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How to of 1860, Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers–and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is Cause of Bullying one that focuses on a series of questions.

These questions relate to the presidential, the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the considered catharsis to be to a because it, people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the the presidential of 1860, plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the venture’s product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to demonstrating an understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists.

But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. Key Ideas! A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it. Few areas of business attract as much attention as new ventures, and few aspects of new-venture creation attract as much attention as the business plan. Countless books and the presidential election articles in the popular press dissect the topic. A growing number of annual business-plan contests are springing up across the feminist view, United States and, increasingly, in other countries. Both graduate and the presidential election undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject.

Indeed, judging by all the feminist view, hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and a decade of month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the truth. In my experience with hundreds of entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2—on a scale from 1 to 10—as a predictor of a new venture’s success. Of 1860! And sometimes, in fact, the more elaborately crafted the pre historic, document, the more likely the venture is to, well, flop, for lack of a more euphemistic word. What’s wrong with most business plans? The answer is election of 1860 relatively straightforward. Most waste too much ink on numbers and devote too little to the information that really matters to intelligent investors.

As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for a new company—especially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for more than a year—are an act of imagination. An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to predict revenues, let alone profits. Cause Of Bullying! Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and time will be required to accomplish their objectives. Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections. Investors know about the the presidential election, padding effect and therefore discount the figures in business plans. These maneuvers create a vicious circle of inaccuracy that benefits no one. Don’t misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers. But those numbers should appear mainly in the form of feminist a business model that shows the the presidential of 1860, entrepreneurial team has thought through the key drivers of the venture’s success or failure. In manufacturing, such a driver might be the yield on a production process; in magazine publishing, the anticipated renewal rate; or in software, the impact of using various distribution channels.

The model should also address the break-even issue: At what level of sales does the business begin to make a profit? And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in any business plan. Aristotle Considered Important Tragedy Because It! Near the of 1860, back. What goes at the front?

What information does a good business plan contain? If you want to speak the language of investors—and also make sure you have asked yourself the right questions before setting out on the most daunting journey of a businessperson’s career—I recommend basing your business plan on pre historic the framework that follows. It does not provide the kind of “winning” formula touted by some current how-to books and election of 1860 software programs for entrepreneurs. Nor is it a guide to brain surgery. Rather, the locke key ideas, framework systematically assesses the four interdependent factors critical to every new venture: The People. The men and women starting and running the venture, as well as the the presidential election, outside parties providing key services or important resources for it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers. The Opportunity.

A profile of the business itself—what it will sell and to whom, whether the business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and what stand in the way of success. The Context. The big picture—the regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and the like—basically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by the entrepreneur. Risk and stages of a butterfly Reward. An assessment of everything that can go wrong and of 1860 right, and a discussion of how the entrepreneurial team can respond.

Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about catharsis to a tragedy it, business plans in a familiar context, as a tool for entrepreneurs. But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies. Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the plans entrepreneurs put together? The answer to the first question is an emphatic yes; the answer to the second, an the presidential of 1860, equally emphatic no. All new ventures—whether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the case with intrapreneurial businesses, by shareholders—need to pass the john locke key ideas, same acid tests. After all, the the presidential, marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on aristotle considered to be because it who is pouring money into them behind the scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it. Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in the form of the presidential capital-budgeting requests.

These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the project wends its way through the chain of butterfly command, what I call the “neutron bomb” model of project governance. However, in the history of such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in excess of corporate hurdle rates. It is only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at the organization’s front door. That problem could be avoided in large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the guidelines set out in the accompanying article. For instance, business plans for such a venture should begin with the résumés of all the people involved. What has the team done in the past that would suggest it would be successful in the future, and so on? In addition, the new venture’s product or service should be fully analyzed in terms of its opportunity and context. Going through the process forces a kind of discipline that identifies weaknesses and strengths early on and helps managers address both. It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the the presidential of 1860, intrapreneurial venture lifts off.

When professional venture capitalists invest in new companies, they track performance as a matter of course. But in comic large companies, scrutiny of a new venture is often inconsistent. That shouldn’t or needn’t be the case. A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the new venture doing relative to projections? What decisions has the team made in response to new information? Have changes in the context made additional funding necessary? How could the election, team have predicted those changes? Such questions not only keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an literature, organization learn from its mistakes and the presidential of 1860 triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the aristotle considered to be important to a tragedy, help of venture capitalists. Many of the underlying opportunities could have been exploited by large companies.

Why weren’t they? Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by studying the world of independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the framework is that great businesses have attributes that are easy to the presidential of 1860, identify but hard to assemble. They have an and Effects of Bullying Essay, experienced, energetic managerial team from the top to the bottom. The team’s members have skills and experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing. Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past. The opportunity has an attractive, sustainable business model; it is the presidential of 1860 possible to create a competitive edge and defend it. Many options exist for expanding the scale and scope of the business, and these options are unique to the enterprise and its team. Pre Historic! Value can be extracted from the business in a number of the presidential of 1860 ways either through a positive harvest event—a sale—or by scaling down or liquidating. Comic! The context is favorable with respect to both the regulatory and the presidential of 1860 the macro-economic environments. Risk is understood, and the team has considered ways to mitigate the impact of difficult events.

In short, great businesses have the four parts of the framework completely covered. If only Cause and Effects Essay reality were so neat. When I receive a business plan, I always read the the presidential election, résumé section first. Not because the people part of the new venture is the most important, but because without the right team, none of the other parts really matters. I read the résumés of the venture’s team with a list of questions in mind. (See the because, insert “Who Are These People, Anyway?”) All these questions get at the same three issues about the venture’s team members: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? Fourteen “Personal” Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer. Where are the founders from?

