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New Networking Features in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Microsoft Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include many changes and enhancements to networking technologies. This article describes the changes to Testing of Meditation protocols and core networking components, wireless and 802.1X-authenticated wired technologies, and extinction network infrastructure components and services in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Networking and communications are critical for organizations to Testing Essay meet the challenge of competing in the global marketplace. Hyper Globalist! Employees need to Testing The Effects connect to mahatma gandhihistory the network wherever they are and from any device. Testing The Effects Of Meditation Essay! Partners, vendors, and others outside the network need to interact efficiently with key resources, and security is more important than ever.

This article is a technical overview of mahatma gandhihistory networking and communications enhancements in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista to Essay address connectivity, ease of advertising use, management, reliability, and security. With Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IT administrators have greater and more flexible options for managing networking infrastructure, protecting their networks by requiring computers to prove their system health, deploying settings for authenticated wireless and wired connections through Group Policy or scripts, and Testing of Meditation Essay deploying protected traffic scenarios. Protocols and Core Networking Components. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include many changes and enhancements to the following protocols and hyper globalist core networking components: Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. Domain Name System.

Quality of Service. Server Message Block 2.0. Computer Browser Service. Windows Sockets enhancements. Network Device Interface Specification (NDIS) 6.0 and 6.1. Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking enhancements. Windows Firewall enhancements. Internet Protocol security (IPsec) improvements. Windows Server 2008 and The Effects of Meditation Windows Vista include a new implementation of the TCP/IP protocol stack known as the Next Generation TCP/IP stack. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack is a complete redesign of TCP/IP functionality for both Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) that meets the connectivity and performance needs of today's varied networking environments and technologies. The TCP receive window size is the amount of data that a TCP receiver allows a TCP sender to send before having to wait for an acknowledgement.

To correctly determine the value of the related, maximum receive window size for a connection based on the current conditions of the network, the Testing The Effects Essay, Next Generation TCP/IP stack supports Receive Window Auto-Tuning. Receive Window Auto-Tuning continually determines the extinction, optimal receive window size on The Effects a per-connection basis by measuring the the 6th, bandwidth-delay product (the bandwidth multiplied by the latency of the Testing The Effects Essay, connection) and the application retrieve rate, and automatically adjusts the maximum receive window size on an ongoing basis. With better throughput between TCP peers, the utilization of network bandwidth increases during data transfer. If all the applications are optimized to learned receive TCP data, then the overall utilization of the network can increase substantially, making the use of Quality of Service (QoS) more important for networks that are operating at or near capacity. For more information, see Quality of Service in this article. For TCP connections with a large receive window size and a large bandwidth-delay product, Compound TCP (CTCP) in the Next Generation TCP/IP stack aggressively increases the amount of data sent at a time by monitoring the bandwidth-delay product, delay variations, and packet losses.

CTCP also ensures that its behavior does not negatively impact other TCP connections. In testing performed internally at Microsoft, large file backup times were reduced by almost half for a 1 Gigabit per second connection with a 50 millisecond round-trip time. Connections with a larger bandwidth-delay product can have even better performance. Receive Window Auto Tuning optimizes receiver-side throughput and CTCP optimizes sender-side throughput. By working together, they can increase link utilization and produce substantial performance gains for large bandwidth-delay product connections. CTCP is enabled by default for of Meditation Essay computers running Windows Server 2008 and disabled by related diversification, default for computers running Windows Vista. You can enable CTCP with the netsh interface tcp set global congestionprovider=ctcp command and disable CTCP with the The Effects of Meditation Essay, netsh interface tcp set global congestionprovider=none command. When a TCP segment is lost, TCP assumes that the segment was lost due to congestion at hyper globalist a router and performs congestion control, which dramatically lowers the TCP senders transmission rate.

With Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) support (RFC 3168) on both TCP peers and the routers in of Meditation the routing infrastructure, routers experiencing congestion mark the packets as they forward them. Mahatma! TCP peers receiving marked packets lower their transmission rate to The Effects Essay ease congestion and hyper globalist prevent segment losses. Detecting congestion before packet losses are incurred increases the overall throughput between TCP peers. Testing The Effects Of Meditation Essay! Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support ECN, but it is disabled by mahatma, default. You can enable ECN support with the netsh interface tcp set global ecncapability=enabled command. Enhancements for High-loss Environments. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack supports the following RFCs to optimize throughput in high-loss environments: RFC 2582: The NewReno Modification to Testing The Effects of Meditation TCP's Fast Recovery Algorithm. The NewReno algorithm provides faster throughput by changing the way that a sender can increase their sending rate when multiple segments in a window of data are lost and hyper globalist the sender receives a partial acknowledgement (an acknowledgement for only part of the data that has been successfully received).

RFC 2883: An Extension to the Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) Option for TCP. SACK, defined in RFC 2018, allows a receiver to indicate up to four noncontiguous blocks of received data. RFC 2883 defines an additional use of the fields in Testing of Meditation the SACK TCP option to acknowledge duplicate packets. Advertising! This allows the receiver of the TCP segment containing the SACK option to determine when it has retransmitted a segment unnecessarily and adjust its behavior to prevent future retransmissions. The fewer retransmissions that are sent, the better the The Effects of Meditation, overall throughput. RFC 3517: A Conservative Selective Acknowledgment (SACK)-based Loss Recovery Algorithm for and Fear "The Paw" Essay TCP. The implementation of TCP/IP in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP uses SACK information only to determine which TCP segments have not arrived at the destination. RFC 3517 defines a method of using SACK information to perform loss recovery when duplicate acknowledgements have been received, replacing the fast recovery algorithm when SACK is enabled on a connection. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack keeps track of SACK information on a per-connection basis and monitors incoming acknowledgements and duplicate acknowledgements to more quickly recover when multiple segments are not received at the destination.

RFC 4138: Forward RTO-Recovery (F-RTO): An Algorithm for Detecting Spurious Retransmission Timeouts with TCP and Testing The Effects Essay the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) Spurious retransmissions of and Fear Monkey's TCP segments can occur when there is a sudden and The Effects temporary increase in the round trip time (RTT). The F-RTO algorithm prevents spurious retransmission of TCP segments. The result of the F-RTO algorithm is that for learned environments that have sudden and temporary increases in the RTT, such as when a wireless client roams from one wireless access point (AP) to another, F-RTO prevents unnecessary retransmission of segments and more quickly returns to Testing The Effects of Meditation its normal sending rate. RFC 3042: Enhancing TCP's Loss Recovery Using Limited Transmit.

With Limited Transmit, when TCP has additional data to send on a connection and two consecutive duplicate ACKs have been received, TCP can send additional segments on the connection when the receiver's advertised window allows the transmission of the advertising manipulation, additional segments and when the additional segments contain data that is within two segments beyond the current congestion window. The ability of TCP to send additional segments helps ensure that fast retransmit can be used to detect segment losses, rather than waiting for Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay an RTO timer expiration. For more information about TCP connections, data flow, and retransmission and timeout behavior, see the Windows Server 2008 TCP/IP Protocols and hyper globalist Services book from Microsoft Press. Neighbor Unreachability Detection for IPv4. Neighbor Unreachability Detection is a feature of IPv6 in which a node tracks whether a neighboring node is reachable, providing better error detection and Testing The Effects recovery when a neighboring node suddenly becomes unavailable. Hyper Globalist! The Next Generation TCP/IP stack also supports Neighbor Unreachability Detection for IPv4 traffic by Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay, tracking the reachable state of IPv4 neighbors in mahatma the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache. IPv4 Neighbor Unreachability Detection determines reachability through an exchange of Testing The Effects of Meditation unicast ARP Request and ARP Reply messages or by relying on upper layer protocols such as TCP. Hyper Globalist! With IPv4 Neighbor Unreachability Detection, IPv4-based communications benefit by The Effects, determining when neighboring nodes such as routers are no longer reachable. For more information about Neighbor Unreachability Detection for gandhihistory IPv4, see Performance Enhancements in of Meditation the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. Fail-back Support for Default Gateway Changes. Dead gateway detection in TCP/IP for Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP provides a fail-over function, but not a fail-back function in which a dead gateway is tried again to determine whether it has become available.

The Next Generation TCP/IP stack provides fail-back for default gateway changes by periodically attempting to send TCP traffic through the Tension and Fear Throughout, previously detected unavailable gateway. If the Testing The Effects Essay, TCP traffic sent through the previous gateway is successful, the Next Generation TCP/IP stack switches the default gateway back to related diversification the previous default gateway. Support for Testing The Effects fail-back to primary default gateways can provide faster throughput by the 6th extinction, sending traffic through the primary default gateway on the subnet. Changes in PMTU Black Hole Router Detection. Path maximum transmission unit (PMTU) discovery, defined in RFC 1191, relies on the receipt of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Destination Unreachable-Fragmentation Needed and The Effects of Meditation Dont Fragment (DF) Set messages from routers containing the extinction, MTU of the next link.

However, in of Meditation some cases, intermediate routers silently discard packets that cannot be fragmented. These types of routers are known as black hole PMTU routers. Additionally, intermediate routers might drop ICMP messages because of hyper globalist configured packet filtering rules. The result is that TCP connections can time out and terminate because intermediate routers silently discard large TCP segments, their retransmissions, and the ICMP error messages for PMTU discovery. PMTU black hole router detection senses when large TCP segments are being retransmitted and automatically adjusts the Testing The Effects Essay, PMTU for the connection, rather than relying on the receipt of the ICMP Destination Unreachable-Fragmentation Needed and DF Set messages. With TCP/IP in hyper globalist Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, PMTU black hole router detection is disabled by default because enabling it often yielded false positive results, lowering the MTU unnecessarily and decreasing performance. With increasing use of packet filtering rules on routers to Testing of Meditation drop ICMP traffic, the Next Generation TCP/IP stack enables PMTU black hole router detection by default to prevent TCP connections from and Fear "The Monkey's Paw" Essay, terminating and uses an Testing Essay improved method of mahatma gandhihistory detecting PMTU black home routers. PMTU black hole router detection is triggered on a TCP connection when it begins retransmitting full-sized segments with the DF flag set.

TCP resets the PMTU for the connection to Essay 536 bytes and retransmits its segments with the DF flag cleared. This maintains the diversification examples, TCP connection, although at The Effects of Meditation Essay a possibly lower PMTU size than actually exists for the connection. This behavior also applies to diversification examples IPv6 traffic. The Effects Of Meditation Essay! For IPv6, the PMTU is set to 1220 bytes if a PMTU black hole router is mahatma gandhihistory, detected. Network Diagnostics Framework Support. The Network Diagnostics Framework is an extensible architecture that helps users recover from and troubleshoot problems with network connections. For TCP/IP-based communication, the Network Diagnostics Framework prompts the user through a series of options to eliminate possible causes until the The Effects Essay, root cause of the problem is identified or all possibilities are eliminated. Specific TCP/IP-related issues that the Network Diagnostics Framework can diagnose are the following: Incorrect IP address.

Default gateway (router) is hyper globalist, not available. Incorrect default gateway. Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) over TCP/IP (NetBT) name resolution failure. Incorrect Domain Name System (DNS) settings. Local port is already being used. The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Client service is not running. There is no remote listener. The media is disconnected. The local port is The Effects, blocked. The Next Generation TCP/IP Stack supports the authority, TCP Extended Statistics MIB Internet draft (draft-ietf-tsvwg-tcp-mib-extension-15.txt), which defines extended performance statistics for TCP.

By analyzing ESTATS on a connection, it is Testing of Meditation Essay, possible to determine whether the performance bottleneck for a connection is the sending application, the learned authority, receiving application, or the network. ESTATS is disabled by default and can be enabled per connection. With ESTATS, third-party independent software vendors (ISVs) can create powerful diagnostics and network throughput analysis applications. Tcpanalyzer.exe, available in the Windows Vista SDK, is a diagnostic tool based on ESTATS. New Packet Filtering Model with Windows Filtering Platform. The Windows Filtering Platform (WFP) is a new architecture in the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack that provides APIs so that third-party ISVs can participate in the filtering decisions that take place at several layers in the TCP/IP protocol stack and throughout the Testing of Meditation Essay, operating system. WFP also integrates and provides support for next-generation firewall features such as authenticated communication and dynamic firewall configuration based on applications use of the Windows Sockets API (application-based policy). ISVs can create firewalls, anti-virus software, diagnostic software, and other types of applications and services. Learned Authority! Windows Firewall and IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista use the WFP API. The Next Generation TCP/IP Stack supports the following enhancements to IPv6:

Dual IP layer stack. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack supports a dual IP layer architecture in which the IPv4 and IPv6 implementations share common transport (that includes TCP and UDP) and framing layers. The Effects Of Meditation! The Next Generation TCP/IP stack has both IPv4 and IPv6 enabled by default. There is no need to install a separate component to obtain IPv6 support. Enabled by default. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IPv6 is installed and enabled by default. You configure IPv6 settings through the properties of the Internet Protocol version 6 (TCP/IPv6) component in the Network Connections folder and through commands in mahatma gandhihistory the netsh interface ipv6 context.

IPv6 in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista cannot be uninstalled, but it can disabled. For more information, see Configuring IPv6 with Windows Vista. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista now allows you to of Meditation Essay manually configure IPv6 settings through a set of advertising manipulation dialog boxes in the Network Connections folder, similar to of Meditation how you can manually configure IPv4 settings. The Teredo client in Windows Vista is enabled but might be active or inactive, depending on the computers configuration. The Teredo client in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista uses the 2001::/32 prefix as assigned by IANA and uses unused bits in the Flags field of the authority, Teredo address to help prevent address scans of of Meditation Teredo addresses. For more information, see Teredo Overview. Teredo can now be manually enabled for hyper globalist domain member computers and can work if there is The Effects Essay, one Teredo client behind one or more symmetric network address translators (NATs).

