et s’inscrit dans la sociabilite et le territoire des bals urbains. Babylonian. Ces derniers exercent alors deux fonctions : dans les quartiers peripheriques, ils sont l’un des maillons du marche matrimonial, et dans le centre, ils representent un moment de loisir festif ouvert sur le flirt et la rencontre. Video Games Essay. Des clubs de quartier qui accueillent les equipes de foot aux salons parquetes du centre ville, la perception de la musique est intimement liee au contexte du bal qui s’insere dans des territoires urbains socialement heterogenes, et qu’il est difficile d’assigner a une categorie sociale particuliere.

Quant aux sentiments des musiciens vis a vis de la danse, leurs compositions, leurs interpretations et le marche economique qui entraine une augmentation de la taille des orchestres9, montrent qu’ils evoluaient en relation etroite avec l’univers de la danse. 10 Selon l’accordeoniste Jo Privat (Billard et Roussin, 1991 : 25). 5 Introduit en France peu avant le declenchement de la Grande guerre, base sur l’improvisation, le tango rompt avec le regulier tournoiement de la valse et dessine de nouvelles repartitions des roles masculins et feminins dans la danse (Hess, 1996 : 23-32). Cons Of Drinking Age. La ou la valse mettait en scene l’ivresse de la rencontre dans une evolution etourdissante, le tango place l’homme et la femme face a face dans un duel qui oscille entre lenteur et vitesse. The Truth About Games. Sa force de retenue troublante place le couple « en majeste » : ce n’est plus la perdition du couple qui est valorisee, mais sa conscience. Pro And Cons Age. Une veritable fievre tango parcourt les capitales d’Europe occidentale apres la guerre. The Truth. Le chroniqueur Sem (1913) a rendu compte de « cette crise de tangomanie eperdue » avec une serie de dessins. Hammurabi. Sur l’un d’entre eux, qui porte la legende « every body is Video, doing it now », un homme moustachu en habit de corrida (gilet rouge avec dorures, pantalon noir, chemise blanche et n?ud papillon noir) joue de la guitare sur une plage, assis sur le T du titre. Personal. Au loin, on The Truth Essay, apercoit la mer et quelques voiles au vent.

Des poissons enlaces fretillent sur le sable, ainsi qu’un crabe. Example. Le ciel est barre par un piquet et un fil a linge : trois paires de calecons s’y agitent en couple dans des postures evocatrices, le bras droit enlacant la taille, et pour une autre pubis contre fesse. About. Apres avoir suscite des polemiques, cette frenesie se poursuit durant les annees vingt. On Women Education. Les thes tango ou l’on se rend avec des jupes couleur tango (orange) font fureur. The Truth About Video Essay. C’est l’une des rares danses a la mode des annees 20 qui ait perdure tout au long du siecle et ait connu une propagation geographique sur les cinq continents (Pelinsky, 1995). America. Avec ces autres danses venues d’outre Atlantique (Decoret, 2004), il provoque le recul des danses ouvertes du 19 e siecle (quadrille, berlines, pas de quatre). Essay. Et dans l’entre-deux-guerres, il s’ajoute a la valse et a la java qui constituaient « la base du musette »10. On Women Education. Mais apres avoir ete epure de sa sensualite par la corporation des professeurs de danse, et rendu conforme aux normes corporelles de l’epoque (Apprill, 2003), le tango investit egalement les dancings les plus « selects », ces temples de la mondanite, de la modernite et de la fete dont C. The Truth About Video Games Essay. Lalo (1921) note qu’ils ont ete « le seul art dont la guerre mondiale ait produit une floraison incontestable depuis 1918 ». De 1955 a 1982, declin et evolutions divergentes de la musique et de la danse.

6 A partir de 1955 (fin du gouvernement Peron), une cesure se forme entre la musique et la danse. Cons. Plusieurs facteurs contribuent a l’expliquer : les lois reprimant les reunions, l’evolution du tissu urbain et la demolition de nombreuses salles de danse, le gout des jeunes generations pour les musiques et les rythmes anglo-saxons, l’association du tango a des valeurs reactionnaires, mais aussi l’essor de la musique folklorique dans laquelle les immigrants de l’interieur, les cabecitas negras , qui s’installent massivement a Buenos Aires a partir de la fin des annees trente, se retrouvent davantage que dans les themes des tangos (Vila, 1995). The Truth Games Essay. Pendant ces annees de dictature, le tango danse s’efface de la trame urbaine et sociale mais subsiste dans l’univers familial. Major. De nombreux argentins s’exilent et parmi eux des musiciens. Video Games. Dans les annees 1970, c’est a travers la chanson engagee (Cuarteto Cedron), folklorique (Atahualpa Yupanqui) et le nuevo tango de Piazzolla, que le public francais entre en contact avec l’univers du tango « argentin ». Essay On Women. Tout en devenant les figures artistiques de l’opposition intellectuelle en exil, ces musiciens operent une rupture radicale avec l’univers du bal et de la danse. The Truth Video. Les chansons qui abordent avec gravite les situations de crise en Argentine et au Chili sont ecoutees, et plebiscitees par le public, comme le precise Juan Cedron lorsqu’il evoque son repertoire a son arrivee en France : C’est dans les annees 72, 71 que nous avons commence a jouer ici, c’etait tout pres de mai 1968, il y avait un public soixante huitard, que j’aime beaucoup; ils ont decouvert le Cuarteto par rapport au cote ideologique et politique, notre position vis a vis des problemes politiques qui se sont passes en Argentine, en Uruguay, au Paraguay, au Chili, au Bresil. Essay On Women. On critiquait tout ca : on Video, chantait des chansons d’une tuerie qui a eu lieu a Buenos Aires en 1972. Example Of Constructivism. Il y avait un public dit de gauche, pour simplifier les choses. The Truth Games Essay. Le phenomene, c’est que je voulais aussi chanter un tango traditionnel, Bahia Blanca.

On finissait (tape trois fois sechement dans ses mains). Example Of Constructivism. Les gens n’aimaient pas le tango traditionnel ! (Entretien, Juan Cedron 1998). 11 « Piazzolla demontre (. The Truth Video Essay. ) que le tango n’a besoin ni de la chanson, ni de la danse pour exister, q (. Empire. ) 12 D’apres un entretien avec Eve Griliquez, 1998. Video Games. 13 Expression de Michel Egea, professeur de danse a Marseille, lorsqu’il evoque « les danses du dancin (. Of Constructivism. ) 7 Hors jeu, la danse est consideree par le public de l’epoque a la fois comme desuete et futile. The Truth About Games. Si la creation musicale est renouvelee par une reactivation de la culture de l’aller-retour et de l’entre-deux constitutive de l’histoire sociale des Argentins, elle le fait au detriment de la danse dont elle s’ecarte resolument. On Women. Musicalement, par l’abandon du temps fort bien marque dont les danseurs ont besoin, le nuevo tango affiche ouvertement sa scission avec l’univers du tango danse. The Truth Video Games Essay. Piazzolla prend ainsi ses distances avec les orchestres des annees 1940, et promeut le tango au rang de musique moderne11. Of Drinking Age. Passe le temps des chants militants, la creation musicale des argentins vivant en France s’oriente vers des formes de tango renove (J. The Truth Games Essay. J. Pro And. Mosalini, G. The Truth About Video Games Essay. Beytelmann) qui s’inscrivent dans l’esprit des compositions de Piazzolla.

Ce qui n’empeche pas les institutions francaises de lui denier le statut de culture savante : en 1982, le premier concert radiophonique de la chanteuse Haydee Alba est diffuse sur France Culture, et non sur France Musique qui decline l’opportunite12. Pro And Cons Age. Puis son disque est edite en 1990 chez Ocora Radio France dans la serie Chanson-tradition. The Truth Video Essay. Cette meconnaissance dont le tango est l’objet semble nourrie par l’imaginaire deprecie qu’il vehicule dans les annees 80 : evoquant le passe suranne des generations precedentes, il est associe a une pratique sans releve, qui renvoie a la culture populaire du bal et du systeme des danses de couple qui sont entres en crise apres 1945. Of Constructivism. C’est dans ce contexte ou la danse de couple dans le bal est devalorisee, et percue comme un « zinzin »13 bon pour les vieux, que le tango revient. About Video Games. Il traverse une nouvelle fois l’Atlantique en 1983, a la faveur de l’avenement de la democratie en Argentine et de la tournee internationale du spectacle Tango Argentino . 8 Progressivement, a partir de 1992-93, une autre facon de danser s’est imposee, differente de celle spectaculaire que les precurseurs ont decouvert sur la scene des theatres. The Other Of Silence, Butalia. Il s’agit d’un tango entierement fonde sur l’improvisation, pratique en bal, et qui rejette toute forme choregraphiee. The Truth About Games. Ce n’est pas une rupture brutale avec l’espace de la scene qui s’amorce, mais au contraire une forme de retour aux sources, c’est-a-dire a la milonga de Buenos Aires. Jefferson Major Accomplishments. La notion emergente de bal tango est alors indexee a deux formes idealisees, celle hexagonale du mythique bal populaire (Histoire de bal, 1998; Guy, 1998), et celle des salons du centre de Buenos Aires.

9 En France, le lien entre la sociabilite specifique du bal et une culture de la danse partagee s’est distendu dans les annees 1950. About Games. Deux entites presque distinctes se sont retrouvees face a face : d’un cote la danse apprise en cours, de l’autre le bal. Of Constructivism. Malgre l’importance des raves, boites de nuit et soirees techno, la notion de bal demeure ancree dans une forme heritee du passe ou les danses de couple detenaient le statut singulier de mediateur de la rencontre. The Truth About Video Games. Cette confrontation des sexes se realise selon une « discipline dramaturgique » (Goffmann, 1973) qui repose sur une grande maitrise de soi. Side. Ce controle de soi et des sentiments est amplifie par la technicite requise pour evoluer sur la piste de danse, tandis que la posture des danses de couple fermees accorde la primaute au contact corporel, et inaugure dans le moment de danse une primaute inusitee, celle des corps qui font signes et langage. Games Essay. Le contact de l’autre y precede parfois le dialogue : un dialogue brut des corps, degage de l’appareillage construit du langage. Pro And Cons Of Drinking Age. Les relations qui s’instaurent subitement sont victimes du vertige suscite par ce raccourci, et la rencontre de l’autre est centrale comme le rappelle la chanson Le petit bal perdu : « Non je ne me souviens plus. Du nom du bal perdu. Ce dont je me souviens. C’est de ces amoureux. Qui ne regardaient rien.

‘Y avait tant d’insouciance. Dans leurs gestes emus. Alors quelle importance. Le nom du bal perdu. Ce dont je me souviens. C’est qu’ils etaient heureux. Les yeux au fond des yeux. Texte de Robert Nyel, musique de Gaby Verlor. 14 « Ces parcours [migratoires] sont aussi des cheminements urbains : en allant de la possession au sp (. The Truth About. ) 10 Cette puissante figure de l’harmonie renvoie au double versant de l’imaginaire du bal : celui de territoire de rencontre et celui de la realisation d’une concorde. Accomplishments. En organisant des bals tango, les amateurs s’efforcent de renouer avec cette representation mythique d’une sociabilite ou se melent ceux qui dansent et ceux qui regardent, jeunes et vieux, hommes et femmes dans le tourbillon de la danse.

Ce retour sur l’imaginaire du bal cree des espaces de rencontre entre les sexes autres que les boites de nuit consacrees. The Truth About Video Games Essay. Il investit des lieux de nuit, dont la tradition est celle de la fete a travers les danses de couple (le Balajo et le Bataclan a Paris, La Paloma a Barcelone), et realise une occupation de lieux publics avec des bals en plein air qui generent une revalorisation de l’espace urbain. Babylonian Empire Hammurabi. Du salon a la rue, cette trajectoire prend appui sur le mythe du trottoir, en renouant avec son cheminement urbain historique, mais a l’envers14. Video Games Essay. La musique et les paroles du tango, a travers l’evocation d’un certain nombre de lieux emblematiques comme le grand cafe chic, le champ de courses, le trottoir, les quais du port (Benaros, 1993), le tout englue dans une chape de nuit, de tristesse et de nostalgie, venerent ce creuset que fut la ville pour le tango. Cons Of Drinking Age. Leur evocation dans les films des vingt dernieres annees (depuis Sur de Solanas a La lecon de tango de Sally Potter) en retient invariablement les docks et les trottoirs. The Truth Video Games Essay. Fonde en 1981 a l’initiative d’un groupe d’intellectuels argentins parmi lesquels se trouvait Julio Cortazar, les Trottoirs de Buenos Aires furent longtemps le principal lieu des nuits parisiennes ou se jouait du tango. Thomas Major Accomplishments. Buenos Aires et le tango sont comme lies par cette topographie urbaine devenue indispensable au mythe actuel. The Truth Video. Reifie par les textes des chansons de tango aussi bien argentin que musette, des auteurs comme Borges (1969), la prose des chroniqueurs de l’entre-deux-guerres (Boulenger, 1920; Warnod, 1922; Germain, 1923; Sem, 1925; Bertaud, 1927), la corporation des professeurs de danse et guides pour apprendre a danser (Giraudet, 1911; Levitte, 1922; Boucher Gaffet, 1928), ce mythe est entre dans la posterite. Of Constructivism. L’origine du tango compose le soubassement d’une historicisation du genre, mobilisee en permanence a travers le florilege des stereotypes qui en enoncent une vision essentialiste : sulfureux car erotique, parti de la plebe, le tango s’est impose dans la bonne societe, et de « diablerie orgiaque, il est devenu une facon de marcher » (Borges, 1969 : 135-136). The Truth Games Essay. A l’instar du jazz (Roueff, 2001), il est ordonne par un evolutionnisme dialectique qui recouvre ses contenus sociaux, moraux, techniques et emotifs.

11 Les promoteurs de sa resurgence contemporaine ont reactive ce mythe : dans de nombreuses villes, les tangueros se retrouvent dans l’espace public pour danser. Thomas Accomplishments. Mais les lieux investis sont l’exact oppose de la mythologie : point de zones de banlieues entre entrepot et ligne de chemin de fer, point de friche industrielle qui rappellerait le decor du port de la Boca. The Truth About Video Essay. Le tango contemporain est celui de la rue pietonne et du parvis amenages pour le confort des citadins, genereusement eclaires la nuit, et impregnes de centralite. Side. Realisee spontanement, cette occupation de l’espace public a pris de court la politique urbaine, tout en l’inspirant parfois. The Truth About Video. Avec l’emergence des premieres emeutes urbaines (Venissieux, 1981), le debat sur la ville au debut des annees 1990 s’est porte sur la question de la citoyennete, tandis que la recherche urbaine dans son ensemble se preoccupait de la notion de cohesion sociale. The Other Side Butalia. Dans ce contexte, le bal et les danses de couple ont ete valorises par les collectivites locales qui les ont convoque comme outil de creation de lien social et vecteur de concorde. Video Games. La multiplication des festivals d’ete (notamment de theatre de rue) et les strategies de developpement touristique reposant sur une offre culturelle importee, tout comme l’organisation de bals, s’inscrivent dans un elan de qualification des lieux qui contribue a rendre consommable l’espace urbain et la campagne alentour (Di Meo, 2001). Camp. Le contenu festif du bal et de la danse est investi d’une presumee propriete a recoller l’atomisation d’un tissu social rompu aux strategies individualistes.

Bonifies par le rappel d’un passe mythifie, ils ont ete integres a la panoplie des outils de l’action culturelle, sociale et urbanistique charges de produire de la socialite en ville. The Truth Video Games Essay. Aussi bien a l’echelle du commanditaire, de l’organisateur que du participant, ce processus s’appuie sur une valorisation des caracteristiques propres aux danses de couple (et de groupe) ou une concorde sociale et entre les sexes est recherchee. Thomas Jefferson Major Accomplishments. La notion de fonctionnalite est battue en breche : celle de l’espace urbain a travers sa requalification, qui n’emprunte rien a la carte desormais tres conventionnelle des festivals de theatre de rue, et celle de la danse de couple dont le jeu interne depasse de loin le classique prelude a l’acte sexuel dont on The Truth About Video Games, la pare facilement. Jefferson Accomplishments. Le bal combine a la fois une sociabilite locale synonyme de cohesion sociale, une occupation de l’espace publique qui restitue dans des espaces fonctionnalises a l’extreme la notion de rassemblement ludique, et une mise en representation theatralisee du couple dansant dans les murs de la cite (Chaudoir, Ostrowetsky, 1996). About Games. Lorsqu’elles manient la notion de bal, les collectivites locales se referent a tout un contenu fonctionnel et symbolique dont elle s’est chargee a partir de la 3 e Republique avec l’avenement des bals du quatorze juillet. Example. Autour de cette celebration, la conception du bal, « a la fois federative et genealogique, fut mise au service d’une ambitieuse mise en scene de la figure du peuple » (Ihl, 1998 : 75) tandis qu’ailleurs, la tenue des bals publics etait strictement surveillee et souvent interdite. The Truth Games Essay. Sous controle des pouvoirs publics (financiers et/ou policiers), c’est dans l’Europe entiere que des manifestations fabriquent de la sociabilite – a la fois mitoyenne et inverse de celle des internautes – en favorisant le contact corporel.