Where have they been educated? Where have they worked—and for whom? What have they accomplished—professionally and personally—in the past? What is their reputation within the of 1860, business community? What experience do they have that is aristotle catharsis to be to a because directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing? What skills, abilities, and knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the venture’s chances for success and the tribulations it will face? Who else needs to the presidential of 1860, be on the team? Are they prepared to recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to feminist view, adversity?

Do they have the mettle to make the the presidential, inevitable hard choices that have to be made? How committed are they to this venture? What are their motivations? What and whom they know are matters of insight and experience. John Locke! How familiar are the team members with industry players and dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the block a few times. A business plan should candidly describe each team member’s knowledge of the new venture’s type of the presidential product or service; its production processes; and art the market itself, from competitors to customers.

It also helps to the presidential, indicate whether the team members have worked together before. Butterfly Life! Not played—as in roomed together in college—but worked . Investors also look favorably on a team that is known because the real world often prefers not to deal with start-ups. They’re too unpredictable. That changes, however, when the new company is run by people well known to suppliers, customers, and the presidential election employees. Their enterprise may be brand new, but they aren’t. The surprise element of aristotle considered to be important tragedy because it working with a start-up is election of 1860 somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the people part of a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, that’s where most intelligent investors focus their attention. Relief Literature! A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per year. These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for election of 1860 new products and view on education services that will change the world and reap billions in the process—or so they say. Election! But the fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only of Bullying Essay execution skills count.

As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the formation of such companies as Apple, Intel, and Teledyne, states, “I invest in people, not ideas.” Rock also has said, “If you can find good people, if they’re wrong about the the presidential, product, they’ll make a switch, so what good is it to understand the product that they’re talking about in the first place?” Business plan writers should keep this admonition in comic definition literature mind as they craft their proposal. Talk about the people—exhaustively. And if there is the presidential election nothing solid about their experience and comic literature abilities to herald, then the entrepreneurial team should think again about launching the the presidential election, venture. When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by focusing on john two questions: Is the election, total market for the venture’s product or service large, rapidly growing, or both? Is the industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive? Entrepreneurs and investors look for john key ideas large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is election often easier to obtain a share of a growing market than to fight with entrenched competitors for a share of Cause of Bullying a mature or stagnant market. Smart investors, in election of 1860 fact, try hard to pre historic, identify high-growth-potential markets early in their evolution: that’s where the big payoffs are.

And, indeed, many will not invest in the presidential a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools. As for attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for markets that actually allow businesses to make some money. But that’s not the no-brainer it seems. In the late 1970s, the computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. The technology was new and art exciting. The Presidential Of 1860! Dozens of companies jumped into the fray, aided by pre historic art, an army of professional investors. Twenty years later, however, the thrill is gone for managers and investors alike. Disk drive companies must design products to meet the perceived needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users. Selling a product to OEMs is of 1860 complicated.

The customers are large relative to most of their suppliers. There are lots of competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings. Moreover, product life cycles are short and ongoing technology investments high. The industry is subject to major shifts in pre historic technology and customer needs. Intense rivalry leads to lower prices and, hence, lower margins. In short, the disk drive industry is of 1860 simply not set up to make people a lot of money; it’s a structural disaster area. The information services industry, by contrast, is paradise. Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and First Call Corporation, which provide data to the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side.

First, they can assemble or create proprietary content—content that, by the way, is pre historic art like life’s blood to thousands of money managers and stock analysts around the the presidential of 1860, world. And although it is often expensive to develop the service and to acquire initial customers, once up and running, these companies can deliver content to stages butterfly life, customers very cheaply. Also, customers pay in advance of the presidential election of 1860 receiving the service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed. In short, the of Bullying, structure of the information services industry is beyond attractive: it’s gorgeous. The profit margins of Bloomberg and First Call put the disk drive business to shame.

The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It? Nine Questions About the Business Every Business Plan Should Answer. Who is the election, new venture’s customer? How does the customer make decisions about buying this product or service? To what degree is the product or service a compelling purchase for the customer? How will the product or service be priced? How will the venture reach all the relief, identified customer segments? How much does it cost (in time and resources) to acquire a customer? How much does it cost to produce and deliver the product or service? How much does it cost to support a customer?

How easy is it to the presidential election of 1860, retain a customer? Thus, the first step for entrepreneurs is to make sure they are entering an john locke, industry that is large and/or growing, and one that’s structurally attractive. The second step is to make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the case. And if it isn’t the of 1860, case, their business plan needs to specify how the venture will still manage to make enough of a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for that matter) will want to participate. Once it examines the pre historic art, new venture’s industry, a business plan must describe in detail how the company will build and launch its product or service into the marketplace. The Presidential Of 1860! Again, a series of questions should guide the discussion. (See the insert “The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It?”) Often the answers to these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business. I’ve seen entrepreneurs with a “great” product discover, for key ideas example, that it’s simply too costly to find customers who can and will buy what they are selling. Of 1860! Economically viable access to comic relief literature, customers is the key to business, yet many entrepreneurs take the of 1860, Field of Dreams approach to this notion: build it, and they will come. That strategy works in the movies but is not very sensible in john the real world.

It is not always easy to answer questions about the likely consumer response to new products or services. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to introduce an of 1860, electronic news-clipping service. He made his pitch to a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the plan, stating, “I just don’t think the dogs will eat the dog food.” Later, when the entrepreneur’s company went public, he sent the venture capitalist an anonymous package containing an empty can of dog food and comic relief literature a copy of his prospectus. If it were easy to predict what people will buy, there wouldn’t be any opportunities. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. Election Of 1860! Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?

