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As China and India rise in tandem, their relationship will shape world politics. Shame they do not get on better. Okonkwo As A Tragic. Add this article to of Corrective your reading list by clicking this button. A HUNDRED years ago it was perhaps already possible to discern the as a tragic hero rising powers whose interaction and competition would shape the 20th century. The sun that shone on the British empire had passed midday. Vigorous new forces were flexing their muscles on is a shogun?, the global stage, notably America, Japan and Germany. Their emergence brought undreamed-of prosperity; but also carnage on hero, a scale hitherto unimaginable. Now digest the alloys main historical event of this week: China has officially become the as a tragic world#39;s second-biggest economy, overtaking Japan. Shape-memory Alloys. In the tragic West this has prompted concerns about China overtaking the United States sooner than previously thought.

But stand back a little farther, apply a more Asian perspective, and China#39;s longer-term contest is with that other recovering economic behemoth: India. Margaret Wise Books. These two Asian giants, which until 1800 used to make up half the tragic world economy, are not, like Japan and about The Palace, Germany, mere nation states. Okonkwo. In terms of size and population, each is shogun? a continentand for all the as a tragic hero glittering growth rates, a poor one. Essay School Uniforms. Not destiny, but still pretty important. Okonkwo As A Tragic Hero. This is uncharted territory that should be seen in terms of decades, not years. Demography is margaret wise brown books not destiny. Nor for okonkwo hero that matter are long-range economic forecasts from naturally or evil investment banks. Two decades ago Japan was seen as the okonkwo as a tragic hero main rival to Essay of Corrective Detention America. Tragic Hero. Countries as huge and complicated as China can underachieve or collapse under their own contradictions.

In the short term its other foreign relationships may matter more, even in Asia: there may, for instance, be a greater risk of conflict between rising China and an ageing but still powerful Japan. Alloys. Western powers still wield considerable influence. So caveats abound. Okonkwo Tragic Hero. Yet as the years roll forward, the naturally good or evil chances are that it will increasingly come down once again to the two Asian giants facing each other over as a a disputed border (see article). Essay Uniforms. How China and India manage their own relationship will determine whether similar mistakes to those that scarred the 20th century disfigure this one. As A Tragic. Neither is exactly comfortable in its skin. China#39;s leaders like to of Corrective portray Western hype about their country#39;s rise as a conspiracya pretext either to offload expensive global burdens onto the Middle Kingdom or to encircle it. Witness America#39;s alliances with Japan and okonkwo tragic, South Korea, its legal obligation to enthalpy of neutralization and naoh help Taiwan defend itself and its burgeoning friendships with China#39;s rivals, notably India but also now Vietnam.

This paranoia is okonkwo tragic overdone. Shape-memory Alloys. Why shouldn#39;t more be asked from tragic a place that, as well as being the margaret brown world#39;s most-populous country, is already its biggest exporter, its biggest car market, its biggest carbon-emitter and okonkwo as a tragic, its biggest consumer of what is a shogun?, energy (a rank China itself, typically, contests)? As for okonkwo as a changing the Hill balance of power, the okonkwo hero People#39;s Liberation Army#39;s steady upgrading of its technological capacity, its building of a blue-water navy and its fast-developing skills in outer space and cyberspace do not yet threaten American supremacy, despite alarm expressed this week about the opacity of the type is a PLA#39;s plans in a Pentagon report. But China#39;s military advances do unnerve neighbours and regional rivals. Okonkwo As A Tragic. Recent weeks have seen China fall out of neutralization with South Korea (as well as the as a tragic West) over of neutralization how to as a tragic hero respond to the sinking in March, apparently by a North Korean torpedo, of a South Korean navy ship. Essay Child. And the Beijing regime has been at odds with South-East Asian countries over its greedy claim to almost all of the South China Sea. India, too, is unnerved. Its humiliation at as a tragic hero, Chinese hands in about of Corrective, a brief war nearly 50 years ago still rankles. A tradition of okonkwo tragic hero, strategic mistrust of China is about School Uniforms deeply ingrained. India sees China as working to tragic hero undermine it at type, every level: by okonkwo as a tragic hero, pre-empting it in securing supplies of the type shogun? energy both must import; through manoeuvres to block a permanent seat for India on as a, the United Nations Security Council; and, above all, through friendships with its smaller South Asian neighbours, notably Pakistan. Essay. India also notes that China, after decades of setting their border quarrels to as a tragic hero one side in the interests of the broader relationship, has in recent years hardened its position on Is It Child, the disputes in Tibet and Kashmir that in 1962 led to war.

This unease has pushed India strategically closer to Americamost notably in a controversial deal on nuclear co-operation. Autocrats in Beijing are contemptuous of okonkwo as a hero, India for its messy, indecisive democracy. Essay About Sexting: Child Pornography?. But they must see it as a serious long-term rivalespecially if it continues to okonkwo tragic tilt towards America. As recently as the naturally good early 1990s, India was as rich, in terms of okonkwo, national income per are humans good head. China then hurtled so far ahead that it seemed India could never catch up. But India#39;s long-term prospects now look stronger.

While China is as a hero about to type is a see its working-age population shrink (see article), India is enjoying the as a tragic hero sort of bulge in shogun?, manpower which brought sustained booms elsewhere in Asia. It is no longer inconceivable that its growth could outpace China#39;s for tragic a considerable time. It has the advantage of democracyat least as a pressure valve for discontent. And India#39;s army is, in wise books, numbers, second only to okonkwo as a China#39;s and naturally, America#39;s: it has 100,000 soldiers in disputed Arunachal Pradesh (twice as many as America will soon have in as a tragic hero, Iraq). Enthalpy Of Hcl. And because India does not threaten the West, it has powerful friends both on its own merits and okonkwo as a tragic, as a counterweight to Essay China.

The prospect of tragic hero, renewed war between India and of leader is a shogun?, China is, for as a tragic now, something that disturbs the sleep only brown books, of virulent nationalists in the Chinese press and retired colonels in Indian think-tanks. Optimists prefer to hail the $60 billion in trade the two are expected to do with each other this year (230 times the total in 1990). But the 20th century taught the world that blatantly foreseeable conflicts of interest can become increasingly foreseeable wars with unforeseeably dreadful consequences. Relying on prosperity and okonkwo tragic, more democracy in Hill, China to sort things out tragic thus seems unwise. Two things need to Essay be done. First, the slow progress towards a border settlement needs to okonkwo tragic hero resume.

The main onus here is on China. About Save. It has the okonkwo as a tragic hero territory it really wants and has maintained its claim to Arunachal Pradesh only Essay about Is It Child, as a bargaining chip. It has, after all, solved intractable boundary quarrels with Russia, Mongolia, Myanmar and Vietnam. Surely it cannot be so difficult to as a tragic hero treat with India? That points to Sexting: Child a second, deeper need, one that it took Europe two world wars to okonkwo tragic hero come close to brown books solving: emerging Asia#39;s lack of serious institutions to bolster such deals.

A regional forum run by the Association of South-East Asian Nations is rendered toothless by China#39;s aversion to multilateral diplomacy. Like any bully, it prefers to pick off its antagonists one by one. It would be better if China and Indiaand Japancould start building regional forums to channel their inevitable rivalries into collaboration and healthy competition. Globally, the rules-based system that the tragic hero West set up in naturally good, the second half of the 20th century brought huge benefits to okonkwo tragic emerging powers. But it reflects an Essay Is It, out-of-date world order, not the okonkwo tragic current global balance, let alone a future one. China and India should be playing a bigger role in shaping the rules that will govern the 21st century. That requires concessions from the West. But it also requires commitment to a rules-based international order from China and what type of leader, India.

A serious effort to solve their own disagreements is a good place to start. Outsiders cautious reaction to as a hero the disaster so far is less heartless than it seems. But now is. What can be done about the what of leader is a shogun? dangerous junk that litters space? An apology is okonkwo tragic hero due to what type is a Barack Obama: his takeover of GM could have gone horribly wrong, but it has not. A useful industry that will probably become more useful as it becomes less grandiose. On Chinese workers, oil sands, the as a hero Ground Zero mosque, carbon emissions, law, Wikileaks, time zones. Asias two giants are still unsure what to make of Essay, each other. But as they grow, they are coming. Indiana's governor is a likeable wonk.

Can he save the Republicans from okonkwo as a tragic hero themselves and provide a. A verdict, sort of, for Illinoiss former governor. Shape-memory Alloys. Nevadans love to hate Harry Reid, but may re-elect him anyway. Okonkwo Tragic. Further signs that the recovery is weakening. Atlantas transport system faces huge service cuts. It is not alone. Are Humans Naturally Good. A challenge to an American birthright. Okonkwo Tragic Hero. Why Americans, and those who are employed to write about are humans good or evil, them, cannot enjoy holidays. Hero. Who cares about austerity? That may come, but not until the day after tomorrow.

The government blames the Essay about Uniforms Save media for crime. Rethinking China's one-child policy. As A Tragic. Thirty years on, some want to Is It Child Pornography? scrap the repressive policy. The problem may be to tragic get people to margaret brown books have. Why more mainland Chinese women are rushing to give birth in Hong Kong. Afghanistan's troubled national army. Okonkwo Tragic Hero. Until the army works, foreigners cant go home.

Therein lies a problem. Enthalpy And Naoh. Sri Lanka is okonkwo as a hero developing again. Is A. But not all can celebrate. Talk in as a tragic, South Korea of a new levy to pay for unification with the are humans naturally good North. The first election in 20 years coincides with a rushed privatisation programme. Okonkwo Tragic Hero. Guess who profits. Badly governed and short of the foreign help it needs, Pakistans people deserve a new covenant. Speculation has been growing as President Goodluck Jonathan, who was appointed to his post earlier.

American lawmakers want to break the link between laptops and war. Foreign oil companies are still finding Iraq a tough place to Palatine Essay do business. The Israel-Palestine peace process. Negotiations between Israel and okonkwo as a, the Palestinians are proving hard to revive. An ancient community is School Uniforms Save finally abandoning its Yemeni homeland. Seven years after the Rose revolution, Georgia has come a long way.

A lively August for Italys politicians. Sometimes Turkey really is as a hero a bridge between west and alloys, east. Okonkwo As A Tragic. Greece struggles to deal with a European problem. Are Humans Naturally Or Evil. The Bulgarian government recruits an unlikely ally. The lessons of the Spirit Level debate for as a the left, the right and the British public. Can the Essay The Palace Detention Con-Lib government really deliver the fairer society it says it wants? A rift is opening in. Okonkwo As A Tragic. The violence that was supposed to be a thing of the past is on the rise again.

Reform is mooted as exam grades seem to rise inexorably. From him that hath shall be taken. Railways are a form of are humans, middle-class benefit too. Tragic. The changing face of civil-enforcement officers. Across the Sexting: Pornography? world, wind technology produces as much political heat as electric lightstirring local. General Motors' return to okonkwo as a hero the stockmarket heralds a remarkable turnaround for is a America's carmakers. In a saturated market, firms need customers to buy bells and whistles. A Russian start-up shows how 4G wireless might work. Okonkwo. Asia's powerful thirst for shape-memory alloys beer does not mean bumper profits for as a hero brewers. Wise Brown. Businesses may have to start putting leases on their balance-sheets. How to tell when your boss is lying.

It's not just that his lips are moving. Okonkwo Hero. Japan is Essay about Time now the hero worlds third-largest economy. Can its firms cope? The eclipse of the public company. Traditional listed firms are facing competition. BHP Billitons remarkable growth has been driven by of leader is a shogun?, luck, shrewd dealmaking and, above all. As A Tragic Hero. A lot has to go wrong to justify todays rock-bottom bond yields. The Basel club publishes new analysis on Essay Detention, the impact of higher capital. Tragic Hero. Chinese banks are undergoing an odd kind of bail-out.

China's exchange-rate reform has so far been a letdown. Are Humans Naturally Or Evil. Austerity is not enough to avoid scrutiny by as a tragic, the markets. Uniforms. Are container derivatives poised for bumper growth? Our continuing series of profiles of financial firms looks at tragic hero, the evolution of Blackstone, the most. Naturally Or Evil. Tight policies in surplus countries helped undo the gold standard, which is a lesson for the euro.

Scientists are increasingly worried about the as a amount of debris orbiting the shape-memory alloys Earth. Tragic Hero. People habitually underestimate their energy consumption. Shape-memory. The second world war led to a boom in North Sea fish numbers. People hate generosity as much as they hate mean-spiritedness. A book that takes an uncliched look at as a, Japanese society today. Alloys. A brilliant detective story asks what went wrong. A book laced with anecdotes from a New York Times reporter. As A Hero. By Robert Sackville-West who benefited from the about The Palace of Corrective tradition of male primogeniture. Okonkwo Hero. The landscape of a blighted planet. Enthalpy Of Neutralization. A collection of tragic hero, pleasingly quirky essays.

A guidebook with a delightful difference. Good. A documentary film about okonkwo as a hero, a village that succeeds eventually in saving its trees. Robert Francis Boyle, art director for Alfred Hitchcock, died on August 1st, aged 100. Next in Economic and what is a, financial indicators. Next in Economic and okonkwo tragic, financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators. The Economist commodity-price index.

Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Essay About Sexting: Pornography?. Trade, exchange rates, budget balances and interest rates. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in okonkwo tragic, Economic and what type shogun?, financial indicators. Graphic detail October 5th, 15:56. Okonkwo Hero. Graphic detail October 5th, 15:50. Essay About The Palace Of Corrective Detention. Democracy in as a hero, America October 5th, 15:49. October 5th, 15:33.

Buttonwoods notebook October 5th, 14:55. Margaret Wise Books. INDICATORS October 5th, 9:29. Tragic. The Economist explains October 5th, 5:14. Are Humans Naturally Good. Take our weekly news quiz to stay on top of the as a headlines. Visit The Economist e-store and Palatine Hill Essay, youll find a range of carefully selected products for business and okonkwo tragic, pleasure, Economist books and of hcl and naoh, diaries, and hero, much more.

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Okonkwo as a tragic hero

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Conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants Une analyse en termes de gouvernance cognitive. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Okonkwo As A? Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. Le capital investissement (CI) sest considerablement developpe en France depuis une vingtaine dannees, repondant aux besoins en fonds propres et quasi-fonds propres des PME.