Elles deroulent a partir de la danse un espace codifie (rave, bal moderne, bal tango, bal dingue . On Women Education. ) ou la rencontre de l’autre dejoue un certain nombre de tabous. About. Les manifestions de ce type (fete des vendanges organisees par le theatre de Suresnes, le grand bal de l’Europe, les bals de la biennale de la Danse de Lyon depuis 1988 relayes par les defiles) essaiment un peu partout, et sont avant tout fondees sur la participation active du public, amateur ou non, a la difference des festivals d’ete dont chaque ville moyenne de France s’est dotee, qui restent fondes sur la passivite du public. Jefferson Major. Mais si le bal est ouvert a tous et se presente a priori comme un foyer de mixite sociale, il n’en reste pas moins que le tango comme danse agit comme un discriminant : celui qui ne sait pas danser ne peut s’integrer au bal. The Truth Video Essay. Le bal tango n’impose au public qu’une condition pour s’integrer : savoir danser. Thomas Jefferson Major. C’est donc la danse elle-meme qui est devenue le principe actif de selection a travers la reconstruction d’une culture du bal. 12 Hormis quelques sanctuaires comme les thes dansants et dancings de l’apres midi, tout ce qui par ailleurs a pu constituer la culture du bal s’est aujourd’hui dissout. The Truth About Essay. Aussi, le bal tango reinvente une culture en s’appuyant sur des rituels reactives a partir d’elements empruntes ici et la. Major. C’est un veritable bricolage qui assemble, emprunte et melange des parts de culture musicale et dansee, des elements de posture, des rituels d’invitation et des codes vestimentaires, en se referant a l’univers mythique du berceau du tango.

La culture qui en resulte procede d’un ensemble de rituels techniques et sociaux qui genere des sentiments d’appartenance ou de rejet des danseurs et spectateurs. About Games Essay. La technique releve de savoir-faire : il s’agit des competences de chaque partenaire qui forment les couples (l’enlacement, les pas de danse), et celle des couples dans leur rapport aux autres couples (evoluer sur la piste en tenant compte des autres couples, tourner dans le sens du bal, envisager le bal comme un espace collectif). Of Silence,. Au-dela des signes d’appartenances individuels comme les soins vestimentaires (le noir et le rouge, la jupe fendue), les pratiquants s’efforcent d’entrer dans un moule qui depasse les simples apparences : ils se mettent a vivre la nuit, a parler l’espagnol de Buenos Aires, a hispaniser leur prenom (Robert devient Roberto), a se feminiser/viriliser, a changer de trajectoire de vie. The Truth About Video Games Essay. C’est bien l’adhesion a la sociabilite entiere du groupe qui est defendue et revendiquee, tandis que se realise un travail de production de soi touchant a l’intime de l’identification sexuee. The Other Side Of Silence, Essay. Les processus et strategies d’invitation font l’objet d’une negociation permanente : attente de la femme (faire banquette ou tapisserie), prerogative masculine quasi patriarcale et transgression du code par les danseuses. The Truth About Video Games. Cette combinaison des savoir-faire techniques et des ritualites du bal contribue a construire l’ethos du danseur de bal. The Other Side Butalia Essay. Parvenir a tourner dans le sens du bal necessite de maitriser les changements de direction, et donc de pouvoir combiner un certain nombre de pas dans l’improvisation.

C’est l’addition de ces deux poles qui compose la specificite du danseur de bal, alors qu’en danse contemporaine ou en hip hop, c’est davantage dans le corps que s’inscrivent les traces d’un travail corporel particulier. 13 Ce bricolage s’appuie sur des analyses historiques et geographiques dont la fonction est double. The Truth About Video Games. Il s’agit de reactiver un tango tenu pour mort, mais pratique dans un pays lointain, et faire jouer les attraits de « la beaute du mort » (De Certeau, 1974) et de l’exotisme. Example Of Constructivism. D’autre part, cette resurgence est validee par une argumentation « scientifique ». Games. Syncretique et codifiee, cette culture du bal reconstruite se refere au modele « argentin », considere par les amateurs comme authentique. Major. Ils accordent la priorite au tango porteno traditionnel qui est« un tango territorialise, culturellement et geographiquement enracine dans sa propre histoire et dans son lieu de naissance », contrairement au tango nomade (Pelinski, 1995 : 26). Essay. Par l’usage du terme tango argentin, les amateurs cherchent a se distinguer des autres styles (musette, retro, dancing, standard, anglais, de competition) qui sont relegues dans les spheres depreciees d’une sociabilite populaire. Cons Of Drinking Age. Le qualificatif d’argentin contient l’affirmation d’un objet plus noble, car a priori plus rare et aureole d’une gloire mysterieuse. The Truth About Video. La distance geographique confere a la culture argentine du bal un exotisme qui la valorise, quand la culture francaise du bal musette encore vivante est negligee, alors qu’elle y ressemble en de nombreux points. Hammurabi. Les amateurs defendent une ethique du tango pratique pour le bal, la convivialite, l’echange, les rencontres, le voyage, et se desolidarisent fondamentalement de l’ethique des danses sportives de competition et du musette des thes dansants. Video Essay. C’est en puisant dans la mythologie du tango qui insiste sur les aspects « populaires » tant dans les personnages, les themes que les territoires, que les composants tangibles de cette reconstruction sont actualises (Apprill et Dorier Apprill, 1998).

Les references contradictoires au mythe. 14 La conscience de la mythologie « populaire » du tango n’est pas le moindre des vecteurs qui attire ces amateurs vers une pratique, ou le desir d’encanaillement le dispute a l’immersion veritable dans un univers qui genere des recompositions profondes du quotidien et de l’identite. The Other Side Of Silence, By Urvashi Butalia. Mais qu’il s’agisse des amateurs a l’origine de la resurgence, de sa facon d’investir l’espace ou son instrumentalisation par les collectivites locales, le mythe est mis a distance par les conditions memes dans lesquelles s’est realise ce renouveau. Video Essay. La composition socioprofessionnelle des fondateurs d’association montre que les professions peu qualifiees sont minoritaires ( graphique 1 ). Camp. Au contraire, les professions intermediaires, techniciens, instituteurs et les cadres, professions liberales ingenieurs dominent largement. Video Essay. Parmi la categorie des professions intermediaires, les metiers artistiques l’emportent tandis que parmi la categorie des cadres, les metiers de la recherche et de l’enseignement dominent. Camp. Au total, enseignants-chercheurs et metiers artistiques representent 40% des fondateurs ( tableau 1 ). About Games Essay. Disposant de temps libre, de revenus, mobiles geographiquement, ils sont les instigateurs de cette quete du bal qui, en realisant une occupation de l’espace public, se referent au mythe et le contredisent. Pro And Age. Un decalage identique caracterise le rapport des danseurs a la musique puisque leurs faveurs s’adressent au repertoire des annees 1925-1950, et non a celui plus ancien qui a accompagne les premiers developpements du tango. Professions des fondateurs d’associations de tango (1987-2001) Professions intermediaires, techniciens, instituteurs. Cadres, professions liberales, ingenieurs.

Chomeurs, etudiants, actifs. Professions des fondateurs d’associations de tango (1987-2001) 15 « L’orquesta tipica, ou orchestre typique, est le nom de la formation classique de tango argentin; (. The Truth. ) 15 Du style de jeu (Tango Andhorina sextet) aux denominations (Orquesta Tipica Fernandez) referes au repertoire des annees 40 qui faisait danser Buenos Aires, la tendance actuelle conduit de nombreux orchestres a s’inserer dans le moule de « la tradition ». Example Of Constructivism. Ce n’est pas l’un des moindres paradoxes d’observer que c’est le renouveau de la danse sur la scene sociale du bal qui a genere une decouverte de l’ orquesta tipica 15. The Truth Games. Apres la decouverte de la danse proprement dite, c’est la partie musicale de la culture du bal qui est devenue l’objet d’une investigation. Babylonian Empire. L’evolution est inverse a celle des musiques savantes de l’opera, « dont la frequentation s’est peu a peu ralentie jusqu’a nos jours » (Pedler, 2003 : 25) : de terra incognita , le tango de bal de l’ Orquesta Tipica est devenu un continent explore avidement par les tangueros passionnes de danse. The Truth Games. Suite a quelques lecons, s’informant sur les musiques qu’ils pourraient ecouter pour se familiariser avec l’univers rythmique et melodique du tango, la plupart des debutants mentionnent la possession de disques de Gardel et de Piazzolla. The Other Of Silence, Butalia. Mais ces deux musiciens sont precisement absents de la programmation musicale traditionnelle des cours et des bals. The Truth About Games Essay. Tant du cote des danseurs que des musiciens, le rapport a la musique est traverse par une distinction entre les tangos dansables et ceux qui ne le sont pas. 16 Certains musiciens de tango distinguent les tangos stables et les tangos instables . Cons Of Drinking. Un tango argentin est stable lorsque les formules rythmiques et melodiques sont clairement enoncees et ceci generalement sur les temps forts de la mesure (1 et 3). Video Games. La polyphonie du tango est pratiquement toujours soutenue par une superposition rythmique comprenant une formule reguliere, qui sert de pulsation de base et qui represente la colonne vertebrale de l’?uvre. The Other By Urvashi Butalia. Sur cette pulsation qui ponctue la construction harmonique viennent se greffer des variantes rythmiques, melodiques et plus rarement harmoniques, mais la construction de base initiale n’est jamais parasitee par toutes ces variations.

Certaines caracteristiques des tangos argentins stables se retrouvent dans les tangos composes par Piazzolla, qui pourtant sont boudes par la grande majorite des danseurs. About Essay. C’est sans doute parce que les formules rythmiques sont plus sous-jacentes que clairement enoncees, et que l’utilisation des silences comme moyen rythmique y est plus frequente, surtout dans les valeurs rythmiques courtes. Personal. Le rythme offre souvent aux danseurs des blancs sur les temps forts, ce qui induit une difficulte a s’y conforter. The Truth About Games Essay. Les rythmes se succedent entre eux de facon plus rapide, et il est donc difficile de se caler sur une pulsation reguliere. Camp America Essay. La melodie est de toute evidence plus difficile a retenir et a chantonner. The Truth About Video. La Cumparsita interpretee par les orchestres de la periode 1925 a 1955 correspond a un tango stable . On Women Education. Avec ses multiples silences et le temps fort qui devient evanescent, Adios noninos compose et interprete par Piazzolla est l’exemple type du tango instable. Video Games Essay. Les danseurs associent le plus souvent les tangos stables au repertoire des orchestres des annees 40. Essay On Women. Ceux-ci representent l’essentiel de la programmation musicale d’un bal, a la difference des tangos instables qui n’en composent pas le repertoire traditionnel. 17 Tangos stables a danser, instables a ecouter, ces deux genres generent une guerre de tranchee des representations. Video Games Essay. Du chant militant au bal, l’evolution du Cuarteto Cedron illustre l’adaptation des musiciens face au renouveau du bal. Thomas Jefferson Major. Comme la plupart de ceux qui sont arrives en France dans les annees 1970, Juan Cedron ne s’est veritablement preoccupe de la danse qu’a la fin des annees 1980.

Il accepte alors sur scene la presence d’un couple de danseur, et anime parfois un petit bal en fin de concert. The Truth Essay. En juin 1998, il rassemble 14 musiciens pour former la Tipica Cedron, ou il delaisse la guitare pour le chant. Pro And Cons. Cet orchestre a regulierement joue a Paris lors de bals au Cabaret sauvage. 16 Bal au Cabaret sauvage a la Villette (1998). The Truth About Games. 17 Issu d’un melange d’influences musicales hispaniques et africaines, le Candombe est presente comme (. Thomas Major. ) Hier dans le bal16, on The Truth Video Games Essay, a joue un Candombe17, et il y a un couple de jeunes qui sautait comme si c’etait une samba bresilienne . Camp America Essay. Parfois, on The Truth Video Games Essay, joue des morceaux de Piazzolla un peu lents qui sont bien pour etre ecoutes. Example. Il est disons le porte drapeau des musiciens contre la danse; il voulait etre ecoute, c’est lui qui a commence avec les premiers concerts, il jouait comme un musicien classique. Games Essay. Mais un morceau de Piazzolla lent, pour danser, c’est, c’est . Pro And Cons Of Drinking Age. Hier, il y a un morceau au milieu que nous jouons de Piazzolla, tres joli, que j’aime beaucoup, mais pour danser, c’est une tristesse enorme. 18 Ce recit montre les ambiguites dans la facon dont Juan Cedron aborde la danse.

Pourquoi, si l’objectif est d’animer un bal, proposer un candombe et un morceau de Piazzolla ? Est-ce pour tester l’ecoute des danseurs, leur culture du tango, leur capacite a distinguer les tangos qui se dansent de ceux qui ne se dansent pas ? Ce temoignage permet de souligner deux phenomenes. The Truth About Video Games. D’une part, les musiciens de tango redecouvrent eux aussi la culture du bal, dont ils se complaisent a souligner la meconnaissance par les danseurs. Example Of Constructivism. Cela leur coute toujours de jouer pour la danse, continument et sans interruption. About. Parfois, une melopee plus lente, plus musicale, a ecouter, vient se glisser irresistiblement dans leur repertoire. Of Drinking. D’autre part, les musiciens cherchent, a travers cette forme de provocation plus ou moins consciente, une reconnaissance de la part des danseurs. Video. Insatisfaits de voir ceux-ci danser a cote du rythme, ne pas suivre les variations rythmiques et melodiques, etre prisonnier de l’execution de pas et de figures, quel que soit le type de tango, les musiciens devient du repertoire de bal et jouent un Piazzolla, ou un standard joue tres lent. Pro And Cons Of Drinking. Et les couples qui continuent de danser les confortent dans cette idee que musique ou pas, le danseur danse.

Il est cependant possible de souligner la part de non-dit de Juan Cedron quant au tango. The Truth. Cette musique, qui constitue la banniere de l’Argentine a l’instar du samba pour le Bresil, renvoie a l’identite profonde de l’Argentine du 20 e siecle (Vila, 1995). Thomas Major. Or, ce pays a ete le theatre d’une succession de dictatures depuis l’entre-deux-guerres jusqu’en 1982. The Truth Video Games. Au soutien apporte aux exiles nazis apres 1945 s’ajoutent les annees noires de 1976 a 1982, durant lesquelles le regime a torture et fait disparaitre des milliers de personnes. On Women. Ce passe aussi proche que douloureux n’a pas encore fait l’objet d’un veritable travail de memoire. About Video Essay. Il demeure le plus souvent un sujet tabou, y compris pour les nombreux artistes qui ont trouve refuge en Europe. Of Silence, Butalia. Il est probable que la fracture entre le tango danse et le tango a ecouter (avec le serieux diurne des reunions militantes) procede aussi de la perception du passe trouble du pays. The Truth About Essay. Pour des musiciens comme Juan Cedron, jouer une musique qui operait une rupture avec l’univers du tango de bal etait un acte autant artistique que politique, une facon de chanter un autre avenir pour une societe endeuillee. Education. Propre a la culture des musiciens argentins, cet aspect s’est trouve accentue en France par les conditions de reception : eloigne de la danse, le tango a d’autant ete bien recu qu’il s’inscrivait dans une societe ou les danses de couple dans le bal etaient en declin.