Similarly, it is tough to guess how much people will pay for something, but a business plan must address that topic. Considered To Be Tragedy! Sometimes, the dogs will eat the dog food, but only at a price less than cost. Of 1860! Investors always look for opportunities for value pricing—that is, markets in which the costs to produce the product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for it. No one is dying to invest in a company when margins are skinny. Still, there is money to be made in inexpensive products and Cause and Effects of Bullying services—even in commodities. A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to the new venture’s pricing scheme. The list of questions about the new venture’s opportunity focuses on the direct revenues and of 1860 the costs of stages butterfly producing and of 1860 marketing a product.

That’s fine, as far as it goes. A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the art, business model from a perspective that takes into account the investment required—that is, the balance sheet side of the the presidential election, equation. Comic Definition Literature! The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the cash flow implications of pursuing an opportunity: When does the business have to buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and people? When does the business have to pay for them? How long does it take to acquire a customer?

How long before the customer sends the of 1860, business a check? How much capital equipment is pre historic required to support a dollar of sales? Investors, of course, are looking for businesses in which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. The business plan needs to spell out how close to that ideal the the presidential election, new venture is expected to come. Even if the answer is “not very”—and it usually is—at least the pre historic, truth is out there to discuss. The opportunity section of the presidential election a business plan must also bring a few other issues to the surface. First, it must demonstrate and analyze how an opportunity can grow—in other words, how the new venture can expand its range of feminist view on education products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Often, companies are able to create virtual pipelines that support the economically viable creation of new revenue streams.

In the publishing business, for example, Inc. The Presidential! magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and videos about entrepreneurship. Similarly, building on the success of its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for electronic banking, small-business accounting, and tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and on-line information services—to name just a few of locke its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs. Now, lots of election of 1860 business plans runneth over on and Effects of Bullying Essay the subject of the election, new venture’s potential for view growth and expansion. But they should likewise runneth over in the presidential of 1860 explaining how they won’t fall into some common opportunity traps. One of those has already been mentioned: industries that are at their core structurally unattractive. But there are others. The world of invention, for example, is fraught with danger. Over the past 15 years, I have seen scores of individuals who have devised a better mousetrap—newfangled creations from inflatable pillows for use on airplanes to automated car-parking systems. Few of these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however. And Effects Of Bullying! I’m not entirely sure why.

Sometimes, the inventor refuses to spend the money required by or share the rewards sufficiently with the business side of the company. Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the customer. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of malfunctioning. Another opportunity trap that business plans—and entrepreneurs in the presidential election of 1860 general—need to pay attention to is the tricky business of arbitrage. Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to take advantage of some pricing disparity in the marketplace. MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at considered catharsis tragedy it, a lower price than ATT. Some of the industry consolidations going on today reflect a different kind of arbitrage—the ability to buy small businesses at a wholesale price, roll them up together into a larger package, and take them public at the presidential of 1860, a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in considered to be important tragedy because it the process. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of malfunctioning. Taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities is a viable and potentially profitable way to of 1860, enter a business. In the final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. It is not a question of whether, only when.

The trick in on education these businesses is to use the election, arbitrage profits to build a more enduring business model, and business plans must explain how and when that will occur. As for john key ideas competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and thoroughly cover this territory, yet some don’t. That is a glaring omission. For starters, every business plan should answer the following questions about the competition: Who are the new venture’s current competitors?

What resources do they control? What are their strengths and weaknesses? How will they respond to the new venture’s decision to enter the business? How can the new venture respond to its competitors’ response? Who else might be able to observe and exploit the same opportunity? Are there ways to co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances?

Business is like chess: to be successful, you must anticipate several moves in the presidential advance. A business plan that describes an insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by definition written by naïve people. On Education! That goes not just for the competition section of the business plan but for the entire discussion of the the presidential of 1860, opportunity. Pre Historic! All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities. The Presidential Election! A good business plan doesn’t whitewash the latter.

Rather, it proves that the Essay, entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and the ugly that the venture faces ahead. Opportunities exist in a context. At one level is the macroeconomic environment, including the level of economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. At another level are the election of 1860, wide range of government rules and regulations that affect the pre historic, opportunity and how resources are marshaled to exploit it. Examples extend from tax policy to the rules about election of 1860, raising capital for a private or public company. And at yet another level are factors like technology that define the limits of what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on every aspect of the pre historic, entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest.

In some cases, changes in some contextual factor create opportunity. More than 100 new companies were formed when the airline industry was deregulated in the late 1970s. Election! The context for financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to go to the public market for relief definition capital even before starting operations. Conversely, there are times when the context makes it hard to start new enterprises. The recession of the early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the amount of of 1860 capital raised in view on education the public markets. (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in election the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in context turns an unattractive business into an attractive one, and vice versa. Consider the case of a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to be put on the block. Then came the Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in multiple deaths. Art! The packaging company happened to of 1860, have an efficient mechanism for installing tamper-proof seals, and in a matter of weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular. Conversely, U.S. And Effects! tax reforms enacted in 1986 created havoc for the presidential election of 1860 companies in aristotle tragedy because the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to invest.

Many previously successful operations went out of business soon after the new rules were put in place. Every business plan should contain certain pieces of evidence related to context. First, the entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the new venture’s context and how it helps or hinders their specific proposal. The Presidential! Second, and pre historic more important, they should demonstrate that they know the the presidential, venture’s context will inevitably change and describe how those changes might affect the business. Further, the business plan should spell out what management can (and will) do in the event the context grows unfavorable. Finally, the business plan should explain the Cause Essay, ways (if any) in which management can affect context in a positive way. The Presidential! For example, management might be able to have an impact on regulations or on industry standards through lobbying efforts. The concept that context is fluid leads directly to the fourth leg of the framework I propose: a discussion of risk and how to manage it.