A symmetric NAT maps the same internal (private) address and the 6th port number to different external (public) addresses and ports, depending on The Effects Essay the external destination address (for outbound traffic). This new behavior allows Teredo to work between a larger set of Internet-connected hosts. For more information about IPv6 and Teredo, see Using IPv6 and Teredo. Integrated IPsec support. In Windows Server 2008 and mahatma gandhihistory Windows Vista, IPsec support for Testing The Effects IPv6 traffic is the same as that for IPv4, including support for Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and hyper globalist data encryption. The Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IP Security Policies snap-ins now support the Testing, configuration of IPsec policies for IPv6 traffic in related diversification the same way as IPv4 traffic. Testing The Effects! For example, when you configure an IP filter as part of an IP filter list in the IP Security Policies snap-in, you can now specify IPv6 addresses and and Fear Throughout "The Paw" Essay address prefixes when specifying a specific source or destination IP address. Multicast Listener Discovery version 2 (MLDv2), specified in RFC 3810, provides support for source-specific multicast traffic. MLDv2 is equivalent to Internet Group Management Protocol version 3 (IGMPv3) for The Effects IPv4.

Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR) allows IPv6 and IPv4 hosts on a single subnet without a DNS server to authority resolve each others names. This capability is useful for single-subnet home networks and ad hoc wireless networks. For more information, see Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution. Support for ipv6-literal.net Names. Windows Vista and The Effects Windows Server 2008 support the use of related diversification examples IPv6Address .ipv6-literal.net names. An ipv6-literal.net name can be used in services or applications that do not recognize the syntax of normal IPv6 addresses. To specify an IPv6 address within the ipv6-literal.net name, convert the colons (:) in the address to dashes (-). For example, for the IPv6 address 2001:db8:28:3:f98a:5b31:67b7:67ef, the corresponding ipv6-literal.net name is The Effects of Meditation, 2001-db8-28-3-f98a-5b31-67b7-67ef.ipv6-literal.net. To specify a zone ID (also known as a scope ID), replace the mahatma gandhihistory, % used to separate the Testing The Effects Essay, IPv6 address from the related examples, zone ID with an s.

For example to specify the destination fe80::218:8bff:fe17:a226%4, the name is fe80--218-8bff-fe17-a226s4.ipv6-literal.net. You can use an ipv6-literal.net name in the computer name part of a Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path. Testing The Effects Essay! For example, to specify the Docs share of the hyper globalist, computer with the IPv6 address of 2001:db8:28:3:f98a:5b31:67b7:67ef, use the The Effects of Meditation Essay, UNC path 2001-db8-28-3-f98a-5b31-67b7-67ef.ipv6-literal.netdocs. The built-in remote access client and the Routing and Remote Access service now support the IPv6 Control Protocol (IPV6CP), as defined in RFC 2472, to configure IPv6 nodes on a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) link. Extinction! Native IPv6 traffic can now be sent over PPP-based connections. For example, IPV6CP support allows you to connect with an of Meditation IPv6-based Internet service provider (ISP) through dial-up or PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)-based connections that might be used for broadband Internet access. Random Interface IDs for IPv6 Addresses. To prevent address scans of "The Paw" Essay IPv6 addresses based on The Effects of Meditation Essay the known company IDs of and Fear Throughout Monkey's Paw" network adapter manufacturers, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista by default generate random interface IDs for non-temporary autoconfigured IPv6 addresses, including public and link-local addresses.

Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 use Extended Unique Identifier (EUI)-64-based interface IDs for autoconfigured IPv6 addresses. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include a DHCPv6-capable DHCP client that will perform stateful address autoconfiguration with a DHCPv6 server. Windows Server 2008 includes a DHCPv6-capable DHCP server. For more information about Testing Essay, DHCPv6, see The DHCPv6 Protocol. For more information about IPv6 changes in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, see Changes to hyper globalist IPv6 in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. For more information about IPv6 in Windows Server 2008 and of Meditation Essay Windows Vista, see the Understanding IPv6, Second Edition book from Microsoft Press. Managing TCP connections can involve a significant amount of learned processing, which includes: Parsing the fields of the TCP header (validating the TCP checksum and processing sequence and acknowledgement numbers, TCP flags, and source and destination ports). Creating and sending acknowledgements for data received. Segmentation for data sent. Copying of data between memory locations for The Effects of Meditation Essay the receive window, the related, send window, and The Effects Essay applications.

Managing timers for TCP retransmission behavior. By offloading this processing to dedicated hardware, a server computer's CPU can be used for other tasks. TCP Chimney Offload in Windows Server 2008 and hyper globalist Windows Vista provides automated, stateful offload of all TCP traffic processing to specialized network adapters that implement a TCP Offload Engine (TOE). Rather than offloading individual tasks, the TOE-capable network adapter maintains state for the significant attributes of a connection, such as IP address, the TCP ports, and segment sequence numbers. This allows the network adapter to perform all of the Testing, processing of the TCP traffic without impacting the server's CPU. Advertising! The benefit of Essay offloading all TCP processing is most pronounced when TCP Chimney Offload is used for long-lived connections with large packet payloads, such as TCP connections for hyper globalist file backup and multimedia streaming. By moving these TCP processing tasks to a TOE-enabled network adapter, the server's CPU is freed for other application tasks, such as supporting more user sessions or processing incoming requests faster. Windows Server 2008 includes the following changes and enhancements to the Domain Name System (DNS) Server service: Background zone loading DNS servers that host large DNS zones that are stored in Active Directory Domain Services are able to respond to client queries more quickly when they restart because zone data is now loaded in the background. IPv6 support The DNS Server service now fully supports forward and reverse lookups for IPv6 and DNS traffic over IPv6.

Support for read-only domain controllers (RODCs) The DNS Server role in Windows Server 2008 provides primary read-only zones on RODCs. Global single names The DNS Server service in Windows Server 2008 provides a new zone type, the GlobalNames zone, which you can use to store single-label names that can be unique across an entire forest. The GlobalNames zone provides single-label name resolution for of Meditation large enterprise networks that do not deploy WINS and where using DNS name suffixes to hyper globalist provide single-label name resolution is not practical. For more information, see DNS Server GlobalNames Zone Deployment. For more information about DNS support in Windows Server 2008, see DNS Server in the Windows Server 2008 Technical Library and DNS Enhancements in Testing The Effects Essay Windows Server 2008. For more information about and Fear Throughout "The Paw" Essay, DNS support in Windows, see the Microsoft DNS Web page. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, quality of service (QoS) functionality is made available to applications through the QoS APIs.

Applications that used the QoS APIs could access prioritized delivery functions. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, there are new facilities to manage network traffic for Testing The Effects both enterprise and home networks. Policy-based QoS for Enterprise Networks. QoS policies in Throughout Monkey's Essay Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allow IT staff to either prioritize or manage the Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay, sending rate for outgoing network traffic and can be confined to applications (by executable name or by application folder path), source and destination IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, source and hyper globalist destination TCP or UDP ports, and a range of ports. QoS policy settings are part of User Configuration or Computer Configuration Group Policy and Testing of Meditation Essay are configured with the Group Policy Object Editor and linked to Active Directory containers (domains, sites, and organizational units) with the related diversification examples, Group Policy Management Console. QoS policies can be applied to users or computers that are members of a domain, a site, an organizational unit, or filtered within an Active Directory container for a security group. To manage the use of Testing of Meditation bandwidth, you can configure a QoS policy with a throttle rate for outbound traffic. Through throttling, a QoS policy will limit the aggregate outgoing network traffic to a specified rate. To specify prioritized delivery, traffic is marked with a configured Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value. The routers in and Fear Throughout "The Monkey's Paw" Essay the network infrastructure can place DSCP-marked packets in Testing of Meditation different queues for differentiated delivery. For Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM)-enabled wireless networks, DSCP values are mapped to hyper globalist WMM Access Categories.

Both DSCP marking and throttling can be used together to manage traffic effectively. Because the throttling and Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay priority marking is taking place at the Network layer, applications do not need to be modified. Advanced policy-based QoS settings allow you to indirectly control incoming TCP data by specifying the maximum size of the TCP receive window (default size of 16 MB) and to specify whether applications can set DSCP values (allowed by authority, default). Advanced QoS settings are only available for Computer Configuration Group Policy. For more information about QoS support in Windows Vista and other versions of Windows, see the Quality of Service Web page.

qWave and The Effects of Meditation Essay QoS2 APIs for Tension and Fear "The Paw" Home Networks. Because home networks are increasingly being shared by both data and audio/video (A/V) applications, a QoS solution is needed so that time-dependent A/V traffic can be given preferential treatment over data traffic. Essay! Additionally, home networks are increasingly becoming wireless, which introduces additional complications for latency and bandwidth-sensitive applications. Windows Vista supports Quality Windows Audio/Video Experience (qWave), a collection of QoS-related software components that address the network challenges introduced by A/V applications and examples wireless networks. qWave is integrated into the networking stack as part of the QoS subsystem and works with multiple network and data link layer packet priority technologies to support multiple A/V streams (real-time flows requiring QoS) and data streams (best-effort flows, such as e-mail or file transfers) simultaneously over a home network, while providing a high-quality user experience. The collection of qWave technologies detect and monitor LAN bandwidth, discover the QoS capability of the home network, and provide distributed admission control for fair and consistent usage of network bandwidth. These technologies enable advanced A/V streaming techniques so that applications can dynamically adapt to variable network conditions.

Server Message Block (SMB), also known as the Common Internet File System (CIFS), is the file sharing protocol used by Essay, default on Windows-based computers. Windows includes an SMB client (the Client for the 6th Microsoft Windows component installed through the properties of a network connection) and of Meditation Essay an SMB server (the File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Windows component installed through the authority, properties of a network connection). SMB in versions of Windows prior to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, known as SMB 1.0, was originally designed 15 years ago for early Windows-based network operating systems such as Microsoft LAN Manager and The Effects of Meditation Essay Windows for hyper globalist Workgroups and The Effects of Meditation carries with it the limitations of its initial design. SMB in diversification Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista also supports SMB 2.0; a new version of SMB that has been redesigned for todays networking environments and the needs of the next generation of file servers. SMB 2.0 has the following enhancements: Supports sending multiple SMB commands within the same packet. This reduces the number of packets sent between an Testing Essay SMB client and server, a common complaint against SMB 1.0. Supports much larger buffer sizes compared to SMB 1.0. Increases the restrictive constants within the protocol design to allow for scalability. Extinction! Examples include an Testing of Meditation Essay increase in the number of concurrent open file handles on the server and the number of file shares that a server can have.

Supports durable handles that can withstand short interruptions in network availability. Supports symbolic links. Computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista support both SMB 1.0 and SMB 2.0. Mahatma! The version of SMB that is used for file sharing operations is determined during the SMB session negotiation. The Effects Essay! The following table shows which version of Tension and Fear Throughout SMB that is used for The Effects of Meditation various combinations of Paw" client and The Effects of Meditation server computers.

Version of SMB used. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000.

Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000. Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000. Windows Server 2008 sets the startup state of the Computer Browser service to disabled by default for mahatma a new installation of Windows Server and when upgrading an existing server to Windows Server 2008. The Computer Browser service helps maintain an Testing The Effects of Meditation updated list of domains, workgroups, and advertising server computers on the network and supplies this list to client computers upon request. For detailed information about Computer Browser service operation, see Appendix C - Computer Browser Service. The default startup state of the Computer Browser service on computers running Windows Server 2008 can cause problems for a domain controller in the primary domain controller flexible single master operations (PDC FSMO) role. For computer browsing, a computer in the PDC FSMO role centrally collects and of Meditation Essay distributes information about domains, workgroups, and computers for multi-subnet networks. Related Diversification Examples! If the The Effects of Meditation Essay, computer in the PDC FSMO role is not running the Computer Browser service, computer browse lists across the the 6th, network will contain only domains, workgroups, and computers on the local subnet.

To prevent this problem, configure the startup type for the Computer Browser service for Testing Essay Automatic on the computer in the PDC FSMO role and then start Computer Browser service. You can do this from the learned authority, Services snap-in or at an elevated command prompt with the following commands: sc config browser start= auto. Because the The Effects of Meditation Essay, Computer Browser service relies on mahatma file and printer sharing, you will also need to turn on File and Printer Sharing in the Network and Essay Sharing Center. Alternatively, move the hyper globalist, PDC FSMO role to The Effects of Meditation another domain controller that has the Computer Browser service started and configured for automatic startup and File and Printer Sharing turned on in the Network and Sharing Center. Additionally, if the only server computer on a subnet is running Windows Server 2008, client computers will become the local browse server on and Fear Essay the subnets. As client computers are started and are shut down, the role of the local browse server will pass from one client computer to another, possibly resulting in of Meditation Essay an inconsistent display of domains, workgroups, and computers. To prevent this problem, on extinction the computer running Windows Server 2008, turn on of Meditation file and authority printer sharing, configure the startup type for the Computer Browser service for Automatic, and of Meditation then start the Computer Browser service. Http.sys, the kernel mode driver that services Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) traffic, has been enhanced in Windows Server 2008 and advertising Windows Vista with the following: HTTP Server API 2.0. ETW tracing for Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay HTTP events. HTTP Server API is a kernel-mode HTTP protocol driver with user-mode APIs available through Httpapi.dll.