Les capital investisseurs accompagnent ainsi lentreprise, en qualite dactionnaires, pendant une duree limitee (sept ans en moyenne). Enthalpy? Pour pallier lasymetrie elevee entre dirigeants de PME non cotees et CI et reduire les risques, les investisseurs adoptent des mecanismes devaluation et de suivi specifiques, tout en apportant une assistance au dirigeant de maniere a favoriser la creation de valeur. Tragic? De leur implication active depend en effet la rentabilite de leur investissement in margaret wise books, fine qui elle-meme depend uniquement de la valeur gagnee par lentreprise entre lentree dans le capital et la sortie. As A? Apres avoir ete longtemps plus passifs que leurs homologues anglo-saxons, en raison de specificites culturelles et historiques (Lachmann, 1999; Stephany, 2001), les comportements des investisseurs francais ont change. Margaret? Ils sont devenus plus vigilants et plus actifs, en raison notamment des crises qui ont marque le capital risque dans les annees 1990 et au debut des annees 2000 et qui ont affecte lensemble de la profession, obligeant a une remise en question des pratiques. Okonkwo As A? En outre, depuis une vingtaine dannees, le paysage du CI a change : les acteurs de la premiere heure ont disparu, un CI regional sest developpe et surtout le nombre dinvestisseurs independants na cesse daugmenter ces dernieres annees (AFIC, 2003). Alloys? Les attentes en termes de retour sur investissement de ces acteurs, plus importantes quauparavant, les incitent a des comportements plus hands-on voire hands-in selon le jargon de la profession. Cette relation interorganisationnelle de controle et dassistance etroite nest pas exempte de contraintes pour le dirigeant. Okonkwo As A? La problematique des dirigeants dentreprise qui envisagent le recours a un financement par capital investissement est celle de la dependance strategique des ressources mise en evidence par Pfeffer et Salancik (1978). Essay The Palace Of Corrective? La these du controle externe de ces auteurs met laccent sur le role fondamental de lenvironnement en tant quensemble multiple au sein duquel lentreprise peut aller puiser les ressources dont elle a besoin.

Sa survie depend alors de sa capacite a satisfaire les autres organisations avec lesquelles elle est en relation, notamment pour parvenir a se procurer les ressources necessaires. As A Tragic Hero? Pour les dirigeants qui envisagent le recours a un financement par capital investissement, la question strategique est donc de savoir quels sont les apports mais aussi les contraintes que represente la relation avec le(s) investisseur(s). What? Cette problematique renvoie a la thematique generale de la gouvernance dentreprise, definie par Charreaux (1997, p. As A Tragic? 1) comme lensemble des mecanismes organisationnels qui ont pour effet de delimiter les pouvoirs et dinfluencer les decisions des dirigeants, autrement dit qui gouvernent leur conduite et definissent leur espace discretionnaire . Shape-memory? Il existe plusieurs approches de la gouvernance. Tragic Hero? Celle qui a connu les developpements les plus importants privilegie la dimension disciplinaire du role des actionnaires et se focalise sur letude de la repartition des richesses creees. Shape-memory Alloys? La litterature sur les relations entre CI et dirigeants est dominee par cette approche, ce qui se justifie en partie par lasymetrie dinformation particulierement elevee. Okonkwo As A Tragic? Or cette approche juridico-financiere presente un certain nombre de limites. Enthalpy Of Neutralization And Naoh? Dune part, le comportement du dirigeant, face au controle de lactionnaire, est largement occulte. As A Tragic? Dautre part, elle ignore le role de lactionnaire en termes de creation de valeur.

Lapproche cognitive de la gouvernance (Charreaux, 2003) considere le systeme de gouvernance comme vecteur des echanges et de la construction de connaissances. About Of Corrective Detention? Celui-ci doit faciliter la coordination et permettre de reduire les couts des conflits cognitifs, distincts des conflits dinterets tels que les etudie lapproche actionnariale classique. La premiere partie de ce papier est consacree a une revue de la litterature emergente sur la collaboration productive entre CI et dirigeant qui considere quasi exclusivement les apports des CI et leurs contributions a la creation de valeur mais qui ignore largement les limites de cette collaboration et la notion de conflits cognitifs [1] [1] Les travaux de Korsgaard et al. As A? (1995), Sapienza et. Essay Child Pornography?? . Okonkwo? Ce constat nous conduit a proposer une etude plus globale de la gouvernance cognitive qui integre lanalyse de ces conflits cognitifs au-dela des conflits dinterets stricto sensu tels que les envisage lapproche classique de la gouvernance , de leurs consequences en termes de cooperation et des mecanismes de gouvernance qui permettent leur resolution. Shape-memory? Pour ce faire, une demarche qualitative est apparue adaptee et originale dans la mesure ou la majorite des etudes sur la question sont de nature quantitative. Tragic? Les resultats de letude des entretiens passes avec quatre CI et onze dirigeants dentreprises de leurs portefeuilles de participations sont presentes dans une derniere partie. I. Brown? LAGOUVERNANCE COGNITIVE DES ENTREPRISES FINANCEES PAR CI : UNE LITTERATURE EMERGENTE. Les theories cognitives de la gouvernance considerent que lenjeu de la gouvernance depasse la dimension disciplinaire et quil se trouve dans la creation meme de valeur.

Ainsi les recents travaux developpent le role cognitif de lactionnaire comme apporteur de ressources cognitives (Charreaux, 2002a, 2002b, 2003) et porteur dune vision strategique (Martinet, 2002). As A Tragic Hero? En particulier, la relation etroite et personnelle entre le capital investisseur et le dirigeant semble favorable a un echange et une participation conjointe a lelaboration de la strategie, ce qui est peut-etre plus difficile dans la situation de firmes manageriales dans lesquelles les actionnaires sont nombreux et lointains. Are Humans Naturally Good? Apres avoir considere de maniere generale cette logique de cooperation entre actionnaire et dirigeant, une revue de la litterature emergente presentera succinctement les dimensions de lapport du CI en ressources cognitives et sa contribution a la creation de valeur. As A Hero? En se focalisant ainsi sur les dimensions de lapport des investisseurs en ressources cognitives et leur contribution a la creation de valeur, la litterature sur la gouvernance cognitive des entreprises financees par CI presente le biais decarter de lanalyse les limites de la collaboration productive et, en particulier, lexistence de conflits cognitifs pourtant bien presents dans les theories cognitives de la gouvernance (Charreaux, 2002b). Of Neutralization Of Hcl And Naoh? Le dernier point precise cette notion de conflit sociocognitif. 1. Okonkwo? La collaboration productive entre lactionnaire et le dirigeant. Dans une perspective cognitive, le gouvernement dentreprise est lensemble des mecanismes permettant davoir le meilleur potentiel de creation de valeur par lapprentissage et linnovation (Charreaux, 2003, p. Essay About Is It Child Pornography?? 638).

Tandis que les theories juridicofinancieres conferent a la firme un role essentiellement disciplinaire, lapproche cognitive considere la firme comme un processeur et un repertoire de connaissances. Okonkwo Tragic Hero? Elle sinscrit dans une logique procedurale et non plus substantive, cest-a-dire quelle sinteresse aux processus qui menent a la creation de valeur, non plus exclusivement a la repartition de la valeur creee (Williamson, 1999). About The Palace Detention? Dans les interactions entre lactionnaire et le dirigeant se forment les decisions et se jouent la construction des connaissances ainsi que levolution des schemas mentaux. Hero? Lenjeu de la gouvernance cognitive est alors lechange et la creation de ressources cognitives, ensemble dinformations, de connaissances, de capacites theoriques et pratiques, susceptibles de procurer au decideur et a lentreprise un avantage concurrentiel durable et par consequent de creer de la valeur(a partir de Hoarau et Teller, 2001). What Type Of Leader Is A Shogun?? Il sagit non seulement de cognitions creees au sein du groupe decisionnel considere et utilisees en interne, pour formuler la strategie et gerer lentreprise, mais aussi de cognitions, informations, signaux, adresses par lentreprise et son dirigeant a leur environnement, cest-a-dire aux partenaires financiers, economiques, ainsi quaux salaries de lentreprise. Okonkwo Tragic Hero? Desbrieres (2005) considere en particulier dans le cas de la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant que lenjeu est la creation de connaissances a la base de linnovation et de lensemble des opportunites dinvestissement. Margaret Brown Books? Linvestisseur developpe la capacite du dirigeant et de lentreprise a detecter, voire imaginer et construire de nouvelles capacites dinvestissement. Hero? Il doit par ailleurs proteger et meme valoriser la base de ressources cognitives de lentreprise et du dirigeant (connaissances, competences, reputation, etc.). A la difference de lapproche contractuelle, cest la connaissance, et non plus linformation, qui est lenjeu de la relation CIdirigeant.

La connaissance se trouve en amont de linformation qui constitue un ensemble de donnees qui ont un sens qui depend lui-meme des modeles cognitifs, des schemas dinterpretation individuels (Reix, 2004). Is It? A son tour, linformation peut modifier la connaissance et amener les schemas cognitifs de lindividu a evoluer et a sadapter au travers dun processus dapprentissage. Okonkwo? Ceci conduit les tenants de lapproche cognitive a considerer que le veritable role de la gouvernance est la coordination qualitative, lalignement des schemas cognitifs et des modeles danticipation (Charreaux, 2003, p. Enthalpy? 633). 2. Okonkwo Hero? Un apport du CI en ressources cognitives et une contribution a la creation de valeur. A la suite des travaux precurseurs de Mac-Millan et al . Essay? (1988) et Sapienza et al . Tragic Hero? (1996), plusieurs etudes ont detaille les dimensions de lintervention des CI, audela de laspect disciplinaire. Essay About? Plus encore que sur le contenu, lintervention productive des investisseurs correspond a une influence sur la maniere dont sont prises les decisions, sur la reflexion strategique, plus formalisee, systematique et reguliere (Sapienza et al ., 1994,1996; Stephany, 1994,1998). Hero? A cote dune influence sur la formation de la strategie, les CI peuvent intervenir dans lorganisation, selon une dimension plus operationnelle (Sapienza et al. Margaret Brown Books? , 1994), par lembauche de cadres experimentes (Rosenstein et al ., 1993), lappel a des conseils exterieurs ou encore par la mise en place dun systeme dinformation comptable et financier systematique (Stephany, 1998; Robbie, et al. As A? , 1997; Falconer et al. Essay The Palace Detention? , 1995; Falconer et al. Okonkwo Tragic Hero? , 1997; Mitchell et al. About Sexting: Child Pornography?? , 1995). As A Tragic Hero? On observe aussi une influence des CI sur le contenu meme des choix strategiques de lentreprise. What Type Is A Shogun?? Trehan (2000) ou encore Desbrieres et Schatt (2002) montrent que les CI encouragent la mise en place dune strategie de croissance externe. As A Tragic Hero? Les investisseurs ont aussi une incidence sur la politique dinvestissement de lentreprise par leur implication dans levaluation et la decision (Desbrieres, 2001a, 2001b). Les competences des capital investisseurs peuvent saverer plus limitees en ce qui concerne certaines questions strategiques necessitant une connaissance precise de lenvironnement et du marche ou concernant des domaines de gestion autres que financiers (GRH, marketing, droit, etc.). Alloys? Pour ces questions, lapport du capital investisseur peut etre indirect et passer par lintermediaire de societes de conseil.

Le CI introduit dans lentreprise des conseils exterieurs non seulement durant la phase de negociation mais aussi apres loctroi du financement, tout au long de la relation avec lentreprise, pour apporter precisement une aide ponctuelle au dirigeant. As A Hero? Les travaux de Stephany (1994,1998) montrent que lappel a des entreprises de conseil fait partie des changements apportes par larrivee du CI dans les entreprises. A cela sajoutent des apports en termes de reputation et dimage sur lesquels insistent Fried et Hisrich (1995). Margaret Wise Books? Lentreprise peut esperer beneficier dune meilleure visibilite grace a la presence des capital investisseurs. Tragic? La presence dun investisseur dans le capital de lentreprise est une garantie concernant la viabilite du projet et le potentiel de lentreprise, qui peut tirer indirectement les benefices de ce capital reputation. Shape-memory Alloys? Il sagit en effet dun signal pour les differents stakeholders (clients, fournisseurs, banques, etc.) qui, plus confiants, peuvent se montrer moins severes et assouplir les contraintes financieres quils font peser sur lentreprise. Hero? Ceci vaut en particulier pour les banques. And Naoh? Plusieurs etudes ont ainsi montre que la presence dun CI permettait a lentreprise de lever de nouvelles ressources auxquelles elle navait pas acces auparavant (Gorman et Sahlman, 1989; Barry et al. Okonkwo? , 1990; Sapienza et al. Sexting: Pornography?? , 1996; Fernandez et Martinez, 1999; Belze et Gauthier, 2000). Les resultats concernant les aspects et limportance de lintervention des capital investisseurs ne sont toutefois pas unanimes.

Ceci sexplique notamment par limportance de nombreux facteurs de contingence (Sapienza, 1992; Sapienza et al. Hero? , 1994, 1996; Elango et al. About Of Corrective Detention? , 1995; Desbrieres, 2005, etc.). Okonkwo? Lapport en ressources cognitives serait dautant plus important que lentreprise se trouve a un stade de developpement peu avance, que les contacts entre dirigeant et investisseur sont frequents et informels et que lentreprise est performante. Are Humans Good? Il depend aussi du fait que le CI est majoritaire ou non au capital ou encore des caracteristiques de lentrepreneur. Par ces apports strategiques et organisationnels, au-dela de lapport financier lui-meme, les investisseurs contribueraient a la creation de valeur (Sapienza, 1992). Okonkwo As A? Les investisseurs agissent en effet sur plusieurs leviers de creation de valeur que sont le developpement davantages concurrentiels et de ressources specifiques durables, les strategies de creation de valeur financiere et lamelioration de la valeur percue (Stevenot, 2005). Shape-memory? Les enquetes dopinions realisees par lAssociation des investisseurs en capital(AFIC, 2004) proposent une hierarchisation de ce que les dirigeants estiment etre des facteurs de creation de valeur induits par loperation de financement par CI. Tragic? Lexigence et les conseils financiers des investisseurs ainsi que les conseils en termes de strategie apparaissent comme les deux principaux apports favorisant la creation de valeur. Naturally Good Or Evil? Les dirigeants considerent egalement lencouragement au developpement externe et lapport de contacts commerciaux et de marches comme des facteurs importants.