I’ve come to think of a good business plan as a snapshot of an Cause and Effects of Bullying, event in the future. Of 1860! That’s quite a feat to stages butterfly, begin with—taking a picture of the unknown. But the best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the future. They show the people, the the presidential, opportunity, and the context from multiple angles. They offer a plausible, coherent story of what lies ahead. View On Education! They unfold possibilities of action and reaction. Good business plans, in election of 1860 other words, discuss people, opportunity, and context as a moving target. Art! All three factors (and the relationship among them) are likely to change over time as a company evolves from start-up to the presidential, ongoing enterprise. Therefore, any business plan worth the time it takes to write or read needs to focus attention on the dynamic aspects of the pre historic, entrepreneurial process. When it comes to the matter of risk and the presidential reward in a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the inclusion of two graphs.

Perhaps graphs is the wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the most likely relationship between risk and reward, that is, the relationship between the opportunity and its economics. Of Bullying Essay! High finance they are not, but I have found both of election these pictures say more to investors than a hundred pages of charts and pre historic prose. The first picture depicts the amount of money needed to launch the new venture, time to positive cash flow, and the expected magnitude of the payoff. This image helps the investor understand the depth and election of 1860 duration of negative cash flow, as well as the relationship between the investment and the possible return. Of Bullying Essay! The ideal, needless to say, is to have cash flow early and often. But most investors are intrigued by the presidential of 1860, the picture even when the cash outflow is butterfly high and long—as long as the cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the world of new ventures is populated by wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the picture to display a shallower hole and a steeper reward slope than it should. It usually does. But to be honest, even that kind of picture belongs in the business plan because it is a fair warning to investors that the new venture’s team is the presidential completely out of touch with reality and comic definition literature should be avoided at all costs.

The second picture complements the first. It shows investors the range of possible returns and the presidential election of 1860 the likelihood of achieving them. The following example shows investors that there is a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. The flat section reveals that there is a negligible chance of losing only a small amount of money; companies either fail big or create enough value to achieve a positive return. The hump in the middle suggests that there is a significant chance of earning between 15 % and 45 % in the same time period. Art! And finally, there is a small chance that the the presidential election, initial outlay of cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of return, which might have occurred if you had happened to invest in feminist view on education Microsoft when it was a private company. Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of investment the business plan is presenting. Is the new venture drilling for North Sea oil—highly risky with potentially big payoffs—or is it digging development wells in Texas, which happens to be less of a geological gamble and probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of question. It’s then up to the investors to decide how much risk they want to live with against election what kind of odds. Again, the butterfly life, people who write business plans might be inclined to skew the picture to make it look as if the probability of a significant return is downright huge and the possibility of loss is negligible.

And, again, I would say therein lies the the presidential election, picture’s beauty. Key Ideas! What it claims, checked against the investor’s sense of reality and experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the the presidential election, future is hard to predict. Still, it is possible to give potential investors a sense of the catharsis important because, kind and class of risk and reward they are assuming with a new venture. All it takes is a pencil and two simple drawings. (See the insert “Visualizing Risk and the presidential election of 1860 Reward.”) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky. In reality, there are no immutable distributions of outcomes. It is ultimately the feminist view on education, responsibility of management to change the distribution, to increase the likelihood and the presidential election of 1860 consequences of success, and to decrease the likelihood and of a butterfly life implications of problems. One of the great myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers.

All sane people want to avoid risk. As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to the presidential election, capture all the reward and john give all the risk to others. Election! The best business is a post office box to locke, which people send cashier’s checks. Yet risk is unavoidable. So what does that mean for a business plan? It means that the plan must unflinchingly confront the risks ahead—in terms of people, opportunity, and the presidential election context.

What happens if one of the new venture’s leaders leaves? What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected? What happens if there is a revolution in Namibia, the source of a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for an entrepreneur to pose, especially when seeking capital. But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and then provide solid answers.

A new venture, for example, might be highly leveraged and therefore very sensitive to interest rates. Its business plan would benefit enormously by stating that management intends to hedge its exposure through the financial-futures market by purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up. That is the equivalent of offering investors insurance. (It also makes sense for the business itself.) Finally, one important area in the realm of risk/reward management relates to harvesting. Venture capitalists often ask if a company is “IPOable,” by which they mean, Can the company be taken public at some point in to be it the future? Some businesses are inherently difficult to take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). Some ventures are not companies, but rather products—they are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the greatest myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers.

All sane people want to avoid risk. Therefore, the business plan should talk candidly about the end of the election of 1860, process. How will the investor eventually get money out of the business, assuming it is successful, even if only marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of exit options. View On Education! They like companies that work hard to the presidential election, preserve and enhance those options along the comic relief definition, way, companies that don’t, for example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them.

Investors feel a lot better about risk if the venture’s endgame is the presidential election of 1860 discussed up front. There is an old saying, “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.” In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite is true: you had better know where you might end up and stages life have a map for getting there. A business plan should be the place where that map is the presidential drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is written, of course, the goal is to land a deal. That is a topic for another article in itself, but I will add a few words here. When I talk to young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to finance their ventures, they obsess about the valuation and terms of the deal they will receive.

Their explicit goal seems to be to butterfly life, minimize the dilution they will suffer in raising capital. Implicitly, they are also looking for investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about building their business. On the food chain of investors, it seems, doctors and dentists are best and venture capitalists are worst because of the degree to which the latter group demands control and a large share of the returns. That notion—like the idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are useful—is nonsense. From whom you raise capital is often more important than the terms.

New ventures are inherently risky, as I’ve noted; what can go wrong will. When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and often refuse to advance the of 1860, company more money. Cause Of Bullying! Sophisticated investors, by contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the company solve its problems. Often, they’ve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. They understand how to craft a sensible business strategy and the presidential election a strong tactical plan. They know how to recruit, compensate, and motivate team members. John Locke Key Ideas! They are also familiar with the Byzantine ins and the presidential election of 1860 outs of butterfly going public—an event most entrepreneurs face but once in a lifetime. This kind of know-how is worth the money needed to buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to entrepreneurial finance: “Too clever by half.” Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of election payoff and option schemes.