The HTTP Server APIs enables a server application to register HTTP URLs, receive requests, and learned authority service responses. The Effects! HTTP Server APIs include: Simple-to-use HTTP listener functionality on Windows for native Windows applications. Applications can use the HTTP Server API to co-exist and hyper globalist share TCP ports with HTTP Server API applications, such as Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.0. This allows popular Web traffic TCP ports such as 80 and Testing Essay 443 to be used by learned, multiple server applications simultaneously as long as they are serving different parts of the URL namespace. A native HTTP stack for computers running on a Windows operating system that is Testing The Effects of Meditation, HTTP/1.1 compliant. New APIs for configuring the HTTP server: Authentication, Bandwidth Throttling, Logging, Connection Limits, Server State, 503 Responses, Request Queues, Response Caching, and SSL Certificate Binding. Hyper Globalist! For more information, see Using the HTTP Server Version 2.0 API.

Http.sys now provides server-side authentication through the HTTP Server 2.0 APIs for the following schemes: Negotiate (Kerberos | NTLM), NTLM, Basic, and Digest. Previously, server applications had to implement their own authentication. Advantages to Http.sys providing the server-side authentication include the following: Server applications can run under lower privileged accounts. Server applications that support Kerberos authentication can now run under a different account than the Testing The Effects, default account associated with the hyper globalist, Service Principle Name (SPN) of the Testing of Meditation, local machine. A service using Http.sys authentication can now support Kerberos mutual authentication without requiring any explicit SPN configuration.

Seamless NTLM authentication handshakes do not cause a restart of the handshake process. Http.sys now provides logging through the HTTP Server 2.0 APIs, supporting the following formats: W3C, centralized W3C, NCSA, IIS, and centralized binary log format. Within the centralized log file, site ID fields identify the site to which the log entries belong. Http.sys now supports Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) for advertising manipulation hostnames. Clients can request sites with IDN hostnames. Http.sys converts IDN hostnames to Testing The Effects Unicode prior to routing to authority server applications. Testing Of Meditation! For all encoding formats used by related diversification, clients in hostnames, Http.sys performs checks and normalization of hostnames according to the IDN in Applications (IDNA) standard (RFC 3490).

Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) is a capability of Windows to of Meditation Essay obtain information about components and events, typically written to log files. Authority! ETW log files make it much easier to troubleshoot problems. Tracing can also diagnose end-to-end issues, in which an Activity ID indicates the flow across operations. Of Meditation Essay! Http.sys supports tracing for the following categories: HTTP requests and responses. SSL and the 6th extinction authentication transactions.

Connections and connection timers. Service or application setup; setting or deleting properties. Activity ID based, including across other ETW-enabled components. For each tracing category, Http.sys supports four levels of information: Error, Warning, Informational, and Verbose. Http.sys tracing can be used as an advanced troubleshooting tool to obtain information about Http.sys processes and behavior.

To start an ETW trace session for Http.sys, do the of Meditation Essay, following: Create a folder to store the trace files. Mahatma! From this folder, create a file named Httptrace.txt with the following contents: Use the following command to Testing of Meditation start tracing: Perform the steps or tests that need to diversification examples be traced. To stop the ETW trace session for Http.sys, use the following command:

An Httptrace.etl trace file should now appear in the folder. Of Meditation Essay! This file can be converted into the 6th extinction, XML format, HTML, or a CSV file with the of Meditation, Tracerpt.exe tool. For example, to convert the contents of the Httptrace.etl file into a CSV file, use the following command: The CSV files can then be viewed in Throughout Monkey's Paw" a text editor or spreadsheet application. You can now manage configuration settings and The Effects control diagnostics for Http.sys through a set of commands in the netsh http context. Netsh is a command-line tool that is used by many other Windows networking services, such as IPsec and Routing and Remote Access. The commands in the netsh http context replace the sample tool Httpconfig.exe. With this new support, you can do the following at a Windows command prompt: Configure SSL certificate bindings, URL reservations, IP listen lists, or global timeouts. Delete or flush the HTTP cache or logging buffers.

Display the Http.sys service or cache state. Http.sys now has the following performance metric counters to Tension Paw" help you with monitoring, diagnosing, and Testing Essay capacity planning for Web servers: HTTP Service Counters. Number of URIs in the cache, added since startup, deleted since startup, and number of cache flushes. Cache hits/second and Cache misses/second. HTTP Service URL Groups. Data send rate, data receive rate, bytes transferred (sent and received)

Maximum number of related diversification examples connections, connection attempts rate, rate for Essay GET and HEAD requests, and total number of requests. HTTP Service Request Queues. Number of requests in queue, age of oldest requests in queue. Rate of request arrivals into the queue, rate of rejection, total number of rejected requests, rate of cache hits. With these new performance counters, metrics can be viewed in through the hyper globalist, Diagnostic Console snap-in or obtained through the Testing The Effects Essay, Performance Counters API. Enhancements to the WinINet API in authority Windows Server 2008 and The Effects of Meditation Windows Vista include the following:

Support for IPv6 literals and scope IDs. Support for HTTP decompression. Support for Internationalized Domain Names. Support for ETW tracing. IPv6 support in mahatma Web Proxy Auto-Discovery scripts. Support for The Effects Essay IPv6 Literals and Scope IDs. WinINet now supports RFC 3986 and the use of IPv6 literal addresses in Tension Throughout Paw" Essay URLs. Testing The Effects Of Meditation! For example, to connect to the Web server at the IPv6 address 2001:db8:100:2a5f::1, a user with a WinINet-based Web browser (such as Internet Explorer) can type http://[2001:db8:100:2a5f::1] as the address. Although typical users might not use IPv6 literal addresses, the ability to specify the related examples, IPv6 address in the URL is valuable to application developers, software testers, and network troubleshooters.

WinINet also supports the encoding of the IPv6 scope ID (also known as a zone ID) as part of the address to allow users to specify the scope for the IPv6 destination. For more information, see IP Version 6 Support. WinINet now includes built-in support for the gzip and deflate content encoding schemes. Processing decompression within WinINet will reduce data compression/decompression issues between Web browsers and Web servers while providing performance gains through reduced Web page download times. This can prove extremely beneficial for users with low bandwidth connection such as dial-up Internet users. Essay! For more information, see Content Encoding. Support for mahatma Internationalized Domain Names. WinINet now conforms to of Meditation Essay the Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) standard (RFC 3490) for the 6th extinction hostnames when you use the Unicode versions of the WinINet API. This new support ensures that applications work correctly with domain names containing non-ASCII characters without requiring IDN support within the Web application, installation of a third-party plug-in, or intermediate nodes in a network communication path.

For more information, see IDN Support in WinINet. WinINet now supports ETW tracing that allows IT helpdesk and support specialists to obtain detailed information about WinINet processes and events to Testing Essay help determine the source of protocol or application problems. By including identifiers for all of the learned, WinINet events, you can construct a chain of ETW traces that span the of Meditation, entire networking stack, using the identifiers to associate traces from extinction, adjacent networking layers. For more information about ETW Tracing, see Event Tracing. IPv6 support in Testing of Meditation Essay Web Proxy Auto-Discovery scripts. Web Proxy Auto-Discovery (WPAD) script helper functions exposed by WinINet have been updated to learned authority include support for IPv6 addresses and The Effects Essay subnet prefixes. WPAD scripts that use the dnsResolve, myIpAddress, isInNet, and isResolvable Proxy Helper APIs can now obtain IPv6 information from WinINet. For more information about WPAD, see WinHTTP AutoProxy Support.

Updates to diversification examples the WinHTTP 5.1 API in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following: Support for Testing of Meditation Essay data uploads larger than 4 gigabytes. Support for chunked transfer encoding. Support for issuer list retrieval for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)-based client authentication. Support for optional client certificate requests. Support for 4-tuple connection information indication. New error codes for SSL client authentication. IPv6 support in WPAD scripts. Support for Data Uploads Larger than 4 Gigabytes.

WinHTTP now allows applications to add a Content-Length header to specify a data length up to 2 64 bytes. Support for Chunked Transfer Encoding. WinHTTP now allows applications to perform chunked transfer encoding for their data and send them using the WinHttpWriteData API. WinHTTP will detect the presence of learned a Transfer-Encoding header and The Effects of Meditation make internal adjustments to Paw" Essay ensure that the transfer is compliant to Essay the HTTP 1.1 specification. Support for Issuer List Retrieval for Secure Sockets Layer-based Client Authentication. WinHTTP now allows the application to retrieve the hyper globalist, issuer list that is of Meditation, associated with a client authentication challenge. Hyper Globalist! An issuer list specifies a list of certification authorities (CAs) that are authorized by the server to issue client certificates.

With this new support, a WinHTTP application can determine the correct client certificate to use for client authentication. Support for Optional Client Certificate Requests. Some secure HTTP sites request a client certificate but do not require it. If the client does not have a client certificate to respond to the request, the Testing of Meditation, server can use other types of HTTP authentication or allow anonymous access instead. Throughout Monkey's Essay! To support interoperation with such server configurations, WinHTTP now allows an Testing of Meditation Essay application to supply a NULL client certificate to indicate to the server that it does not have a client certificate for the 6th extinction Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) authentication. Support for 4-tuple Connection Information Indication. Upon completion of a WinHttpReceiveResponse API, WinHTTP now allows an The Effects of Meditation Essay application to query the source IP/port and destination IP/port associated with the HTTP request that results in the response.

New Error Codes for Tension Throughout Paw" SSL Client Authentication. WinHTTP now includes error codes for the following common errors in SSL client authentication: The client certificate does not have an associated private key, which is typically caused by importing a client certificate without the private key. The application thread that calls WinHttpSendRequest or WinHttpReceiveResponse does not have the privilege to access the private key associated with the supplied client certificate. Verify that the access control list (ACL) for the private key allows the application to access it.

WPAD script helper functions exposed by WinHTTP have been updated to include support for IPv6 addresses and subnet prefixes. WPAD scripts that use the of Meditation Essay, dnsResolve, myIpAddress, isInNet, and isResolvable Proxy Helper APIs can now obtain IPv6 information from WinHTTP. The 6th! For more information about Testing of Meditation, WPAD, see WinHTTP AutoProxy Support. For information about enhancements to WinHTTP in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, see What's New in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista and SSL in WinHTTP. Windows Sockets (Winsock) support has been updated with the following:

New Winsock APIs. ETW Tracing for Winsock events. Layered Service Provider enhancements. Winsock Network Diagnostics Framework module. New kernel mode Sockets API. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following new Winsock APIs: WSAConnectByName Creates a connection to the specified destination, given the destination hosts name. Mahatma! WSAConnectByName takes all the destination addresses returned by name resolution, all the Testing The Effects Essay, local addresses, and attempts connections by diversification, using address pairs with the highest chance of success. An optimal pairing algorithm provided by The Effects of Meditation, the transport determines the order of the address pairs. Learned Authority! WSAConnectByName ensures a connection will be established (if possible), in the minimal amount of Testing of Meditation time. WSAConnectByList Creates a connection to gandhihistory the specified destination, given a list of destination IP addresses.

WSAConnectByList takes a list of M addresses and the local computers N addresses, and tries connecting using up to M x N address combinations before failing to connect. WSASendMsg Sends data and optional control information from connected and Testing unconnected sockets. Mahatma Gandhihistory! The WSASendMsg function can be used in place of the WSASend and WSASendTo functions. WSAPoll Determines status of one or more sockets. For more information on The Effects of Meditation Essay these new APIs, search MSDN for the API name. The following are some of the and Fear Throughout "The, Winsock events that can be traced with ETW tracing: You can enable ETW tracing for Winsock events using the following: Event Viewer snap-in. Logman.exe and Tracerpt.exe tools.

To enable ETW Tracing for Winsock events using the Testing of Meditation, Event Viewer snap-in, do the following: Run the Tension and Fear Throughout "The Essay, Event Viewer tool in the Administrative Tools folder. In the tree of the Event Viewer snap-in, open Application Logs , and then Microsoft-Windows-Winsock-AFD . In the Testing The Effects, Log Properties dialog box, click Enable Logging , and then click OK . To view the events, in the Action pane, click Refresh . To disable logging, clear the Enable Logging check box on the Log Properties dialog box for the Winsock/AFD item. You might have to increase the diversification examples, log size depending on Essay how many events you want to view. To enable ETW Tracing for mahatma Winsock events using the Logman.exe tool, use the following commands: A binary log file will be written to LogFileLocation . To convert the Testing The Effects, binary file written by the Logman.exe tool into readable text, use the Tracerpt.exe tool.

For example, use the following command: To stop logging, use the following command: Layered Service Provider Enhancements. Winsock Layered Service Provider (LSP) support in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista has been enhanced with the following: The installation and removal of LSPs are logged in the system event log to help determine which applications are installing LSPs and to hyper globalist troubleshoot failed LSP installations. To view the events logged in a console window, use the netsh winsock audit trail command. There is a new installation API (WSCInstallProviderAndChains) that software vendors can use to Testing The Effects Essay install an mahatma gandhihistory LSP into Testing, the Winsock catalog. Manually installing an LSP can be done using a series of Winsock functions, but if done improperly can leave the Winsock LSP catalog in an inconsistent state. Using this new API can save a software vendor that is developing an LSP hundreds of the 6th lines of code. There are new facilities to categorize LSPs and to remove most LSPs from the processing path for system critical services.

These new facilities provide more stability to Windows, protecting system critical services from improperly designed LSPs. A new netsh winsock remove provider Winsock_catalog_ID command allows you to remove a single LSP. Use this command instead of the netsh winsock reset command, which resets the Winsock catalog to a clean state. There is a Winsock-specific diagnostics module for the Network Diagnostics Framework that will allow users to selectively repair the Winsock catalog by removing only those LSPs that are causing problems. The networking architecture of Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include a new interface called Winsock Kernel (WSK) . WSK is a new transport-independent kernel mode Network Programming Interface (NPI) for TDI clients. Using WSK, kernel-mode software modules can perform network communication using socket-like programming semantics similar to those supported in of Meditation Essay the user-mode Windows Sockets 2 API. While TDI is supported in Windows Vista for hyper globalist backward compatibility, TDI clients should be updated to use WSK to achieve the of Meditation Essay, best performance. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with no service packs installed include Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) 6.0.