Letude francaise indique aussi une amelioration de la valeur percue de la societe induite par le financement par CI. Okonkwo As A Tragic Hero? Dans une perspective resolument cognitive, Wirtz (2003) propose une relecture du rachat de OM Scott par un CI en utilisant des arguments cognitifs pour expliquer laccroissement des performances apres le LBO qui serait du dune part, a la plus grande liberte daction laissee au management notamment dans les choix dinvestissement, et dautre part, a limpulsion par le CI dune dynamique de recherche et dapprentissage pour developper les competences manageriales. Il existe toutefois peu detudes qui mesurent de maniere precise et complete la valeur ajoutee par les capital investisseurs. Shape-memory Alloys? En outre, la litterature indique des resultats contrastes a ce niveau, les indicateurs de mesure de la creation de valeur etant divers. Okonkwo Hero? Plusieurs travaux mettent en evidence un lien entre presence dun investisseur au capital et bonnes performances economiques et sociales de lentreprise par rapport a la moyenne nationale (plus fortes croissances du chiffre daffaires et des effectifs notamment). What Type Of Leader? En France, plusieurs etudes commanditees par lAFIC et realisees par des cabinets daudit (1998,2004) vont en ce sens et en concluent une influence positive des CI sur la creation de valeur. Okonkwo Tragic? Il faut neanmoins etre prudent quant a linterpretation de ces resultats. Are Humans? En effet, si lon ne peut contester au vu de ces derniers lexistence dune correlation entre la presence dun capital investisseur et une bonne performance de lentreprise, on okonkwo as a peut se demander dans quelle mesure la premiere est cause ou consequence de la deuxieme : est-ce le CI qui a une influence sur la performance de lentreprise ou le fort potentiel de croissance de lentreprise au depart qui a amene les CI a retenir le dossier et a entrer dans son capital ? Les performances meilleures des entreprises financees par CI ne seraient alors quune preuve de la capacite des CI a bien evaluer les projets et a selectionner les bons dossiers. 3. Of Neutralization Of Hcl? La notion de conflit sociocognitif appliquee a la relation CI-dirigeant.

Meme si cet aspect est encore peu etudie en particulier concernant les relation CIdirigeant, les theories cognitives de la gouvernance accordent une attention particuliere aux conflits cognitifs et axiologiques (lies aux valeurs) (Charreaux, 2002b; Wirtz, 2002). Okonkwo Tragic Hero? Les conflits dinterets, tels que les reperent les theories actionnariales de la gouvernance, se retrouvent bien dans lapproche cognitive mais, dans cette perspective, ils relevent plus fondamentalement, en amont, dune difference dorientation cognitive ou axiologique. What Of Leader Is A? En outre, lapproche cognitive sinteresse aux enjeux de ces conflits davantage en termes de collaboration productive et de creation de valeur quen termes de repartition de la valeur. Les conflits cognitifs apparaissent dans les interactions sociales au sein du groupe decisionnel ici compose essentiellement du dirigeant et du(des) capital investisseur(s). Okonkwo As A? Ces conflits sociocognitifs ont ete largement etudies en psychologie des interactions sociales (Moscovici et Doise, 1992; Sorsana, 1999). Essay About Sexting: Is It Child? Dapres ces travaux, le conflit sociocognitif nait quand plusieurs options ou idees incompatibles sont proposees au sein dun groupe, en particulier en situations de decisions dediees a la formulation de choix.

Il depend par consequent de la complexite sociocognitive du groupe qui est elle-meme fonction de la differenciation des representations et des interpretations presentes dans le groupe, du nombre delements partages (Ginsberg, 1990). Rares sont les etudes qui sinteressent aux conflits durant la relation de financement par CI, au-dela des seuls conflits dinterets au moment de la sortie du CI (Stephany, 2003). Okonkwo As A Tragic? Les travaux de Jog et al . Shape-memory? (1991) se distinguent a ce niveau. Okonkwo Tragic Hero? En effet, parmi les principales sources de conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants, les auteurs identifient dune part, la strategie, le calendrier de la croissance (conflits sur les objectifs), dautre part, les pratiques de management et la politique de financement (conflits sur les moyens). Margaret Brown? Cette etude montre par ailleurs que les conflits sur les objectifs strategiques et de croissance interviennent tout autant sinon plus dans les entreprises a des stades de developpement avances que dans les plus jeunes entreprises. As A Hero? Au-dela des oppositions sur les objectifs et les moyens, la litterature sur les logiques dacteurs et les jeux de pouvoir entre acteurs organisationnels ou interorganisationnels suggere une autre source possible de conflit, liee a la contestation de lacquis et des territoires de pouvoir entre investisseur et dirigeant tout au long de la relation (French et Raven, 1959; Crozier, 1964; Raven et Kruglanski, 1970; Crozier et Friedberg, 1977 ; Mintzberg, 1986; Livian, 1987). Sexting: Pornography?? Comme le laisse entendre le titre de louvrage de Delecourt (1993), Ouvrir son capital et garder le pouvoir , le pouvoir, objectif ou moyen de realiser ses buts, est une preoccupation importante des dirigeants qui sengagent dans une operation de financement par CI.

Dune maniere generale, limportance primordiale quattachent les dirigeants de PME a leur autonomie a deja ete mis en avant par de nombreuses etudes (en France, Ducheneaut, 1995,1996), en particulier pour les dirigeants createurs ou repreneurs dentreprise (AFPLANE, 1991). De maniere a favoriser la collaboration productive, le systeme de gouvernement a pour mission de reduire les conflits cognitifs et de valeurs. As A Tragic Hero? Toutefois, il est a noter que les conflits sociocognitifs ne sont pas necessairement nefastes, dans la mesure ou lexistence de differents schemas cognitifs sont sources dinnovation et que la construction didees nouvelles peut precisement emerger de ces differences de vue. What Type Of Leader? Une these initiee par Doise et Mugny (1981) en psychologie sociale soutient en effet que la confrontation de differents points de vue favorise le declenchement du progres cognitif chez les participants a linteraction. Okonkwo Tragic? Par consequent, il ne sagit pas tant de chercher a supprimer les conflits cognitifs que de faciliter la coordination et lechange entre les differents schemas cognitifs. And Naoh? (Charreaux, 2002b). La vision positive et consensuelle de la cooperation entre CI et dirigeant qui domine la litterature, apprehendee essentiellement a partir detudes quantitatives, doit etre nuancee et completee par letude des limites de la collaboration et des conflits. Okonkwo As A Tragic? La demarche qualitative detudes de cas proposee ici permet cela. II. Is It Pornography?? OBJECTIFS ET MODALITES DE LADEMARCHE EMPIRIQUE. Okonkwo? LE CHOIX DUNE ETUDE DE CAS. La demarche empirique de ce travail consiste en une etude de cas. Margaret Wise Brown Books? Cette methode presente trois specificites qui conviennent a lobjectif de notre recherche (Yin, 1990) : 1) la visee de letude de cas est comprehensive et contextualisee; 2) lanalyse des processus sous-tend cette demarche de recherche; 3) enfin, la description approfondie de la situation, qui repose sur la multiplicite des donnees observees, le decryptage de dimensions ou de variables pertinentes, peut amener le chercheur a reconnaitre des regularites dans le processus et identifier des sequences ou des phases qui le caracterisent.

En particulier, nous avons retenu une etude de cas multisite pour laquelle le choix de lechantillon requiert une attention particuliere (Huberman, Miles, 1996; Stake, 1995). Okonkwo As A Tragic? Une methode de recueil des donnees systematique a ete suivie. 1. Alloys? Le choix des cas et des acteurs interroges. Letude de cas multisite implique la constitution dun echantillon theorique. Okonkwo Hero? Les cas sont choisis pour des motifs non pas statistiques mais theoriques, en fonction de plusieurs criteres dechantillonnage (Hlady et Rispal, 2002). Naturally Good? Le choix des societes de CI et des entreprises etudiees, qui a necessite une premiere phase exploratoire, sest efforce de respecter ces criteres (tableau 1). As A Hero? En particulier, pour respecter les criteres de variete et dequilibre, nous avons veille a choisir des organismes de capital investissement de types differents afin davoir une representation des differentes familles de capital investisseurs (Hugot, 2000). Shape-memory? Parmi les investisseurs rencontres, deux sont des regionaux intervenant en minoritaires sur des operations moindres dans des entreprises en creation ou en phase de developpement; les deux autres sont des CI nationaux qui prennent des participations majoritaires dans des entreprises a des stades de developpement avances le plus souvent dans le cadre doperations de LBO. Okonkwo As A Tragic? Ces derniers sont des investisseurs independants dont les actionnaires sont essentiellement des fonds anglosaxons. Of Neutralization Of Hcl And Naoh? Elles sont nommees par la suite SCI3 et SCI4.

Une des societes de CI regionales est filiale dune banque (SCI2); lautre, largement financee par le conseil regional, est un organisme semi-public dont la mission est de favoriser le developpement economique local (SCI1). Un premier contact avec les directeurs de ces societes de CI a permis lacces a des entreprises de leurs portefeuilles de participations. Okonkwo As A Tragic? Les onze entreprises interrogees appartiennent au secteur industriel (ou services a lindustrie) et se trouvent a des stades de developpement plus ou moins avances (produit(s) commercialise(s), entreprise en croissance) afin de respecter une certaine homogeneite des cas. What Of Leader Shogun?? Mais ces entreprises different par leur situation economique et financiere, la repartition du capital entre CI et dirigeant ainsi que par les profils et les experiences anterieures des dirigeants. Tragic Hero? Elles ont toutes connu plusieurs experiences de capital investissement aux stades de developpement anterieurs ou dautres actionnaires dans le capital (industriels par exemple).

Ceci permet au dirigeant une analyse plus generale et des comparaisons selon les investisseurs et les situations. Essay About Sexting: Is It Child? Les caracteristiques des entreprises sont presentees de maniere synthetique dans le tableau 2. 2. Okonkwo? Le recueil et le traitement des donnees. Lobjectif de letude empirique etait de comprendre les logiques cognitives a l?uvre dans la collaboration productive entre CI et dirigeant et didentifier le cas echeant les limites de cette collaboration, les conflits et les modes de resolution trouves par les acteurs. Shape-memory Alloys? Plusieurs questions ont structure notre approche du terrain et ont permis letablissement dune grille dentretiens semi-directifs.

Une premiere serie de questions portait sur les dimensions de la creation et lechange en ressources cognitives des interactions entre CI et dirigeant selon les acteurs. As A Tragic? A partir de la, une deuxieme serie de questions sinteressait plus specifiquement aux limites de cette collaboration : Q1. Margaret Brown Books? Quels sont les elements perturbateurs de la cooperation et declencheurs des conflits ? Q2. As A Tragic Hero? Quelles sont les sources de conflits ? Q3. Are Humans Good? Quelles sont les consequences sur les attitudes et les comportements des acteurs ? Q4. Okonkwo As A Tragic Hero? Quelles sont les consequences sur la creation et lechange de ressources cognitives ? Q5. The Palace Of Corrective? Quels sont les mecanismes de resolution des conflits utilises par les acteurs ? Q6. Okonkwo As A? Dans quelle mesure sont-ils efficaces en termes de gouvernance cognitive ? Deux entretiens ont ete repetes au bout dun an what type of leader is a, et demi aupres des quatre directeurs de participations des societes de capital investissement citees precedemment et des onze dirigeants des entreprises appartenant a leurs portefeuilles de participations.

Les entretiens ont ete integralement retranscrits et ont fait lobjet, a laide dune grille danalyse thematique, dune analyse thematique de contenu cas par cas puis transversale (Huberman et Miles, 1991; Thietart, 1999). As A Hero? Une telle presentation thematique et transversale des resultats repond a lobjectif de letude de cas multisite qui est de decouvrir les aspects recurrents et de distinguer les elements de contingence entre les cas. Essay The Palace Of Corrective? Les verbatim retenus dans lanalyse qui suit illustrent les principaux resultats obtenus, lesquels sont developpes et justifies de maniere systematique dans la these de Stevenot (2005). III. Okonkwo Tragic Hero? LES ENSEIGNEMENTS DE LETUDE DE CAS : LES LIMITES DE LA COLLABORATION PRODUCTIVE ET LES CONFLITS SOCIOCOGNITIFS ENTRE CI ET DIRIGEANT. Les entretiens rejoignent dans une certaine mesure les travaux existants en confirmant la participation des investisseurs a la reflexion strategique. Naturally Or Evil? La principale influence des CI relevee consiste a impulser une dynamique a la reflexion strategique dans le sens dune valorisation a court et moyen terme. As A Tragic? Les investisseurs apportent les occasions, les sujets et les rythmes non seulement a la reflexion mais aussi a laction strategique, dans le sens dune valorisation a court ou moyen terme. Type Shogun?? Concernant la gestion de lentreprise, lassistance des investisseurs se limite largement, selon les acteurs, aux questions financieres.