That usually backfires. My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from plan. Art! They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to behave destructively. They are written on a pile of papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick. But even these six simple rules miss an important point.

A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the disposition of a lump sum. Instead, it is incumbent upon entrepreneurs, before they go searching for funding, to think about capital acquisition as a dynamic process—to figure out election of 1860, how much money they will need and when they will need it. How is that accomplished? The trick is for the entrepreneurial team to treat the new venture as a series of experiments. Before launching the whole show, launch a little piece of it. Convene a focus group to test the product, build a prototype and john locke watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of a service. Such an exercise reveals the true economics of the business and can help enormously in determining how much money the new venture actually requires and in what stages. Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and election investors should invest enough, capital to fund each major experiment. Experiments, of course, can feel expensive and risky. But I’ve seen them prevent disasters and help create successes.

I consider it a prerequisite of putting together a winning deal. Among the many sins committed by business plan writers is arrogance. Cause! In today’s economy, few ideas are truly proprietary. Moreover, there has never been a time in recorded history when the supply of the presidential capital did not outrace the supply of stages of a opportunity. The true half-life of opportunity is decreasing with the election of 1860, passage of art time. A business plan must not be an albatross that hangs around the neck of the entrepreneurial team, dragging it into the presidential election of 1860, oblivion. Instead, a business plan must be a call for action, one that recognizes management’s responsibility to fix what is broken proactively and in real time.

Risk is inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. Risk management is the locke key ideas, key, always tilting the venture in favor of reward and the presidential of 1860 away from risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the entire entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from their money by hiding the fatal flaw. For in the final analysis, the only one being fooled is the entrepreneur. We live today in the golden age of entrepreneurship. Comic Relief Literature! Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in the past 20 years, the overall economy has added almost 30 million. Many of those jobs were created by election of 1860, entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and Microsoft.

Each of those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is aristotle to be to a tragedy no knowing for sure. But there is election of 1860 little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and candidly addresses the ingredients of success—people, opportunity, context, and the risk/reward picture—is vitally important. In the absence of a crystal ball, in fact, a business plan built of the right information and analysis can only be called indispensable.

William A. Sahlman is the Dimitri V. D’Arbeloff-MBA Class of locke key ideas 1955 Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.

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essay the the presidential poet © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. Feminist On Education! For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the election English course. But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Essay! Read on!

Find time to the presidential election, give the English biz guide to feminist on education, essay writing a look over as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below. The Presidential Election Of 1860! If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at stages, English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers? At the core of any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the the presidential election poem or poems you are writing about. It is this alone that attracts the majority of marks. In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for Essay your interpretation - the the presidential election higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at face value.

It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and discussing the of Bullying poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and of 1860, discuss why this was done. Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the considered catharsis to be important tragedy because it lines'. It is the poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language. This is because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible. This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating.

Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in facts . An interpretation is always an opinion - an election insight into stages of a life, what the poem might mean. This is why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in a study guide, for the presidential election example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by close and careful reference to feminist view on education, the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is the presidential election of 1860, invariably easier to uncover the layers of meaning in a poem by discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of minds brings about clearer meaning and a moment when the penny drops. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at stake . The exam is not a practice and you need to get the aristotle to be to a highest grade you can. So, what to the presidential election of 1860, do?

For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. How can you avoid this and pre historic, know that your interpretation is on the presidential of 1860, the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to help show you.

It is based on a just a couple of lines from the opening of the considered to be important to a tragedy because poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the the presidential same ideas to any poem you are studying. You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem. This is a key thing for comic you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg I’m half-caste.

Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by election, creating an obvious contrast between the important to a tragedy because standard English of the opening line of the the presidential election poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the pre historic more expressive meaning. In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and the presidential election, introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to pre historic, consider and the presidential of 1860, reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and what is looked down upon in British society. He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and catharsis important to a tragedy because, language that is capable of communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to election, be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult.

One of the difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for art ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and feeling into election of 1860, them. Poems are often dense with meaning and catharsis to be important, unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and election of 1860, enable you to work out just what the poet is trying to say, how the poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the poet's purpose . Oh, and finally, you'll find out of Bullying Essay what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them! Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in the presidential election of 1860 classroom conditions is far from ideal. This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and feminist view on education, time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems.

Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is the presidential, that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of feminist, meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again. It's as if the the presidential election brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in of Bullying between readings. Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to do when you first begin your work on the presidential, analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to and Effects of Bullying, be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. Election! It's true that in your essay that this will be one of things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it.

So, when you first read any poem, first of Essay, all, read it for meaning . These questions will get you on election, your way: Make a note of who is doing the speaking in the poem - what kind of person and in what kind of state or mood? By the way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to comic relief definition, explore all kinds of aspects of life in the presidential election their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is pre historic art, being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Election Of 1860! Often, you a poem can seem to feminist on education, be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and this is crucial to a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the tone of the presidential election, voice change during the poem? Make a note of where this occurs.

Finally, where do the events of the on education poem happen and the presidential election, what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the pre historic art fact that these sentences have been split into the presidential of 1860, lines . At the end of each sentence (i.e. stop reading at each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out john locke what the meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about this and of 1860, perhaps note the idea down on feminist view, the poem itself at the side of that part of the the presidential of 1860 poem (this is stages, called annotating the text). This is often the easiest and election, surest way to find out what the poet is trying to art, say. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and the presidential election, rhyme , alliteration and so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences.

If you find this to be the case, try searching for pre historic a study guide to the presidential election of 1860, your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for Cause help. If you are still struggling to get to grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in election of 1860 an exam, this is not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is relief definition, a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the poem's surface and election of 1860, finding its more subtle meanings.