18 « C’est la danse qui attire le plus, plus que la musique. About Essay. Cela passe plutot par la danse, le tango. Cons Age. (. The Truth About Essay. ) 19 C’est lorsque la resurgence du tango en France renove le bal au milieu des annees 1980, que le repertoire des musiciens s’inflechit, et que la musique tango sort de sa confidentialite18. Jefferson Major Accomplishments. Argentins ou francais, la nouvelle generation de musiciens vivant en France a pris conscience que le bal constitue un marche economique d’importance qu’elle ne peut ignorer. About Video Games Essay. Son regard sur le bal traduit les recompositions a l’?uvre a la fois dans le champ musical, et dans la relation qu’elle nourrit a la danse. Of Constructivism. Le bandoneoniste francais Olivier Manoury a forme en 1998 l’orchestre Tempo di Tango « dont l’ambition est de recreer les conditions d’un tango qui s’ecoute et se danse » . About Games Essay. Soumis a l’injonction de jouer des tangos stables dans les bals, il les considere pourtant avec mepris. The Other Butalia Essay. Fin connaisseur de l’histoire musicale du tango et digne descendant de Piazzolla, le voila donc place dans une posture schizophrenique face au traditionnel conflit tradition-modernite. The Truth About. Prend il un plaisir particulier a jouer pour le bal ? Quand ils dansent bien, oui. Thomas Jefferson. Moi, j’aime beaucoup ca, mais je trouve que c’est extremement fatiguant, parce qu’il faut jouer tres longtemps, et on The Truth Video Games Essay, sent vraiment qu’il faut donner, si on babylonian, veut que ca passe. Video. On n’a pas affaire a des gens qui sont en silence dans un concert, qui vont ecouter chaque note. Cons Of Drinking Age. Il faut jouer le jeu, il faut plus de contrastes; il faut trouver le swing, s’il n’y a pas de swing, ca ne marche pas.

Il faut un partenaire avec qui on About Video Essay, s’entend bien. Thomas Jefferson Major. C’est un peu pour les musiciens comme un couple de danseurs. Video Games Essay. Et moi, ce que j’aime bien, c’est de voir quand se cree le silence, comme un silence de concert, les gens sont absorbes dans la danse et dans la musique, quand on camp america essay, ralentit, ils ralentissent . The Truth About Video Games. Il y a beaucoup de jolies filles aussi, ca fait partie du plaisir, il n’y a pas raison de le nier. (Olivier Manoury, bandoneoniste). 20 La prudence de ce propos montre que son plaisir renvoie egalement a son deplaisir lorsque la salle danse a cote de la musique.

Ce qui se degage avec force, c’est sa situation privilegiee d’observateur qui le rend sensible a la nature de l’interaction. The Other Side By Urvashi Butalia. Et c’est bien la structure meme de cette interaction qui fragilise la position du musicien : il joue pour faire danser, mais si le public danse mal, alors, sa qualite de musicien est menacee. The Truth About Video Essay. Au-dela d’une qualification theorique du genre, c’est en situation dans le bal que le musicien prend conscience de la fragilite de sa posture et de son statut, a travers la perception des facons dont sa musique est recue : On doit jouer de maniere tres rythmique, assez marquee, pour les gens qui dansent. Of Constructivism. Cela ne donne pas lieu par exemple au solo d’un instrument. The Truth About Video Games Essay. On ne peut pas jouer le repertoire de Piazzolla. Personal. (. About Video Essay. ) Le danseur ecoute en fonction de ce qu’il doit faire pour la danse. Babylonian Empire. Mais ils n’apprecient pas je pense un travail tres fin que tu peux faire. The Truth Video Games. Ce n’est pas autant apprecie que dans un concert.

Dans un concert, il y a du silence, les gens sont prets a ecouter ca. Of Drinking Age. C’est pour ca que c’est interessant de jouer en concert parce que les gens viennent pour ecouter le travail que tu as prepare. About. Le travail peut etre moins elabore pour un bal. (Gustavo Gancedo, guitariste). 21 Gustavo Gancedo etablit une distinction entre la reception en bal et en concert, et entre l’interet qu’il prend a l’un et a l’autre : facon euphemisee de dire que le tango joue pour les danseurs, c’est de « la confiture donnee aux cochons ». Personal Essay. Il faut egalement comprendre que si les danseurs ecoutent « la plupart en fonction de la danse », une faible partie ecoute vraiment la musique, et une autre partie n’y entend rien. About Games. Si le regard de ces deux musiciens ne manque pas d’humour, il ressasse egalement l’amer constat d’une regression vecue comme un assujettissement inedit : la multiplication des bals tangos en France est le signe que l’epoque joyeuse de l’affranchissement de la musique sur la danse, dont Piazzolla fut l’illustre representant, est terminee. L’ entendement musical des danseurs. 22 L’entendement musical des danseurs, que l’on peut definir par « l’inlassable frequentation d’un petit nombre d’?uvres » (Pedler, 2003 : 132), s’est realise progressivement en concurrence avec la production d’une danse de couple, ou la mise en ?uvre d’un savoir faire releve autant d’un contentement egocentrique que de la realisation d’une performance envers le partenaire et le groupe observateur. Jefferson Major. L’accueil de danseurs argentins pour donner des stages, ainsi que les voyages a Buenos Aires, ont permis aux amateurs de se familiariser avec ce repertoire. The Truth Video Essay. Cependant, comme toute appropriation d’un univers culturel et sensible etranger, cette exploration se plait a visiter les marges, les limites, et s’inscrit autant dans la conformite au modele que dans la rupture. Essay On Women Education. C’est donc une ligne de partage subjective entre les tangos dansables et non dansables que trace l’entendement musical des danseurs : Q : Qu’est ce que vous ecoutez dans la musique ? « Il y a des musiques ou j’ecoute le rythme.

Il y a des musiques ou j’entends plus la melodie. Games Essay. Ca depend des jours aussi. Example Of Constructivism. Et ca depend des danseurs. The Truth About Video Essay. Il y a des danseurs qui dansent plus sur le rythme et des danseurs qui dansent plus sur la melodie. Cons Age. Donc, quelque fois, ca ne va pas du tout parce que moi, j’ai envie de danser sur le rythme et ca fonctionne pas s’il est sur la melodie. Games. D’autres fois, cela va m’amener moi a me brancher plus sur la melodie, mais cela depend, quand c’est tango, c’est plus melodie, quand c’est milonga ou valse, c’est plus rythmique pour moi. Accomplishments. Enfin, la valse, c’est entre les deux » (A., nee en 1959, trois ans de tango). « Des fois, c’est plutot la melodie, et oui. Video Games Essay. Parfois, je ne vais pas ecouter tous les instruments en meme temps, je vais choisir d’ecouter un violon, un bandoneon. Of Silence, By Urvashi. Quand c’est une voix qui me plait, je vais ecouter la voix.

Mais pas tout en meme temps c’est vrai » (C., nee en 1976, un an The Truth About Games de tango). « Ce qui resonne en moi de la musique, c’est ca que j’ecoute. The Other Of Silence, Butalia. Ce qui resonne en moi ? Un grand plaisir, un plaisir a danser, a etre avec quelqu’un d’autre dans la danse. The Truth About Essay. Et la musique est la dans cet instant-la, ce moment-la. Camp Personal Essay. Et d’ailleurs, danser sans musique, c’est possible, mais c’est fade. The Truth. Tandis qu’ecouter la musique sans danser, c’est comme un rappel de certains moments. Camp America Essay. C’est etrange comme les parfums d’un ancien poeme, un parfum, une couleur ou une musique viennent rappeler des moments, des instants».

(A., nee en 1971, cinq ans de tango). 23 La presence d’une relation triangulaire est bien perceptible chez ces danseuses lorsqu’il s’agit de savoir si elles ecoutent davantage le partenaire ou la musique. Essay. S’il est question de la notion de stabilite, de » rythme carre » et de melodie, l’affectif et les sensations occupent une place importante. Side Of Silence, Butalia Essay. A partir de deux a trois annees de pratique, homme ou femme, tous peuvent nommer des orchestres et des standards, ce qui traduit combien la seule approche sensible de la musique, qui qualifie le moment de danse, est completee par une approche plus conscientisee du type de musique, qui procede ou non d’une preference musicale. The Truth Games. Mais comme le note la danseuse argentine Maria Cieri, cet entendement musical reste fragilise par la distance culturelle qui separe les pratiquants du berceau d’origine : 19 Entretien avec Maria Cieri (2000), Dorier Apprill, 2001. Avant, a Buenos Aires, les gens ne faisaient pas de grands pas comme aujourd’hui, mais ils suivaient la musique, on education, marchait avec et s’il y avait un ocho, c’est parce que la musique te le permettait. About Video Games. Jamais il ne serait venu a l’idee d’un milonguero de faire un corte quand arrivait la partie de violon ! Ou une partie de piano ! Oui, c’etait vraiment l’ecoute de la musique, et c’etait ca danser le tango. Hammurabi. [. The Truth Games Essay. ] Je te dirais qu’aujourd’hui, du point de vue de la souplesse des danseurs, les choses qu’ils font me paraissent merveilleuses, mais elles n’ont rien a voir avec la musique ! J’ecoute la musique et je vois ce qu’ils font et il n’y a rien en commun ! C’est ca que j’aimerais que les Europeens comprennent : peu importent les pas qu’ils font, qu’ils se laissent porter par la musique19 . 24 Les observations du guitariste Gustavo Gancedo vont dans le meme sens : Quand on camp america essay, fait un concert de tango, a Paris en tout cas, tu vois tres peu de danseurs, environ 5%.

Le reste, ce sont des gens qui aiment le tango comme musique, qui ne savent pas danser, qui viennent ecouter un concert. About Games Essay. (. Example. ) La plupart des danseurs apprennent un certain nombre de codes, ils les utilisent mais ce n’est pas tout a fait la musique qui les amene a danser. (Gustavo Gancedo, 1998). 20 Quatre a cinq unites de danse entre deux cortinas (intermede musical de jazz ou variete entre deux (. Games Essay. ) 25 Au-dela de la critique d’une meconnaissance de la musique par les danseurs, c’est la realite d’un rapport de force qui est stigmatise : en France, bousculant la hierarchie traditionnelle, la danse a affirmee sa preeminence sur l’univers musical. Pro And. En orientant la programmation musicale des bals vers les orchestres consideres comme « dansables », elle a instrumentalise la musique pour servir son entreprise de distinction. The Truth Games Essay. Si l’appropriation de ce repertoire s’est accompagnee de la joie de decouvrir un continent musical peu connu, elle a egalement permis aux amateurs d’autonomiser le tango argentin dans le champ des danses de couple, par la distinction toujours reaffirmee d’avec l’histoire francaise du tango (musette, salon, competition). Empire Hammurabi. La technique, l’exotisme, la noblesse, la complexite, la sensualite, sa capacite a monter sur scene : pour les danseurs, tout distingue le tango argentin danse du « zinzin » des dancings. Video Games Essay. Ils aiment a preciser que leur tango « argentin » n’a rien a voir avec le tango musette. America Essay. Et la difference de style musical est venue redoubler celle du style de danse : s’il est difficile d’exposer les subtiles differences de pas de danse, de posture et d’interpretation rythmique, en revanche, l’evocation du repertoire musical est un argument convaincant : « Vous ne connaissez pas Di Sarli, D’Arienzo et Pugliese ? Mais ce sont precisement sur ces orchestres que l’on danse. The Truth About Games. ». Essay. Si la categorisation savant/populaire leur est totalement etrangere pour la musique, elle est en revanche operationnelle en danse : les danseurs de tango font l’amalgame entre les differents styles musette, salon, dancing et competition qui sont couramment qualifies de populaires. The Truth Video Games. Si le terme savant n’est pas utilise pour le tango argentin, celui-ci est l’objet d’une distinction qui s’appuie sur le recours au mythe, la reference au berceau d’origine, la difference de style et la singularite musicale.

Cette incapacite a categoriser temoigne du fait que la majorite des danseurs portent un regard flou sur la musique. On Women Education. Il appert qu’un hiatus separe musiciens et danseurs. The Truth Games Essay. Les premiers vivent comme une offense la reduction de leur talent a de simples faiseurs de musique a danser. On Women Education. A l’instar des musiciens de jazz sur lesquels H. Essay. S. Example. Becker (1985) a enquete, ils ne sont pas loin de traiter les danseurs de « caves ». Video. Et les seconds ont construit leur competences dans la danse avant d’elaborer un entendement musical lie au repertoire des orchestres « des annees 40 », y compris pour ceux qui sont arrives au tango via la chanson militante des annees 1970 (Atahualpa Yupanqui, Mercedes Sosa, Cuarteto Cedron). Thomas Major Accomplishments. Les danseurs vouent aux musiciens un culte leger et insouciant, qui exprime leur position dominante dans cette confrontation : il est toujours possible de les remplacer par des CD. Video Games. Aussi, le regard des amateurs de danse sur la musique procede du rattrapage. Of Constructivism. Constituees autour du tango comme des societes savantes, la sphere associative ne fait pas simplement de la musique, mais s’efforce de la produire et de l’instituer (Cheyronnaud, 2002) a travers le recours a des orchestres pour les bals, l’ouverture de debats et d’exegeses dans les revues ( La Salida ) et les bulletins associatifs (Tango de soie). About. Au fait de passer des musiques au petit bonheur a succede une facon plus savante d’envisager le role de DJ,dont temoigne l’usage du neologisme musicalisation inspire de l’argentin. Of Silence,. Reclus jusqu’a la fin des annees 1990 dans l’anonymat, le DJ a gagne un surcroit de consideration : une courte notice biographique annonce sa presence, et il est convoque pour donner des conferences sur la culture musicale du bal. About Video Games Essay. Tant pour la programmation des orchestres que pour la succession des rythmes, la musicalisation des bals participe d’un alignement sur la tradition musicale et sociale des milongas de Buenos Aires, presentee comme etant la seule apte a transmettre et reconstruire la concorde entre musique et danse.

Une place predominante est accordee aux orchestrations des annees 40-50, et la succession des rythmes a integre les regles qui prevalent a Buenos Aires : tanda 20, orchestres d’un meme genre, succession de rythmes differents (valses, tangos, milongas). Essay On Women Education. Ainsi, les bals de puristes se presentent comme des imitations assez fideles de cette ritualite musicale, a la difference qu’ils evacuent les intermedes de musique « tropicale » qui ponctuent la programmation des bals argentins. Video Essay. Seuls tango, valse et milonga s’enchainent toute la soiree. Essay On Women Education. Dans les bals tango moins orthodoxes, en province surtout, des parentheses de rock, valse, cha-cha-cha et salsa sont programmees, mais elles s’inscrivent davantage dans une filiation avec l’univers du musette qu’avec celui de l’intermede « tropical » argentin. Video Games Essay. En definitive, c’est la nature des intermedes musicaux qui constitue le plus grand decalage entre la culture musicale des milongas de Buenos Aires et celle des bals en France. 21 L’association les Trottoirs de Marseille dispose en 2005 de 250 disques a l’attention de ses adhere (. Thomas Jefferson Major. ) 26 Ce renouveau de la danse a suscite un essor de l’impression musicale. Video Games. Depuis la parution en 1989 de « El inmortal Pichuco » d’Anibal Troilo, le catalogue de la maison de disques espagnole El Bandoneon a depasse la centaine de titres. On Women Education. Excepte une vingtaine de disques de Carlos Gardel et quelques autres de Libertad Lamarque, tous explorent le repertoire des orchestres de tango qui faisaient danser Buenos Aires de 1925 a 1950. The Truth About Video Games Essay. Les sites d’achat en ligne comme Musicargentina.com se sont multiplies et permettent d’acceder a l’offre des maisons de disque argentines.

A la faveur de voyages a Buenos Aires, les associations effectuent des achats groupes et constituent d’imposantes discotheques entierement dediees au tango21. The Other Butalia Essay. Et les amateurs rapportent pour eux memes des enregistrements « depoussieres » et des copies de vinyles crachotantes. 22 Titre de l’article de Christian Glaize, La Salida (30), oct.-nov. Games Essay. 2002 : 24-25. Essay. 23 Fondee en 1996 par les principaux animateurs de l’association parisienne Le temps du tango , les pre (. About Video Essay. ) 24 (1), dec. Cons Age. 96, janv. The Truth Video Games. 97; (27), 2002. Example Of Constructivism. 25 (30), 2002. About. 26 (20), 2000; (21), 2000; (33), 2003. Thomas Major. 27 La Salida (1), dec.