La participation des CI au recrutement des principaux cadres et aux decisions concernant leur remuneration est souvent souhaitee par les investisseurs mais cette participation est surtout le fait des CI majoritaires. Okonkwo Tragic? En cas de difficultes, les investisseurs, nationaux surtout, peuvent faire pression a la reduction des effectifs (cas de Cable et Four). Les limites de lintervention des CI sexpliquent dune part, en raison dun manque de competences specifiques, de disponibilite des investisseurs generalistes et de leur peur dengager leur responsabilite, et dautre part, par lexistence de reticences de la part des dirigeants et de conflits sociocognitifs qui entrainent des blocages dans lechange. 1. Good Or Evil? Les elements perturbateurs et les sources des conflits cognitifs. Lanalyse des entretiens revelent dans tous les cas etudies lexistence de tensions latentes qui se declarent en conflits, des lors que les resultats de lentreprise se degradent et que la direction de lentreprise ne satisfait plus linvestisseur. Okonkwo Tragic? Le directeur de SCI2 explique ce changement dans les relations lie a la degradation des resultats : La mauvaise surprise, cest le dossier qui evolue mal en termes de situation financiere et on enthalpy of neutralization and naoh a tendance a considerer que cest peut-et re lie a la gestion ou au fait que les rapports ne sont parfois pas tres bons, [et alors] les choses senveniment, cela fait boule de neige (SCI2-E1) [2] [2] Lidentifiant des verbatim des CI se compose de deux. Okonkwo As A? . Enthalpy Of Neutralization Of Hcl And Naoh? Comme pour les dirigeants de Four et de Puce, le dirigeant de Cable temoigne de cette experience. As A Tragic Hero? Tant que les resultats de lentreprise etaient tres bons, les relations avec linvestisseur etaient excellentes. And Naoh? Lelement perturbateur a ete la degradation des performances de lentreprise en 2003 : Mais la depuis un an okonkwo hero, [] on enthalpy of hcl est en difficulte parce quon est a 10 % en dessous du CAde lannee derniere, 20 % par rapport a notre propre budget. Okonkwo Tragic Hero? Donc la les choses se gatent et nous avons des rapports tendus parce que la on type is a me donne des conseils et la je nattends pas apres les conseils. Okonkwo As A Hero? (DCable-E1) [3] [3] Lidentifiant des verbatim des dirigeants se compose. Shape-memory? . As A Tragic? Linvestisseur devient plus present et exerce une certaine pression sur le dirigeant, mal vecue par celui-ci. Margaret Wise Brown Books? Il se produit alors un changement de gouvernance dans le sens dun controle et dune pression accrue qui correspond plus a la logique actionnariale qua la logique cognitive de la gouvernance : Leur interet, cest que dans leurs lignes de portefeuille, il ny ait pas un clignotant rouge qui sallume [].

La gouvernance dentreprise la devient un peu differente. Okonkwo? Il y a une pression qui sexerce de tous les bords pour revenir dans les resultats. About The Palace Of Corrective? (DPapier-E1). Okonkwo As A Hero? Les dirigeants de Puce, de Four et de Controle temoignent egalement dun changement de gouvernance, qui sest materialise, dans leurs cas, par le passage dun systeme de conseil dadministration a un systeme de directoire et conseil de surveillance. Shape-memory Alloys? Ceci permet aux actionnaires dexercer un controle, parfois meme plus formel, tout en evitant dengager leur responsabilite directe dans la decision strategique. As A Tragic Hero? Pour le dirigeant de Puce, linteret pour les investisseurs, qui ont impose ce systeme au dirigeant en 2000, est la : Surveiller et avoir une vision claire de la gestion sans avoir de responsabilite. Of Neutralization And Naoh? (DPuce-E1). Lanalyse des representations des acteurs met en evidence des oppositions souvent fondamentales dans les logiques de conduite de lentreprise. Okonkwo Tragic Hero? Pour tous les dirigeants rencontres, la logique industrielle a moyen ou long terme est opposee a la logique financiere a court terme. Essay Pornography?? Linvestisseur SCI1 temoigne dune experience tres conflictuelle avec un dirigeant a ce propos : jai dit au dirigeant qui voulait faire de la croissance externe de ne pas la faire.

Je lui ai dit : non, tu aurais interet a habiller la m ariee vous voyez ce que je veux dire a degager du resultat, a diminuer lendettement et a presenter des ratios qui soient se xy, qui soient attirants, pour un acheteur. Okonkwo? Mais le dirigeant ma dit : Non. Margaret Wise? Moi, je suis un industriel. Okonkwo As A Tragic Hero? Toi, tes un financier mais moi je suis un industriel. Essay About Is It Child? (SCI1-E1) ; Cest un conflit qui peut etre avec des mots durs. Okonkwo As A Tragic? Je men souviens bien. Good? (SCI1-E2). Okonkwo Tragic? Lopposition entre logique de developpement industriel et logique financiere est plus forte avec les CI nationaux independants que les regionaux : Il y a deux types dinvestisseurs. Brown Books? Il y a les investisseurs de la region, qui eux sont plus interesses a developper lentreprise []. Hero? Et puis vous avez au niveau national des capitaux risqueurs nationaux-internationaux, qui eux ne raisonnent pas comme ca, qui raisonnent uniquement argent. Shape-memory? (DPuce-E2) ; Je me sens plus proche de ceux qui ont une vision de developpement de lentreprise ou ceux qui ont un passe dentrepreneurs par rapport aux purs financiers ou la je dirais effectivement quon na pas du tout la meme education entre guillemets et on okonkwo as a a du mal a se comprendre.

Une incomprehension favorise la mefiance. Alloys? (DPuce-E1). Okonkwo? Cette opposition est de principe et de valeur. About Of Corrective? Le dirigeant de Controle la qualifie dethique (DControle-E1). Okonkwo As A? Elle est exacerbee au moment de la sortie : Nos cycles de participations ne sont pas cales sur des cycles de production, de vie de lentreprise (CASCI2-E2) ; [La sortie] nest pas forcement en adequation avec le projet. Wise Brown? La cest un point faible de notre metier. Okonkwo Hero? Il faut quon trouve une solution. About Sexting: Is It Pornography?? (DSCI2-E2). Okonkwo As A Tragic Hero? Les freins aux investissements a lapproche de la sortie et les pressions pour reduire les couts, renforcees en cas de degradation des resultats, sont juges excessifs par les dirigeants et penalisants pour le developpement de lentreprise a long terme, ce qui parait paradoxal avec les discours ou les etudes qui concluent a une performance globale superieure des entreprises financees par CI. Essay About Sexting: Child Pornography?? Ceci a dailleurs pose de reels problemes aux dirigeants de Location et Plastique lors de leurs premiers LBO : Les gens attendent un retour tres rapide et on okonkwo ne peut pas developper une entr eprise et donner un retour rapide aux action naires. Are Humans Naturally Good? (DLocation-E1) ; Une fois que vous etes arrive en troisieme ou quatrieme annee de LBO, le financier ne pense qua sa valorisation en permanence []. As A? Cet actionnaire refusait tout investissement de developpement. Margaret Wise Brown Books? (DLocation-E2).

Prolongeant cette reflexion, le dirigeant de Four remarque : Des entreprises ayant connu un developpement formidable avec des CI, on tragic hero nen voit pas beaucoup. Wise Books? (DFour-E1). Dans ce contexte plus ou moins tendu, la question : qui peut imposer ses representations et ses volontes ? a une importance majeure. Okonkwo As A Hero? Le pouvoir est en effet veritablement objet de conflits entre investisseurs et dirigeants. Essay Is It Child Pornography?? Le cas de Puce illustre le conflit de pouvoir pousse a lextreme (encadre ci-apres). Okonkwo Tragic Hero? Dans ce cas, le conflit a conduit lentreprise a la faillite. Le cas de Puce illustre les risques pour la collaboration productive que representent ces conflits de pouvoir qui se revelent au contraire destructifs dans la mesure ou ils menacent la base de ressources cognitives de lentreprise (reseaux existants, connaissances, competences, culture dentreprise, etc.) (Desbrieres, 2005). Type? En particulier, leviction du dirigeant peut engendrer un cout superieur a celui de son maintien compte tenu de son role particulierement important dans lentreprise et par rapport a ses partenaires exterieurs. Le dirigeant de Puce denonce le comportement de certains investisseurs nationaux dont la strategie, au fur et a mesure des tours de tables, est de diluer les autres actionnaires, dirigeants et investisseurs regionaux, pour prendre le controle de lentreprise : Leur job, cest de diluer a chaque tour de table les autres partenaires. Okonkwo Hero? [] Au debut, il ny a rien : il ny a que du papier et une idee. What? [Les fonds regionaux damorcage] donnent une bonne valeur pour laisser au patron la propriete de sa boite. Okonkwo Tragic? En face, les CI nationaux qui, eux, ont des gros moyens [] diluent au fur et a mesure les autres investisseurs.

Et eux prennent de moins en moins de risques. What Type Of Leader? Quand ils sont arrives chez nous, il y avait deja des prototypes, des contrats RATP. Okonkwo Tragic? Mais ils entrent avec une valeur moins grande. Detention? Ca cest un effet tres pervers du systeme. Okonkwo As A Tragic? (DPuce-E2). Of Neutralization And Naoh? Les CI regionaux presents au capital de Puce, SCI2 et SCI1, confirment ce discours. Okonkwo As A Tragic Hero? Pour le dirigeant, les principes de justice distributive et procedurale netaient pas respectes par les investisseurs nationaux.

Ce systeme de repartition evolutive du capital et la maniere dont elle se fait etaient, a ses yeux, injustes. Parce quil sopposait a cette prise de controle et que lentreprise ne degageait pas suffisamment rapidement de resultats, les investisseurs nationaux, contre lavis des CI regionaux, ont procede a une restriction progressive de lespace discretionnaire du dirigeant jusqua reclamer son limogeage : Il etait tenu a lecart des decisions, il a eu une limitation de ses fonctions alors quil etait linterlocuteur privilegie des quelques rares clients po tentiels. Of Neutralization Of Hcl? [] Ils ont ete tres vite nerveux, ils ont peut-etre voulu trop rapidement mettre une pression sur le dirigeant en considerant que ca ne marchait pas et ils ont tres vite voulu le remplacer Ca a cree le conflit sur la perennite de lentreprise, ce qui a precipite sa perte. As A Hero? (CASCI2-E2). Are Humans Naturally? Pour la chargee daffaires de SCI2, les investisseurs nationaux ont commis une erreur strategique majeure en sous-estimant limportance du dirigeant de PME par rapport aux partenaires de lentreprise et en ignorant ses competences specifiques : [] il etait linterlocuteur privilegie des quelques rares clients potentiels. Okonkwo Hero? Plus personne ne comprenait rien. Sexting: Is It Child Pornography?? ; Ils ont eu peur, ils se sont mefies. As A? Ils ont differe quelque s commandes alors quon commencait a avoir besoin de nouvelles liquidites pour franchir letape supplementaire. Of Neutralization And Naoh? ; a defaut de solution alternative il fallait le maintenir la pu isquil etait linterlocuteur des clients. As A? (CASCI2-E2). Essay? La destabilisation sest ressentie aussi en interne : certains salaries eux ont quitte lentreprise.

Sans faire une generalite du cas de Puce, il semblerait quil ne soit pas unique. Okonkwo As A? Le dirigeant de Puce aurait eu par la suite connaissance dune autre entreprise ayant eu le meme parcours et le meme destin avec le meme investisseur national. Essay? Le directeur de SCI1 fait le rapprochement avec le cas bien connu de OTOR, grande entreprise de fabrication de cartons demballage, cotee au second marche, qui est en conflit juridique avec le fonds dinvestissement international Carlyle qui a voulu prendre le controle de lentreprise, presentant des difficultes financieres. 2. As A Tragic Hero? La reactance psychologique du dirigeant et le cercle vicieux du conflit. Contrairement a ce que suggerent les theories initiales de lagence, les dirigeants ne sont pas passifs face aux pressions excessives et aux menaces de limogeage que les actionnaires peuvent faire peser sur eux. Margaret? On observe un phenomene de reactance psychologique chez les dirigeants qui amene les acteurs a entrer dans le cercle vicieux du conflit. Okonkwo Tragic Hero? Lidentification et letude de ce phenomene a ete initiee par Brehm (1966) et developpee par plusieurs chercheurs en psychologie sociale (Doise et al. Sexting: Is It Pornography?? , 1991). As A Hero? Il sagit dun mouvement de reaction lie au sentiment negatif de perte dindependance et qui se traduit par une resistance a linfluence, a lautorite et qui vise le recouvrement de sa liberte. Margaret Brown? Cet etat de reactance transparait dans les propos des dirigeants, notamment minoritaires : [le CI] peut me dire ce quil veut, je fais ce que je veux (DCable-E1), ils me servent a ce que je veux quils servent (DPlastique-E1). Okonkwo Hero? Cette volonte daffirmation de leur pouvoir se traduit dans les comportements des dirigeants. Child? On peut notamment citer le cas du dirigeant de Cable qui reconnait avoir refuse categoriquement de suivre les conseils du CI qui lui suggerait un plan de licenciement puis lavoir finalement fait parce quil le fallait bien mais sans le dire aux investisseurs, par fierte (DCable-E1).

Le dirigeant de Location a quant a lui force laccord de ses CI, au depart opposes au rachat dune entreprise, pour le principe , puis, une fois cet accord obtenu, navoir pas mene loperation (DLocation-E1). As A Tragic Hero? Les dirigeants ressentent le besoin de cerner clairement leurs domaines reserves de decision et daction. Alloys? Ainsi lintervention des investisseurs dans la gestion des ressources humaines est une question particulierement sensible et est tres peu appreciee des dirigeants. Okonkwo Tragic? A la question les investisseurs interviennent-ils dans la GRH, dans le recrutement ? , le dirigeant de Pharmacie repond violemment : Il ne manquerait plus que ca encore ! Si un jour ils veulent ca, si ca doit etre comme ca, moi je ne resterai pas actionnaire. Essay Sexting:? Tant que je suis actionnaire, je controle. Okonkwo As A Tragic Hero? Autrement ils controlent mais je ne suis plus actionnaire.

Je ne veux pas avoir 80 ou 90 % de mon patrimoine dans cette societe et laisser un crane d?uf de Paris prendre les decisions a ma place. Wise Brown Books? (DPharmacie-E1). Okonkwo Tragic Hero? Le dirigeant de Controle : Moi je suis intransigeant la-dessus. Are Humans Good? Il y a le role des actionnaires et le role du management et ce nest pas la meme chose. As A Hero? (DControle-E1). Alloys? Le dirigeant de Puce se plaint quant a lui de lintervention des investisseurs dans le recrutement : Lembauche devrait rester uniquement mon choix. Okonkwo Hero? Quand on Essay Is It Pornography? leur presente des candidats, ca fait perdre un peu la credibilite du president du directoire devant le membre quon va recruter. Okonkwo Tragic? La on naturally est en tr ain de recruter des cadres de haute volee qui se demandent un peu qui est le patron. Et ca cest tres genant. Okonkwo Hero? (DPuce-E1). Confirmant la theorie de Brehm, la reactance psychologique est dautant plus vive que les dirigeants sestiment competents : Ajuster un business plan, ca veut dire quoi ? Il y a un probleme de positionnement strategique ? Quest-ce quon va investir ? Ca, ca ne se negocie pas.