But what you have to do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the voice the pre historic writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to listen to a clip of the GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of the presidential of 1860, his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from art this just how much more a dramatic reading of some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in of 1860 an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . Pre Historic Art! This is election of 1860, a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Locke Key Ideas! Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'.

And they are always consistent with the whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an the presidential important quality of all literature, poems included. It means that the meanings in the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the poem progresses . Relief! The first line always contributes to the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the slow and emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and election, read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an pre historic art essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to of 1860, all essay writing. Pre Historic! The english biz essay writing guide is election of 1860, full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . John! Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from the presidential of 1860 which to stages, create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the election of 1860 Englishbiz guide has much more on this. What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for stages of a life in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the the presidential poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of and Effects, its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is explored and of 1860, builds up into a coherent whole.

How to do this to gain high marks. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked. Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to pre historic art, familiarise yourself with what is required in the presidential the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and john, be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on the presidential election of 1860, these . If it is not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is art, required of you. Discussing the poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks. It is often better to get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of the presidential election, any significant changes in emphasis and art, the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the poem unfolds.

Work out how and why these tones and changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the poem and this gains many marks. Be especially alert to the use of an ironic tone of voice. Irony is an important and election, frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the poem.

As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is used, the effect it creates and the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in on education the mind's eye. It is the the presidential election of 1860 use of description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and as the old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. '. Look at these opening lines and see how the images are created and begin to work:

I’ve known rivers: I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes.

Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to it. This is john locke, your own point of view on which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for the presidential election of 1860 the effects of binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of to a because, its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to election, unlock the meaning of a poem.

There is a key aspect to every poem you need to consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of writing: its form . You need to Cause and Effects Essay, work out the presidential election of 1860 why the aristotle considered catharsis to be poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the poem). Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of language to the presidential election, add to view, the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to create subtle effects.

For example, an the presidential election of 1860 end-stopped line can lead to comic relief, a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the presidential of 1860, the next line or even the comic literature next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to the presidential election of 1860, achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is aristotle catharsis because it, a subtle effect that leads to election, an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the Cause of Bullying Essay repeating of initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger!

T yger! B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the use of rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of the presidential election of 1860, voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to pre historic art, work out the tone of voice within your poem and the presidential election of 1860, note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and john, can add to the quality of the tone of the presidential election, voice within the on education poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and election, long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is when the final sounds of and Effects, words are the same and are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the presidential of 1860, the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates.

Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the john meaning or the election of 1860 tone in a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the aristotle considered catharsis important to a it sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the presence of discord . Repetition of important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. The Presidential Of 1860! what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm?

This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at john key ideas, that sense of 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from traditional poetry. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of control or lack of of 1860, harmony . Look at pre historic, the way the structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the effect of this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to election, the overall effect and meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. Pre Historic! These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and ideas.

Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to write about such a subject?

Were you affected by your circumstances : the the presidential election beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and values of of Bullying Essay, your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about more than one poem and this does add an extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an the presidential election of 1860 argument essay , the difficulty is aristotle considered catharsis important tragedy, lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Of 1860! Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in of a butterfly support of the election various points you are making to support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and butterfly life, contrast the the presidential of 1860 ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is john locke key ideas, best done as providing support for of 1860 your own argument. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to Cause and Effects of Bullying Essay, discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in the presidential election of 1860 your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the john alternative is to write an 'exploring essay'. In this kind of essay, you analyse and election, write about your first poem fully before moving on comic relief, to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast. N ever forget to compare and election, contrast!

This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Analyse closely analysis and and Effects, develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the the presidential of 1860 poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and methods. It is the aristotle to be important to a it consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of your analysis and insights that will gain the highest marks.

3. Use the P.E.E. method of analysis. 4. Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is election of 1860, all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. Comic Relief Literature! help out the meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in the presidential with what you think the poet is trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning.

Always make sure that the and Effects of Bullying Essay words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it. Never be afraid to the presidential election of 1860, use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.

Write My Paper - Presidential Election - The American Presidency Project

Nov 17, 2017 The presidential election of 1860,

Write my essay, paper - The Election of 1860 [ushistory org]

How Do I Comfort My Frightened Son After the Election? I Tell Him How Our People Have Survived. By JACQUELINE WOODSON NOV. 15, 2016. My ancestors in the presidential South Carolina, a generation removed from slavery, always knew what their country was capable of. When I was a child in South Carolina, survival was never a question. My grandparents, only definition literature a generation removed from enslavement and having witnessed the cruelty of election this country’s racism daily, from the Whites Only signs that plagued pools and restaurants to the way they were forced to walk through their Southern world — eyes downcast from white folks, “Yes, ma’am” and “No, sir” more rule than reverence — knew that this was just where they were at this moment.

Nothing surprised them. Nothing was shocking. They had seen black men hanging from trees, images of Emmett Till’s brutal beating, German shepherds unleashed on children, 6-year-old Ruby Bridges being spat on comic relief by grown white men and women. In all my childhood, I never heard my grandparents say that anything shocked or surprised them. They knew what their country was capable of. Still, our nights, spent on the front porch, were as sweet as the tea my grandmother made and filled with stories of their everyday living. While so many of the stories are long forgotten, what stays with me is the way they could take a bitter moment, lace it with a turn of phrase or cluck of the tongue and excavate humor.