NDIS specifies a standard interface between kernel-mode network drivers and mahatma gandhihistory the operating system. NDIS also specifies a standard interface between layered network drivers, abstracting lower-level drivers that manage hardware from upper-level drivers, such as network transports. For more information about of Meditation Essay, NDIS, see Networking. NDIS 6.0 includes the following features: New offload support.

Support for advertising manipulation lightweight filter drivers. NDIS 6.0 includes the following new support for offloading network traffic processing functions to network adapters: Offload of of Meditation Essay IPv6 traffic NDIS 5.1 in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP already supports the offload of IPv4 traffic processing. NDIS 6.0 now supports the offload of IPv6 traffic processing. Checksum offload supports IPv6 Offloading of hyper globalist checksum calculations for of Meditation Essay IPv6 traffic is hyper globalist, now supported. Large Send Offload version 2 NDIS 5.1 already supports Large Segment Offload (LSO), which offloads the segmentation of TCP data for Testing Essay data blocks up to 64 Kilobytes (KB) in size. Advertising! Large Send Offload version 2 (LSOv2) in NDIS 6.0 can offload the segmentation of TCP data for data blocks larger than 64 Kilobytes (KB) in size.

Support for Lightweight Filter Drivers. In NDIS 6.0, intermediate filter drivers have been replaced with Lightweight Filter (LWF) drivers that are a combination of an NDIS intermediate driver and Testing The Effects of Meditation a miniport driver. And Fear Essay! LWF drivers but have the following advantages: There is The Effects Essay, no longer a need to mahatma write a separate protocol and miniport. All of these functions are contained within a single driver. A bypass mode allows the LWF driver to examine only Testing The Effects of Meditation, selected control and hyper globalist data paths.

An example of an The Effects of Meditation intermediate filter driver that has been converted to a LWF driver is Pacer.sys, formerly known Psched.sys. It has the same functionality, but takes advantage of advertising performance improvements available with NDIS 6.0. In the architecture for multiprocessor computers running Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP, a network adapter is associated with a single processor. The single processor must handle all the of Meditation, traffic received by and Fear Throughout "The, the network adapter, regardless of Testing The Effects of Meditation whether there are other processors available. The result of this architecture for high-volume servers such as Internet-facing Web servers or enterprise file servers is that the authority, amount of Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay incoming traffic and number of connections that can be serviced by the processor associated with the mahatma, network adapter is Testing The Effects, limited.

If the processor associated with the network adapter cannot handle the incoming traffic fast enough, the authority, network adapter discards the traffic, resulting in retransmissions and reduced performance. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, a network adapter is not associated with a single processor. Instead, the processing for incoming traffic is Testing The Effects of Meditation, distributed among the processors on the computer. This new feature, known as Receive-side Scaling, allows for much more traffic to be received by a network adapter on a high-volume server. A multiprocessor computer can now handle more incoming traffic without having to hyper globalist add servers, resulting in lower costs. To take advantage of this new feature, you must install Receive-side Scaling compatible network adapters that can take advantage of the new architecture in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Receive-side Scaling-compatible network adapters are available from many network adapter vendors. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with SP1 support NDIS 6.1, which includes the following features: Header-data split services.

Direct OID Request Interface. IPsec Task Offload Version 2. Header-data split services improve network performance by of Meditation Essay, splitting the header and data in received Ethernet frames into separate buffers. Mahatma! By separating the of Meditation, headers and the data, these services enable the headers to be collected together into smaller regions of memory. More headers fit into a single memory page and more headers fit into the system caches. Learned! Therefore, the overhead for of Meditation Essay memory accesses in the driver stack is reduced. The header-data split interface is an optional service that is provided for header-data-split-capable network adapters.

NDIS 6.1 provides a direct OID request interface for NDIS 6.1 and authority later drivers. The direct OID request path supports OID requests that are queried or set frequently. The direct OID request interface is optional for NDIS drivers. To support the Testing of Meditation, direct OID path, drivers provide entry points and NDIS provides NdisXxx functions for mahatma protocol, filter, and miniport drivers. For NDIS 6.1, the only interface that uses the direct OID request interface is IPsec offload version 2 (IPsecOV2). IPsec task offload provides offloading services for IPsec network data processing to IPsec offload-capable network adapters. NDIS 6.1 supports IPsecOV2. IPsecOV2 extends support for additional cryptographic algorithms, IPv6, and co-existence with large send offload (LSO). IPsecOV2 uses the NDIS 6.1 direct OID request interface.

NETDMA provides services for Testing The Effects of Meditation offloading the memory copy operation performed by the networking subsystem, when receiving network packets, to a dedicated DMA engine. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with SP1 support NETDMA versions 1.1 and 2.0. NETDMA version 2.0 introduces support for a more efficient DMA setup and Plug and Play. In addition, on advertising Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1, NETDMA versions 1.1 and 2.0 will be used in more scenarios and Testing The Effects of Meditation configurations. Creating applications that can automatically adapt to changing network conditions has been difficult for developers. The Network Awareness APIs in Windows Vista allow applications to do the following: Register with Windows Vista to be informed when there are changes to the network to Throughout Monkey's which the computer is Testing The Effects Essay, connected. For example, a user places a laptop into standby mode at work and then opens it at a wireless hotspot.

After being alerted of network changes by Windows Vista, applications can automatically configure themselves or behave differently to hyper globalist provide a more seamless user experience. Query Windows Vista for characteristics of the currently connected network to determine the application settings and behavior. Characteristics include the of Meditation, following: Connectivity A network may be disconnected, it may provide access to only the local network, or it may provide access to related diversification examples the local network and the Internet. Connections The computer may be connected to a network by one or more connections (such as network adapters).

Network Awareness APIs enable applications to determine the connections that Windows Vista is currently using to connect to The Effects a network. Location type (also known as Category) An application can configure itself automatically for the Windows Vista network location type. For more information, see Network Location Types in Windows Vista. Developers can enhance their Windows Vista applications for the different types of connectivity, connections, and network location types without having to gandhihistory build their own network detection components. The Network Awareness APIs allow developers to focus on features that make network connectivity transparent to the user, rather than the Testing of Meditation, details of lower-level network determination. For more information about the Network Awareness APIs, see Network Awareness on Windows Vista. Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking Enhancements. Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking, originally introduced with the Tension and Fear Throughout "The, Advanced Networking Pack for Windows XP, is an The Effects Essay operating system platform component and API in Windows Vista that allows the authority, development of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications. Windows Vista includes the following enhancements to Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking:

New, easy to Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay use API APIs to access Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking capabilities such as name resolution, group creation, and examples security have been highly simplified in The Effects Essay Windows Vista, making it easier to create P2P applications for hyper globalist Windows. New version of PNRP Windows Vista includes version 2 of the of Meditation Essay, Peer Name Resolution Protocol (PNRP) that is more scalable and uses less network bandwidth. For PNRP v2 in mahatma Windows Vista, Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking applications can access PNRP name publication and resolution functions through a simplified PNRP API. For highly simplified PNRP name resolution in Windows Vista, PNRP names are now integrated into the Getaddrinfo Windows Sockets function. To use PNRP to resolve a name to an IPv6 address, applications can use the Getaddrinfo function to resolve the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) name .prnp.net, in which name is peer name being resolved. The pnrp.net domain is a reserved domain in Windows Vista for The Effects of Meditation Essay PNRP name resolution. The PNRP v2 protocol is incompatible with PNRP version 1 that was provided with the Advanced Networking Pack for Windows XP. Microsoft has released a PNRP v2 upgrade for Windows XP, which is the 6th extinction, available through Windows Update or from the Microsoft Download Center. For more information about PNRP, see Peer Name Resolution Protocol.

People Near Me A new capability of The Effects of Meditation Essay Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking for Windows Vista that allows users to dynamically discover other users on the local subnet. For more information, see People Near Me. Contact management and serverless presence Peer-to-Peer Networking integrates with the the 6th extinction, Windows Address Book to provide functions for long term contact management. Users can add trusted contacts to the Windows Address Book by exchanging Me contact files with each other. The Me contact file is automatically created when a user starts the collaboration infrastructure for the first time. It contains information that identifies a user, and can be used by others to protect against spoofing and to track a users presence through the Internet. Application invite This new capability allows applications to The Effects Essay invite other users into collaborative activities. These other users can be contacts or discovered on the local subnet with People Near Me. The invitation and its acceptance launches an application on the invited user's computer and the two applications can begin working together. Windows Meeting Space Windows Vista includes Windows Meeting Space, a new P2P-based application that allows users to learned easily set up meetings, share files, pass notes, and project applications to the group. Windows Meeting Space uses Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking functionality.

Netsh configuration support You can now configure Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking settings from commands in the netsh p2p context. Group Policy configuration support You can now configure Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking settings with Group Policy from the Computer ConfigurationAdministrative TemplatesNetworkMicrosoft Peer-to-Peer Networking Services node. The new Windows Firewall in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista has the The Effects of Meditation, following enhancements over the current Windows Firewall in Tension and Fear "The Paw" Essay Windows XP with Service Pack 2 and later and Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 and later: Supports filtering of both incoming and outgoing traffic. A network administrator can configure the new Windows Firewall with a set of rules (known as exceptions for Windows Firewall in Windows XP with Service Pack 2 and later and Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 and later) to block all traffic sent to specific ports, such as the well-known ports used by Testing of Meditation Essay, virus software, or to specific addresses containing either sensitive or undesirable content.

New Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in for graphical user interface (GUI) configuration. The new Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, available from the hyper globalist, Administrative Tools folder, provides wizards for configuring firewall rules for inbound and outbound traffic and connection security rules. For command-line configuration of advanced settings of the new Windows Firewall, you can use commands in Testing of Meditation the netsh advfirewall context. Firewall filtering and Internet Protocol security (IPsec) protection settings are integrated. When using the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, you can configure both firewall filtering and traffic protection rules. Advanced configuration for rules (exceptions) Configuration options for gandhihistory firewall filtering rules include three different profiles (domain, public, and private), source and destination IP addresses, IP protocol number, source and destination Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports, all or multiple TCP or UDP ports, specific types of interfaces, ICMP and ICMP for The Effects of Meditation Essay IPv6 (ICMPv6) traffic by Type and related Code, services, the protection state (protected with IPsec), edge traversal, and specified users and computers based on Active Directory accounts. Unlike the Windows Firewall in Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 2, the Testing The Effects, new Windows Firewall in Windows Server 2008 is enabled by default. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the hyper globalist, following improvements to Internet Protocol security (IPsec): Integrated firewall and The Effects of Meditation IPsec configuration. Simplified IPsec policy configuration.

Client-to-DC IPsec protection. Improved load balancing and clustering server support. Improved IPsec authentication. New cryptographic support. Integration with Network Access Protection. Additional configuration options for protected communication.

Integrated IPv4 and IPv6 support. Extended events and performance monitor counters. Network Diagnostics Framework support. Integrated Firewall and IPsec Configuration. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, Windows Firewall and IPsec were components and services that had to be configured separately.

Although the mahatma, purpose of Windows Firewall was to block or allow incoming traffic, IPsec could also be configured to block or allow incoming traffic. Because block and of Meditation Essay allow traffic behavior for incoming traffic could be configured through two different and separate services, it was possible to have duplicated or contradictory settings. Hyper Globalist! Additionally, Windows Firewall and IPsec supported different configuration options for specifying allowed incoming traffic. For example, Windows Firewall allowed exceptions (allowed inbound traffic) by specifying the application name, but IPsec did not. IPsec allowed exceptions based on an IP protocol number, but Windows Firewall did not. In Windows Server 2008 and Essay Windows Vista, Windows Firewall and IPsec configuration have been combined into a single tool with the new Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, which now controls both traditional firewall responsibilities (blocking and extinction allowing both inbound and outbound traffic) and protecting traffic with IPsec.

Combining both firewalling and protection configuration helps prevent contradictory rules. The Effects! Additionally, commands within the advertising manipulation, netsh advfirewall context can be used for Testing of Meditation command line configuration of both firewall and IPsec behavior. The integration of Windows Firewall with IPsec provides computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista with an authenticating firewall. Simplified IPsec Policy Configuration. In Windows Server 2003 and mahatma gandhihistory Windows XP, IPsec policy configuration in many scenarios such as Server and The Effects of Meditation Essay Domain Isolation consists of a set of Paw" rules to protect most of the Testing The Effects Essay, traffic on related examples the network and another set of rules for protected traffic exemptions. Exemptions are needed for unprotected communication with network infrastructure servers such as DHCP and DNS servers and domain controllers. Testing! When a computer is starting, it must be able to obtain an Tension and Fear Throughout Paw" Essay IP address, use DNS to find a domain controller, and then log in to its domain before it can begin to use Kerberos authentication to The Effects authenticate itself as an IPsec peer.

Other exemptions are needed for related diversification communication with network nodes that are not IPsec-capable. In some cases, there are dozens or hundreds of exceptions, which makes it more difficult to deploy IPsec protection on an enterprise network and to maintain it over time. IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista provides an The Effects of Meditation optional behavior when negotiating IPsec protection. Mahatma Gandhihistory! If enabled, when initiating communication with another network node, an IPsec node running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista will attempt to The Effects communicate in the clear and negotiate protected communication in parallel. If the mahatma, initiating IPsec peer does not receive a response to the initial negotiation attempt, the communication continues in the clear.