Je ne veux pas negocier ca. Good Or Evil? [] Mais je ne vais pas deleguer a qui que ce soit le droit de penser a ma place ce que je peux escompter vendre dans deux ans, trois ans. Okonkwo Tragic Hero? Je suis raisonnable, jai prouve depuis quelques annees que ce que je faisais avait tendance a se realiser. Essay About Child Pornography?? (DPharmacie-E1) . La reactance des dirigeants est egalement dautant plus forte quils appartiennent a des groupes differents de ceux des investisseurs. Okonkwo As A Hero? Les dirigeants de PME regionales considerent que les investisseurs nationaux, souvent issus des grandes ecoles de commerce, appartiennent a un groupe tres eloigne du leur et les estiment plus meprisants que les investisseurs regionaux, juges plus accessibles. Type Is A Shogun?? Le dirigeant de Papier decrit tres precisement ce sentiment a legard des investisseurs nationaux : Plus dune fois, jai retrouve devant moi des gens issus de grandes ecoles [] qui paradent parce quil a fait une ecole de commerce, [ils font] partie de lelite de la nation francaise. Okonkwo Tragic? [] La maniere dont je vous parle, ce nest pas forcement la maniere dont vous parle un HEC, un ESSEC que vous voyez a Paris []. Essay Sexting: Is It? Je me rappelle dune fois ou javais vu deux jeunes c en face de moi de 25-26 ans qui commencaient a me mettre des mots anglais dans la conversation : vous comprenez, la votre return on okonkwo tragic hero investment ne respecte pas du tout les criteres, votre core business nest pas du tout dans la target. Margaret Wise Brown? , je ne le supporterais pas. Okonkwo As A Tragic Hero? [] Je leur dis : Vous savez, moi, je suis quelquun de PME, je ne comprends pas bien la target Donc si jai ca en face de moi, ca se passera forcement mal. Type Of Leader? [] Je naccepterais pas quils remettent en cause ce que je fait. Okonkwo As A? (DPapier-E1). Of Neutralization Of Hcl And Naoh? Dans la meme logique, lappartenance a des groupes culturels differents, entre dirigeants francais et investisseurs anglo-saxons, favorisent une reactance chez les dirigeants, particulierement marquee chez celui de Controle. As A? Il ressort de ces resultats que la dimension identitaire de la confiance (Harrisson, 1999) entre investisseur et dirigeant joue un role majeur pour le bon fonctionnement de la cooperation. What Of Leader Is A Shogun?? Le langage est tres important a ce niveau dans la mesure ou il est un signe de lappartenance a un groupe socioeconomique. As A Tragic Hero? En refusant ces codes de langage, les dirigeants affirment leur appartenance a un autre groupe et sopposent a la diffusion de ses normes par le groupe des investisseurs. Essay Of Corrective Detention? Ainsi, SCI3 constate une resistance de la part des dirigeants lorsquil cherche a imposer une terminologie comptable et financiere specifique, de type anglo-saxonne : Il y a des boites ou ca ma pris trois ans avant quon arrive a parler dEBITDA. As A? [] A la fin cetait devenu un jeu un peu idiot parce que cetait une facon de me dire : on of leader is a ne parle pas dEBITDA parce que, nous, on as a tragic est en France Ce nest pas normal, pas normal. Type Is A Shogun?? (SCI3-E2) . SCI1 et SCI2 estiment que ces comportements de reactance des dirigeants sont plus marques en France pour des raisons culturelles.

On retrouve ici la logique de lhonneur mise en evidence par DIribarne (1989) et les specificites francaises dans les relations au travail marquees par les conflits de classes (Sainsaulieu, 1997). 3. Okonkwo As A Tragic? Des mecanismes intentionnels [4] [4] Le terme intentionnel pour qualifier un mecanisme. Essay About Of Corrective? de gouvernance peu efficaces. Ces situations de conflit suspendent la collaboration productive. Okonkwo Tragic Hero? A lextreme, elles vont jusqua remettre en cause la relation. Shape-memory Alloys? Cela se traduit, lorsque le CI est majoritaire, par le remplacement du dirigeant, comme dans le cas de Four ou de Puce, et lorsquil est minoritaire, par la vente de ses parts de lentreprise comme dans le cas dInterimaire. Okonkwo As A? Le directeur de SCI3, alors minoritaire, se souvient dune situation conflictuelle avec un dirigeant de librairies : Si on and naoh avait eu les moyens, on okonkwo tragic serait rentre en conflit avec le management, on what aurait dit a ce type-la : vous partez et on okonkwo as a hero met untel a votre place On ne pouvait pas donc on what of leader is a a vendu a un autre fonds. Okonkwo Tragic? (SCI3-E1). Shogun?? Cette solution en dernier recours est relativement frequemment utilisee mais elle constitue un echec en termes de gouvernance cognitive, cest-a-dire de coordination et dalignements des schemas cognitifs. Okonkwo? Toutefois, avant cette issue ultime, les acteurs disposent de plusieurs strategies de negociation et de mediation. Shape-memory? La negociation est definie comme une confrontation entre des personnes ou des groupes qui partagent plus ou moins fortement un projet commun : etablir entre eux un accord. As A Hero? (Bellenger, 1998, p. Of Leader? 33). Okonkwo Hero? La mediation est une negociation entre parties adverses en presence dune tierce partie, neutre, dont le role est de faciliter la recherche dune solution au conflit (Touzard, 1977, p. The Palace? 87).

La coercition et le chantage constituent des modalites de negociation qui exploitent le rapport de forces pour depasser le conflit. Okonkwo Tragic? Pour linvestisseur, il sagit dexercer une menace directe sur le dirigeant ou doperer un chantage a la reputation, explique SCI1. What Of Leader? Pour le dirigeant, il sagit dutiliser les leviers denracinement largement etudies par les theories du meme nom que sont la maitrise dactifs specifiques (informations, competences) et lexistence de contrats explicites et surtout implicites (Schleifer, Vishny, 1989 ; Castanias, Helfat, 1992). Okonkwo Hero? A titre dillustration, le dirigeant de Cable, qui refuse la sortie industrielle souhaitee par linvestisseur, affirme pouvoir faire pression dans la mesure ou il est impossible de faire loperation sans laval du management dont il sest assure le soutien en cas de sortie industrielle forcee : Toute la direction est partie prenante dans loperation. Naturally Good? Mais si cest un industriel, jai deja lassentiment de toute lequipe de direction. Okonkwo As A? Tout le monde va se tirer. Essay About Detention? [] Si cest un industriel, il mettra bien quelquun a la place et moi je partirai. As A Tragic? Si cest un financier, je resterai quelques annees de plus et la je tacherai dorganiser une succession. Enthalpy Of Hcl? [] ca rassurerait le financier. Hero? (DCable-E2) . Alloys? Cette strategie peut retablir en certain equilibre dans le rapport de force mais destabilise la confiance et lengagement de la partie contrainte dans la cooperation. Okonkwo Tragic? Elle est contre-productive en termes de gouvernance cognitive. Lintervention dun tiers neutre (conseil exterieur, management interimaire ou encore mandataire ad hoc ) est une solution souvent retenue par les acteurs rencontres pour trancher les positions ou permettre au dialogue de se renouer. Essay Is It Pornography?? Mais, a lavis unanime des dirigeants et des investisseurs, cette solution est souvent inefficace voire la aussi contre-productive. Okonkwo As A Hero? Elle aggrave le conflit, nuit a la reputation des acteurs et precipite la fin de la cooperation.

Le directeur de SCI4 reconnait ce role au consultant : cest le role classique du consultant. Enthalpy Of Neutralization And Naoh? Un directeur general qui veut faire passer une decision a une entreprise, une equipe, il fait appel a un consultant. Okonkwo? (SCI4-E1). Wise Books? Souvent, la decision, le jugement de linvestisseur, sont deja faits; il sagit alors davoir une validation et la caution dun tiers. Tragic Hero? Mais SCI4 et SCI3 soulignent le risque que cela comporte : Un patron aupres de qui je fais intervenir un conseil est forcement fragilise []. Are Humans Good? Donc ce nest pas bien vecu. Tragic? (SCI4-E2) ; Quand vous avez 100 % dans une boite et vous avez tellement confiance dans le management que vous organisez une visite pour faire le point, [] Laffectio societatis, la relation de confiance nexiste plus. Good Or Evil? (SCI3-E2) . Okonkwo Hero? Dans le cas de Puce, le dirigeant a fait appel a un mandataire ad hoc . Good Or Evil? Ceci a au contraire precipite leviction du dirigeant : [] il sagissait de nommer un mandataire ad hoc dont le role est dessayer de rapprocher les parties. Okonkwo Hero? Cest tres simple : le mandataire a ete nomme. Type Of Leader Shogun?? Quinze jours apres, jetais vire. Okonkwo As A Hero? [] La reponse ne sest pas fait attendre. Alloys? (DPuce-E2) . En realite, peu de mecanismes intentionnels sont veritablement efficaces pour resoudre les conflits cognitifs. Okonkwo Hero? Seule, la confiance, en particulier le respect de la justice procedurale et interactionnelle, par la transparence, la fidelite aux discours initiaux et le respect du pacte dautonomie, permettent de renouer avec les fondements de la cooperation et de reduire la complexite sociocognitive du groupe. About Sexting: Pornography?? Dans le cas de Four, ce qui a permis aux acteurs de conserver une certaine confiance malgre les difficultes et les erreurs commises de part et dautre tient precisement a lexperience des comportements qua eue chacune des parties de lautre : Jai vu leurs comportements a eux dans les periodes de crise, ils ont vu mon comportement dans les periodes de crise.

Cest la que se batit la confiance. Okonkwo As A Tragic? [] [Leur comportement] a ete parfait. Books? Il a ete excellent. Okonkwo As A Hero? [] dun point de vue ethique, parfait. Essay Sexting: Is It Child Pornography?? Comme je pense que de mon cote, dun point de vue ethique, jai ete bien aussi. Okonkwo Tragic? On sest retrouve sur ce terrain-la. Essay About The Palace? (DFour-E1). Tragic Hero? Ainsi, les relations directes, frequentes et informelles non seulement permettent a linvestisseur un meilleur controle mais aussi favorisent la collaboration productive et la regulation des conflits cognitifs. Essay Detention? Le dirigeant de Papier accorde beaucoup dimportance aux rencontres frequentes avec les investisseurs qui permettent les echanges : La situation est telle que tous les deux mois, je leur rends compte donc il y a echange. As A Tragic? (DPapier-E1). Wise? Dans le cas de Four, pour eviter de repeter les erreurs passees, les rencontres entre SCI3 et le dirigeant de Four, limoge puis finalement rappele par linvestisseur, sont devenues beaucoup plus frequentes : Maintenant on okonkwo tragic se voit tous les mois. Enthalpy Of Hcl And Naoh? Ce netait pas le cas il y a six mois. Okonkwo As A Tragic? Cest beaucoup.

Ce qui permet de se dire beaucoup plus de choses. Type Of Leader Is A Shogun?? Parce que tous les six mois, vous ne pouvez pas rentrer dans le detail des choses. Okonkwo Hero? Donc il faut se voir plus souvent. Essay About Of Corrective Detention? Une fois que vous laissez les choses passer, cest impossible de rattraper. Okonkwo? (DFour-E1). Les travaux pionniers qui etudient la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant sous langle cognitif, suggerent une collaboration productive relativement forte entre ces acteurs tout au long de loperation de financement meme si elle apparait contingente. Enthalpy Of Hcl? Letude empirique menee ici invite a nuancer limportance de lechange et de la creation de ressources cognitives dans les interactions entre dirigeants et investisseurs. As A? Ceci est du non seulement a un manque de competences specifiques des CI pour les questions autres que celles relevant de lanalyse financiere et a une peur de leur part dengager leur responsabilite mais aussi et surtout a lexistence de conflits sociocognitifs latents, qui se declarent pour peu que les resultats ou les comportements du dirigeants ne satisfont pas linvestisseur. Essay About Sexting: Is It Child Pornography?? La logique disciplinaire liee au changement de gouvernance qui se produit alors vient en contradiction avec la logique cognitive dans la mesure ou elle saccompagne dun renforcement des relations dautorite, de controle, dune activation des clauses contractuelles et ainsi dune remise en cause du pacte dautonomie si cher aux dirigeants quels que soient leur profil et leurs experiences anterieures. Okonkwo? Les conflits portent sur les objectifs et les moyens pour y parvenir, la logique industrielle etant, selon les dirigeants, inevitablement opposee a la logique financiere a horizon de sortie de linvestisseur. Shape-memory Alloys? Le pouvoir devient alors souvent enjeu de conflit soit directement en tant que but du conflit, soit en tant que moyen pour imposer ses volontes. Okonkwo? On observe de la part de certains investisseurs independants majoritaires des tentatives de prise de controle agressives qui remettent en cause la cooperation avec le dirigeant et parfois destabilisent lentreprise en interne et par rapport a ses partenaires exterieurs a tel point quelle nest plus viable.

Ces conflits cognitifs ont des incidences sur les attitudes et les comportements des dirigeants. Of Neutralization? Les dirigeants temoignent dune reactance psychologique aigue vis-a-vis des CI qui oriente leurs comportements vers le recouvrement de leur liberte lorsquils estiment celle-ci menacee. As A Tragic? Ceci limite les capacites des CI a intervenir dans la strategie et certains domaines de la gestion de lentreprise, tels que la GRH. Naturally? Peu de mecanismes intentionnels de gouvernance permettent de reguler ces conflits. As A? Le chantage et la coercition pas plus que la mediation ne sont des solutions efficaces. Enthalpy Of Hcl? En revanche, les dimensions sociales et psychologiques qui fondent la confiance entre CI et dirigeant limitent le risque de conflit et favorisent leur depassement le cas echeant.

En particulier, la logique identitaire de la confiance ainsi que le respect de la justice procedurale par la transparence, des relations frequentes et informelles et lautonomie laissee au dirigeant jouent des roles majeurs a ce niveau. Certes, aucune generalisation des resultats nest possible en raison du petit nombre de cas consideres. Okonkwo Hero? De plus, certains resultats peuvent dependre du caractere relativement avance des entreprises etudiees. Shape-memory? On peut penser notamment que lintervention directe et linfluence des CI sur la GRH est plus importante dans des entreprises plus jeunes, en creation. Okonkwo As A Tragic Hero? Plusieurs travaux ont deja mis en evidence que limplication globale des investisseurs depend du stade de developpement de lentreprise ainsi que de lexperience de ses dirigeants (Sapienza, Gupta, 1994; Gorman, Sahlman, 1989). About Of Corrective? En revanche, letat de reactance psychologique du dirigeant y est probablement plus faible.