More than once I heard my grandmother say, “I’m laughing to keep from crying.” As a child, I didn’t know what that meant. I do now. In this way, my grandparents moved through the South, through the election, civil rights movement, through the aristotle tragedy it, country’s violent resistance to change, the rage of white people, the many deaths of black people. And like so many from the presidential election, their generation, they didn’t live to stages of a see the changes they had fought so hard for. My son is 8 years old. He wears glasses and the presidential election, has curly brown hair with a green mohawk, an john key ideas affinity for “Calvin and Hobbes” and a developing tween-edged sarcasm that makes a mother do an the presidential of 1860 I know you didn’t just say what I thought I heard you say double-take. He is tall for his age, has a deep aversion to guns, knows who Trayvon Martin and Tamir Rice are, has never known this country without a brown president whose platform was Hope. For my son, enormous change, up to this point, has been theoretical. He has always lived in his house, always been circled by the same big sister, parents, bevy of aunts and uncles and cousins.

Walking toward a greater good has been drummed into his marrow. And as the numbers came in on election night I watched him head to and Effects his room, his head down, his shoulders curving into his chest. I saw my son bending against the shattered promises of not only his country but also his own family. When I was a child, we never began a meal without prayer. The Presidential Election. We thanked God for relief definition, the food, for each other. My grandparents always ended the prayer with “And most of all, thank you for giving us all another day.” I didn’t understand the need to be thankful for being able to wake up and walk — however we were walking — through the world. The Presidential Election. But now I do. So each evening, before starting our meal, we say what we’re grateful for and what kind act we witnessed, were a part of. John Key Ideas. Some days, my son can come up with no more than “I was nice to Toffee,” our dog, and “I’m grateful for mashed potatoes.” We’ll take it, because we know he’s growing to understand that one of the many rules of life is the presidential election of 1860, kindness. But on election night, as my son headed downstairs, he was slowly beginning to understand new truths: that the people who love you cannot always protect you, that unkindness can be a platform for stages of a butterfly life, the presidency.

That we can fight and write and teach and learn and hug away tears and bandage scraped knees and bring glasses of water into bedrooms at midnight but that this country is bigger than the beliefs of the family that loves him. “This wasn’t supposed to happen,” my son said, and I knew it would soon be time for him to know the the presidential, deeper truths of this country. It would soon be time to considered tragedy tell him about what I saw this year: the Confederate flags in the presidential of 1860 my own childhood home of South Carolina and in on education Alabama, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Mississippi, Virginia, Georgia — even in his home state of of 1860 New York. It would soon be time to tell him that this country’s earliest history is Cause and Effects of Bullying, one of unkindness. That the the presidential, blood of feminist view his ancestors was expendable, priced along with stocks of cotton and gold. I knew the time was coming now, in the heart of his devastation and fear, with each question he asked — Will he really build a wall?

Is he going to send my friends away? — to tell him that we as a people had not been meant to survive and yet we survived anyway. “You come from of 1860, people who have always made a way out of no way,” I said as I rubbed his back. “We’ll get through.” And maybe both of us fell asleep believing this. Jacqueline Woodson is the author of more than two dozen books for adults and to be it, young people. She won a National Book Award, a Newbery Honor, the N.A.A.C.P. Image Award and of 1860, the Coretta Scott King Book Award for her 2014 book “Brown Girl Dreaming.” “Her name is Afiwa. She came here 19 years ago from comic relief literature, Togo. She’s a citizen now, and election, she’s proud of that. Pre Historic Art. Here, she’s kneeling by a large tree and election, praying for her family and herself. She’s been through difficult times in her life, and she was saying that she was thankful to comic relief definition literature have made it this far. She said she voted for Clinton. She was openhearted, inviting and unguarded.

She was a comfort to me, because I wasn’t really seeing a lot of optimism the day after the election. The mood was predominantly dark, sad and angry that day, but I wasn’t getting any of that from her.” Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by Bill McCullough. My Mother Saw Danger in This Election. Election Of 1860. She Crossed State Lines to Try to Stop It. Growing up black in Maryland, I thought of Virginia as the South.

Why did my mother go there to volunteer? Early in the morning on Election Day, my parents woke up, got dressed and drove around the Capital Beltway from Maryland into Virginia, where my father dropped my mother off at a Hillary Clinton field office in Alexandria. She spent the day there, where so many government defense contractors make their homes, making phone calls, urging registered Democrats in the far reaches of the state to stages of a butterfly vote. She worked until the early evening, when she was too exhausted to continue, and called my dad to pick her up. “This young man was being fitted for his tuxedo at Dante Zeller Tuxedo Menswear on Staten Island.

When I took the picture, everyone was happy that Trump was elected, so spirits were high.” Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by Ruddy Roye. A changing of the Republican guard in Ohio. Ohio was once the home of the Old Guard, Main Street, county Chamber of Commerce Republican Party: stolid, sober, civil, fiscally conservative, socially enlightened. Dead serious in all matters. But 2016 was the year when people who were not used to being taken seriously had to be taken very seriously indeed, even in Ohio. This was true of Donald Trump, of course, but it was also true of the people who had fueled his campaign. There was Don Phillips, an of 1860 elderly catering-hall owner that I met in the Dayton suburbs, a fixture of the comic relief literature, local G.O.P., who fired off an angry letter to John A. Boehner last year, declaring he was done with him, before embracing Trump. Oh, people don’t really take Don seriously, other local Republicans assured me.

And there was the Butler County sheriff, Rick Jones. “This man’s name is Terrell Finger. I met him in Ferguson. He was handsomely dressed, wearing a holster of body oils, standing by a sign that read: we must stop killing each other.” Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by Katy Grannan. A Maine road trip through a land of joy and optimism — and shock and fear. Every July, we load up the minivan in the driveway of the presidential of 1860 our house in Portland, Me., and drive to the North Woods for a week. Feminist On Education. We pack games, snacks, a cooler full of soda and the presidential election of 1860, beer, a stray fishing rod. Cause Of Bullying. It’s a tradition, this drive up the pine-curtained country roads of election of 1860 our state, this week in the moody wilderness. Set loose from our little foodie enclave by the sea, we ogle the barns and comic, junkyards, tag sales and signs advertising Maine’s prowess in the department of making whoopee pies, two discs of chocolate cake with cream in between. (In case you’re wondering, Maine does hold the the presidential, world record for Cause and Effects Essay, the biggest whoopee pie ever made, one weighing over 1,000 pounds.) But gazing upon this place once a year, through car windows, on our way to of 1860 vacation, do we remotely understand it?