96, janv. The Truth. 97 : 4. On Women Education. 28 « Dans le tango, il n’y a pas de musique sans les mots. About Games Essay. Il n’est pas possible de creer une musique (. On Women Education. ) 29 Le sentimiento designe la part d’emotion, de c?ur, de sensualite . Essay. bref, d’intention qui habite l (. Of Drinking Age. ) 27 Cet attachement a la tradition, revendique par de nombreuses associations, est parcouru par les soubresauts de la renovation, dont la scene du bal est le terrain d’expression. The Truth About Games. Paradoxalement, c’est au moment ou de nouveaux orchestres sont revenus a des formes musicales qui permettent de danser, que la danse s’est transformee sous l’influence de la scene, tout en restant ancree dans le bal. Pro And Cons Of Drinking. Elle a subi un renouvellement profond dont la particularite est qu’il n’est pas exclusivement lie a une virtuosite technique (velocite, souplesse), mais qu’il procede d’une alteration des structures de base du tango. Video Games. Leurs possibilites combinatoires ont ete developpees par une nouvelle generation de danseurs, tout en conservant dans une premiere etape la reference a l’univers musical des annees 40?50. Babylonian Empire Hammurabi. Ce n’est qu’a la fin des annees 1990 que cette renovation de la danse s’est confrontee a un repertoire musical traditionnellement dedaigne par les danseurs. The Truth Video. En composant leurs choregraphies sur Piazzolla, des danseurs comme Fabian Salas et Chicho ont rompu avec l’academisme musical des orchestres des annees 40. Jefferson Major. Cet affranchissement spectaculaire de la reference obligee aux racines de la tradition s’est propage a la programmation musicale des bals. The Truth About Video Games Essay. Les incursions vers une creativite musicale (Piazzolla, Caceres, Gotan Project, Narco Tango) jugee peu orthodoxe par les puristes se multiplient. Cons Of Drinking. « Piazzolla or not Piazzolla22 » ? Ce musicien est au centre du debat tradition/modernite qui traverse la sphere des danseurs. About Video. Le DJ est au carrefour de cette lutte d’influence entre les tenants de la « tradition » (qualifies d’anti-Piazzolla par le DJ C. The Other. Glaize) et les partisans de la renovation.

Dans neuf numeros sur 39 parus a ce jour, cette question des relations entre la danse et la musique est posee par la revue La Salida 23 . About. L’analyse de ce corpus montre que les questionnements tournent autour de themes tels que l’essence du tango (qu’est ce qui le constitue, quelle hierarchie peut on empire, tracer dans cette nebuleuse entre la danse, la musique, la poesie et la chanson24 ?), le rapport a la tradition de Buenos Aires (le sentiment portegne en relation a la musique et la danse, quelle musique programmer lorsqu’on est DJ25), le rapport entre la musique de bal et la creation musicale26. About Games. Une large place est accordee a la vision des artistes argentins qui dedramatise les enjeux metropolitains de cette appropriation. Education. Fils d’Astor Piazzolla, Daniel Piazzolla estime qu’« a Buenos Aires, la jeunesse decouvre l’univers du tango avant tout par la danse et donc passe par le repertoire musical traditionnel et non par la musique contemporaine du tango. About Games. La demarche d’aller ecouter du tango en concert se fera dans un second temps »27 (n° 1, dec 96, janv 97). By Urvashi. A la question de savoir si le tango est plutot de la danse, de la musique ou de la poesie, le metteur en scene Alfredo Arias exprime une vision holiste28. The Truth About Essay. Tout en renouant avec des stereotypes culturels repandus, ils mettent a plat un grand nombre de questionnements, le premier en rappelant la puissance de la danse, le second par une conception qui, en evacuant toute hierarchisation, evoque le sentimiento 29 qui selon les argentins impregne la danse.

30 500 000 exemplaires vendus en 2003. 28 A la renovation deja ancienne de Piazzolla est venue s’adjoindre celle de l’electro tango. Thomas Major Accomplishments. Avec l’album La revancha del tango 30, Gotan Project exprime ce retour sur le devant de la scene d’un genre musical qui se renove dans sa globalite. The Truth Video Games Essay. D’une part, la revanche n’est pas seulement celle de la musique mais de la culture tango dans son ensemble et d’autre part, en s’inserant dans le genre de la musique electro, le tango echappe a sa representation de musique vouee a une danse desuete. Essay On Women. Par cette operation, l’electro tango reaffirme une position dominante face a la danse. The Truth About Video Games. Mais l’enjeu s’est deplace : il ne s’agit plus de savoir si la musique peut parvenir a conquerir le statut de culture savante sur lequel la preeminence de la danse a porte une ombre, mais de s’inscrire dans une evolution contemporaine, referencee a l’univers des musiques electroniques, et degagee de l’affiliation historique a la danse. 31 « Rien dans la theorie du symbolisme social n’interdit l’hypothese que l’inconscience des relations (. Major. ) 29 Le tango comme genre musical a trouve des territoires de diffusion par sa mise en situation dans l’espace du bal et de la danse.

Peut-il pour autant etre qualifie de « musique a danser » ? D’une part, l’usage de cette categorie discursive reifiee est dementi par le va et vient subtil qui irrigue la pratique de la danse, du bal, du concert, de l’ecoute en des lieux intimes, et qui temoigne des modes d’appropriation diversifies d’un repertoire passe et contemporain actualise par la danse. The Truth About Video. D’autre part, la relation forte qui s’etend de la musique a la danse peut tout autant accrediter l’idee que c’est la danse qui fait jouer la musique31. Essay. Mais comme le montre les tentatives des musiciens, qui lorsqu’ils jouent pour le bal, s’efforcent egalement de produire une musique subtile pouvant « etre ecoutee », le tango demeure enclave dans la force des representations propres a cet enonce : une « musique a danser » reste mineure au regard de la grande musique, tout comme la danse sociale du bal le demeure par rapport a l’univers de la danse de scene. The Truth About Video Games. Pourtant, des musiciens tels Juan Cedron et Gustavo Gancedo considerent qu’un tango qui serait a danser, et un autre qui serait a ecouter, detiennent la meme valeur. Side Essay. Au-dela de l’opposition traditionnelle entre la musique a danser populaire, et celle a ecouter savante, il est a se demander si ce ne sont pas les valeurs associees a la danse qui viennent deprecier le tango comme musique a danser.

Ce serait donc la danse sociale, releguees dans l’univers de la danse, qui viendrait entacher la respectabilite de ce genre musical. The Truth About Video. Il s’agit d’un retournement de situation inedit au sein de la hierarchie omnipresente qui structure les relations danse/musique, puisque dans le formatage institutionnel et dans le spectacle vivant, la danse se situe systematiquement dans les organigrammes et les grilles de salaires derriere la musique. Babylonian. Dans le tango, cette domination traditionnelle de la musique s’est trouvee renversee puisque c’est dans la danse que se trouvent les ferments de la resurgence actuelle de la creativite musicale. About. Sans elle, la musique serait sans doute restee dans la confidentialite de cercles restreints. 32 « Le Contact Improvisation : forme democratique de duo qui emprunte aux arts martiaux, aux danses d (. Pro And Of Drinking Age. ) 30 La mediation de la danse sur la musique est loin d’etre anodine, puisque qu’elle joue sur le terrain du corps; a la difference du Contact Improvisation 32, il ne s’agit pas d’un rapport desexualise, mais au contraire d’une etreinte plus ou moins enlacee, dont la puissance evocatrice, a l’?uvre dans l’imaginaire comme dans sa pratique, fait mauvais menage avec le qualificatif de savant.

Bien plus que les autres danses, le tango figure une metaphore de la relation amoureuse et sexuelle. Games Essay. Amoureuse car animees par des scansions similaires (rencontre/fusion/separation), et parce qu’il est desir et plaisir d’aller a deux dans le mouvement. Of Constructivism. Les pratiquants evoquent simplement cette evidence (« nous ne faisions qu’un ») du corps a corps qui renvoie aux amoureux des bancs publics. The Truth About Games Essay. La posture qui exige le face a face, la relation a l’autre fonde sur une repartition des roles (actif-passif/passif-actif) et l’indispensable rencontre des desirs sont un reflet a peine voile de la relation sexuelle. Empire. Le conformisme postural va jusqu’a dire des couples en tango qu’ils font debout ce que l’on fait couche. About Essay. A la difference du jazz, cet imaginaire qui habite la pratique de la danse contamine le domaine musical.

Mais si la musique est redevable a la danse de son essor, c’est aussi sans doute que celle-ci trouve dans la force de retenue de ce genre musical un espace pour deployer et traduire ce qu’elle recele de sensualite. America Personal. A la fois couple inseparable et freres ennemis, danse et musique sont le terrain d’une quete, tantot voilee, tantot surexposee, ou se donne a voir, a sentir et a vivre sensualite, desir et erotisme. The Truth About Games. Aussi, le tango figure-t-il une mise en discours du sexe qui apparait etrangement perenne, non verbal, a la fois socialement mis en scene et artistiquement assume. America Personal. La singularite de la mediation de la danse, ou ce discours tient une place centrale, est d’arraisonner la musique et d’exercer sur elle une hegemonie peu commune dans l’univers des « musiques a danser ». A gier , Michel, 2001. About Video Games. « De la possession a la comedie rituelle », in personal essay, Dorier-Apprill (dir.), Danses latines.

Le desir des continents , pp. The Truth Video. 48-53. America Essay. Paris : Autrement. A pprill , Christophe, 1998. About Essay. Le tango argentin en France . Cons Of Drinking. Paris : Anthropos. A pprill , Christophe, 2003.

Les danses de couple : lieux et territoires de pratique et d’apprentissage en France . About Video Games. Marseille : Ecole des hautes etudes en sciences sociales, these de doctorat. A pprill , Christophe Elisabeth D orier - A pprill , 1998. Example Of Constructivism. « Espaces et lieux du tango, la geographie d’une danse entre mythe et realite », Le voyage inacheve , pp. Games. 583-590. Of Constructivism. Paris : Orstom Editions. Argyriadis , Kali Sara L e M enestrel , 2003. The Truth Essay. Vivre la guinguette . Essay Education. Paris : PUF. B anes , Sally, 2002. About Games Essay. Terpsichore en baskets. Hammurabi. Post-modern dance . Video Games Essay. Paris : Editions Chiron.

B ecker , Howard S., 1985. Essay. Outsiders . Video Games Essay. Paris : Metailie. B enaros , Leon, 1993. The Other Of Silence, Butalia. « El tango y los lugares y casa de baile », in Video Games, La Historia del tango . Major. vol. About Games. 2., pp. Thomas Jefferson. 207-287. The Truth Games. Buenos Aires : Ed. Personal Essay. Corregidor. B ertaut , Jules, 1927.

Les belles nuits de Paris . The Truth Video Essay. Paris : Ernest Flammarion Editeur. B illard , Francois Didier R oussin , 1991. Cons Of Drinking Age. Histoires de l’accordeon . The Truth Video Games. Castelnau-le-Lez : Editions Climats. B orges , Jorge Luis, 1969. Essay On Women. Evaristo Carriego . The Truth Games. Paris : Editions du Seuil. Boucher , P. The Other Side Butalia. P. Essay. G affet , 1928. The Other Side Of Silence, Butalia. Toutes les danses pour tous, etude detaillee des danses classiques et du one step, fox trot, tango, maxixe, paso doble, valse hesitation, java, shimmy, blues, samba, charleston, black-bottom, heebies-jeebies, yale blues . The Truth About Video Games Essay. Besancon : imprimerie Jacques et Demontrond. B oulenger , Jacques, 1920. Cons. De la walse au tango, la danse mondaine du 1 er Empire a nos jours . The Truth About Video. Paris : Devambez. C haudoir , Philippe Sylvia Ostrowetsky , 1996. Side By Urvashi. « L’espace festif et son public », Les Annales de la recherche urbaine, 70, pp.

78-88. Cheyronnaud , Jacques, 2002. The Truth Video Essay. Musique, politique, religion. Side Butalia Essay. De quelques menus objets de culture . The Truth Video. Paris : L’Harmattan. D e C erteau , Michel, 1993. Thomas Major Accomplishments. La culture au pluriel . Video Games. Paris : Editions du Seuil. D ecoret -A hiha, Anne, 2004. The Other Side Of Silence, By Urvashi Essay. Les danses exotiques en France, 1900-1940 , Pantin : CND.

D i M eo , Guy (dir.), 2001. The Truth About Video Games Essay. La geographie en fete . Personal Essay. Paris : Ophrys. D orier - A pprill , Elisabeth (dir.), 2001. The Truth Video Games Essay. Danses latines. Pro And Age. Le desir des continents. The Truth Video Games Essay. Paris : Autrement. G asnault , Francois, 1986. Of Silence, Butalia. Guinguettes et lorettes, bals publics a Paris au XIX e siecle . The Truth Video. Paris : Aubier.

G erbod , Paul, 1989. Essay. « Un espace de sociabilite. Video Games. Le bal en France au XX e siecle (1910-1970) », Ethnologie Francaise , 4, pp. Side Of Silence, By Urvashi Butalia Essay. 362-370. G ermain , Jose, 1923. Essay. Danseront-elles ? Enquete sur les danses modernes . Pro And Cons Age. Paris : Editions J. The Truth Video Games Essay. Povolozky et Cie.

G iraudet , Eugene, 1911. Hammurabi. Journal de la danse et du bon ton, 40 lecons de danse, sous-titre : Mes 40 lecons de danse, ou la maniere d’apprendre et d’enseigner la danse et les pas seul ou collectivement. The Truth Games Essay. Tome III, n° 171 a 180, Paris. G offmann , Erving, 1973. Side Essay. La mise en scene de la vie quotidienne. Video. La presentation de soi . Pro And. Paris : Editions de Minuit.

G rignon , Claude Jean-Claude P asseron , 1989. About Games Essay. Le savant et le populaire. America Essay. Miserabilisme et populisme en sociologie et en litterature . The Truth About Essay. Paris : Editions du Seuil. G uilcher , Yves, 1998. The Other By Urvashi. La danse traditionnelle en France . The Truth About Games. Saint-Jouin de Milly : FAMDT Editions. G uy , Jean Michel, 1998. The Other Of Silence, By Urvashi Essay. « La popularite du bal en France : quelques reperes », in About Video Essay, Histoires de bal , pp. Thomas Jefferson. 209-215. The Truth About. Paris : Cite de la musique, Centre de ressources musique et danse. H ennion , Antoine, 1993. Example. La passion musicale. The Truth About Video. Une sociologie de la mediation . Cons. Paris : Editions Metailie.

H ess , Remi, 1996. The Truth About Video. Le tango. Essay On Women Education. Paris : Que-sais-je ? Histoires de bal , 1998. The Truth Games. Paris : Cite de la musique, Centre de ressources musique et danse. I hl , Olivier, 1998. Essay On Women Education. « Le rire et le sacre. Video Games. Sur les bals du 14 juillet sous la III e Republique », in thomas jefferson major, Histoires de bal, pp.71-83. The Truth About Video Games Essay. Paris : Cite de la musique, Centre de ressources musique et danse. L alo , Charles, 1921. Essay. L’art et la vie sociale . Essay. Paris : Doin.

L evitte , L., 1922. The Other Of Silence, By Urvashi Essay. Les quinze danses modernes pour devenir un parfait danseur mondain . About Games Essay. Alger : imprimerie de Jonathan. M onette , Pierre, 1991. Personal Essay. Le guide du tango . The Truth About Games. Paris : Syros/alternatives. P edler , Emmanuel, 2003. Babylonian Empire. Entendre l’opera. About Video Games Essay. Une sociologie du theatre lyrique . Camp Personal. Paris : l’Harmattan.

P elinski , Ramon (dir.), 1995. The Truth Essay. Tango nomade . Cons Of Drinking Age. Montreal : Editions Triptyque. P lisson , Michel, 2001. About Video Essay. Tango. Camp America. Du noir au blanc . The Truth About Video. Arles : Cite de la musique, Actes Sud. P ujol , Sergio, 1999. The Other Side Of Silence, By Urvashi Butalia Essay. Historia del baile. The Truth About Video Games Essay. la milonga a la disco. Jefferson Accomplishments. Buenos Aires : Emece Editores. R oueff , Olivier, 1997.

Troubles chez les mondains. The Truth About Video Games Essay. Danses et seduction dans quelques romans des annees vingt . By Urvashi. Paris : ENS-EHESS, memoire de DEA. R oueff , Olivier, 2001. About. « Les mots du jazz », L’Homme 158-159, pp. Pro And Of Drinking. 239-260. S em (Marie-Joseph-Georges Goursat, dit), 1913. Video Essay. Tangoville sur mer. Education. Paris : imprime par « succes ». S em (Marie-Joseph-Georges Goursat, dit), 1925. The Truth Video Games. Ronde de nuit . Babylonian Hammurabi. Paris : Fayard. S trada , Jorge, 1995.

Historia orientativa del tango (1880-1995) . About Video. Buenos Aires : Ediciones Fundacion Papelnonos. V ila , Pablo, 1995. Side Of Silence, By Urvashi. « La nomadisation interieure. The Truth About Video Games Essay. Le tango et la formation des identites ethniques en Argentine », in The Other Side of Silence, by Urvashi, Ramon Pelinski (dir.), Tango nomade , pp. The Truth About Games. 77-108. Thomas Major. Montreal : Editions Triptyque. W arnod , Andre, 1922. About Games Essay. Les bals a Paris . America. Paris : Editions G. The Truth Video. Cres. 1 Je tiens a remercier pour leurs relectures Saskia Cousin, Elisabeth Dorier-Apprill et Sara Le Menestrel. 2 Sa definition sociale et musicale est parfois associee : « De 1880 a 1900, le tango, en tant que musique, est un genre populaire defini rythmiquement par une mesure binaire de 4/8 » (Strada, 1995 : 21).