Un interet de ce travail a ete de mettre en evidence lexistence de conflits dordre cognitifs, psychologiques et axiologiques qui affectent la collaboration productive, phenomene peu etudie jusqua present. En termes dimplications operationnelles, ces resultats invitent les acteurs en jeu a une plus grande vigilance aux dimensions sociales et psychologiques de la relation de financement par CI. As A Hero? En outre, cette etude souligne limportance de lencastrement social de la relation CI-dirigeant pour reprendre le terme de Granovetter (2000). Detention? Les theories neo-institutionnelles sociologiques pourraient ainsi offrir un eclairage pertinent a lanalyse de cette relation. As A? De plus, cette etude suggere une opposition dans les logiques disciplinaires et cognitives de la gouvernance, ces dernieres sinteressant a la creation de valeur plutot qua la repartition de la valeur entre actionnaires et dirigeant. Enthalpy Of Neutralization And Naoh? Il conviendra danalyser plus avant, dans des travaux ulterieurs, les liens entre ces logiques en vue dune analyse synthetique de la gouvernance des entreprises financees par capital investissement. Okonkwo As A Hero? Lhypothese selon laquelle les conflits cognitifs, lorsquils sont depasses et resolus, peuvent etre constructifs et saccompagner de la creation de ressources cognitives qui na pas ete observee au travers de letude de cas meriterait, elle aussi, de nouvelles recherches.

Les travaux de Korsgaard et al . Naturally? (1995), Sapienza et Korsgaard (1996), Busenitz et al . As A Tragic Hero? (1997) ainsi que Buzenitz et al . Of Hcl? (2004) sont les premiers a sinteresser aux aspects cognitifs et psychologiques qui peuvent influencer la qualite de la relation en sinteressant au sentiment de justice procedurale dans la relation capital investisseur-dirigeant. Lidentifiant des verbatim des CI se compose de deux elements : le nom de la societe de capital investissement a laquelle appartient le representant interroge (ici SCI2) et le numero de lentretien (E1 : premier entretien, E2 : second entretien). Okonkwo As A Hero? Dans le cas de SCI2, une distinction est faite lors du second entretien entre le directeur (DSCI2-E2) et la chargee daffaire (CASCI2-E2). Lidentifiant des verbatim des dirigeants se compose de deux elements : le nom du dirigeant de lentreprise (ici DCable) et le numero de lentretien (E1 : premier entretien, E2 : second entretien). Le terme intentionnel pour qualifier un mecanisme de gouvernance est inspire de la typologie de Charreaux (1997, p.427). What Type Shogun?? Il renvoie ici aux mecanismes decides par les individus. La plupart des travaux qui etudient la dimension cognitive de la gouvernance des entreprises financees par capital investissement (CI), essentiellement de nature quantitative, se focalisent sur laide a la strategie et a la gestion des investisseurs mais ignorent les limites de la collaboration productive, liees notamment a la possibilite de conflits cognitifs.

Au travers dune demarche empirique originale detude qualitative de onze cas, cet article sinterroge sur ces limites, analyse les sources et les manifestations des conflits cognitifs ainsi que leurs consequences sur la collaboration productive. Okonkwo? Il etudie egalement les mecanismes de resolution de ces conflits. Conflicts between venture capitalists and Essay about CEOs. As A Tragic Hero? The cognitive governance view Most of the are humans naturally good or evil studies about the tragic hero cognitive governance of are humans naturally or evil firms financed by okonkwo tragic, Venture Capital are quantitative and of neutralization focussed on okonkwo as a the influence of good or evil VCs on okonkwo firmsstrategy and wise books management. Okonkwo Hero? But few studies deal with the wise brown books limits of hero productive collaboration and Essay about cognitive conflicts between Venture Capitalist and okonkwo tragic CEO. Are Humans Naturally Good Or Evil? On the okonkwo hero basis of Essay about The Palace Detention original empirical qualitative case studies, this research underlines those limits. Okonkwo As A Tragic? It analyses the Essay reasons why conflicts occur and tragic hero shows their consequences on alloys productive collaboration. Okonkwo As A Tragic? This paper studies also the shape-memory alloys mechanisms which help to tragic hero regulate conflicts.

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ENG 122 Entire Course English Composition II. ENG 122 Entire Course English Composition II. ENG 122 Week 1 Assignment Annotated Bibliography. ENG 122 Week 1 DQ 1 What Is an Argument? ENG 122 Week 1 DQ 2 Argument, Keyword, and Thesis Statement Workshop. ENG 122 Week 2 Assignment Final Research Paper Outline. ENG 122 Week 2 DQ 1 Building an as a tragic hero, Argument. ENG 122 Week 2 DQ 2 Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Academic Honesty Workshop. ENG 122 Week 3 Assignment Final Research Paper Draft.

ENG 122 Week 3 DQ 1 Using Syllogisms to Avoid Fallacy. ENG 122 Week 3 DQ 2 Writing Your Conclusion Workshop. ENG 122 Week 4 DQ 1 Plagiarism and margaret wise Logic Self-Check. ENG 122 Week 4 Final Exam. ENG 122 Week 5 DQ Revisiting Argument, Research, and Scholarly Writing. ENG 122 Week 5 Final Research Paper. Annotated Bibliography. Due by Day 7. An annotated bibliography begins the preliminary research process.

The document will serve as an tragic hero, ongoing list of Essay about Sexting: Child, sources that will support your Final Research Paper. Each of the sources should be cited in APA format (for help, click on APA Formatting Instructions for Microsoft Word) and should include a two-paragraph summary, or annotation, of the resource contents and as a tragic hero how you intend to use the Essay about Detention, information within your paper. Be sure to utilize the information from this week#x2019;s Argument and Thesis Workshop discussion, and refer to okonkwo as a tragic hero #x201C;Research Paper Guidelines,#x201D; available in or evil, your online course, for additional support. Before beginning, please review the Model Annotated Bibliography. To fulfill the research component of this assignment, you must: #x2022; #xB7; Conduct several searches using any of the databases in the Ashford University Library. #x2022; #xB7; Select at okonkwo tragic, least five scholarly peer-reviewed sources from your library search that support the topics and. arguments you plan to present in your Final Research Paper. To fulfill the written component of this assignment, you must: o #xB7; Include a title page that is Essay Sexting: Is It Child formatted in proper APA style. o #xB7; List APA-style references in alphabetical order along with your unique paragraph summaries. o #xB7; Format your assignment according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Your. annotated bibliography should be double-spaced with one-inch margins and use 12-point Times New Roman font. Your annotations should contain. o #xB7; A paraphrased summary, in your words, of the information presented in the article. o #xB7; Your analysis of the best use of this information in okonkwo tragic hero, your paper. o #xB7; An identification of the topic sentence the information will support. The bibliography must be 500 to 700 words in length and formatted according to are humans good APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. What Is an Argument? 1st Post Due by Day 3. Prepare.

#x2022; #xB7; As you prepare to write your first discussion this week, take a few moments to do the following: #x2022; #xB7; Review the grading rubric for this discussion. #x2022; #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on okonkwo as a the idea of type of leader shogun?, argument in an academic setting. Think about your own natural communication style and your typical behavior in an argument. Are you typically calm and logical when making an okonkwo tragic hero, argument? Do you tend to of neutralization of hcl appeal to emotion?

Do you often get frustrated when trying to prove your point? Think critically about your personal communication style and its effectiveness in an academic setting. #x2022; Write (due Thursday, Day 3) In 200 to 300 words, describe argument in your own words. Include the roles of the four basic elements of an argument in as a, your description. Give an example of an argument you have experienced and identify the claims, evidence, counterargument, and rebuttal used. If you cannot think of an example from your own life, you may analyze the persuasive student paper,Flag Burning, from the Ashford Writing Center instead. You must identify claims, evidence, counterarguments, and rebuttals present in the student paper. Be sure to include any questions or confusion you have regarding rhetoric, argument, and the Classic/Rogerian styles.

Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #xB7; In 125 to 200 words each, respond to at least two classmates. In each response, address your classmate#x2019;s. questions and concerns with information from class and your own research or web search. Then, analyze your classmate#x2019;s description of argument and provide additional information or share examples of the basic elements of an argument. #x2022; #xB7; As you prepare to enthalpy of neutralization of hcl write your second discussion for okonkwo tragic hero this week, be sure to complete the following: #xA7;Read Chapters 1, 3, 4.2, and Appendix A in the textbook. #xA7; Read #x201C;An Introduction to enthalpy of hcl Argument.#x201D; #xA7; Review the Ashford University Library#x2019;s Nitty gritty: Generating keywords tutorial #xA7; Review the Ashford University Library#x2019;s Quick #x2018;n#x2019; dirty tutorial. #xA7; Review the hero, grading rubric for this discussion. #x2022; #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on the approved research topics for your final paper. Considering the information in this week#x2019;s instructor guidance and readings, choose the research topic that suits you best.

Choose a topic that is Essay Sexting: Child Pornography? interesting, has a clear argument, and allows you to remain objective. We will be using research and logic to okonkwo as a tragic hero support our arguments in this class. Essay About Sexting: Is It Child Pornography?! It may be difficult to remain objective if you feel emotionally or spiritually connected to the subject. Write (due Thursday, Day 3) #x2022; #xB7; In 200 to 300 words, share your chosen research topic for okonkwo tragic this class and write a few sentences on each of. #x2022; #xB7; Share the kind of argument you hope to make and why.

o #xB7; Identify five to ten keywords for your library research and explain your choices. o #xB7; Write a single-sentence thesis statement for your research paper and compare it to the #x201C;Thesis Checklist.#x201D; o #xB7; Include any areas of confusion or questions you have for the class and/or your instructor. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #x2022; #xB7; In 125 to of leader shogun? 200 words each, respond to at least two classmates. Tragic Hero! Provide feedback on any area of confusion. #x2022; and answer any questions your classmate has posted. Support your responses with information from the course materials (including the textbook), instructor guidance, articles, Ashford University Library, and Ashford Writing Center. Be sure to include. #x2022; o A detailed explanation of why you agree (or disagree) with your classmate#x2019;s chosen style of argument for the research paper topic chosen. You are required to enthalpy of neutralization of hcl format your assignment as a full-sentence outline in APA style (see the Outline Form in the Ashford Writing Center) that includes source material from at least two scholarly sources from last week#x2019;sresearch along with additional research, if necessary. Be sure to incorporate any useful feedback you have received from tragic your instructor and classmates.

The outline must be 400 to 500 words in length and formatted according to APA style. For information regarding APA, including samples and shape-memory tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, located within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar, in your online course. #xB7; As you prepare to write your first discussion for this week, take a few moments to do the following: o Watch Models of Non-Fiction Writing: Presenting an Argument in the AU Library#x2019;s Films on. o Watch Evidence in Argument: Critical Thinking in the AU Library#x2019;s Films on Demand database o Review last week#x2019;s supplemental, #x201C;An Introduction to hero Argument#x201D; o Review the grading rubric for this discussion. #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on the structure of a successful argument. Think about the structure of an argument and shape-memory alloys how it may relate to as a your paper. Decide what approach will be best suited to your specific argument. Write (due Thursday, Day 3) #xB7; In 200 to 300 words, present a plan for the argument you will be presenting in your paper. In a few.

sentences each, identify and explain the following items for your specific argument: o Ethos, pathos, and logos. o Thesis statement (the paper#x2019;s position) o At least two claims. o At least two counterarguments and plans for rebuttal. o Questions or concerns regarding the development of your argument. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #xB7; In 125 to 200 words each, respond to at least two classmates. In each response, address all questions and. concerns with clear and enthalpy of neutralization of hcl concise information and okonkwo advice. What Of Leader Is A! Then, analyze your classmate#x2019;s proposed argument structure and describe why the argument seems valid. If the okonkwo tragic, argument is not valid, identify errors or omissions and provide suggestions for improvement. #xB7; As you prepare to naturally good or evil write your second discussion for tragic hero this week, take a few moments to do the following: oRead Chapters 2 and 4 in of leader is a shogun?, the textbook.

o Review the Ashford Writing Center (AWC) articles on. #xA7; Good Paragraph Development: As Easy as P.I.E. #xA7; Essay Structure, Guidelines for Paraphrasing Sources #xA7; Guidelines for Quoting Sources. o Review the grading rubric for this discussion. #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on one of the paragraphs in your paper. Does your topic sentence in as a, that paragraph support your thesis statement?

Is the claim in Sexting: Is It Child Pornography?, your topic sentence fully developed in the rest of the as a, body paragraph? Think about your topic sentence#x2019;s claim and what of leader how you will add credibility to as a your writing. Write (due Thursday, Day 3) #xB7; In 200 to 300 words, share one of your body paragraphs. Your paragraph must include a topic sentence, one direct quote, and one paraphrased passage. Integrate both of these elements into your paragraph using. proper APA in-text citations. In a final paragraph, provide the original text that you are paraphrasing. Include an APA-formatted reference list for the sources noted in the body of Essay of Corrective, your paragraph. #xB7; In a separate paragraph, o Explain how your topic sentence supports your thesis statement. o Explain how the quoted and paraphrased material supports your claims and/or adds credibility to. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #xB7; In 125 to 200 words each, discuss and critique the paragraphs of at least two of your classmates.

Please. analyze and discuss the. o Use of APA formatting. o Integration of the hero, direct quote and paraphrased material. o Questions and concerns regarding the development of the paragraph and topic sentence. #xB7; Substantiate your ideas and suggestions with specific examples from your classmates#x2019; paragraphs and are humans good or evil theassigned reading materials. The Final Research Paper Draft must contain the following components: #x2022; #xB7; A title page and a references page (based upon your annotated bibliography). #x2022; #xB7; An introduction that features a thesis statement that is clearly articulated and argumentative and/or. analytical. Ideally, the introduction should be a single, compelling paragraph.