If the initiating IPsec peer receives a response to the initial negotiation attempt, the communication in the clear continues until the Testing, negotiation can complete, at which point subsequent communications are protected. With this optional behavior and the recommended configuration to require protection for hyper globalist incoming initiated communications and request protection for Testing outgoing initiated communications, the initiating node discovers whether the hyper globalist, node it is of Meditation, communicating with is capable of IPsec and behaves accordingly. This new behavior greatly simplifies IPsec policy configuration. Diversification Examples! For example, the initiating node does not need a set of The Effects of Meditation predefined IPsec filters for exemptions for the set of hosts that either should not or cannot protect network traffic with IPsec. The initiating node tries both protected and unprotected traffic in parallel and if protected communication is not possible, the initiating node uses unprotected communication. This new negotiation behavior also improves the advertising, performance of unprotected connections to Essay hosts. Advertising Manipulation! An IPsec node running Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP that is Testing The Effects, configured to request protected communications but allow unprotected communicationsa behavior known as fallback to clearsends the negotiation messages and then waits for a response. The initiating node waits up to 3 seconds before falling back to clear and learned authority attempting unprotected communications.

With Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, there is no longer a 3-second delay when falling back to clear because communications in the clear is already in progress while the initiating node is The Effects of Meditation, waiting for the 6th a response. The IPsec Simple Policy Update for The Effects of Meditation Essay Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP includes new negotiation behavior to simplify IPsec policy. Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2 and Windows XP Service Pack 3 include the Simple Policy Update. For more information, see Simplifying IPsec Policy with the Simple Policy Update. For Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, Microsoft does not support IPsec to protect traffic between domain controllers and member computers (however, Microsoft does support protecting traffic between domain controllers). This is advertising manipulation, because the IPsec policy configuration can become very complex due to the different types of traffic sent between domain members and domain controllers. Additionally, there is The Effects of Meditation Essay, a domain join issue. If the domain controller requires IPsec-protected traffic from computers that must provide domain-based credentials for authentication, a computer that is not a member of the hyper globalist, domain cannot contact a domain controller to join the domain. Of Meditation! This required the use of various techniques for initial computer configuration, such as setting up a separate, unprotected subnet for domain joins.

Windows Server 2008 and mahatma Windows Vista supports securing traffic between domain members and domain controllers in the following deployment modes: You can configure IPsec policy in the domain to request protected traffic but not require it. Domain controllers will protect most traffic with domain members but allow clear text for domain joins and other types of traffic. You can configure IPsec policy to require protected traffic for domain controllers. Domain controllers are configured with IPsec settings that allow the use of Windows NT/LAN Manager version 2 (NTLM v2) user credentials for authentication. When a computer running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista attempts to join the domain, the Testing Essay, user is prompted for the user name and advertising manipulation password of a domain user account. IPsec protection with the domain controller is negotiated with Windows NT/LAN Manager version 2 (NTLM v2) user credentials for a protected domain join. This new behavior is only available for The Effects of Meditation Essay domain member computers running either Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 and for domain controllers running Windows Server 2008. Because of the new negotiation behavior, you no longer have to configure exemptions for domain controllers, simplifying IPsec policy and related diversification deployment of IPsec protection in a domain. Improved Load Balancing and Clustering Server Support. IPsec in Windows Server 2003 supports load balancing and cluster servers.

However, failover times to re-establish IPsec connectivity to a cluster virtual IP address are the following: Typically 3-6 seconds for Testing of Meditation administrative moves of clustered resources. Up to gandhihistory two minutes when a cluster node suddenly becomes unavailable or another sudden loss of connectivity occurs. The Effects Of Meditation Essay! The timeout of two minutes includes one minute for gandhihistory the IPsec idle time to expire and one minute to renegotiate security associations (SAs). This lengthy idle time can cause active TCP connections to the cluster to fail.

In Windows Server 2008 and The Effects Essay Windows Vista, the timeout for a cluster node failure is substantially reduced. IPsec in related diversification examples Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista is Testing of Meditation Essay, more tightly integrated into the Next Generation TCP/IP stack. Rather than relying on IPsec idle timeouts to related examples detect a cluster node failure, IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Essay Windows Vista monitors TCP connections for established SAs. If the TCP connection for an established SA begins retransmitting segments, IPsec will renegotiate the SAs. The result is related examples, that the failover to a new cluster node happens quickly, typically in time to keep the The Effects, application from failing. IPsec in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP supports the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and three authentication methods during main mode negotiations: Kerberos (for Active Directory domain members), digital certificates, and preshared key. For all of these authentication methods, the Tension Throughout Paw" Essay, authentication process is validating the identity and Essay trustworthiness of a computer, rather than the user of the computer. IKE only attempts a single authentication using a single authentication method. Windows Server 2008 and manipulation Windows Vista supports the following improvements in IPsec authentication:

Ability to of Meditation Essay require that IPsec peers authenticate with a health certificate. A Network Access Protection client obtains a health certificate through a Health Registration Authority (HRA) when it proves that its health state complies with current system health requirements. For more information about the Network Access Protection platform, see Network Access Protection in this article. Ability to specify user-based or health-based authentication during a second authentication. With support for Authenticated IP (AuthIP), IPsec in related diversification Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allows a second authentication for IPsec-protected communication. With a second authentication, IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista can perform an additional level of authentication, which can be based on the following: Kerberos credentials of the logged in user account. NTLM v2 credentials of the computer account. NTLM v2 credentials of the logged in user account. A user certificate.

A computer health certificate. For example, you can use the first authentication and Kerberos credentials to authenticate the computer and Testing then the mahatma gandhihistory, second authentication and Testing The Effects Essay a health certificate to validate the manipulation, computer's health state. Testing The Effects Of Meditation Essay! Second authentication can be configured with or without the manipulation, first authentication. Multiple authentication methods are attempted. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, you can select multiple authentication methods in a preference order for main mode IPsec authentication. However, only Testing, one authentication method is used for authentication. If the authentication process for the negotiated authentication method fails, main mode fails and IPsec protection cannot be performed. When you select multiple authentication methods for computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista, IPsec will attempt multiple authentication attempts in an effort to learned authority perform mutual authentication. For example, if you specify that you want to authenticate using computer certificates with a specific certification authority (CA) and then Kerberos, the IPsec peer will attempt Kerberos authentication if the certificate authentication fails. For more information about IPsec authentication improvements, see AuthIP in Windows Vista.

For more information about Testing, AuthIP, see The Authenticated Internet Protocol. In response to governmental security requirements and trends in the security industry to the 6th support stronger cryptography, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support additional key derivation and encryption algorithms. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support the following additional algorithms to negotiate the master key material derived during main mode negotiation: Diffie-Hellman (DH) Group 19, which is an elliptic curve algorithm using a 256-bit random curve group (NIST identifier P-256) DH Group 20, which is an elliptic curve algorithm using a 384-bit random curve group (NIST identifier P-384) These methods are stronger than DH algorithms supported in Windows Server 2003 and Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay Windows XP with Service Pack 2 and later.

For more information about these algorithms, see RFC 4753. These new DH algorithms cannot be used for diversification main mode negotiation with a computer running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, or Windows 2000. In addition to the Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Triple-DES (3DES), Windows Server 2008 and The Effects Essay Windows Vista support the following additional algorithms for encrypting data: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with cipher block chaining (CBC) and gandhihistory a 128-bit key size (AES 128) AES with CBC and a 192-bit key size (AES 192)

AES with CBC and a 256-bit key size (AES 256) These new encryption algorithms cannot be used for IPsec SAs with a computer running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, or Windows 2000. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1 also include support for Suite B, a standard from the National Security Agency (NSA) that defines a common set of The Effects Essay cryptographic algorithms for "The Monkey's Paw" the needs of the US government. For Suite B support, Windows Server 2008 and The Effects Windows Vista SP1 include the following additional integrity algorithms for main mode negotiation: Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)-256.

Windows Server 2008 and the 6th Windows Vista SP1 include the following integrity algorithms for providing data integrity when using either Authentication Header (AH) or Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP): AES-Galois Message Authentication Code (GMAC)-128. Windows Server 2008 and Essay Windows Vista SP1 include the following integrity algorithms for providing data integrity and encryption when using ESP only: AES-Galois/Counter Mode (GCM)-128. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1 also include the following authentication methods: Computer certificate with Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)-P256 signing. Computer certificate with ECDSA-P384 signing. These new integrity algorithms and related examples authentication methods can be configured using commands in the netsh advfirewall context.

They cannot be configured with the Testing of Meditation, Windows Firewall with Advanced Security or IPsec Policies snap-ins. The additional Suite B integrity algorithms and extinction authentication methods cannot be used for IPsec SAs with a computer running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, or Windows 2000. For more information about Suite B support in IPsec, see RFC 4869. Integration with Network Access Protection. With the new Network Access Protection platform, you can require that IPsec nodes perform a second authentication with a health certificate, verifying that the IPsec node meets current system health requirements.

A health registration authority obtains a health certificate for an IPsec peer after its health status has been evaluated by a Network Policy Server (NPS). For more information, see Network Access Protection in Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay this article. Additional Configuration Options for extinction Protected Communication. When you configure a connection security rule with the Testing of Meditation Essay, new Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, you can specify the following additional settings: By application name This greatly simplifies protected traffic configuration because the ports used by the application do not need to manipulation be manually configured.

All or multiple ports You can now specify all TCP or UDP ports or multiple TCP or UDP ports in a comma-delimited list, simplifying configuration. For all addresses in The Effects a numeric range You can now specify a range of IP addresses using a numeric range, such as 10.1.17.23 to 10.1.17.219. For all addresses on the local subnet A set of predefined addresses that are dynamically mapped to the set of extinction addresses defined by your IPv4 address and subnet mask or by your IPv6 local subnet prefix. For all wireless adapters You can protect traffic based on the interface type, which now includes wireless in addition to Testing of Meditation LAN and the 6th remote access. By Active Directory user or computer account You can specify the of Meditation, list of computer or user accounts or groups that are authorized to initiate protected communication. For example, this allows you to specify that traffic to specific servers with sensitive data must be protected and learned can only of Meditation Essay, originate from user accounts that are members of hyper globalist specific Active Directory security groups. By ICMP or ICMPv6 Type or Code value You can specify ICMP or ICMPv6 messages with values of the ICMP or ICMPv6 message Type and Code fields.

For services You can specify that the exception applies to any process, only for services, for a specific service by its service name, or you can type the short name for the service. IPsec support for IPv6 traffic in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 is limited. For example, there is no support for Internet Key Exchange (IKE) or data encryption. IPsec security policies, security associations, and Testing The Effects Essay keys must be configured through text files and activated using the Ipsec6.exe command line tool. In Windows Server 2008 and diversification examples Windows Vista, IPsec support for IPv6 traffic is the same as that for IPv4, including support for IKE and The Effects data encryption. IPsec policy settings for both IPv4 and IPv6 traffic are configured in the 6th extinction the same way using either the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security or IP Security Policies snap-ins. Extended Events and Performance Monitor Counters. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include new IPsec audit-specific events and The Effects Essay the text of existing events has been updated with more useful information. These improvements will help you troubleshoot failed IPsec negotiations without having to extinction enable the advanced Oakley logging capability. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista also include IPsec performance counters to help identify performance and of Meditation networking issues with IPsec-protected traffic. Network Diagnostics Framework Support.

The Network Diagnostics Framework is an extensible architecture that helps users recover from and troubleshoot problems with network connections. For a failed IPsec negotiation, the diversification, Network Diagnostics Framework will prompt a user with an Testing Essay option to authority identify and correct the problem. Testing Of Meditation Essay! IPsec support for the Network Diagnostics Framework then attempts to discover the hyper globalist, source of the failed connection and Testing either automatically correct the problem, or, depending on security considerations, prompt the hyper globalist, user to make the appropriate configuration change. Wireless and 802.1X-based Wired Connections. Windows Server 2008 and Testing of Meditation Essay Windows Vista include many enhancements to support IEEE 802.11 wireless networks and manipulation networks that use IEEE 802.1X authenticating switches. IEEE 802.11 Wireless Changes and Testing Enhancements.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following changes and mahatma enhancements to IEEE 802.11 wireless support: Native Wi-Fi architecture. User interface improvements for wireless connections. Wireless Group Policy enhancements. Changes in Wireless Auto Configuration. FIPS 140-2 certified mode. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X authentication. 802.11 wireless diagnostics. Command-line support for configuring wireless settings. Network Location Awareness and network profiles.

Next Generation TCP/IP stack enhancements for wireless environments. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, the software infrastructure that supports wireless connections was built to emulate an Ethernet connection and can only be extended by The Effects Essay, supporting additional EAP types for learned authority IEEE 802.1X authentication. Testing Essay! In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, the software infrastructure for 802.11 wireless connections, called the Native Wi-Fi Architecture, has been redesigned for the 6th the following: IEEE 802.11 is now represented inside of Windows as a media type separate from IEEE 802.3. This allows independent hardware vendors (IHVs) more flexibility in supporting advanced features of IEEE 802.11 networks, such as a larger frame size than Ethernet. New components in the Native Wi-Fi Architecture perform authentication, authorization, and management of 802.11 connections, reducing the Essay, burden on IHVs to incorporate these functions into "The Monkey's, their wireless network adapter drivers. This makes the development of wireless network adapter drivers much easier. The Effects Essay! In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IHVs must develop a smaller NDIS 6.0 miniport driver that exposes a native 802.11 interface on its top edge. The Native Wi-Fi Architecture supports APIs to allow ISVs and IHVs the ability to extend the built-in wireless client for additional wireless services and custom capabilities.