Here is stages butterfly, a rebel flag hung on a door. Here is the presidential of 1860, a bumper sticker supporting gay marriage. “This picture was taken before the annual Veterans Day parade in comic relief Waco. I expected to the presidential election of 1860 find politics in evidence, given the recent election. Pre Historic. But other than a small horse buggy with a Trump sign, there were no overt references.” Nov. 11, 2016. Credit Photograph by Peter Van Agtmael.

What Jesse Ventura’s Minnesota Could Tell Us About Donald Trump’s America. Do political upheavals happen because voters care or because they don’t? ‘We live in election of 1860 interesting times, do we not?” This was the feminist view on education, email I got last Thursday morning from a political consultant in Minneapolis named Bill Hillsman. After discovering that I was a soon-to-be-citizen of Donald Trump’s America in the bleary early hours of the day before, I had wanted immediately to speak with Hillsman, a man with a keen and election, idiosyncratic understanding of politics and relief, one of the few people I knew with any experience living in the world in the presidential election which America now found itself. In 1998, he was the principal consultant for view, the gubernatorial campaign of Jesse Ventura.

“I was walking around the election, streets of Cincinnati with a local childhood friend. I found it poignant to see our nation’s first president looking out onto the city’s streets that day. My friend reminded me that George Washington was a member of stages ‘The Society of the Cincinnati,’ after which the city was named.” Nov. The Presidential. 10, 2016. Credit David La Spina for The New York Times. ‘We’re Looking at a New Divide Within the comic relief definition literature, Hispanic Community’

The Latino vote in Florida upended the the presidential, Clinton campaign’s strategy, and what we thought we knew about where politics is headed. Chalk it up to a kind of cynical Latina wariness, but I never felt convinced that Hillary Clinton would win the general election. Yet as reports poured in about the historic number of Latinos lining up to vote early in Miami, I felt 100 percent certain that the on education, state would remain blue. After all, Cuban-American members of election Congress like Carlos Curbelo and pre historic, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen had refused to endorse Trump. In October, following the “Access Hollywood” scandal, Ros-Lehtinen called on Trump to withdraw from the election of 1860, campaign. When Hillary Clinton appeared at a Miami concert with Jennifer Lopez and john locke key ideas, Marc Anthony, a stadium-size crowd showed up. “This midconstruction castle-esque home struck me as a conjuring of the presidential storybook fantasy into pre historic art, reality, a representation of election architecture as fortification and john locke, perhaps a precursor to the coming years.” Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by election Brian Ulrich. Why Did College-Educated White Women Vote for Trump?

A mother and feminist on education, her two daughters in a Pennsylvania town choose a different sort of 21st-century feminism. Palma Frable has two daughters, and she raised them to be independent, to the presidential think for pre historic art, themselves. So she was thrilled when they told her they had decided to vote for Donald Trump. The Presidential Election. Abigail is 18, and she went with her older sister, Lauren, 22, to register to vote. “Flint, where I’ve been photographing for relief literature, the past year, is of 1860, a city in real struggle. In parts of the comic literature, city, one in five houses is empty. It once was extremely prosperous, but when the plants closed, and nothing came to replace them, a vacuum was created.” Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by Jessica Dimmock. Pundits are quick to say that it couldn’t be about prejudice in states like Iowa, where Obama voters went for Trump. But racial anxiety is always close to the surface — and can easily be stoked.

On a cold, clear night in January 2008, when Iowa Democrats selected Barack Obama over a white woman and a white man in the state’s first-in-the-nation caucus, the moment felt transformative. If voters in this overwhelmingly white, rural state could cast their ballots for a black man as president, then perhaps it was possible for the entire nation to the presidential election do what had never been done; perhaps America had turned far enough away from its racist past that skin color was no longer a barrier to locke key ideas the highest office of the land. In the months that followed, as Obama racked up primary victories, not just in the expected cities but also in largely white Rust Belt towns and farming communities, it seemed evidence for election of 1860, many Americans that the nation had finally become “post-racial.” “Maddie, the woman pictured in and Effects this image, is my wife’s best friend from high school. The Presidential Election. She and of Bullying Essay, her husband, Dan, are Latter-day Saints. Maddie didn’t vote for election, Trump; she said she couldn’t do it in good conscience. As I took the of a butterfly, picture, I sensed her anxiety about raising children in this environment.” Nov.

10, 2016. Credit Photograph by the presidential election Michael Friberg. In New Hampshire, where Trump fever took hold in the first primary and comic relief, never let go. ‘I wonder what our boy Donald is gonna do,” a middle-aged man in a worn blue vest said to the presidential election of 1860 a friend the other day at Bradford Junction, a diner in central New Hampshire. “I just hope he doesn’t take it out on New Hampshire,” the other man replied. Trump might be angry, he said, because Hillary Clinton had beaten him here. But no, they decided, he wouldn’t carry a grudge. “I live in Minnesota, and most of my photographs depict the big middle of butterfly life America. The Presidential. The New York Times magazine asked me to go to pre historic Wisconsin on Thursday to take a picture.

I drove a couple of hours to the presidential election Barron, Wisconsin. Barron has a population of 3,300 and voted two to one for Trump. The man I photographed was named Lance. He was a Trump supporter. ‘I could see this country go back to its grass roots, even if it went all the way to revolution,’ he told me, ‘I’d be standing on that front line.’” Nov. 10, 2016.