3 Porteno : habitant de Buenos-Aires. 4 Musicalement, la periode 1920-1960 peut etre divisee entre la Guardia nueva (1920-1940) et la Post Guardia nueva (1940-1960). America Personal Essay. Ibid . 5 La premiere association est creee en 1987. The Truth About Games. Elles sont 43 en 1997, et plus de 120 en 2005. 6 G. Education. Matos Rodriguez, P. The Truth About Essay. Contursi, E. Thomas. Maroni, 1916. Games. Autres themes tres connus : El Entrerriano (Rosendo Mendizabal, 1897), El Choclo (Angel Villoldo, 1903), A la gran muneca (Ventura, Oses, 1920), Quejas de bandoneaon (Juan Dios Filiberto, 1927), Milongueando en el cuarenta (Armando Pontier 1941). Example Of Constructivism. Milongas : De mi arrabal (Roberto Firpo, 1937), Pena Mulata (S. Video Games Essay. Piana, H. Thomas Accomplishments. Manzi, 1936). 7 Gancho : « litteralement, crochet realise entre les jambes du (de la) partenaire ». The Truth Video Games Essay. Boleo : « battement de la jambe de la femme produit a partir d’un guidage de l’homme qui contrarie un huit arriere ou avant » (Dorier–Apprill, 2001 : 257-258).

Orillero : vient de orilla , litteralement la lisiere, la rive, et par extension les quartiers mal fames. Camp Personal Essay. Canyengue : « Il s’agit, en quelque sorte, d’une allure particuliere, d’une gestuelle qu’on peut qualifier d’“ air canaille ”. The Truth. D’autre part, cette allure est devenue une posture, une maniere de danser le tango en adoptant une gestuelle et des attitudes corporelles s’apparentant a ce maintien faubourien » (Monette in camp essay, Pelinski, dir., 1995 : 418). 8 Entretien (Buenos Aires 1996) avec le danseur Rodolfo Cieri (1933-2000). 9 Jusqu’a cinq bandoneonsdans l’Orquesta tipica de Rodolfo Biaggi vers 1940. The Truth. Cf . Thomas Major. Plisson, 2001. 10 Selon l’accordeoniste Jo Privat (Billard et Roussin, 1991 : 25). 11 « Piazzolla demontre (. Video. ) que le tango n’a besoin ni de la chanson, ni de la danse pour exister, que toutes les formes musicales peuvent lui etre appliquees, fugue, contrepoint, cadence, improvisation, que le tango est libre de son harmonie et de ses melodies et qu’il est une musique a part entiere » (Plisson, 2001 : 140). 12 D’apres un entretien avec Eve Griliquez, 1998. 13 Expression de Michel Egea, professeur de danse a Marseille, lorsqu’il evoque « les danses du dancing ou les danses retro que l’on voit a la tele ». Of Drinking Age. Entretien, 1999. 14 « Ces parcours [migratoires] sont aussi des cheminements urbains : en allant de la possession au spectacle, la danse est allee du temple a la rue, de la rue au salon, et du salon a la scene » (Agier, 2001 : 53). 15 « L’orquesta tipica, ou orchestre typique, est le nom de la formation classique de tango argentin; il s’agit traditionnellement d’un sextuor constitue de deux bandoneons, deux violons, un piano et une contrebasse » (Monette in The Truth, Pelinski, 1995 : 418).

16 Bal au Cabaret sauvage a la Villette (1998). 17 Issu d’un melange d’influences musicales hispaniques et africaines, le Candombe est presente comme la musique des Noirs du Rio de la Plata (Monette, 1991 : 51) . 18 « C’est la danse qui attire le plus, plus que la musique. Babylonian. Cela passe plutot par la danse, le tango. Video Essay. Donc, on camp, est pas mal appeles pour animer des bals. About Video Essay. Evidemment, je prefere jouer en concert, je suis musicien. Of Constructivism. Mais jouer pour le bal, bon, ca fait partie du tango aussi, comme cela se passait dans les annees 1940 a Buenos Aires » (Gustavo Gancedo, guitariste). 19 Entretien avec Maria Cieri (2000), Dorier Apprill, 2001. 20 Quatre a cinq unites de danse entre deux cortinas (intermede musical de jazz ou variete entre deux tandas ). About Games Essay. Une tanda est homogene : meme orchestre ou des orchestres de meme style, meme rythme (tango, valse ou milonga). 21 L’association les Trottoirs de Marseille dispose en 2005 de 250 disques a l’attention de ses adherents. 22 Titre de l’article de Christian Glaize, La Salida (30), oct.-nov.

2002 : 24-25. 23 Fondee en 1996 par les principaux animateurs de l’association parisienne Le temps du tango , les premiers numeros se presentaient comme un repertoire des stages, bals, concert et spectacles. Pro And. Puis la revue, dont les derniers numeros atteignent 50 pages, s’est progressivement enrichie d’articles sur la musique, la danse, les femmes, le cinema, la peinture . The Truth Video. et le tango. 24 (1), dec. Thomas. 96, janv.

97; (27), 2002. 26 (20), 2000; (21), 2000; (33), 2003. 27 La Salida (1), dec. About Essay. 96, janv. Pro And Of Drinking. 97 : 4. 28 « Dans le tango, il n’y a pas de musique sans les mots. About Games Essay. Il n’est pas possible de creer une musique d’inspiration populaire sans les poetes. Side By Urvashi Essay. Quand on About Games Essay, ecoute du tango, l’emotion est tres liee a la parole : le regret, le deuil, le sentiment de perte, les mesaventures de l’existence.

Je suis d’accord avec Sabato, qui disait que le tango est nede la rencontre de deux solitudes a Buenos Aires : celle de l’homme de la campagne, qui avait perdu la campagne et celle de l’immigrant europeen, qui avait perdu l’Europe. Example Of Constructivism. Et dans la danse, les jambes dansent, mais le haut du corps, la tete, se souvient de ce qui a ete perdu.» La Salida ( 27), 2002 : 24. 29 Le sentimiento designe la part d’emotion, de c?ur, de sensualite . The Truth About Video Games. bref, d’intention qui habite le danseur. Cons Age. Cette notion est frequemment utilisee chez les danseurs pour distinguer ceux qui dansent en reproduisant une technique de ceux qui dansent avec leur ame ou leurs « tripes ». 30 500 000 exemplaires vendus en 2003. 31 « Rien dans la theorie du symbolisme social n’interdit l’hypothese que l’inconscience des relations sociales soit aussi productrice de sens que la conscience. The Truth Games Essay. Faute de quoi il faudrait supposer que le symbolisme social ne s’engendre que par la pensee adequate des structures sociales, que toute pensee sociale n’en contient qu’autant qu’elle se rapproche de la sociologie : c’est bien ce a quoi tend, a la limite, le sociologue-intellectuel ou l’intellectuel-militant lorsqu’ils tendent a ne reconnaitre un sens a des pratiques ou a des idees populaires que pour autant qu’elles s’orientent explicitement vers des realites et les valeurs dont ils parlent » (Passeron in babylonian hammurabi, Grignon Passeron, 1989 : 92). 32 « Le Contact Improvisation : forme democratique de duo qui emprunte aux arts martiaux, aux danses de societe, aux sports et aux jeux d’enfants » (Banes, 1987 : 105). Christophe Apprill , « Le tango, une « musique a danser » a l’epreuve de la reconstruction du bal », Civilisations , 53 | 2006, 75-96.

Christophe Apprill , « Le tango, une « musique a danser » a l’epreuve de la reconstruction du bal », Civilisations [En ligne], 53 | 2005, mis en ligne le 24 janvier 2009, consulte le 04 octobre 2017. Video. URL : http://civilisations.revues.org/548 ; DOI : 10.4000/civilisations.548. Christophe APPRILL est sociologue et danseur. Example Of Constructivism. Docteur de l’EHESS, il est ATER a l’Universite Jean Monnet de Saint Etienne et membre du Shadyc (sociologie, histoire et anthropologie des dynamiques culturelles) (EHESS, UMR 8562). About. Il a publie Le tango argentin en France (Anthropos, 1998). Camp. Ses recherches portent notamment sur l’epistemologie de la recherche en danse. © Tous droits reserves.

Enqueter en terrains difficiles 63 | 2014. Identite, culture et intimite 61-2 | 2013. Chamanismes en mouvement 61-1 | 2012. Au-dela du consensus patrimonial 60-2 | 2012. Etre ou ne pas etre balkanique 60-1 | 2011. Mobilisations et dynamiques identitaires en Amerique andine 59-2 | 2011. Les apparences de l'homme 59-1 | 2010. Sexualites : apprentissage et performance 58-2 | 2009. Intimites et inimities du religieux et du politique en Afrique 58-1 | 2009.

American Afrocentrism(e)s americains 57 | 2008. Tourisme, mobilites et alterites contemporaines 56 | 2007. Apres la catastrophe 55 | 2006. Confrontations et alliances dans les Ameriques autochtones 54 | 2006. Experiences de recherche en Republique democratique du Congo 53 | 2005. Musiques populaires 52-2 | 2005. Museums, collections, interpretations 52-1 | 2004. Transmission des savoirs et interactions culturelles 51 | 2004. Religions transnationales 50 | 2002. Itineraires belges aux Ameriques 49 | 2002. Pain, fours et foyers des temps passes 48 | 2001.

La question de l'islam et de l'Etat a l'aube du XXIe siecle 44 | 1997. Les peuples des forets tropicales 43-2 | 1996. Problemes africains contemporains 42-2 | 1993. enQuete d'identite 42-1 | 1993. Amerique latine-Europe 41 | 1993. Melanges Pierre Salmon II 40-1 | 1991. L'Asie et le Pacifique 39 | 1991. Japon : les enjeux du futur 38-2 | 1990. Regards sur l'Iran 38-1 | 1989.

ISSN electronique 2032-0442. Informations Titre : Civilisations Revue internationale d’anthropologie et de sciences humaines En bref : Revue encourageant la publication d'articles ou les approches de l'anthropologie s'articulent a celles d'autres sciences sociales.

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a essay on terrorism This paper will discuss religious terrorism in particular. Religious terrorism can be defined as “the terrorism [is] carried out The Truth Video Games based on motivations and goals that have a predominantly religious character or influences.” (“Religious Terrorism”) An example of this will be the thomas accomplishments, 9/11 attacks. It was “a series of four coordinated terrorist attack launched by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda upon the United States in New York City and the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.”(“September 11 attacks”) Bio-terrorism: The Future of Terrorism Essay. appearance on an agar culture. Yet, the About, deadliest feature of this bacterium arises from its inherent ability to essay on women education form spores, permitting it to become efficiently aerosolized and dispersed over a large, concentrated population in the context of terrorism. Once an About Games Essay, individual is infected with anthrax, the bacteria expresses itself in one of three forms: inhalational, cutaneous, or gastrointestinal anthrax. Transmission stems from of constructivism direct or indirect contact and from anthrax’s spore or bacteria form. The Truth About? it.” (http://www.pbs.org/newshour/terrorism/international/fatwa_1998.html) Three months later, when interviewed in example of constructivism, Afghanistan by ABC-TV’s John Miller, Bin Ladin dwelled deeper on his fatwa. He claimed it was more important for Muslims to kill Americans than to kill other infidels. “It is far better for The Truth Games Essay, anyone to kill a single American soldier than to camp america essay squander his efforts on other activities,” he said. Asked by the reporter whether he approved of terrorism and of attacks on civilians, he replied: the destruction of homes and The Truth Video Games, other buildings, can be compared to the actions of of constructivism “terrorist” groups such as Al Qaeda and ISIS. About Video Games Essay? Another instance in which patriotism and terrorism can be defined in the eye of the beholder is the American Revolution.

While it may be accurate to say that the revolution itself wasn’t an act of terrorism the actions of many individual revolutionaries and revolutionary groups such as the sons of liberty were incredibly violent and can be seen as acts of terror. The largest. money for their crops, and then use the opium in medication or destroy it (Hitchens). After ridding the empire, farmers of their opium, provide them with new, hardy crops, and a good market in which to sell them. Another key factor to rid Afghanistan of terrorism is to win the hearts of the people. Nobody knows for sure how many Afghan civilians are killed yearly by U.S. forces, whether ground forces or drone strikes, but it is estimated that about 1,000 are killed yearly (Civilian Casualty Data). Thus, many. various components of Video Games Anti-Taliban Northern Alliance are conducting to act bulk of ground operation on behalf of Washington. The only restraint on Washington might well be its ability to successfully accomplish even while conducting its global war on terrorism This, Controversies on the Definition of Terrorism Essay. of accomplishments terrorism are provided by state-connected agencies in whose interest it is to Video Games Essay maintain the power of the present authority, so their opinions on terrorism by The Other of Silence, Butalia rule cannot be perceived as unbiased. Thus, it is noticeable the usage of word terrorism can be instrumental. The Truth Video? The key point for understanding terrorism is to realize what terrorism is camp america personal all about, however in order to About Video Essay do that, one has to think a little bit like a terrorist.

Ulrich Beck claims that people are not able to define terrorism due. all forms of terrorism. By understanding these commonalities we can better our efforts and defeat this growing threat that is New Terrorism. Methodology In order to understand terrorism in an international sense you have to examine events of terrorism in example of constructivism, the US but globally. In order to win the Global War on Terrorism, we have to think globally. Acts of terrorism were happening long before September 11th and even long before the Oklahoma City bombing. The words modern terrorism or new terrorism. The Truth About Video? modus operandi have changed, there is no reason to essay on women education believe that terrorism will completely cease to Video Games Essay exist in the near future. In fact, because terrorism is a tactic used by a wide variety of organizations1 it can be argued that terrorism cannot be defeated at all. While individual groups that use terrorist means to further their political objectives can be curbed, the vicious cycle has thus far not been broken. INTRODUCTION Terrorism is defined as premeditated political violence against civilians. America Personal? Cyber Terrorism can come in all sorts of ways through Cyber Space and it is defined in many different ways.

Cyber Terrorism can come in the form of misinformation. The Truth About Games Essay? Hacking is a good example of Cyber Terrorism. An example of hacking would be hacking into a hospital computer system and changing someone’s medicine prescription to a lethal dosage as an act of revenge. Hammurabi? Cyber Terrorism is a more popular form for terrorist because they don’t have to use guns or bombs for The Truth Video Games Essay, destruction. Cyber Terrorism could.

Towers were bombed. This bombing sparked a major increase in thomas, counter terrorism. Now, terrorist activity has significantly lowered, this is because new acts have been passed to aid in countering terrorism. The Counter terrorism Act 2008 was created, and gives Public Services the right to stop terrorism in many ways. The methods used now are a lot more advanced, for The Truth About Video Games, example, airports used to be a lot easier to attack with terrorism, but now use a lot of security methods that were not around or used. Impact of Terrorism in hammurabi, Pakistan Essay.

Pakistan has dispatched almost 70-80,000 of troops to the tribal regions. This preparation has to be dispelled that fight against terrorism is a now form of warfare where the attackers are insidious, elusive and About Video Games, yet create sense of create sense of intimidation and terror. On the political side, Pakistan’s international political isolation ceased immediately and it assumed the role of essay on women frontline state yet again. Despite the AQ Khan nuclear proliferation crisis, the US gave Pakistan the status. Terrorism and Maritime Security Essay. on maritime security. 3. Possibilities Threats to Maritime Security Conventionally, terrorist only needs great publication to support their political goal and draw people attention, not killing people in The Truth About Video Games Essay, a great number but the modern strategy of terrorism now is creating an education, atmosphere of terror by inflicting large numbers of casualties regardless of whatever the media to deliver the attack . A number of analysts express concerns that the terrorist threat might probably use weapons of mass destruction.

Another strategy that has also proved effective in dealing with the rise in global terrorism is negotiation. Though many governments always show reluctance in engaging terror groups in The Truth, negotiations, it is one of the most economical and least destructive approaches to preventing and controlling the thomas jefferson, spread of terrorism. For instance, the About Video Games, Great Britain secretly engaged the Sinn Fein and the Irish Republican Army in a negotiation process that resulted in the Good Friday Agreement, bringing to an end. so its members are called to wage a jihad in any parts of the world where Muslims are considered to be oppressed. So how are South East Asian States, mentioned above, working to combat terrorism? There are series of Anti-terrorist movement among such states that would somehow help them in combating terrorism.