Extensible components written by ISVs and IHVs can also provide customized configuration dialog boxes and wizards. User Interface Improvements for Wireless Connections. The wireless configuration user interface (UI) has been improved with the manipulation, following: Wireless configuration integrated into new Network and Testing The Effects of Meditation Sharing Center Connectivity to wireless networks has been integrated into the new Network and Sharing Center in Windows Vista, rather than from the properties of a wireless network adapter. From the examples, Network and Sharing Center, you can connect to wireless networks, set up a wireless network that uses a wireless access point (AP) or an ad hoc wireless network, and manage your wireless networks. Wireless networks can be configured for all users or per-user In the of Meditation, Manage Wireless Networks folder (available from the Network and Sharing Center), you can now specify the wireless network profile type. This allows you to specify that new wireless networks (known as profiles) apply to all users of the computer or can be configured to advertising manipulation apply to specific users.

Per-user wireless profiles are only connected when the user to The Effects of Meditation Essay which the profile applies logs in to the computer. Per-user profiles are disconnected when the user logs off or switches to another user. Extensible wireless UI As described in the Native Wi-Fi Architecture section of this article, custom wireless configuration dialog boxes or wizards can be written and added to the built-in Windows wireless client, allowing the configuration of custom ISV or IHV wireless features and manipulation capabilities. Non-broadcast wireless networks can be configured A non-broadcast wireless network (also known as a hidden wireless network) does not advertise its network name, also known as its Service Set Identifier (SSID). A wireless AP of a non-broadcast wireless network can be configured to send Beacon frames with an SSID set to NULL. This practice is known as using non-broadcast SSIDs. In Windows Server 2003 and of Meditation Windows XP, you could not configure a preferred wireless network as non-broadcast, which sometimes produced confusing behavior when automatically connecting to preferred wireless networks, some of which are non-broadcast and some of which are not. For computers running Windows XP with SP3, Windows XP with SP2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2, or Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 2, you can now configure a preferred wireless network as a non-broadcast network. In Windows Server 2008 and hyper globalist Windows Vista, you can also configure a preferred wireless network as a non-broadcast network.

Non-broadcast wireless networks displayed as Unnamed Network In the list of available wireless networks in the Connect to a network wizard in Windows Vista and Testing The Effects Windows Server 2008, non-broadcast networks appear with the name Unnamed Network. When you connect to diversification the non-broadcast wireless network, you will be prompted to type the non-broadcast wireless network name. Prompts user when connecting to unsecured wireless network Due to the risks associated with communicating on Testing of Meditation unsecured wireless networks, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista will now prompt the advertising manipulation, user when connecting to an unsecured wireless network and allow them to confirm the connection attempt. Network connection wizard lists the security methods supported by the wireless network adapter The Connect to The Effects a network wizard in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista retrieves the mahatma gandhihistory, security capabilities of the wireless network adapter and allows the user to select the strongest security method. Of Meditation! For example, if a wireless network adapter supports both Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and advertising manipulation Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), the Connect to a network wizard will allow the user to select WPA or WEP as the security method. For more information about the new wireless configuration UI, see Connecting to Wireless Networks with Windows Vista. Wireless Group Policy Enhancements. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, wireless Group Policy settingslocated in the Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings node in the Group Policy snap-ininclude the following enhancements:

WPA2 authentication options Wireless Group Policy settings in Windows Server 2008 and Testing of Meditation Essay Windows Vista allow you to mahatma gandhihistory configure WPA2 authentication options; WPA2 (for WPA2 Enterprise) and WPA2-PSK (for WPA2 Personal). To configure WPA2 authentication options for computers running Windows XP, you must install Windows XP Service Pack 3 or Windows XP Service Pack 2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2. Testing The Effects! Then, you must configure WPA2 authentication settings in Group Policy from a computer that is running Windows Vista. Lists of allowed and denied wireless network names The wireless client in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP prompts the advertising, user to connect to Testing of Meditation Essay detected wireless networks if none of the preferred wireless networks were found or if none of the connections to related detected preferred wireless networks were successful. Wireless client computers running Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP could not be configured to prompt the user to only connect to specific wireless networks or never prompt the Testing of Meditation Essay, user to connect to specific wireless networks. The wireless Group Policy settings in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allow you to configure lists of allowed and denied wireless network names. For example:

With an allow list, you can specify the set of wireless networks by name (SSID) to authority which the Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista wireless client is The Effects Essay, allowed to hyper globalist connect. Of Meditation! This is advertising, useful for network administrators that want an organization's laptop computer to The Effects connect to a specific set of wireless networks, which might include the organizations wireless network and wireless Internet service providers. With a deny list, you can specify the set of wireless networks by name to hyper globalist which the wireless client is not allowed to connect. This is Testing The Effects, useful to prevent managed laptop computers from extinction, connecting to Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay other wireless networks that are within range of the learned authority, organizations wireless network (such as when an Testing The Effects Essay organization occupies a floor of a building and hyper globalist there are other wireless networks of other organization on adjoining floors) or to prevent managed laptop computers from connecting to known unprotected wireless networks. Additional preferred wireless network settings The wireless Group Policy settings in Windows Server 2008 allow configuration of the following for of Meditation Essay preferred wireless networks: Fast roaming settings Fast roaming is an advanced capability of WPA2 wireless networks that allow wireless clients to more quickly roam from one wireless AP to another by using preauthentication and pairwise master key (PMK) caching. With Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you can configure this behavior through wireless Group Policy settings.

With Windows XP SP3 or Windows XP SP2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2, you can control this behavior with registry settings that are described in Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2)/Wireless Provisioning Services Information Element (WPS IE) Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2. Non-broadcast wireless networks As described in the User interface improvements for wireless connections section of gandhihistory this article, you can locally configure preferred wireless networks as non-broadcast wireless networks. With Windows Server 2008, you can now configure preferred wireless networks in wireless Group Policy settings as non-broadcast networks. Automatic or manual connection With Windows XP Service Pack 3, Windows XP Service Pack 2, Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1, Windows Server 2008, and of Meditation Essay Windows Vista, you can configure a preferred wireless network for automatic (the default) or manual connection on the Connection tab of the properties of the preferred wireless network. With wireless Group Policy settings in Tension and Fear Throughout "The Monkey's Paw" Windows Server 2008, you can now configure preferred wireless networks for Testing of Meditation automatic or manual connection. For information about how to extend the schema of a Windows Server 2003 Active Directory environment to support Windows Vista wireless and manipulation wired Group Policy enhancements, see Active Directory Schema Extensions for Windows Vista Wireless and Wired Group Policy Enhancements. Changes in Wireless Auto Configuration. Wireless Auto Configuration is a service that dynamically selects the wireless network to which the computer will automatically connect, based either on your preferences or on default settings. This includes automatically selecting and connecting to a more preferred wireless network when it becomes available. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following changes to Wireless Auto Configuration: Change in behavior when there are no preferred wireless networks available.

In Windows XP and The Effects of Meditation Windows Server 2003, if a preferred wireless network cannot be connected and the wireless client is configured to prevent automatic connection to hyper globalist wireless networks that are not in Testing The Effects the preferred list (the default), Wireless Auto Configuration creates a random wireless network name and places the wireless network adapter in infrastructure mode. However, the random wireless network does not have a security configuration, making it possible for a malicious user to connect to the wireless client using the random wireless network name. Windows XP SP3 and Windows XP SP2 with the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2 modifies this behavior by configuring the wireless network adapter with a random name and a security configuration consisting of mahatma gandhihistory a 128-bit random encryption key and the strongest encryption method supported by the wireless network adapter. This new behavior helps prevent a malicious user from connecting to the wireless client using the random wireless network name. For computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista that use updated wireless drivers designed for Windows Vista, Wireless Auto Configuration removes the vulnerability by parking the wireless network adapter in a passive listening mode.

While parked, the The Effects Essay, wireless network adapter will not send Probe Request frames for a random wireless network name or any other name and malicious users cannot connect to the wireless client. Most wireless network drivers have been updated for advertising manipulation Windows Vista. If you are using a wireless network adapter driver that was designed for Windows XP, computers running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 will use a random wireless network name with a security configuration. New support for non-broadcast wireless networks. In Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, Wireless Auto Configuration attempts to match configured preferred wireless networks with wireless networks that are broadcasting their network name. Testing Of Meditation! If none of the available networks match a preferred wireless network, Wireless Auto Configuration then sends probe requests to determine if the preferred networks in the ordered list are non-broadcast networks. The result of this behavior is extinction, that broadcast networks will be connected to before non-broadcast networks, even if a non-broadcast network is higher in the preferred list than a broadcast network. Testing The Effects Of Meditation Essay! Another result is that a Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 wireless client advertises its list of preferred wireless networks when sending probe requests. Related Diversification Examples! For computers running Windows XP with SP3, Windows XP with SP2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2, or Windows Server 2003 with SP2, you can now configure a preferred wireless network as a non-broadcast network.

In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you can configure wireless networks as broadcast (the wireless network name is included in the Beacon frames sent by Essay, the wireless AP) or non-broadcast (the Beacon frame contains a wireless network name set to NULL). Wireless Auto Configuration now attempts to connect the wireless networks in the preferred network list order, regardless of whether they are broadcast or non-broadcast. Hyper Globalist! Because the wireless networks are now explicitly marked as broadcast or non-broadcast, Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista wireless clients only send probe requests for non-broadcast wireless networks. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include built-in support to configure WPA2 authentication options with both the Essay, standard profile (locally configured preferred wireless networks) and the domain profile with Group Policy settings. WPA2 is advertising manipulation, a product certification available through the Wi-Fi Alliance that certifies wireless equipment as being compatible with the IEEE 802.11i standard. WPA2 in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports both WPA2-Enterprise (IEEE 802.1X authentication) and WPA2-Personal (preshared key authentication) modes of operation. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista also include support for WPA2 for an ad hoc mode wireless network (a wireless network between wireless clients that does not use a wireless AP). Windows Server 2008 and of Meditation Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 support AES encryption in a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 certified mode.

FIPS 140-2 is a U.S. Hyper Globalist! government computer security standard that specifies design and implementation requirements for cryptographic modules. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 are FIPS 140-2 certified. The Effects! When you enable FIPS 140-2 certified mode, Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 will perform the advertising manipulation, AES encryption in The Effects of Meditation software, rather than relying on the wireless network adapter. You can enable FIPS 140-2 certified mode with the the 6th, netsh wlan set profileparamete r command and through the advanced security settings of a wireless network profile in wireless Group Policy. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X Authentication. WPA2-Enterprise, WPA-Enterprise, and Testing The Effects of Meditation dynamic WEP connections that use 802.1X authentication can leverage the Network Access Protection platform to prevent wireless clients that do not comply with system health requirements from learned authority, gaining unlimited access to Testing Essay an intranet. For more information about the Network Access Protection platform, see Network Access Protection (NAP) in Tension Monkey's Paw" Essay this article.

For easier development of of Meditation Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) authentication methods for IEEE 802.1X-authenticated wireless connections, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports the new EAPHost infrastructure. Learned Authority! For more information, see EAPHost Architecture in this article. New Default EAP Authentication Method. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, the default EAP authentication method for 802.1X-authenticated wireless connections is of Meditation, EAP-Transport Layer Security (TLS). Although the most secure form of authentication employing mutual authentication with digital certificates, EAP-TLS requires a public key infrastructure (PKI) to distribute, revoke, and renew user and computer certificates. In many cases, organizations want to leverage the account name and password-based authentication infrastructure that already exists in Active Directory. Therefore, in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, the default EAP authentication method for 802.1X-authenticated wireless connections has been changed to mahatma Protected EAP-Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version 2 (PEAP-MS-CHAP v2). PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 is Essay, a password-based 802.1X authentication method for wireless connections that only requires computer certificates to be installed on the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) servers.

For more information about PEAP-MS-CHAP v2, see PEAP with MS-CHAP Version 2 for Secure Password-based Wireless Access. Diagnostics Support for Wireless Connections. Troubleshooting failed wireless connections, although improved in Windows XP Service Pack 3 and Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2, can still be difficult. In Windows Server 2008 and learned authority Windows Vista, troubleshooting wireless connections is made much easier through the following features: Wireless connections support the new Network Diagnostics Framework The Network Diagnostics Framework is an extensible architecture that helps users recover from and troubleshoot problems with network connections. For a failed wireless connection, the Network Diagnostics Framework will prompt a user with an option to The Effects Essay identify and correct the problem.

Wireless support for the Network Diagnostics Framework then attempts to discover the source of the failed connection and the 6th either automatically correct the problem, or, depending on security considerations, prompt the of Meditation, user to and Fear Monkey's Essay make the appropriate configuration change. New information stored in the Windows event log For a failed wireless connection attempt, the wireless components of Testing The Effects Essay Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista record detailed information about the related diversification, connection attempt in The Effects of Meditation the Windows event log. These event records can be used by support professionals within an manipulation organization to The Effects of Meditation Essay perform further troubleshooting when the mahatma gandhihistory, wireless diagnostics either could not resolve the problem or when it could resolve the problem but the problem cannot be fixed by changing wireless client settings. The information in the Windows event log can shorten the Testing The Effects Essay, time needed to resolve wireless connection support problems. Additionally, these event log entries can be automatically collected by network administrator using Microsoft Operations Manager or other types of central management tools and analyzed for and Fear Throughout "The trends and Testing of Meditation Essay wireless infrastructure design changes. Wireless diagnostics tracing To perform a detailed analysis, Microsoft or your support specialists need in-depth information about the computers state and hyper globalist wireless components in Testing of Meditation Essay Windows and their interaction when the problem occurred.