#x2022; #xB7; Body paragraphs that develop at least one research-supported argument. (Note: The body of your paper. should feature in-text citations that leverage at least four different sources.) #x2022; #xB7; APA-style formatting, including properly documented citations. Your draft must be 750 to 2,000 words in hero, length, excluding the about The Palace of Corrective, title and references pages. Remember to tragic proofread your work for errors in grammar, mechanics, style, and formatting. Submit as much work as possible, whether it is a full or partial draft. Please refer to #x201C;Research Paper Guidelines#x201D; as well as Week Five for the Final Research Paper instructions. The purpose of the what type is a shogun?, Final Research Paper Draft is to ensure you are making satisfactory progress on your Final Research Paper while providing you with an opportunity to receive direction and as a hero feedback from your instructor.

If you find that you are struggling to complete the draft, make sure that you have read and reviewed this week#x2019;s required activities. Additionally, consider contacting your instructor for additional one-on-one guidance. #xB7; As you prepare to write your first discussion for this week, complete the of hcl and naoh, following: o Read #x201C;An Introduction to Logic and Syllogisms.#x201D; o Watch Syllogism, Mood, and as a Figure via YouTube. o Review the grading rubric for this discussion. #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on the logos in your paper. Have you given logic and wise books reason enough emphasis? Are you concerned about fallacies in your work? Think about each claim and the evidence and rebuttals supporting it.

Is the okonkwo tragic, counterargument too strong? Is your evidence and rebuttal strong enough? Write (due Thursday, Day 3) #xB7; In 200 to 300 words, share at least one syllogism in support of your paper. Choose one idea from your paper and list the categorical syllogism along with its parts in the following format: o Syllogism: Deductive or inductive?__________________________________________________ oPremise 1 Claim and Evidence: o Premise 2 Claim and Evidence: #xB7; End your post with any questions or concerns you have regarding logos, syllogisms, or fallacies. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #xB7; In 125 to 200 words each, respond to at least two classmates.

In each response, begin by addressing your. classmate#x2019;s questions and concerns. Then, review the of hcl and naoh, syllogism for possible fallacies. Also, state whether you agree that it is an as a tragic hero, inductive or deductive syllogism and shape-memory explain why. Finally, share your thoughts on okonkwo tragic the research selected to support the premises. Has your classmate provided enough evidence?

As you prepare to write your second discussion for type is a shogun? this week, take a few moments to okonkwo as a tragic do the following: #x2022; #xB7; Read the Ashford Writing Center (AWC) articles on Introductions and Conclusions and type is a shogun? Essay Structure. #x2022; #xB7; Review the grading rubric for tragic this discussion. #x2022; #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on your closing argument. Does your conclusion reemphasize the important points that you have made in your essay? Have you summarized your main points and rephrased your thesis statement? Do the final lines of your conclusion leave your readers with something interesting to consider? Write (due Thursday, Day 3) #x2022; #xB7; In 200 to 300 words, share your concluding paragraph. Your conclusion should reiterate the position of.

your paper by summarizing your main points and rephrased thesis statement. In a final paragraph, share. your original thesis statement. #x2022; #xB7; In a separate paragraph, identify and explain the following: o What is your conclusion#x2019;s closing argument? o In addition, note any questions you may have regarding your conclusion (e.g., rephrased thesis statement, summarized main points, etc.) so your classmates can assist you. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #xB7; In 125 to 200 words each, discuss and enthalpy of neutralization of hcl and naoh critique the concluding paragraphs of at least two of okonkwo, your. classmates. Please identify, analyze, and discuss the following: o Rephrased thesis statement. o Main points of the argument (e.g., are the main points summarized?) o Closing argument (e.g., was the Essay Detention, thesis proven?) o Questions and concerns regarding the development of the closing argument. #xB7; Substantiate your ideas and suggestions with specific examples from your classmates#x2019; concludingparagraphs and the assigned reading materials. #x2022; #xB7; As you prepare to write your first discussion for this week, take a few moments to okonkwo tragic hero do the following: #xA7; Read Chapter 4, Section 4.3 in the textbook.

#xA7; Read the AWC#x2019;s Guidelines for Paraphrasing Sources and Integrating Quotes Into Your Essay. #xA7;Review the Essay about Pornography?, AWC#x2019;s Recognizing Plagiarism and Avoiding Plagiarism. #xA7; Review the okonkwo as a tragic, Turnitin Student FAQ, available in about Sexting: Pornography?, class under #x201C;Learning Resources#x201D; #x2022; #xB7; Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on everything you#x2019;ve learned about argument, logic, and fallacy over the last month. Reread your draft with an eye on logic and as a make note of wise, any fallacies you catch or claims that lack support. #x2022; #xB7; Take another look at as a hero, your draft with an Essay The Palace Detention, eye on your use of okonkwo, outside sources. Keep an eye out for missing quotation marks, poorly paraphrased information, and in-text citations.

Make note of any errors or concerns you discover. Brown! Utilize the Turnitin tool to help you review your work. Write (due Thursday, Day 3) #xB7; In 200 to 300 words, share your plagiarism and okonkwo hero logic self-check experience. Describe your process and. the items you uncovered during your review. In a few sentences, explain how you will correct the issues and ask questions if you need help or advice. You may also share some of your best quotes, paraphrases, and logical passages with the class.

Be sure to explain why your chosen sections are #x201C;the best,#x201D; and how this process will influence your work in the future. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7) #xB7; In 125 to 200 words each, respond to at least two classmates. In each response, provide answers and. advice to your classmate. About Is It Child! Relate your plagiarism and logic self-check experience to the experience your classmate has described.

Consider the similarities, differences, and outcomes between the two. 1. Using #x201C;natural language#x201D; in a database search is MOST likely to produce WHICH of the following results? 2. As A Hero! An in-text citation for a compilation or edited book would look like: 3. About Of Corrective! According to Aristotle, the statement with evidence to support it is necessary in all arguments. This statement is okonkwo as a tragic called. 4. A parent topic is a good starting point for ALL BUT ONE of the following reasons: 5. The reference-page citation format for a book includes the following information in the following order.

6. We can expect that the work of research will NOT provide us with which of the following? 7. Which of the following sources is likely NOT useful beyond the information it contains? 8. Identify the correct reference-page citation format for an online journal article. 9. Limiting the scope of your research project can involve all of the following, EXCEPT. 10.

Classic argument is based upon ancient Greek rhetoric and argument. 11. Shape-memory Alloys! Which thesis statement offers a strong position for a persuasive paper? 12. All of the following criteria help writers gauge their interest in a topic, EXCEPT: 13. Facts that are common knowledge that are generally known by many people and can easily be found or referenced need to be documented. 14. Claiming that something is tragic true merely because one believes it to be true is known as. 15. Research skills are primarily valued for what type of leader shogun? which of the following reasons?

16. Okonkwo Tragic! When starting a writing project, researchers should approach their research topic as all of the enthalpy of neutralization and naoh, following EXCEPT: 17. #x201C;I always vote with the Republican Party. My beliefs are their beliefs.#x201D; This is an okonkwo tragic hero, example of. 18. Which of the following is what type is a shogun? UNLIKELY to help the reader find BASIC information on a topic?

19. Which of the following makes researchers passive rather than active in as a hero, the research process? 20. Shogun?! The majority of your research should be conducted. 21. The use of precise synonyms is MOST helpful for which of the following reasons? 22. One of the consequences for academic dishonesty at Ashford is. 23. How are background sources MOST relevant to researchers?

24. Which of the tragic, following is the shape-memory, BEST way to okonkwo as a hero begin the research process? 25. Ideas and information that constitute common knowledge don#x2019;t need to be cited. 26. Is A! Lesser-known ideas and interpretations of okonkwo tragic hero, common knowledge need to naturally or evil be documented. 27. Which of the following is not a feature of a paper#x2019;s title page? 28.

An interpretive framework for an essay should include all of the following EXCEPT. 29. Which of the following strategies is NOT used to narrow a subject search? 30. #x201C;Rules against cheating are stupid because people cheat all the time and rarely get caught.#x201D; This is an example of. 31. Using the acronym #x201C;BEAM#x201D; helps researchers in which of the following ways? 32. Google searches never result in appropriate results for a research-based paper. 33.

Choose the best thesis statement. 34. A topic sentence must be followed by supporting evidence. 35. Hero! What definition BEST describes the relationship between sibling topics and central topics? 36. Meticulously planning out one#x2019;s writing ahead of time most often results in WHICH of the about Sexting: Is It Child, following? 37.

The final section of a research paper (usually the last page) is titled. 38. When starting your search for peer reviewed scholarly sources, which of the following types of databases is your BEST choice? 39. Which of the following BEST describes the use of subjectivity and opinions in a research project? 40. Which one of the as a tragic hero, following strategies will NOT help you work through confusion? 41. Essay About Of Corrective! If you are found responsible for violating the okonkwo, Academic Dishonestly polic, and there are multiple instances of academic dishonesty violations, or a singular violation is egregious, you will be referred to the Student Affairs department for review. 42. Which of the following BEST describes the purpose of shape-memory alloys, a thesis?

43. Which of the following is NOT considered a viable criterion for evaluating sources? 44. When using the BEAM style of okonkwo as a tragic, evaluation, which of the following is UNLIKELY to of neutralization occur? 45. As A Tragic Hero! Which ONE of the following research purposes offers the best contribution to the field? 46. Which of the are humans or evil, following types of sources is LEAST likely to meet your research needs?

47. Peer review is NOT able to provide us with which of the following? 48. Which of the following is as a tragic generally NOT helpful in books, a conclusion? 49. To assess research needs, a researcher should begin with WHICH ONE of the following elements? 50. In order to develop knowledge of a subject, which of the following is NOT considered essential? 51. Writers who treat readers as fellow researchers do all of the following EXCEPT.

52. Okonkwo As A Tragic! Which of the following statement is about The Palace Detention a myth about writing? 53. Which of the following statements BEST describes plagiarism? 54. The drafting stage of the writing process all of the following strategies, EXCEPT. 55. Choose the best thesis statement. 56. As you finalize the essential and supporting questions of the research stage, you need to reconsider coherency to determine WHICH of the following scenarios: 57.

Quoted passages from your sources provide all of the following strengths to an essay EXCEPT. 58. Which of the following is the okonkwo as a hero, BEST definition of small-scale research project? 59. Top-level headings in Essay about Sexting: Child, your research paper should be. 60. Which of the following is NOT a reason to use subject-specific databases? 61. Okonkwo Tragic Hero! A sentence fragment may be corrected by. 62.

Which of the following BEST describes the purpose of a thesis? 63. Enthalpy Of Hcl And Naoh! An interpretive account should include all of the following EXCEPT. 64. Hero! Once a writer has completed the about, first stages of the okonkwo tragic hero, research project, which of the following is MOST recommended? 65. Which ONE of the following is considered an of leader is a, advanced reading goal? 66. Academic reading entails all of the following traits, EXCEPT. 67. Tragic! Researchers are LEAST likely to shape-memory alloys want to know which of the following from tragic hero their sources?

68. Which of the type is a shogun?, following is NOT advised to overcome #x201C;writer#x2019;s block??#x201D; 69. Synthesizing research is important work for all of the following reasons EXCEPT: 70. Okonkwo Tragic! Acts of plagiarism include, but are not limited to:

71. The concept of about Detention, #x201C;search construction#x201D; allows researchers to do all of the following, EXCEPT: 72. As A Tragic! A bad thesis will often contain all of the following, EXCEPT. 73. #x201C;Secret organizations are watching our every move. The fact that we know nothing about Essay about, them shows how powerful they actually are.#x201D; This is an okonkwo, example of.

74. If you are confused about an issue, which of the or evil, following strategies is as a MOST effective? 75. Passage-based free-writing helps writers do all of the following? Revisiting Argument, Research, and Scholarly Writing. Shape-memory Alloys! 1st Post Due by Day 3. Prepare. As you prepare to write your final discussion for this class, take a few moments to do the following: #x2022; #xB7; Read and complete the ENG122 playbook chart. #x2022; #xB7; Review the hero, grading rubric for this discussion. Before drafting your initial post, take time to reflect on your earlier assumptions regarding argument, research, and scholarly writing. What has changed over enthalpy of neutralization and naoh the last five weeks?

What have you learned, and hero how will you apply your new skills and knowledge to activities in of neutralization, the future? Write (due Thursday, Day 3) In 200 to 300 words, complete the ENG122 playbook chart below, and add any additional comments you#x2019;d like to as a share regarding this class. Tips for writing a thesis statement are: These tips will be useful for wise writing a thesis throughout your Ashford courses. Tips for paraphrasing and quoting are: Example of paraphrased text w/citation: Example of direct quote of as a hero, text w/citation: These tips will be useful for quoting and paraphrasing throughout your Ashford courses.

Three things I will focus on Essay about Sexting: Is It Child Pornography? improving in my writing are: Strategies I will use to improve in these areas are: These strategies will be useful throughout your Ashford courses as you improve your writing. Resources I can access to help me improve in these areas are: You will use these resources to support your research and okonkwo tragic formatting throughout your time at Ashford. My reflection on my progress in this course: Throughout your time at Ashford, reflect on alloys the personal, professional, and okonkwo hero academic growth. you have seen within yourself throughout each course. Guided Response (due Monday, Day 7)

In 125 to Essay Sexting: Is It Pornography? 200 words each, respond to at least two classmates. In each response, review each section of the playbook and offer helpful advice, encouragement, resources, and information to as a tragic your classmates. Final Research Paper. Due by Day 7. Before you submit your Final Research Paper, make sure that you have. #x2022; #xB7; Reviewed the #x201C;Research Paper Guidelines,#x201D; available in your online course, to ensure your paper. addresses all required components and develops a clear position in response to one of the writing prompts. #x2022; #xB7; Reviewed the Model Final Research Paper in order to understand expectations for the assignment. #x2022; #xB7; Incorporated a minimum of five scholarly sources. #x2022; #xB7; Provided well-researched evidence to support each claim.

#x2022; #xB7; Incorporated feedback or suggestions into your revisions. #x2022; #xB7; Proofread your final draft for what is a shogun? errors in grammar, mechanics, and style. #x2022; #xB7; Written a paper that is approximately seven to ten pages total in length, including. o five to seven pages of okonkwo as a tragic hero, body text (1,500 to 2,000 words) o a references page. #xB7; Formatted your paper according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Your Final Research Paper will be assessed on the following components: o #xB7; APA formatting. Writing the Final Research Paper. The Final Research Paper.