In Indonesia, the babylonian, government sought to introduce tougher anti-terror measures in the wake of the July 2009 bombings in Jakarta. These measures include stronger laws that would lengthen detentions. The English would have viewed these acts as terrorism by today’s standards. Terrorism has also taken place during the Atlanta Olympics and at an abortion clinic when Eric Rudolph planted bombs that killed and The Truth About, injured people. Only an Side Butalia Essay, alert security guard at the Olympics prevented a tragedy. A current threat of terrorism is through the About Video Games Essay, use of gangs by of Silence, Butalia international organizations. Al-Qaeda has been closely working with the The Truth Video Essay, gang Mara Salvatrucha or MS-13. MS-13 has many ways of passing security at. The Dangers of Cyber-Terrorism Essay. Gabriel Wiemann, a researcher on on women education, cyber crime, suggests that cyber-terrorism is an attractive option for modern-day terrorists because they can be anonymous, it has the potential to inflict mass harm, and Video Essay, it has a huge psychological impact and media appeal to its intended targets (Wiemann, 2004).

Secondly, another problem of cyber terrorism is its easy accessibility. Many computer hacking software are easy to use and available for free on the internet because many free software hackers make. Early history would appear rife with acts of terror. Religious texts have advocated terrorism and assassination (the Bible Books of Joshua and camp america personal, Numbers). The Roman Empire was fraught with regicide- where the killing of kings, their families and political supporters became an About Video Games, established political path to power and had been since the time of Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44BC). Israeli Zealots, outnumbered by Roman occupation forces, fought with hit and run tactics in public places (100AD). European Christian. Terrorism: an The Other of Silence, Butalia, International Crisis Essay. organization. These groups generally attempt to use terrorism to try to A very well known area where these groups operate is within the borders of Israel.

Palestinian groups like the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) can be both considered as ideologically based in both nationalism/separatism and in religion. About? These Palestinian groups fight for their own independent state. Many times over of drinking age the motives for the discontent and acts of terrorism proliferated by these groups is based in the fact. world need to The Truth Video Games be saved from enemies and future attacks. Throughout Bush speech, he tells America that he has to of constructivism go to war in order to save America and Games, the world. War on Side Butalia Essay, terrorism, as he calls it, is to disarm Iraq, free its people and to defend the world from grave danger. (Bush) America is now at war hoping to end terrorism and The Truth About Video Games, attain world peace. Essay on Defining International Terrorism. The United Nations’ help was also sought to distinguish a freedom struggle or right to self-determination from act of terrorism. The similar warfare tactics or guerilla style of jefferson major accomplishments attacks used by the revolutionaries, freedom fighters and terrorists make the task of distinguishing between them both more difficult. But, terrorist organizations have more than one ambition.

They want to meet not just political ends but also financial and other such gains. Terrorists often are paid mercenaries compelled. Rapoports four waves are distinguished by historical events globally. (Rapoport 2004: 47) The first wave emerged in Russia in the 1880's lasting approximately forty years and is referred to as the anarchist wave. It was at this point in time that terrorism was viewed as a means of unsettling the status quo of the state and ultimately replacing their ideologies with those of the revolutions. (Laquer 2003: 13) During this wave uprisings occurred due to people becoming impatient with the ruling parties. Video Games Essay? Suicide Terrorism: A Logical Choice? Essay. Increase in Suicide Terrorism Terrorist activities, in general, have been around as long as there have been disagreements between people. However, in latest recorded history, there has been an camp essay, identifiable increase in the number of The Truth About Games attacks orchestrated that involve the use of suicide terrorism. Thomas Major Accomplishments? Since the attack on the U.S. embassy in Beirut in April 1983, there have been at least 188 separate suicide terrorist attacks worldwide, in Lebanon, Israel, Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Yemen, Terrorism Is the Weapon of Powerles Essay. terrorists without knowing it.

They think they are resistant against “evil”, as US army in Iraq. We teach them to kill their enemies, and if we lose your life during the attack, you will be rewarded by god (or the community) for this act of faith. Also, terrorism became an easy. The Effects of Terrorism in America Essay. society is a Marxist designed system to support the view that the The Truth About Games Essay, economic oppression of the on women education, Middle East caused the present crisis. This argument is The Truth About Video Games Essay itself an attack on the US because they believe America is a money hungry nation (LEWIS, JOHN). Terrorism can also have a huge impact on our economy. For exampl,the cost of the 9/11 attacks was about $28 billion. This included the loss of pure physical assets, the initial cleanup, and rescue efforts. That was according to a 2002 assessment by the Paris-based. Most of the films concentrate on the idea of terrorism.

But we must reflect whether it is used to bring unity or anythingelse. Because the film directors use their criminal mind more than what the police require of detective mind. Because, before the police identify the terrorist, the terrorist repents and changes his mind and escapes from the place without attacking the people (Rf. Black or White). Through films, the pro and of drinking, directors give lot of techniques which even the terrorist would not have.

Terrorism and Morality by Haig Khatchadourian Essay. In proving that terrorism is always wrong, Khatchadourian first eliminates the idea that ‘freedom fighting’ as a form of terrorism is morally ethical. Khatchadourian states that this form of terrorism, though it is for a suspected good cause, participates in the “maiming, killing or coercing of non-innocents,” as a non-innocent is a person who is About Games Essay directly related to babylonian empire hammurabi the injustice in which the terrorist seeks to avenge (293). Therefore, if this type of terrorism is ethical then “considering political. Canada#x27;s Fight Against Terrorism Essay. Because terrorism causes devastating human and Video Games Essay, economic costs, the essay education, CTCB Program allows a stable and secure environment which is one of Canada’s objectives.

Most of the CTBT Program assistance is provided by nineteen different departments (“Counter-Terrorism Capacity Building Assistance”). The Truth Video Essay? When looking at terrorism, Canada believes that extremist groups are the reason for Side by Urvashi Essay, terrorism, especially Sunni Islamist extremism. Since the 1970s, there have been recurring instances of violence that are associated. Essay about The Definition and Meaning of Terrorism. of terrorism are provided by state-connected agencies in whose interest it is to maintain the power of the present authority, so their opinions on terrorism by rule cannot be perceived as unbiased. Video Essay? Thus, it is noticeable the usage of word terrorism can be instrumental. The key point for understanding terrorism is to realize what terrorism is all about, however in order to do that, one has to hammurabi think a little bit like a terrorist. Ulrich Beck claims that people are not able to define terrorism due.

The Use of Profiling to The Truth Games Combat Terrorism Essay. did not fit the profile of a terrorist. Also, male terrorists are changing their appearance by shaving and dying their hair to fit a different profile such as a business man or a student traveler. Israel has been on babylonian empire, the frontline of combating terrorism since its founding in 1948 and Video, has developed certain strategies that are focused on capturing terrorist in the early planning stages of an attack. To do this, Israel security forces use a method called predictive profiling. Predictive profiling is. The Truth About War on Terrorism Essay. For Bush to “win” his crusade against thomas jefferson accomplishments terrorism, he would have had to end resentment and hatred. About Games Essay? As Richard A. Clarke, the National Coordinator for major accomplishments, Security and Counter-terrorism, wrote, “…we will never catch them all and this year’s crop of America’s enemies will be replaced by tomorrow’s” (Clark 262).

Bush’s immediate war on Afghanistan was ineffective in destroying the The Truth Video Games, intended terrorist organization. On September 20, 2001, nine days after the major, 9/11 attacks, President Bush addressed Congress. Effects of Terrorism on Refugee Protection Essay. According to the Meriam Webster dictionary terrorism may be defined as the The Truth About Games, use of violent acts to frighten people in an area as a way of trying to achieve a political goal. In order to understand the challenges of refugee protection in the context of babylonian hammurabi terrorism, it is vital to The Truth revisit the definition of a refugee. The term refugee as contained in the 1951 United Nations Convention relating to status of refugees and its 1967 protocol relating to status of refugees defines refugee as an individual who: State Terrorism Is Often a Neglected Phenomenon in Terrorism Studies. Discuss How Terrorism Has Been Used as a Weapon by States over the Past 50 Years. cases of Side of Silence, Essay state terrorism. Defining Terrorism has been an on-going mission for many academics. The topic is deadlocked.

Laqueur states that “More than a hundred definitions have been offered (including a few of my own) for About Video Games, the phenomenon” (Laqueur 1999). It is valid to pro and cons argue that a definition for state terrorism is The Truth About also problematic. As the main thrust of this essay is to examine how states have used terrorism as a weapon over the past 50 years, I will further define state terrorism when I examine. Terrorism and Culture of the major accomplishments, Middle East Essay. world it is only natural that cultures conflict and contradict each other.

Unfortunately, these cultural clashes are often the underlying bases for international confrontation, more specifically terrorism. This phenomenon of different groups establishing cultural dominance in the world through terrorism has especially been an issue in the Middle East, causing this region in the world to remain in the international spotlight. “A Clash of Civilizations” Terrorism and Religious Extremism in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Games Essay? majority of the people living in these tribal lands are Pashtun Afghan refugees who fled to Pakistan during the essay on women education, Afghan-Soviet War in 1979 (Weightman 2011). About Video? The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan would play a significant role in the development of the pro and cons of drinking, terrorism and religious extremism we have in Pakistan today. In 1979 the Soviet Army invaded Afghanistan at the request of the Afghan government. The Media is The Truth About a Powerful Actor in Terrorism Essay. they do not withdraw their army from Somalia through the media. Through the advancement of technology terrorist groups now have their own websites, which are cost effective and portable (Weimann, 2004). DEMERITS OF MEDIA COVERAGE ON TERRORISM Self-censorship media personalities sometimes are. The Existence of Terrorism Throughout History Essay. The attack was linked back to Osama Bin Laden.

In 1995 a horrible America on American attack took place where Timothy McVeigh planted a car bomb left outside a federal building killing 168 and injuring 600. Probably one of the worst acts of age terrorism ever committed was on September 11th, 2001. The second attack on the World Trade Center took place. Not only did it affect the World Trade, but also the Pentagon and another crashed in Pennsylvania. Four planes managed to kill over About Video 6000, and.

Should Americans Fear Urban Terrorism? Essay. vulnerable to Urban Terrorism. Education? The fact that law enforcement organizations are not able to Video Games Essay conduct sweeps and thomas jefferson major accomplishments, searches, and The Truth Video Games, shouldn’t have the right to, leave a huge area for thomas major, a terrorist to operate within American boundaries (Bender 19). When the organization or the individual takes advantage of the freedoms provided to them, then the infringement of other American’s freedoms is inevitable. In my opinion, there is not anyway for the United States to totally secure itself from Urban Terrorism. The only way. Piracy and The Truth Essay, Maritime Terrorism in of Silence, by Urvashi Butalia Essay, the Horn of Africa Essays. organizations. It is important to About Video Games discern the difference between acts of maritime terrorism and pirate activity, and empire, why one is increasing and About Games, the other stagnant.

Terrorist actions at sea can be similarly defined to that of on women education terrorism in general, or “acts of Video Essay violence committed by politically motivated groups to inspire their supporters or induce feelings of fear among their enemies . Pro And Of Drinking? . . “ While acts of maritime terrorism by this definition are rare, the potential for growth must be recognized and understood. Difficulties of Defining Terrorism, Assignment 1 Essay. is one differential from domestic terrorism which is defined as happening within the The Truth About Video Games, territorial jurisdiction of the U.S. Federal crime of terrorism is the same; however, further defined as a violation of several listed statutes (i.e. including § 930(c) (relating to killing or attempted killing during an attack on a federal facility with a dangerous weapon); and § 1114 (relating to killing or attempted killing of officers and employees of the U.S.). Terrorism as defined by education CIA The Central Intelligence. Research Essay: Can Terrorism Ever Be Justified? In 2007, global terrorism increased another 25% (CNN Terror Report).

In Pakistan, over About Video Games 3000 people died due to terrorist attacks in 2009, up a frightening 48% (Walsh). It’s evident that terrorism is continually on the rise even with countermeasures. An increase in babylonian empire hammurabi, terrorism means an increase in deaths. This proves more and Games, more that terrorists are willing to kill any number of people to achieve their ill-minded goals. This also proves that terrorist groups may also be increasing in numbers, thus. Reasons for Defining and Criminalizing Terrorism in International Law. adoption of sectoral treaties, the term ‘terrorism’ continues to exhibit descriptive and an analytical force in international legal discussion, suggesting that it captures a concept beyond the mere specific physical acts comprising terrorist acts. In particular, the babylonian empire, international community has expressed its disapproval of ‘terrorism’ on a number of grounds since the early 1970s. These include that terrorism is a serious human rights violation, that terrorism undermines democratic governance, or at. A Historical View on Terrorism and Terrorist Ideologies Essay. better system (O'Connor, T. 2007).

The next phase in the history of terrorism evolved to what became known as nationalist terrorism. The Macedonian insurgency (1893-1903) against About Video Essay the Turkish Ottoman Empire became the first anti-colonial group in modern history to systematically wage guerilla warfare, avoid conventional battle, occupy towns and villages, engage in propaganda, and use terrorism to gain control. National terrorism states that there is no such thing as an innocent non-combatant. This. Essay U.S. Interest in Yemen and its Influence to Stop Terrorism. The U.S. sees President Ali Abdullah Saleh as not being a strong leader but at this time as a backer to the fight war on terrorism. The question lies in how much political influence the U.S. On Women Education? should put in to country at this time.

Yemen is following the wave of the upheaval in the Middle East in attempting to oust their current leader. The U.S. has involved themselves little in the upheavals except to say let the voice of democracy work. Diplomacy there has been an option in the past for the U.S. Essay about The Truth About Games, Analysis of Michael Walzer#x27;s View on Terrorism. I believe Walzers argument is a valid and sound argument given the definition he uses for terrorism, we will take a closer look at another definition later. Terrorism is akin to murder therefore it is wrong. Universally we agree that murder is the unjustifiable killing of a person, likely a terrorist cannot offer a reason justifiable for why they killed a specific person because the act of terrorism is random. The Terrorists do not know enough about their victims to offer a morally sound reason. Camp Personal? Cyber Terrorism: A Threat to the United States Essay. What is being done to The Truth About Video Games Essay combat cyber terrorism?

Is the United States prepared for such an attack? - What is the camp, future of The Truth About Video cyber terrorism and is a threat imminent or likely? Key Assumption(s) - Al-Qaeda or another terrorist cell is planning another attack against babylonian hammurabi the United States. About Essay? - Al-Qaeda has become more advanced and will at some point use technology to carry out their attack. - Cyber terrorism is a possible threat to the United States. - Cyber terrorism capabilities will continue to personal be. The Truth Video Games Essay? Terrorism is a Growing Form of Political Influence Essay. Hostility to the support of the United States for Israel led to numerous acts of terrorism against American citizens by Palestinian radicals or their sympathizers. In 1983 attacks by Shiite Moslem suicide bombers on the U.S. embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, and on the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut killed nearly 300 people, most of whom were Americans. In 1988 a bomb destroyed Pan American Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing all 259 people on board, including 189 United States citizens. In 1991. Pro And? The Ethics of Terrorism: Employing Just War Principles Essay.

Bearing this in mind, I will define terrorism as: ‘premeditated, politically motivated violence’ (US State Department, 2005), perpetrated with the aim of evoking a ‘state of fear (or terror) in a particular victim or audience’ (Crenlinsten, 1987) ‘in order to achieve political aims’ (Ganor, 1998). I will not be looking at state-terrorism because it raises different questions for the Just War tradition. Legitimate Authority and Video Games Essay, Just Cause: In ‘Summa Theologiae’, Thomas Aquinas argues that only. The War on Terrorism Has Not Compromised Civil Liberties Essay. Babylonian Empire? enforcement officials about what they may know about terrorism in their country (Ashcroft). Video Games? September 11 has been used as a catalyst or an essay on women, excuse for Games Essay, a whole lot of bad legislation (Hannity). Some feel the Patriot Act is the bad legislation denying our civil liberties. America Personal? This is Video Essay a false statement. The Patriot Act is protecting the rights of U.S. citizens and allows law enforcement officials to explore every angle to fight terrorism. Cons Of Drinking? The biggest argument thus far is the Patriot Act denies.

Pakistan Contribution to Global War on Terrorism Essay. change occurred across the western border of Pakistan, where a revolution ousted the Shah of Iran. The cumulative effect of these historic events at Pakistan’s doorstep was an upsurge of terrorism in its many manifestations in the country. The Truth About? It is generally believed that the main reason for the growth of terrorism in Pakistan was the involvement of the US in Afghanistan in the 1980s. The border region between Pakistan and Afghanistan had been turned into a base camp.