You can obtain this information from wireless diagnostics tracing in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. To use wireless diagnostics tracing, you must start tracing, reproduce the problem, stop tracing, and then collect the tracing report. To start wireless diagnostics tracing, use the netsh wlan set tracing mode=yes command. To stop wireless diagnostics tracing, use the netsh wlan set tracing mode=no command. Authority! To view the of Meditation Essay, tracing report, in the console tree of the Reliability and Performance Monitor snap-in, open Reports, System, and then Wireless Diagnostics. For additional information about wireless diagnostics facilities in Windows Vista, see Wireless Networking in Windows Vista. Information can be sent to Microsoft for analysis and improvements Users that experience wireless connection problems will also be prompted to send the connection information to Microsoft for analysis through the Windows Error Reporting (WER) infrastructure. Related Diversification! Additionally, successful diagnostics can be sent to Microsoft through the Software Quality Metrics (SQM) infrastructure, also known as the Customer Experience Improvement Program in Windows XP.

In both cases, only wireless network diagnostic information is sent (no personal information about the Testing The Effects Essay, computer or the user). Microsoft will use this information to learned authority identify the Testing of Meditation Essay, top root causes for Tension Monkey's wireless connection failures, identify new wireless connection problems and their causes, and take appropriate actions to either improve the of Meditation, wireless client software in Windows or work with wireless vendors to extinction help improve wireless hardware products. Command Line Interface for Configuring Wireless Settings. Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP does not have a command line interface that allows you to configure the wireless settings that are available from the wireless dialog boxes in the Network Connections folder or through the Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies Group Policy settings. Command line configuration of wireless settings can help deployment of wireless networks in the following situations: Automated script support for wireless settings without using Group Policy Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies Group Policy settings only apply in an Active Directory domain. For an environment without Active Directory or a Group Policy infrastructure, a script that automates the configuration of wireless connections can be run either manually or automatically, such as part of the login script. Bootstrap of a wireless client onto the protected organization's wireless network A wireless client computer that is not a member of the domain cannot connect to the organization's protected wireless network. Additionally, a computer cannot join the domain until it has successfully connected to The Effects Essay the organization's secure wireless network. Authority! A command line script provides a method to connect to Testing The Effects of Meditation the organization's secure wireless network to join the domain.

For information about joining a Windows Vista wireless client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wireless Client to a Domain. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you can use Netsh commands in the netsh wlan context to do the following: Save all wireless client settings in extinction a named profile including general settings (the types of Testing of Meditation Essay wireless networks to access), 802.11 settings (SSID, type of authentication, type of data encryption), and Throughout Monkey's Paw" 802.1X authentication settings (EAP types and their configuration). Specify Single Sign On settings for a wireless profile. Enable or disable FIPS 140-2 certified mode.

Specify the list of allowed and Testing The Effects Essay denied wireless network names. Specify the order of advertising manipulation preferred wireless networks. Display a wireless clients configuration. Remove the wireless configuration from Testing Essay, a wireless client. Migrate wireless configuration settings between wireless clients. Network Awareness and Network Profiles. Many applications are not network aware, resulting in customer confusion and developer overhead. Extinction! For example, an application cannot automatically adjust its behavior based on the currently attached network and conditions. Users might to have to reconfigure application settings depending on the network to of Meditation which they are attached (their employer's private network, the user's home network, the Internet).

To remove the configuration burden, application developers can use low-level Windows APIs, data constructs, and perhaps even probing the network themselves to determine the current network and adjust their application's behavior accordingly. To provide an operating system infrastructure to allow application developers to more easily reconfigure application behavior based on the currently attached network, the Network Awareness APIs in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista makes network information available to applications and enables them to the 6th extinction easily and effectively adapt to these changing environments. The Network Awareness APIs allow applications to obtain up-to-date network information and location change notification. For more information about the Network Awareness APIs, see Network Awareness on The Effects Essay Windows Vista. Next Generation TCP/IP Stack Enhancements for Wireless Environments. As described in the Enhancements for High-loss Environments section of this article, the Next Generation TCP/IP stack includes support for new TCP algorithms that optimize throughput by recovering from single and advertising manipulation multiple packet losses and detecting spurious retransmissions, which improves performance in wireless network environments. Single Sign On allows network administrators to specify that user-level IEEE 802.1X authentication occurs before the user logon process. This capability addresses domain logon issues in of Meditation Essay specific configurations.

Single Sign On also simply and seamlessly integrates wireless authentication with the Windows logon experience. Network administrators can use netsh wlan set profileparameter commands or the new wireless Group Policy settings to configure Single Sign On profiles on wireless client computers. Configuring Single Sign On to diversification examples perform user-level 802.1X authentication before the user logon process prevents problems with Group Policy updates, execution of of Meditation Essay login scripts, virtual LAN switching, and wireless client domain joins. For more information, see Wireless Single Sign-On. For an the 6th extinction example of using a Single Sign On profile to join a Windows Vista wireless client to Testing The Effects a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wireless Client to a Domain. IEEE 802.1X-based Wired Connectivity Enhancements. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, there is limited support for deployment of 802.1X authentication settings for wired connections to an authenticating switch. Advertising Manipulation! Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the Testing The Effects of Meditation, following enhancements for hyper globalist easier deployment of 802.1X-authenticated wired connections: Group Policy support for wired 802.1X settings. Command-line interface for configuring wired 802.1X settings. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X authentication.

Change in 802.1X service state. Group Policy Support for The Effects of Meditation Essay Wired 802.1X Settings. For environments that use Active Directory and Group Policy, Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and Windows XP Service Pack 3 include Group Policy support for 802.1X authentication settings for wired connections under Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings/Wired Network (IEEE 802.3) Policies. Command-Line Interface for Configuring Wired 802.1X Settings. For environments that do not use Active Directory or Group Policy or for and Fear Throughout Monkey's Paw" domain join scenarios, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista also support a command line interface for configuring 802.1X authentication settings for wired connections.

Using commands in Testing the netsh lan context, you can do the gandhihistory, following: Save all wired client settings in Testing The Effects Essay a named profile including 802.1X authentication settings (EAP types and mahatma their configuration) Specify Single Sign On settings for a wired profile. Display a wired clients configuration. Remove the wired configuration from a wired client. Import a wired profile to migrate wired configuration settings between wired clients. For information about using wired profiles to join a Windows Vista wired client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wired Client to a Domain. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X Authentication. IEEE 802.1X-authenticated wired connections can leverage the Network Access Protection platform to prevent wired clients that do not comply with system health requirements from Testing The Effects, gaining unlimited access to a private network. For more information about the Network Access Protection platform, see Network Access Protection in this article.

For easier development of EAP authentication methods for IEEE 802.1X-authenticated wired connections, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports the new EAPHost infrastructure. For more information, see EAPHost Architecture in this article. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 support Single Sign On for wired connections. Network administrators can use netsh lan set profileparameter commands or the learned, new wireless Group Policy settings to configure Single Sign On profiles on wired client computers. Configuring Single Sign On to perform user-level 802.1X authentication before the user logon process prevents problems with Group Policy updates, execution of login scripts, virtual LAN switching, and wireless client domain joins. For an Testing The Effects of Meditation example of related examples using a Single Sign On profile to join a Windows Vista wireless client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wireless Client to a Domain. In Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, the 802.1X service for Testing The Effects wired connections was enabled by default but was placed in a passive listening mode, in which the computer did not attempt to contact the switch. The 802.1X service for wired connections in Windows Vista, known as the the 6th, Wired AutoConfig service, has the Testing of Meditation, startup type set to learned authority Manual by The Effects of Meditation Essay, default, but when it is started operates in an active listening mode, in advertising manipulation which the of Meditation Essay, computer attempts to contact the switch. To obtain an Tension and Fear Essay Authentication tab for the properties of Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay a LAN connection to configure 802.1X settings, you must first start the Wired AutoConfig service.

For an individual Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008-based wired client, you can use the Services snap-in to start the hyper globalist, Wired AutoConfig service and The Effects of Meditation configure it for gandhihistory automatic startup. Testing Of Meditation Essay! For a Group Policy object of an extinction Active Directory domain, configure the Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings/System Services/Wired AutoConfig setting for Testing The Effects Essay automatic startup. For more information about examples, how to deploy Windows-based wireless and wired clients, see the The Effects, Windows Server 2008 Networking and Network Access Protection (NAP) book from Microsoft Press. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include changes to and Fear "The Paw" Essay the following components and services of Testing The Effects Essay network infrastructure: Network Access Protection. Network Policy Server. New EAPHost architecture. Remote access and VPN connection enhancements. Network Access Protection (NAP) in Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and Windows XP with Service Pack 3 is a new platform and solution that controls access to network resources based on the 6th a client computer?s identity and of Meditation compliance with corporate governance policy. NAP allows network administrators to define granular levels of learned network access based on who a client is, the groups to Testing of Meditation which the diversification, client belongs, and Testing Essay the degree to which that client is compliant with corporate governance policy. If a client is examples, not compliant, NAP provides a mechanism to automatically bring the The Effects of Meditation Essay, client back into compliance and then dynamically increase its level of authority network access.

Administrators can use a combination of policy validation and network access limitation components to control network access or communication. The Effects Of Meditation! Administrators can also choose to temporarily limit the access of computers that do not meet requirements to a restricted network. Depending on the configuration chosen, the restricted network might contain resources required to Tension Throughout Monkey's Paw" Essay update noncompliant computers so that they then meet the health requirements for The Effects of Meditation Essay unlimited network access and normal communication. NAP includes an API set for developers and vendors to create complete solutions for health policy validation, network access limitation, automatic remediation, and advertising ongoing health policy compliance. Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and Windows XP with Service Pack 3 include the following NAP enforcement methods: IPsec With IPsec enforcement, you can confine the communication on your network to compliant computers. Client and server computers can block all communication originating from non-compliant computers. IPsec enforcement confines communication to compliant computers after they have successfully connected and obtained a valid IP address configuration.

IPsec enforcement is the strongest form of limited network access in NAP. IEEE 802.1X With 802.1X enforcement, a Network Policy Server (NPS) instructs an 802.1X-based access point (an Ethernet switch or a wireless AP) to place a restricted access profile on the 802.1X client until it performs a set of health remediation functions. A restricted access profile can consist of a set of IP packet filters or a virtual LAN identifier to confine the traffic of an 802.1X client. 802.1X enforcement provides strong limited network access for of Meditation all computers accessing the network through an 802.1X connection. For more information about NPS, see Network Policy Server in advertising this article. VPN With VPN enforcement, VPN servers can enforce health policy requirements any time a computer attempts to make a VPN connection to the network. Testing! VPN enforcement provides strong limited network access for the 6th all computers accessing the network through a VPN connection.

VPN enforcement with NAP is different than Network Access Quarantine Control, a feature in Windows Server 2003. DHCP With DHCP enforcement, DHCP servers can enforce health policy requirements any time a computer attempts to Testing The Effects of Meditation lease or renew an IP address configuration on Tension and Fear Throughout Paw" the network. DHCP enforcement relies on a limited access IPv4 address configuration and The Effects Essay IPv4 routing table entries for NAP enforcement. TS Gateway With TS Gateway enforcement, TS Gateway servers can enforce health policy requirements any time a computer attempts a connection. Using NAP APIs, third-party software vendors can create their own NAP enforcement method. For more information about the NAP platform, see the Network Access Protection Web page. For more information about how to deploy NAP, see the Windows Server 2008 Networking and mahatma gandhihistory Network Access Protection (NAP) book from Microsoft Press. Network Policy Server (NPS) is the Microsoft implementation of a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server and proxy in Windows Server 2008. NPS replaces the Internet Authentication Service (IAS) in Windows Server 2003. NPS performs all of the functions of IAS in Windows Server 2003 for VPN and 802.1X-based wireless and wired connections and performs health evaluation and the granting of of Meditation Essay either unlimited or limited access for NAP clients. NPS also supports sending RADIUS traffic over learned authority, IPv6, as specified in RFC 3162.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include EAPHost, a new architecture for Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) authentication methods and EAP-based supplicants. EAPHost provides the following features that are not supported by the EAP implementation in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP: Support for additional EAP methods EAPHost supports other popular EAP methods. Network Discovery EAPHost supports network discovery as defined in Testing of Meditation RFC 4284. RFC 3748 compliance EAPHost conforms to hyper globalist the EAP State Machine and addresses a number of security vulnerabilities that have been specified in RFC 3748. Additionally, EAPHost will support additional capabilities such as Expanded EAP Types (including vendor-specific EAP Methods). EAP method coexistence EAPHost allows multiple implementations of the same EAP method to coexist simultaneously. For example, the Microsoft version of PEAP and the Cisco Systems, Inc. version of PEAP can be installed and selected.

Modular supplicant architecture In addition to supporting modular EAP methods, EAPHost also supports a modular supplicant architecture in which new supplicants can be easily added without having to replace the The Effects of Meditation Essay, entire EAP infrastructure in Windows. For EAP method vendors, EAPHost provides support for examples EAP methods already developed for Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP and an easier method of developing new EAP methods for Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay and Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Certified EAP methods can be distributed with Windows Update. EAPHost also allows better classification of EAP types so that the built-in 802.1X and PPP-based Windows supplicants can use them. For supplicant method vendors, EAPHost provides support for modular and pluggable supplicants for new link layers. Because EAPHost is integrated with NAP, new supplicants do not have to examples be NAP-aware. Testing The Effects Of Meditation! In order to participate in NAP, new supplicants just need to register a connection identifier and a callback function that informs the supplicant to reauthenticate.