#x25AA; #xB7; Must have a body length of five to seven double-spaced pages formatted according to APA style as. outlined in are humans or evil, the Ashford Writing Center. #x25AA; #xB7; Must include a separate title page with the following: o Title of paper. o Student#x2019;s name. o Course name and okonkwo as a tragic hero number o Instructor#x2019;s name. o Date submitted. #x25AA; #xB7; Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. #x25AA; #xB7; Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought, well-supported claims, and properly cited. #x25AA; #xB7; Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. #x25AA; #xB7; Must use and cite at least five scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library.

#x25AA; #xB7; Must document all sources in enthalpy of neutralization, APA style as outlined in okonkwo, the Ashford Writing Center. #x25AA; #xB7; Must include a separate references page that is of neutralization and naoh formatted according to APA style as outlined in the. Ashford Writing Center. 149 9th St., Suite 404. Are you sure you want to delete your account?

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eighth grade essaya Writing standards for okonkwo as a, eighth grade define the shape-memory alloys knowledge and skills needed for writing proficiency at this grade level. By understanding 8th grade writing standards, parents can be more effective in helping their children meet grade level expectations. What is 8th Grade Writing? In Grade 8, students refine and build upon previously learned knowledge and skills in as a tragic, increasingly complex essays. Essay? On a regular basis, 8th grade students are expected to produce coherent and focused multi-paragraph essays that are error-free and feature varied sentence structure. Eighth grade students are able to select and use different forms of okonkwo, writing for specific purposes such as to inform, persuade, or entertain. Eighth-graders edit their writing based on their knowledge of grammar and usage, spelling, punctuation, and wise books other conventions of written language. In eighth grade, students use every phase of the writing process and continue to build their knowledge of writing conventions. Students use citations competently, follow research report formats, and present written reports incorporating graphics and okonkwo as a tragic media.

What Writing Standards Measure. Academic standards are very specific, detailing every aspect of what students are expected to achieve in each grade. Organized into five key areas, writing standards focus on: Writing process, writing purposes (what students write), writing evaluation, writing conventions (grammar and usage), and research/inquiry for writing. The following writing standards represent what states* typically specify as 8th grade benchmarks in writing proficiency. Eighth grade writing standards focus on wise, the writing process as the primary tool to help children become independent writers.

In Grade 8, students are taught to use each phase of the process as follows: Prewriting: In grade 8, students generate ideas from multiple sources and use strategies and tools (e.g., technology, spreadsheets, Venn Diagrams, plot pyramids, notes, and outlines) to develop a personal organizational style. Students choose the form of writing that best suits the intended purpose and then make a plan for writing that prioritizes ideas, addresses purpose, audience, main idea, logical sequence, and timeframe for completion. Drafting: In eighth grade, students develop drafts by categorizing ideas, organizing them into paragraphs, and blending paragraphs within larger units of text. Writing exhibits the students awareness of audience and purpose.

Drafts establish a controlling impression, have a coherent thesis, and end with a clear, well-supported conclusion. In eighth grade, students are expected to offer substantial and relevant supporting evidence in the form of analogies, paraphrases, quotations, opinions from okonkwo authorities, comparisons, and similar devices. Students analyze the language techniques of Essay about Is It Child Pornography?, professional authors, including rhythm and as a tragic varied sentence structure, demonstrating a command of language with a freshness of shape-memory, expression. Revising: In eighth grade, students revise selected drafts by okonkwo as a, elaborating, deleting, combining, and rearranging text. Goals for revision include improving coherence, progression, and of leader is a shogun? the logical support of okonkwo as a tragic hero, ideas and content.

Eighth-graders revise their writing for word choice; appropriate organization; consistent point of view; voice; and transitions between paragraphs, passages, and ideas. Other grade 8 revision techniques include developing relationships among ideas using parallel structures and creating precision and interest through creative language devices. Editing: Students edit their writing to ensure standard usage, varied sentence structure, and of neutralization appropriate word choice (e.g., eliminating slang). Eighth graders proofread for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling, using reference materials, word processor, and other resources, (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus). Publishing: Using technology, eighth graders refine and publish their work frequently in a format appropriate to audience and purpose (e.g., manuscript, multimedia).

Published pieces use appropriate formatting and as a tragic hero graphics (e.g., tables, drawings, charts, graphs) when applicable to enhance the appearance of the document. Use of technology: Eighth grade students use available technology to enthalpy of hcl and naoh support aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts. Students compose documents with appropriate formatting by using word-processing skills and principles of tragic, design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing, columns, page orientation). In eighth grade, students write to express, discover, record, develop, reflect on ideas, and to problem solve, and produce texts of at least 500 to 700 words. Margaret Wise Books? Specifically, 8th grade writing standards stipulate that students write in the following forms: Narrative: Eighth grade students write biographies, autobiographies, short stories, or personal narratives that develop an engaging plot (including rising action, conflict, suspense, climax, falling action and resolution), and that use narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison or contrast of okonkwo hero, characters). Narrative essays in Is It Pornography?, the eighth grade relate a clear, coherent incident, event, or situation by using well-chosen details. Students are also expected to reveal the as a tragic significance of, or the enthalpy of neutralization and naoh writers attitude about, the subject. Okonkwo As A Hero? Expository: Eighth grade students write a variety of specialized expository/informational essays (e.g., process, description, explanation, comparison/contrast, problem/solution) that include a thesis statement, supporting details, an organizational structure particular to its type, and introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs. Other 8th grade expository writing applications include informal communications (e.g., friendly letters, thank you notes); and shape-memory formal communications (e.g., business letters, invitations, job applications) that have a conventional format and require students to present information purposefully and succinctly to meet the needs of the as a tragic intended audience. Students also write directions to of hcl unfamiliar locations and record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, legends), correctly citing sources.

Research Reports: In 8th grade, students define a thesis and record important ideas, concepts, and direct quotations from significant information sources and paraphrase and summarize relevant perspectives on okonkwo as a tragic, the topic. Shape-memory? Writing should use a variety of primary and secondary sources and distinguish the nature and value of each. Students organize and display information on charts, maps, and graphs in support of the text. Persuasive: Students write to influence, such as to okonkwo tragic hero persuade, argue, and request. In grade 8, persuasive essays should have a well-defined thesis that makes a clear and about The Palace Detention knowledgeable judgment, Eighth grade persuasive essays should present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support arguments, differentiating between facts and okonkwo tragic hero opinion, and naturally or evil arranging evidence effectively by okonkwo as a hero, anticipating and answering reader concerns and counterarguments. In addition to essays, an what is a shogun? eighth grade persuasive writing assignment could be an advertisement, speech, or public service announcement.

In tackling these writing tasks, students use persuasive techniques such as word choice, repetition, emotional appeal, hyperbole, appeal to okonkwo tragic hero authority, celebrity endorsement, rhetorical question, irony, symbols, glittering generalities, and card stacking. Creative: Students write to entertain in a variety of expressive forms (e.g., realistic fiction, one-act play, suspense story, humorous poems) that according to shape-memory alloys the type of hero, writing employed, incorporate figurative language, rhythm, dialogue, characterization, plot, and appropriate format. Responses to Literature: Eighth grade students develop an enthalpy of neutralization of hcl and naoh interpretation exhibiting careful reading and insight. Students should draw inferences about the effects of the okonkwo as a tragic hero literary work on its audience and of neutralization of hcl describe their own responses to the writers techniques and specific portions of the text. Eighth graders are expected to okonkwo tragic hero support their judgments through references to the text, other works, other authors, or to personal knowledge. Technical Documents: Students in eighth grade write essays to identify the sequence of activities needed to design a system, operate a tool, or explain the bylaws of an organization. These essays include all the factors and variables that need to be considered and use formatting techniques (e.g., headings, differing fonts) to aid comprehension. In addition, eighth-graders choose the are humans appropriate form for their own purpose for okonkwo as a hero, writing, including journals, letters, editorials, reviews, poems, memoirs, narratives, and instructions. Grade 8: Writing Evaluation.

Eighth grade students learn to respond constructively to others writing and determine if their own writing achieves its purposes. In Grade 8, students also apply criteria to evaluate writing and analyze published examples as models for writing. Writing standards recommend that each student keep and review a collection of his/her own written work to determine its strengths and brown weaknesses and to set goals as a writer. In addition, eighth grade students evaluate the purposes and effects of okonkwo hero, film, print, and naturally or evil technology presentations. Students assess how language, medium, and presentation contribute to meaning. Grade 8: Written English Language Conventions. Students in eighth grade are expected to write with more complex sentences, capitalization, and punctuation.

In particular, eighth grade writing standards specify these key markers of tragic hero, proficiency: Write in complete sentences, including compound and complex sentences. Use varied sentence types and sentence openings to present a lively and effective personal style. Identify and use parallelism, including similar grammatical forms, in all written discourse to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis. Use subordination, coordination, apposition, and Essay Pornography? other devices to indicate clearly the relationship between ideas. Edit written manuscripts to okonkwo tragic hero ensure correct Standard English usage, including subject-verb agreement, noun/pronoun agreement, and the eight parts of speech (noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, conjunction, preposition, interjection). Use regular and irregular verb tenses appropriately and consistently such as present, past, future, perfect, and progressive.

Use adjectives (comparative and shape-memory superlative forms) and okonkwo adverbs appropriately to make writing vivid or precise. Use prepositional phrases to elaborate written ideas. Use conjunctions to connect ideas meaningfully. Write with increasing accuracy when using pronoun case such as She stepped between them and us. Punctuate correctly to clarify and enhance meaning such as using hyphens, semicolons, colons, apostrophes, quotation marks, and sentence punctuation. Write with increasing accuracy when using apostrophes in what shogun?, contractions (doesnt) and possessives (Texass). Capitalize correctly to clarify and tragic hero enhance meaning. Eighth-graders pay particular attention to capitalization of are humans, names of academic courses (e.g., Algebra I) and proper adjectives (e.g., German shepherd, Italian restaurant). Use knowledge of spelling rules, orthographic patterns, generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, and okonkwo roots, including Greek and Latin root words. Spell derivatives correctly by applying the spellings of Essay of Corrective, bases and affixes. Spell frequently misspelled words correctly (e.g., their, theyre, there).

Understand the influence of other languages and cultures on the spelling of English words. Use dictionary, thesaurus, or other resources as necessary and spell accurately in final drafts. Write fluidly and legibly in cursive or manuscript as appropriate. Grade 8: Research and Inquiry. In eighth grade, students select and use reference materials and resources as needed for okonkwo, writing, revising, and editing final drafts. Students learn how to margaret wise books gather information systematically and use writing as a tool for research and inquiry in the following ways: Achieve an effective balance between researched information and original ideas. Organize prior knowledge about a topic in okonkwo tragic, a variety of ways such as by producing a graphic organizer. Ask and shape-memory evaluate questions for research. Develop ideas leading to inquiry, investigation, and research. Take notes, summarize, and organize ideas gained from multiple relevant and okonkwo as a authoritative sources.

Make use of such tools as outlines, conceptual maps, learning logs, and timelines. Plan and conduct multiple-step information searches using the Internet. Follow accepted formats for writing research. Enthalpy? Give credit for both quoted and paraphrased information in a bibliography by as a, using a consistent and sanctioned format and methodology for citations. Eighth Grade Writing Tests. In many states, eighth graders take standardized writing assessments, either with pencil and paper or on a computer. Enthalpy Of Neutralization Of Hcl And Naoh? While tests vary, students are typically given questions about grammar and mechanics, as well as timed essay-writing exercises in which they must write an essay in response to a writing prompt. On eighth grade essay writing tests, students demonstrate their ability to produce an effective composition for a specific purpose, as well as their command of the conventions of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure.

In some states, students revising and editing skills are tested with multiple-choice questions on reading passages. Tragic Hero? Students are asked to indicate how a particular sentence might be corrected or improved or how the organization or development of a paragraph might be strengthened. Tests may also require students to proofread for correct punctuation, capitalization, word choice, and shape-memory alloys spelling. Another type of question asks students to okonkwo as a tragic hero write a summary statement in response to a reading passage. In addition, 8th grade students are given classroom-based eighth grade writing tests and writing portfolio evaluations. State writing assessments are correlated to naturally good state writing standards. These standards-based tests measure what students know in relation to okonkwo as a tragic what theyve been taught. If students do well on school writing assignments, they should do well on such a test. Enthalpy Of Neutralization Of Hcl? Educators consider standards-based tests to be the most useful as these tests show how each student is okonkwo as a tragic meeting grade-level expectations.

These assessments are designed to pinpoint where each student needs improvement and help teachers tailor instruction to fit individual needs. Margaret Wise? State departments of education usually include information on writing standards and writing assessments on okonkwo as a tragic, their websites, including testing guidelines and sample questions. Writing Test Preparation. The best writing test preparation in margaret, eighth grade is okonkwo tragic hero simply encouraging your student to write, raising awareness of the what of leader is a shogun? written word, and offering guidance on okonkwo hero, writing homework. Talk about writing and share appropriate articles and books with your child. Students learn to write effectively when they write more often. Suggest keeping a journal, writing movie reviews for the family, or writing the procedures for using a new piece of home equipment. Any writing is valuable practice. By becoming familiar with 8th grade writing standards, parents can offer more constructive homework support.

Remember, the best writing help for kids is not to The Palace Detention correct their essays, but offer positive feedback that prompts them to as a tragic use the strategies of writing process to enthalpy of neutralization of hcl and naoh revise their own work. Time4Writing Online Writing Courses Support 8th Grade Writing Standards. Time4Writing is an excellent complement to eighth grade writing curriculum. Developed by classroom teachers, Time4Writing targets the fundamentals of writing. Students build writing skills and deepen their understanding of the writing process by working on standard-based, grade-appropriate writing tasks under the individual guidance of as a tragic hero, a certified teacher. Writing on a computer inspires many students, even reluctant writers.

Learn more about Time4Writing online courses for of hcl, eighth grade. For more information about general learning objectives for eighth grade students including math and language arts, please visit Time4Learning.com. *K-12 writing standards are defined by each state. Time4Writing relies on tragic hero, a representative sampling of state writing standards, notably from Florida, Texas, and California, as well as on the standards published by nationally recognized education organizations, such as the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association.