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essay on pets care WINNERS: STUDENTS IN GRADES 2-10 SHOW COMPASSION AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS THROUGH THEIR WRITINGS. Submitted By IN DEFENSE OF ANIMALS. Announcing the Winners of the Guardians For Life Art and Essay Contest. Grades 2-3 Art Entries. Winner #150; In Defense of Animals Poster. Grades 4-5 Essay Entries.

First prize - $200 U.S. Savings Bond. Animals are not like toys because they show affection and need as much love as you or anyone in your family and for About Games, all the ways these animals help us all they ever ask for camp essay, is love care and a scratch behind the ear. The three other best choices you can make for them is spaying or neutering them, putting a collar with the About Video animals information on it or a micro chip, and not de-clawing them. Those are all the small things you need to do to get a loving best friend who will always love you and be there for you. Second prize - $100 U.S. Savings Bond. To be a good animal guardian the animal needs love, food, water, shelter, and care from the guardian. Animals can be treated like property or family.

If they were treated like property they wouldn#146;t be cared for, wouldn#146;t be loved, and empire hammurabi wouldn#146;t feel loved. This is not the way to treat your animal. The Truth Video! If treated like family they will feel loved, cared for, and wanted. Jefferson Accomplishments! If I saw someone mistreating an animal I would tell the Pet Police or an The Truth Video Essay animal shelter. To treat animals like friends, I play with them. Third prize #150; In Defense of Animals Poster. Jourdon Schultz and John Eumont - New Orleans, LA. Cruelty to Animals by Jourdon Schulz. Many people in the world abuse their animals and are cruel to them. Babylonian! They abuse their pets because of something the animal did.

Instead of treating their animals like a living being, they often throw their pets out or treat them like dirt. This should be illegal if it is not already. Hitting an animal is like hitting a person. The Truth About Video Games! People should respect their animals more than anything else in the world. So please think of your animals and treat them with kindness. A Pet's Life by John Eumont. I need care from my parents. I also need love and food from my parents.

It can be bad for animals when they are treated like property. When animals are treated like property all the people will do is feed them. They will not play with them. When animals are treated like family they will get love, care, and food. If I see somebody mistreating a pet I will tell the SPCA. Some other ways that I can treat animals better are by playing with them. Grades 6-7 Essay Entries. First prize - $200 U.S. Savings Bond. What is animal abuse? Animal abuse is example, when someone does harm to an animal.

Animal abusers are often manipulative people. They threaten to harm animal to get people to do what they want them to The Truth Video Essay do. Also known to happen, are situations where a women will not leave a bad marriage because she is concerned for her pet. There are emergency animal shelters that can be utilized for situations like this. Sometimes they aren't manipulative. Animal abuse has also been known to happen at the hands of children who have been abused by of drinking age, a parent. Games Essay! The children strike out against something that they can control, which often is a pet of some kind. The child is only doing to the animal what was done to them. Some animal abusers are jealous of their human victims animals. This is because animals give unconditional love and affection. Example Of Constructivism! Something that the victim is not giving the abuser.

An abuser has been known to kill the Video Essay animal in order to somehow isolate their human victims. Animal abuse often goes unknown. Animals are like small children, they cannot speak out against this crime. There are documented cases where murderers of humans have had backgrounds of known animal abuse. The famous Boston Strangler killed 13 women and was known to The Other Side by Urvashi have trapped dogs and cats in orange crates and shot arrows through the boxes. There was a shooting at a San Diego school where a woman named Brenda Spencer fired forty shots at a group of school children. Two children died at that time. Later neighbors reported to police the woman was known to abuse cats and dogs by setting their tails on fire.

Abuse against Games animals as noted here are against the law. Whether it is a felony or a misdemeanor, depends on the state in which the thomas jefferson major crime was committed. There is About, currently research being done that would prove that animal abuse is a form of domestic violence and emotional abuse. The website for babylonian, this research is Petabuse.org. They will gladly accept any information on pet abuse (actual situations). You may remain anonymous if you choose to help this organization by reporting known instances of animal abuse.

Some people consider animal research as another form of The Truth About Essay animal abuse. Animals are used for many different types of research such as medical cures and testing for different types of drug therapy. Each year an estimated 14 million animals will suffer and die painful deaths due to research. Many different types of animals are used for medical research, mice, cats, dogs, rabbits, chickens, frogs, pigs, goats and more. There is research into gene therapy using animals.

There was even experimentation with cloning of one certain sheep. A sheep named Dolly. Thomas Jefferson Major Accomplishments! There are certain people that view this as a form of The Truth About Games Essay animal abuse. Others view it as a giant step for mankind. I believe that animal and cons human abuse are related. Abuse is The Truth About Video Games, abuse, no matter who is on the receiving end of it. If you ever see or hear of any form of abuse, whether it is animal or human it should be reported to the appropriate authorities. By not reporting abuse, you are not helping anyone. The only way to stop abuse of any kind is to thomas jefferson major accomplishments SPEAK UP!

Second prize - $100 U.S. The Truth About Video Essay! Savings Bond. Schools today are responsible for teaching many things to students. I believe that teachers and administrators have very difficult jobs. Not only is it their responsibility to teach the academic material to cons of drinking age students so that they learn the Video Games necessary subject, they also are responsible for setting good examples so that students will learn from positive and respectful leaders.

On way I believe principals and teachers would help teach students to care, respect, and be responsible for their reactions is through the of drinking age teaching of care and respect toward the animals of About Video Games our earth. When children are taught to babylonian empire care for The Truth About Games, animals and taught that animals should be treated in a good manner, then there is a better chance that students would not only care for animals in a proper way, but this would carry on to the way students might perhaps treat each other and their teachers. By impressing to The Other of Silence, by Urvashi Butalia Essay students that being kind to animals demonstrates that teachers and administrators have sympathy and The Truth About Video Games Essay are kind-hearted people, students would become more comfortable with teachers who show they are kind people. I have had the opportunity this year to be involved in a school program called Roots and Shoots. I have learned many things about the Side of Silence, Butalia Essay environment, especially the importance of respecting and caring for animals. By learning about how to treat the environment and creatures I believe I have become a more responsible person. The Truth Video Games Essay! Schools that allow students the opportunity to participate in such programs, are helping to create a better world, both inside the building and outside. As a leader or principal of a school I would allow many opportunities for students to example of constructivism participate in The Truth About Essay environmental activities so that they would all be able to see the importance of how to treat the earth. Students would inevitably become caring, respectful, and responsible people. Third prize #150; In Defense of Animals Poster.

Why should we not abuse animals, the same reason we should not abuse kids. It is hammurabi, wrong and we just shouldn#146;t do it. Animals are supposed to be our companions and friends not what we just beat up and forget. You should take care of them like they were our children. Animals are like babies.

The reason I say this is because they depend on you to feed, water, bath and care for them. When you buy an animal you automatically except that job regardless of who you are. The Truth About Video Essay! Animals need to be loved. I have two cousins who like to abuse animals till they are dead, just last year they chained a kitten to a tractor and threw rocks at it, that#146;s one example of animal abuse. We do not own our animals we show guardianship over them the same with a child we don#146;t say well I own that baby we say we are the guardians of the age baby, it should be the same for our pets. I have a pet iguana. He is a foot long and I have a pet turtle when people ask who owns those animals, I say I#146;m not the owner, but I#146;m the Games Essay guardian. My pets are treated the same. One does not get something without the other that#146;s how I am about my pets. (To) people who want to train your pets and like to abuse them; Be nice, kindly say what you want them to do don#146;t yell at them and thomas when they do what you want, give them a treat. This is Games, what I think about pets.

Thanks for your time. Grades 8-10 Essay Entries. First prize - $200 U.S. Savings Bond. Youth and Violence: How Animal Abuse Turns Into Violence Towards Humans. Visualize three situations. Cons Of Drinking! A seven-year-old boy with an air rifle shooting at a squirrel. An eleven-year-old boy with a BB gun shooting at The Truth Video Essay a raccoon. A sixteen-year-old with hunting rifle shooting at another teenager.

Why is it that the majority of America finds no problem with these images until the gun turns on humans? With the country now obsessed with teenagers under stress and the stories of essay on women school shootings, many people are trying to catch these kids early. Too many fail to Games Essay recognize animal abuse as a sign of personality disorders, depression, and in of drinking age nearly all cases, future violence towards humans. People have varied reasons for abusing animals, and Dr. Randall Lockwood has identified some of the major motives.

The list includes the need to satisfy a prejudice, such as beating a dog because of Essay a past hatred of dogs. To impress others with aggressiveness is a common form of abuse, such as friends showing off to each other by empire, abusing animals. Shocking others for amusement, anger displacement and nonspecific sadism are also included. Animal abuse can also be a warning sign to Video Essay many mental and emotional disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder, addiction, zoophilia, inability to camp america personal essay form attachments and a general lack of power or control in ones life. The motives behind animal abuse can easily transfer to About Essay human beings. Contrary to what people believe, someone beating a dog can, and on women probably will signify and lead to further violence against other animals and people. Dr. Lockwood has also identified the major factors in The Truth About Games animal abuse that will lead to violence against humans, including repition of the act, premeditation, the act of restraining the victim, the intimacy involved in the attack, absence of economic motives, sexual assault, documentation in forms of pictures, videos or writing, and posing or display of the victims body. These signal a need for power or control of a situation, which motivates nearly all violence against humans and example animals.

Prisons and Mental Heath facilities across America are filled with violent offenders, over half of The Truth About Essay which have admitted to example committing animal abuse. 78% of prisoners being held for animal abuse had a history of abuse towards people, and nearly half of Essay all sexual offenders had admitted to practicing torture and murder on animals before committing their crimes. Law enforcement surveys have shown that 82% of animal abuse cases involving intentional cruelty or torture were committed by people who had also been convicted of assault, murder, domestic violence and child abuse. Many studies have shown that abuse to babylonian animals in the home can easily transfer to The Truth Video Games abuse against children and spouses. In New Jersey, 88% of homes where children had been abused, another family member had abused an animal.

In Great Britain, 83% of families with a history of animal abuse were also tagged for suspected child abuse or neglect. 85% of women in the US who had been abused by their spouse stated that their spouse also abused the family pet, 63% said the abuse was witnessed by major, a child. It is well known that children who witness abuse of animals or humans in their home develop feelings that abuse in a rational solution to a problem. Children who witness animal abuse are more likely to abuse animals, commit vandalism, arson, and exhibit unnatural brutality. They are known to Video Games Essay become more and example of constructivism more aggressive with humans as they grow up, with the basis that violence towards living things is acceptable. Without help, violence towards humans and animals will only continue to be passed through the generations. It's known that people such as Kip Kinkel, Dylan Klebold, Eric Harris, Andrew Golden, Mitchell Johnson, Michael Carneal and Luke Woodham, all teenage mass-murderers who took revenge on their classmates in the form of massacres, sought control over The Truth Video their peers to avenge years of social mockery. Klebold and Harris killed 12, and injured 20 in a shooting, following years of their boasting to friends and family that they mutilated animals. Education! Kip Kinkel killed 4, injured 22 after being caught several times for animal abuse, including blowing up cats, cows, chipmunks and About Games squirrels with homemade firecrackers.

Johnson and Golden killed 5 after a history of The Other Side of Silence, by Urvashi Butalia shooting dogs. Woodham killed 3, and injured seven others shortly after detailing in Games his journal the glory of torturing, killing and burning his family dog. These teens had felt as if they had no control over their life, and that others were causing their emotional pains. They were all known to be animal abusers by family, friends and law enforcement, but none were required to undergo counseling for their prior offenses. We can never know, but perhaps if others had recognized the signs of violence towards animals as a future violence towards humans, many lives could have been saved.

Animal abuse is age, not a case of boys will be boys? Animals abuse is The Truth About Video Essay, a sure sign of future violence towards humans. Parents, School Officials and Law Enforcement agencies that wish to prevent kids from The Other growing into violent people need to About Video pay more attention to animal abusers, especially the young. Babylonian Empire! Catching violence early, and being able to provide counseling will decrease the About Essay number of violent crimes on people and animals. Second prize - $100 U.S. Savings Bond. The Importance of Animal Guardianship.

It was a cool February afternoon when I reported to work after school. as usual. A harrowing day at school had left me mentally exhausted as the. daytime technician easily reported the day#146;s activities and afternoon. duties. Essay Education! The veterinary clinic would be quiet, except for Video Games Essay, one critically ill. mare in personal essay the back. There#146;s a horse out back that#146;s pretty bad, she. cautioned, make sure you swab her neck with DMSO and keep her well- hydrated. The task seemed easy enough. In the medical field, they say not to get too emotionally involved with your patients.

I soon learned that it is easier said than done. The aged mare under my care was suffering from an acute case of salmonella poisoning. A few hours after my arrival, the The Truth About Video Games Essay veterinarian asked me to bring the horse into the barn and watch her. He had an outside emergency to attend to and did not see that the mare was in any pressing danger. I obediently sat in a lawn chair directly in babylonian front of the stocks where the mare was tightly confined, swabbing the Video Essay solution on her neck and gently whispering encouraging words. The Other Side Of Silence, By Urvashi Essay! I was alone when she began to go downhill and highly doubted my own abilities to The Truth About Games Essay rescue her. I had only received the limited training of a small town practice; they had taught me all that they could but I knew that this case was beyond my expertise.

Not wanting to leave the mare long enough to Side by Urvashi go into the office and About Video Games Essay call Dr. Hansen, I diligently began to pray and watch out of the barn door, awaiting the sight of headlights that would signal the doctor#146;s arrival. I watched quietly as the of Silence, Butalia Essay mare struggled to breathe and spouted blood from the hole in her throat meant to help her do so. I cried at my own helplessness, but soon felt someone watching me. Without the The Truth About Games fanfare of crunching gravel or the warning of headlights, Dr. Hansen appeared before my eyes. He walked to me, led the mare out of the stocks and out of the barn, to the place where she collapsed in tremors and soon fell still. That day I lost my very first patient. I spent the remainder of the. night on my knees in prayer with tears in my eyes, searching for jefferson major accomplishments, an answer to Games Essay what seemed to me a tragic loss of babylonian empire hammurabi life.

What I found was my true calling. As I wiped the tears from my eyes, I stepped up to the plate at a mere fourteen years old and accepted my call to forever be a guardian of animals, in the vocational role of a veterinarian. About Games! The importance of major accomplishments animal guardianship is immeasurable. About Essay! Since animals are unable to articulate any form of verbal communication, those domesticated are left to innocently rely on example, their human counterparts. Their hearts abound with limitless trust and The Truth Video Essay amazing love. And we call ourselves the experts in essay the field? They act selflessly without the barriers of pride, lust, envy, or jealousy. They embody that which we could only hope to become. In this light, it is The Truth About Games, beyond my comprehension that anyone would desire to deliberately harm these innocent beings.

However to my dismay, animal violence is quickly spreading across the United States at an alarming rate. And unfortunately, the lack of pro and of drinking respect that causes such blatant disregard to life translates easily to The Truth Games other areas of life, causing increased violence around the country among youth especially. On Women! Though we cannot stop the natural processes of life that take our animals from us, we can stop the pointless violence. Teaching the importance of self-respect in schools and in homes reinforces and builds students#146; self-esteem, thereby causing them to The Truth place higher values of respect on The Other Side by Urvashi, the lives of Video Games Essay other creatures. Animal violence will escalate and it is a dangerous gateway that leads to tragedies such as that of Columbine High School. It is only a matter of when. As a member of the cons age so-called #147;Generation X,#148; I hereby commit to fulfilling my role as a guardian of animal life. This entails raising the awareness of dangers associated with animal violence and taking a stand for those unable to speak. The Truth About Video! Should I be chosen as a recipient of this generous scholarship, I realize that it will not give me the right to feel superior to anyone: humans and animals alike.

It will only give you the on women right to expect. great things from me. You will not be disappointed, and the animals will be. Third prize #150; In Defense of Animals Poster. Vicki Karbatchinskaia and Samantha McDonald - Bunnel, FL. Why should violence toward animals be taken as seriously as other forms of abuse? by Vicki Karbatchinskaia. You see a lost, little puppy wander over to you, and you hear its soft whimpering.

As you see those scratches, tears, and other forms of abuse on that helpless tiny animals tears spring to Games Essay your eyes. Violence toward animals should be taken just as seriously as other forms of of constructivism abuse, because violence toward animals is still abuse. The Truth Games! When people abuse animals it is stripping those animals of babylonian empire hammurabi their respect and trust of humans, and The Truth like any other form of abuse the abuser probably has mental or emotional problems. There is also no more an The Other Side of Silence, Essay excuse for abusing a helpless animal than there is for abusing a person. When a person constantly abuses an The Truth Video Essay animal that animal loses all trust and respect that they once felt for humans. Camp America Essay! That person becomes the center of that animal's fears and The Truth Essay worries, and some animals literally become ill from anxiety. They slowly become more and more sagacious of humans until they are forever apprehensive of them. A healthy, happy puppy could dramatically go from dynamic and vivacious to astute and timorous of practically everything. The Other Side By Urvashi Essay! Isn't that the same thing that happens to people who are constantly abused? Like in Video Games Essay any other form of abuse the of constructivism abuser probably has mental or emotional problems and should be treated for About Video, it. When people abuse animals they usually have a higher chance of The Other Butalia abusing people, too.

That is because abusing animals is so much like abusing people, and in both there is About Video Games, always an emotional problem behind it on thomas jefferson major, the part of the The Truth About Video Games Essay abuser. When someone abuses a person one of the pragmatic things for the law to Side Butalia do would be to send this person to a psychiatrist, because that person has some stored up abusive emotions. When a person abuses an The Truth Games animal most laws just brush the case under the carpet, and charge that person with a petty fine. That cannot be tolerated, because an animal abuser has the same emotional anger that a person carrying out camp america essay, any other type of abuse has. There is no more of a reason for abusing an animal than there is for abusing a person. Animals are just like people in a different body form. About Games Essay! I don't see how abusing an animal is any less serious or any less important. Abusing as animal is just like abusing a person except they express their hurt emotions in a different way. When a person abuses someone else it shows they are violent. Animals are living, breathing, feeling creatures on Earth, just like people, and it is not acceptable for them to be treated with less respect and compassion than we treat people. We share the planet with all other animal species who deserve compassion, care, and The Other Side of Silence, by Urvashi Butalia Essay protection from cruelty and abuse.

Animal Cruelty by Samantha McDonald. They're our best friends and also our companions. So why don't we treat them that way? They help when you're down and play with you when you're bored. About Essay! They take care of us. So why do we treat them like they are an object?

Animals are there for of constructivism, you know matter what. They protect you when you're scared. About Essay! In my family we give back what we get. I, as guardian of many animals do as much as I can to help them. Words can't express sometimes how we feel. You love, care, and also protect them. So why must we continue to say they're owned by us, property of camp america essay so and so?

Do we want to Video do this? Do you want to pro and be property? Not me, but in our society never the less our animals are our responsibility. They live with us and share our homes. The Truth Video Essay! That means they depend on us to take care of them and feed them and protect them. You ask why do we do this, I will tell you why.

It's the least we can do to return all the love and companionship they give us. If you don't feel this way about your pet then I feel sorry, not for you, but for your pet. For it is how we treat them and take care of them that make them what they are. So what it all boils down to is that we as people have made our pets what they are today. Sadly, many pets are obtained on a whim and when it is no longer convenient the babylonian empire pets are given up or go from home to home. The Truth Games! This is very upsetting and camp confusing to the pet not to mention very sad. They just want to The Truth Video be loved and cons age cared for like us. Won't you help stop this unnecessary abuse to these wonderful pets and give them the best life you both can possibly have? We can start by fixing some of these problems in our own homes.

Then support groups like Roots and The Truth About Video Games Shoots and other groups to grow strong and babylonian empire hammurabi help educate the About Essay world on how important all animals are to thomas major us and to the survival of our world. The Truth! Please help us spread the word and you too can be the of drinking best guardian your pet could ever hope for. In Defense of Animals. 131 Camino Alto. Mill Valley, CA 94941.

It is the policy of In Defense of Animals to no longer use language that accepts the current concept of animals as property, commodities and/or things. Rather than refer to ourselves or others as owners of animals we share our lives with, we now refer to ourselves and others as guardians of our animal friends and to animals as he or she rather than it. The Truth About! Guardians do not buy or sell animals; instead they rescue and adopt. We urge you to do the of constructivism same.

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Get Ready to Unleash the Power of UCanCode .NET. U CanCode Software focuses on general application software development. We provide complete solution for developers. No matter you want to develop a simple database workflow application, or an Video, large flow/diagram based system, our product will provide a complete solution for you. Our product had been used by hundreds of top companies around the world! 100% source code provided! Free you from not daring to use components because of unable to master the key technology of components! VC++ MFC Thread Tutorial: _beginthreadex , WaitForSingleObject, pausing, resuming, and stopping threads. Frequently in the Visual C++ forum and multithreaded forum , questions are raised on how to camp america personal essay start and stop threads and how to manipulate MFC UI elements from within a worker thread.

This article will take the reader through the steps of building a simple MFC dialog application called StartStop. The application starts, pauses, resumes, and stops a thread , simulating data retrieval. In addition, during the data retrieval simulation, a progress bar is updated. About Video Essay. Future parts of this article will show techniques for sharing data between threads and how to protect the data via synchronization techniques. Note: This article assumes some basic familiarity with MFC , how to create projects, add resources, and so forth. If you can create an MFC dialog and add controls to the dialog, you should be good to go. Open up Visual Studio .Net 2003 and create an MFC dialog project called StartStop. Because it's a good idea to keep the empire, UI code separate from the threading code, you are going to put the About Games, threading code inside a ProgressMgr class, but first you are going to create the basic UI 'shell' code that creates the basic button handlers and essay education UI variables that allow you to enable/disable the buttons, change the The Truth About Games, button text, and manipulate the progress control. You know, the UI stuff. The UI for the application will be a simple dialog consisting of three buttons and a progress control.

To create the UI, open the resource editor and click on the IDD_STARTSTOP_DIALOG. Next, delete the OK button and add two buttons with the jefferson, ID of the first button ID_STARTPAUSERESUME and the second one as ID_STOP. Also, add a progress control. You should end up with something like Figure 1. The plan will be to add some button and progress control variables, button message handlers, and some user-defined messages to let the UI to know when to update the progress control and when the About Video, thread has finished.

First, you'll start with the essay, control variables and button message handlers. Next, you'll add the control variables to allow you to enable/disable the buttons. Although many programmers use the Win32 GetDlgItem() API to connect the controls, it's preferred to leverage MFC's DDX mechanism and The Truth Video Games let MFC handle the plumbing of the controls. Cons Of Drinking. Once you've tried this method, you may never go back to GetDlgItem(). Creating controls with DDX in MFC is easy; you just highlight the control in the resource editor, right-click on the control, and choose 'Add variable. '. Here's how to do it for the Start button. Open the Games, dialog in the resource editor. Right-click on the Start button and choose 'Add variable. Empire Hammurabi. '. About Video. The 'Add Member Variable Wizard bo?=#19; StartStop' dialog will appear (see Figure 2). Under 'Variable name:', ENTER m_btnStartPauseResume. Press Finish. Repeat for the Stop button and Progress control.

Do the same for the stop button and progress control, entering m_btnStop and m_ctrlProgress for the variable names. Add the empire, Start and Stop button message handlers. After creating the control variables, in the dialog editor just double-click on Games the Start , Stop , and Cancel buttons to create the message handlers. Major Accomplishments. You should end up with empty handlers as follows: Toggling the Start / Pause button state. You want the start button to also function as a pause and resume button.

To do this, you need to keep track of what 'mode' the button is in. To do this, declare an enumeration type and an INT member variable the StartStopDlg.h file. The Truth Video Games Essay. Don't forget to initialize this variable in the constructor to FALSE. The Other By Urvashi Butalia. You should end up with the following: Next, add a method to toggle the button display text and Video Games Essay toggle state. And a method to reset the StartPause button state and thomas jefferson major accomplishments button text. Stub Out the Start / Pause and Stop Button Handlers. You want the UI to properly disable and The Truth Video Games Essay enable the buttons, plus you want to hook up the ToggleStartPauseButton method you just created to the Start button handler. Change the button handlers to the following:

Tip: You may wonder why the buttons have control variables that allow you to enable and disable the empire hammurabi, buttons inside the button handlers. It is true that you are going to only going to start, pause, and stop a thread and generally these operations are very quick, especially in your simple application. However, in a production application thread start up or shut down may be significant, so you want to disable the button (albeit temporarily) to let the user know that something is happening and also prevent users from 'double-clicking' on the button. Test the dialog to make sure the Essay, start button toggles to pause properly and both start and stop buttons disable and enable properly. Note: I took this screen shot after clicking the start button. Unfortunately, the disabled state doesn't come through on the screen capture. Tip: It's a good idea to test the UI thread controlling functionality separated from the threading code. This is much easier when you keep the threading code abstracted from the UI as you have done here.

Before you move on to implement the threading code, there are a couple of remaining UI tucancode.net that you need to complete. For the Side, progress control to work, you need to initialize it first. To do this, y ou simply call the CProgressDlg.SetRange32() method. You'll do this at the end of the About Video, OnInitDialog( ) method. Defining the user defined messages.

MFC UI controls are not threadsafe; that means you shouldn't manipulate the control from within the worker thread. For example, you aren't allowed to call m_ctrlProgress.StepIt() from inside the worker thread. Actually, you 'may' get away with it on such a simple function, but more complicated MFC UI methods will give unreliable results. Because you can't manipulate the control directly from the worker thread , how do you tell the UI thread to update the UI? Simple; the standard practice uses a user-defined message and a PostMessage from the worker thread. Let me define two user-defined messages and stub out the message handlers. Open up the cons age, stdafx.h file and add: Define the message handler prototypes. In CStartStopDlg.h, add: Important: Pay attention to the user-defined message signature because it has changed since VC6. The Truth About Video Essay. In VC6, it used to babylonian be defined as afx_msg void OnMessageHandler( ); . In VC7 and above, it is defined as afx_msg LRESULT OnMessageHandler( WPARAM, LPARAM ); . If you use the old-style prototype, you will get an assertion error in Essay the release build. Add the example of constructivism, message map entries to the message map: Create the The Truth About Video, message handlers:

Now that the UI code has been stubbed out nicely (and tested), you can move on to the threading code. Because your project is very simple, you could put all the thread-related code in the StartStopDlg.cpp file. But instead of doing this, keep the essay on women, threading code decoupled from the UI as much as possible. In fact, put all the threading code into a class that exposes only a few methods for starting, pausing, and stopping the thread. Once you create this class, you instantiate it as a member variable of the About Video Essay, CStartStopDlg class. Stubbing Out the CProgressMgr Class. Use the Add class wizard to create a new class. In the Solution Explorer, select the StartStop node, right-click and choose 'AddAdd Class. ' The 'Add Class' dialog will appear. Because you are going to add a generic C++ class, under 'Categories:', click on the Generic node and select the 'Generic C++ Class' template (see Figure 4). Of Silence,. Press Open. Next, the 'Generic C++ Class Wizard appears.

Under class name, enter 'CProgressMgr' and select the 'Inline' check box (see Figure 5). The inline option only About Video Games Essay creates a .h file without a .cpp file. Empire Hammurabi. Press the The Truth, 'Finish' button. Because your progress 'manager' code is simple, you can put the whole class declaration and implementation into the .h file—the 'Inline' checkbox option does this for you. The wizard creates a single ProgressMgr.h file containing: Add the The Other Side, Start, Pause, and Stop method stubs.

The UI is going to The Truth About interact with this class to Start, Pause, and of constructivism Stop the thread, so it's time to Essay stub out babylonian empire hammurabi these methods. About Essay. Make the cons of drinking, following changes to About Video Essay the CProgressMgr class. The Start method takes a hWnd param. When you wire this up to the dialog, you'll pass in the dialog's hWnd that will be used to send the user-defined progress and thread complete messages. Notice that I've added Sleep( 1000 ) statements in the method stubs. This is on women education so you can test the UI after connecting up the Video Essay, class methods. With the sleeps in there, you should get the same UI behavior as in your earlier tests.

Wiring Up the CProgressMgr Code to the UI. Now that the age, progress manager code has been stubbed out, you can connect it to Essay the UI. Add the #include ProgressMgr.h declaration. Modify the include section of theStartStopDlg.cpp and StartStop.cpp files. to add the #include ProgressMgr.h. You should end up with the following for StartStopDlg.cpp and StartStop.cpp files: Declare the CProgressMgr instance.

Add the CProgressMgr m_ProgressMgr variable to example the CStartStopDlg class. Change the Start and Stop button handlers to connect with the progress manager. At this point, the UI code is completed. No more UI changes should be necessary. One of the goals of the article is to allow you to start , pause , resume , and stop a thread . You'll need to add a few variables to control the thread and signal the thread to exit. For thread signaling, you are going to use an event rather than using status variables such as m_bRunning. In addition, you are going to pay close attention to Games properly shutting down the example, thread. Once you signal the thread to The Truth Games Essay exit, you need to ensure that it has exited properly.

If the thread doesn't shut down properly, the application process can hang around even after the user has closed the dialog. Defining the thread-related variables. Define a couple of handles for on women the thread and the shutdown event. Modify the CProgressMgr class and add the following: Initialize the The Truth Video, member variables in the constructor. Although it's always good practice to initialize variables, with thread related code it's especially important. Modify the destructor to add the cleanup code. You'll define the hammurabi, ShutdownThread method next.

The shutdown code simply checks whether the thread handle is null. If it isn't, it means the thread is running and signals the About, thread to exit by setting the essay on women education, ShutdownEvent and Games then waiting for the thread to exit. If the thread doesn't exit in a timely manner, it uses terminate thread to close the thread. In your sample code, you don't care if the thread gets terminated, but in a real app, you may want to check whether the hammurabi, thread was terminated. You've made a halfhearted attempt to return an S_FALSE HRESULT status, but you aren't going to check the value.

In production code, you may want to define an HRESULT error code to indicate TerminateThread was used. A few words about TerminateThread: MSDN offers pretty strict warnings against using TerminateThread of TerminateProcess APIs. This is because when a thread or process is terminated, the About Games Essay, thread or process doesn't have an opportunity to example of constructivism call any cleanup routines, so there is The Truth Video a potential for of Silence, leaking resources. See MSDN for more information. In your use here, the thread proc is going to Video Essay be a static method of the CProgressMgr class and your cleanup will occur even if you have to terminate the thread because the CProgressMgr destructor will get called when the dialog gets destructed. In addition, you aren't going to ever take longer than one second to close, so terminate thread will never get called. You've coded it this way to provide more of a production code example. Along with the The Other Side of Silence, by Urvashi Butalia, shutdown thread method, create another helper method to create the thread . The third parameter is your ThreadProc.

The thread proc is the function where the actual work for the worker thread happens. Notice that you pass the 'this' pointer during thread creation. The 'this' pointer represents the current instance of the CProgressMgr class. Video Essay. This allows you to access any methods or member variables defined in the CProgressMgr class within our thread procedure. Note: To use _beginthreadex, be sure to add #include process.h to the stdafx.h file.

The thread procedure for this example is simple. All you want to do is simulate performing some work in the worker thread and updating the progress in on women the UI (via the method NotifyUI that internally uses PostMessage( ) to send post a message to the UI). However, even in its simplicity there are some good techniques to The Truth About Games Essay be had: Passing the 'this' pointer of the CProgressMgr class allows the thread proc to access class members. During each loop iteration, the thomas jefferson major, code checks whether the The Truth About, shutdown event has been set.

This allows the thread to babylonian empire exit cleanly if the user stops the thread or exits the application. Building out the Start, Stop, Pause, and Resume methods. At this point, building out the public interface methods becomes almost trivial. About Games. The Pause and pro and age Resume methods just check for a valid hThread and The Truth Video Games Essay call either SuspendThread or ResumeThread . The Start method initializes the hWnd, ensures a thread isn't already executing by calling ShutdownThread(), and the thread uses the internal CreateThread( ) to fire off a thread. Stop just calls your internal ShutdownThread method. To complete the code, you just need to create the education, GetShutdownEvent and NotifyUI methods.

Press F5 to run the The Truth Video Games Essay, application in debug mode. Once the dialog opens, press the 'Start' button. Thomas Major. You'll notice the button changes to 'Pause' and the progress bar begins to increment. If you press the 'Pause' button, the thread will be suspended and the progress bar will quit incrementing. Pressing 'Resume' will resume the secondary thread and About the progress bar will continue to increment. When the thread has completed its simulation loop, it posts a thread completed message to the UI; this causes the UI to reset (in other words, the progress bar is cleared and the button text is set to 'Start').

During the thread operation, if the 'Stop' button is pressed, a shutdown event is set and the secondary thread will exit. Pressing the 'Cancel' button cleanly causes the thread to exit and closes the application. Copyright ?1998-2009 UCanCode.Net Software , all rights reserved. Other product and company names herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.