For network administrators, EAPHost provides availability of examples new EAP methods and a more robust and flexible infrastructure for 802.1X-authenticated connections. For more information about EAPHost, see EAPHost in Windows. Remote Access and VPN Connection Enhancements. Remote access and VPN connections in Windows Server 2008 include the Testing of Meditation, following enhancements: Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) SSTP is a new VPN protocol that uses an HTTP over SSL session between a remote access VPN client and VPN server to exchange encapsulated IPv4 or IPv6 packets. SSTP-based remote access VPN connections use TCP port 443 and can work seamlessly across most firewalls, NATs, and proxy servers. On the Tension Throughout Essay, VPN client, SSTP can be configured manually and with Connection Manager. On the VPN server, you must install a computer certificate with the Server Authentication or All-Purpose Enhanced Key Usage (EKU) property.

VPN clients running Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 or Windows Server 2008 support SSTP. For more information, see The Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol and the Routing and Remote Access blog. VPN enforcement for remote access VPN connections The built-in VPN client and Routing and Remote Access add components to support VPN enforcement in the NAP platform. For more information, see Network Access Protection in this article. IPv6 support The built-in remote access client and The Effects of Meditation Routing and Remote Access now support IPv6 over the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), as defined in RFC 2472.

Native IPv6 traffic can now be sent over PPP-based connections. For example, this allows you to the 6th extinction connect with an IPv6-based Internet service provider (ISP) through dial-up or PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)-based connections (used for broadband Internet access). The built-in remote access client and Routing and of Meditation Remote Access also support IPv6-based Layer Two Tunneling Protocol with IPsec (L2TP/IPsec) VPN connections. Additional IPv6 support includes a DHCPv6 Relay Agent, IPv6-based static packet filters, and RADIUS traffic over hyper globalist, IPv6. For more information, see IPv6 Traffic over of Meditation, VPN Connections.

A revised connection creation wizard This new wizard provides a simplified way to gandhihistory configure dial-up, broadband Internet, and VPN connections. Updated Winlogin support Allows a third-party access provider to plug in their connections to automatically create a remote access connection during the user login. Multiple-locale support for the Connection Manager Administration Kit Allows Connection Manager profiles to be created on a server of any locale for installation on The Effects a client of any other locale running Windows Vista or Windows XP, which simplifies Connection Manager Administration Kit (CMAK)-based client management. Connection Manager clients support DNS dynamic update Connection Manager clients now support the registering of the 6th extinction DNS names and IP addresses using DNS dynamic update. New cryptographic support L2TP/IPsec-based VPN connections now support the Testing The Effects of Meditation, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with 128 and 256-bit keys.

Support for weaker cryptographic algorithms40 and 56-bit Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) for PPTP and DES with Message Digest 5 (MD5) for L2TP/IPSechas been disabled by default. To enable 40 and Tension Throughout "The Monkey's Paw" 56-bit MPPE for PPTP-based connections, set the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESystemCurrentControlSetServicesRasmanParametersAllowPPTPWeakCrypto registry value (DWORD) to 1, and then restart the computer. To enable DES with MD5 for L2TP/IPSec connections, set the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESystemCurrentControlSetServicesRasmanParametersAllowL2TPWeakCrypto registry value (DWORD) to 1, and then restart the Testing Essay, computer. Changes to authentication protocols PPP-based connections no longer support the gandhihistory, SPAP, EAP-MD5-CHAP, and MS-CHAP authentication protocols. Remote access PPP-based connections now support the use of The Effects of Meditation Essay Protected EAP (PEAP) with PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 and PEAP-TLS. Additional certificate checking for L2TP/IPsec-based VPN connections The VPN client computer by default performs additional analysis of the fields of the VPN servers computer certificate to help detect man-in-the-middle attacks. Learned Authority! The analysis includes verifying that the Subject Alternative Name or the The Effects Essay, Subject fields of the VPN servers computer certificate are the same as the name or IP address of the related, VPN server as specified on the General tab for the properties of the VPN connection in the Network Connections folder and Testing verifying that the hyper globalist, certificate contains the The Effects Essay, Server Authentication Enhanced Key Usage (EKU). You can disable this additional certificate checking from the IPsec Settings dialog box on the VPN client, which is available on the Networking tab for the properties of the advertising manipulation, VPN connection in the Network Connections folder.

Support for The Effects Network Diagnostics Framework Client-based connections support basic diagnostics capabilities with the Network Diagnostics Framework. The DHCP Server and DHCP Client services include the following enhancements: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) support DHCPv6, defined in RFC 3315, provides stateful address configuration for IPv6 hosts on a native IPv6 network. The DHCP Client service in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 supports DHCPv6. A computer running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 can perform both DHCPv6 stateful and stateless configuration on a native IPv6 network. The DHCP Server service in Windows Server 2008 supports DHCPv6 stateful (both addresses and configuration settings) and stateless (configuration settings only) operation.

For more information about DHCPv6, see The DHCPv6 Protocol. Network Access Protection enforcement support DHCP enforcement in the Network Access Protection (NAP) platform requires a DHCP client to prove its system health before receiving an address configuration for unlimited access. For more information, see Network Access Protection in diversification examples this article. Support for Testing Essay the following technologies has been removed from Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista: Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) Serial Line Interface Protocol (SLIP) SLIP-based connections will automatically be updated to PPP-based connections. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) IP over IEEE 1394. NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol.

Services for Macintosh (SFM) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol component in Routing and Remote Access. Basic Firewall in Routing and Remote Access (replaced with Windows Firewall) Static IP filter APIs for gandhihistory Routing and Testing The Effects Remote Access (replaced with Windows Filtering Platform APIs) The SPAP, EAP-MD5-CHAP, and MS-CHAP (also known as MS-CHAP v1) authentication protocols for PPP-based connections.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include many enhancements to improve connectivity, performance, and ease of configuration for protocols and core networking components; improve security, ease of use, and authority deployment for wireless and 802.1X-authenticated wired connections; and Testing The Effects improve protection for private networks by requiring connecting computers to be compliant with system health policies. See the following resources for additional information:

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dungeon craft essays Confessions of a Dungeons Dragons™ Addict. Your contribution via Patreon or PayPal Me keeps this site and Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay, its author alive. It is important that you accept the fact that I am a Christian. To this end, and hyper globalist, recognizing that I am saved by grace, not by works I have done, I would recount just a part of my Christian experience so that you may know me by my works. I was as a youth raised in Baptist Sunday Schools until the age of twelve, when a business relocation landed me in a Presbyterian congregation. By then I had learned the scriptures well enough that the Testing, Presbyterians chose me as one of two youths to represent them on learned, WNBC (New York) radio's Bible quiz. My partner and I advanced to the finals. The Effects. More importantly, in 1968, when I was thirteen, my cousin (now a Presbyterian minister) showed me that the truth I knew could become a personal truth. Using a Campus Crusade Four Spiritual Laws leaflet, he led me into a personal relationship with God through Jesus Christ. To trace in detail the fellowships and ministries through which I grew would take too much space.

They include independent fellowships, Full Gospel Businessmen, Scott Ross, Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Assembly of the 6th extinction God churches, and many others. Before I finished high school I took the opportunity to carry Bibles into Romania with a high school choral group, and started an evangelistic music ministry in New Jersey. Over the Testing The Effects Essay, next decade, my music, evangelism, and Tension "The Monkey's Essay, teaching were heard from Maine to Maryland. Seeking to The Effects of Meditation better serve God with my music, I went to college to study the Bible. In five years of the 6th study I earned an Associate of Arts from Luther College of the Bible and Liberal Arts in Teaneck, New Jersey, and a Bachelor of Arts majoring in Biblical Studies from Gordon College. I took all this accrued study, and wound up on a small Christian radio station where for The Effects of Meditation five years I struggled to fight management pressures to convert to a more financially profitable format while preaching and diversification examples, teaching the gospel on the air and in The Effects local churches. Hyper Globalist. I also continued with my music; some of my songs are still sung as choruses in Essay fellowships in authority the area.

During this time I taught New Testament at Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay a small Bible College which unfortunately did not prosper; sometime after part-time faculty (including me) were released, the Throughout Paw" Essay, school closed. It was also during this time that my wife and I began to play Dungeons Dragons(tm). I should also make it clear that we are not idiots. On the contrary, my wife is a registered nurse who graduated from her program with a perfect 4.0 average. I eventually went on to complete my Juris Doctore, receiving an American Jurisprudence Award in Testing The Effects Essay Jurisprudence, and being listed in Who's Who Among American Law Students 8th and 9th editions. I also became a member of American Mensa.

We were not fools. But we were game players. We played many kinds of authority games with many kinds of people. Apart from the fact that it was a relaxing and stimulating recreational activity, it enabled us to maintain relationships with people who were not Christians and, by sharing our lives with them, to move them slowly toward the gospel and into growth. We constantly kept our eyes open for new games, even subscribing to magazines which provided information about them. Then one day in about 1980, my wife brought home an article in Psychology Today(tm) praising the new game Dungeons Dragons(tm), which the Testing The Effects, author had used as a group therapy technique for teenagers. We were intrigued. From the sound of it, this was a game that would enable us to create adventures like those in some of our favorite Christian fiction--C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkein, George MacDonald. We immediately sought it out, and purchased a basic set.

We were not disappointed. The game lends itself extremely well to Tension and Fear Throughout "The creating mortal battles with spiritual ramifications. The Effects Of Meditation. We quickly expanded into the advanced rules. I became the hyper globalist, referee--the dungeon master--and created worlds for my friends to explore. After a time, I mentioned the game on the air as part of an Testing The Effects Essay illustration in a teaching.

I was abruptly made aware of something I could not then understand: that there were Christians who believed the authority, game was itself evil, demonic, and dangerous. They showed their concern for me (I was, fortunately, established and Testing The Effects, well loved by the Christians in the audience) by showering me with tracts by various and sometimes highly respected writers explaining why this game was so horrible. Perhaps the "The Monkey's Essay, volume of material and the respectability of the authors should have caused me to abandon the game. The problem was, everything that was said about the game in these tracts was either completely wrong or completely meaningless. Testing Of Meditation. For example, it was pointed out that the gandhihistory, Monster Manual--one of the rulebooks for The Effects the game--contained the related diversification, words devil and demon many times--the authors had counted how many--between certain page numbers. However, the book in question is a sourcebook, essentially an encyclopedia of good and evil creatures, some very weak, others very powerful, which may be used at the referee's discretion to create encounters in his campaign. The words appear far more frequently in similar sections of the Testing Essay, Encyclopedia Brittanica, which to my knowledge nobody advocates burning. Furthermore, if these monsters were exactly the same but for mahatma gandhihistory the names--if they were called orthnips and ognogs--no one would complain.

However, the swords and sorcery milieu (and the fictional and Testing of Meditation, inspirational writings of many Christian authors) include many encounters with such creatures. They are recognized by those names, and any brave Christian knight who faces such a being knows what he faces. Mahatma Gandhihistory. The game would be stripped of Essay much of its Christian potential without them. It should also be noted that on the grand scale good is greater than evil. Learned. Solars, planetars, and devas--the ranks of angels--are greater in power than the demons, daemons, and The Effects, devils who might be arrayed against them, even without recognizing (as the game does) that the learned, evil creatures cannot cooperate in mutual trust. Furthermore, many of the character types (called classes) which are the most powerful--paladin, ranger, cavalier--must be good without blemish or face severe consequences including the loss of Essay all their spiritually-derived powers.

And a high-level paladin--a knight of holy orders trained for extinction many years in defending his lawful good faith--although a mere mortal is more than the equal of a devil, as he can bring to bear not merely his physical prowess but also the powers of good. Another attack is made upon Testing of Meditation, the book Deities Demigods(tm), replaced eventually by Legends Lore(tm). These books contain a great deal of learned authority information about false gods from many lands. Testing Of Meditation. However, this again is a sourcebook, permitting a referee a great deal of choice as to what kind of world he will create. The question of the authority, religious background of the campaign is specifically left in the hands of the referee who creates the Essay, world. I--and most of the learned, referees I have met--always maintained that there was one God of gods, but that there were many so-called gods vying for worship who were some more and some less aligned with the truth, all of whom would eventually kneel to the God of gods.

Following C.S. Lewis, I accepted the possibility that many of the pagan gods may have been spiritual beings, and some in Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay ancient times may actually have not yet been forced to chose between God and Lucifer. In fact, the game gave us the opportunity to Tension and Fear "The Paw" Essay talk about moral, ethical, and spiritual questions with nonbelievers in The Effects a way we had never done before. It is a strong point of Dungeons Dragons(tm) that it contains alignment: every player must decide whether his character is good or evil, lawful or chaotic. The character must then abide by that decision, and face the consequences of his actions whether he chooses something required by his beliefs, or turns against those beliefs to and Fear Throughout Paw" act otherwise. Testing The Effects Of Meditation. The player is also bound by that decision, but in a different way. The player controls his character in exactly the same way as the author of diversification a book.

Alignment is a major decision about a character, and Essay, the player must follow the alignment decision in other decisions he makes for the character in order to and Fear "The Paw" Essay remain in character. However, it is unfair to suggest that the player who runs an evil character is Testing The Effects of Meditation himself doing evil in the same way that it is unfair to hyper globalist suggest that an author who creates well-developed evil characters in his stories must himself be evil. C.S. Lewis has given us many fictional examples of good characters--King Peter, Queen Lucy, Ransom, and Aslan himself--and also many powerful evil characters--the white queen, the Testing The Effects of Meditation, green serpent, Weston, and Screwtape. The ability to understand evil does not make the author or the player--or the game--evil. This aspect of the game creates the opportunity to discuss the nature of good and evil in mahatma gandhihistory a way that chess never did. In this regard, someone somewhere quoted a game player who alledgedly said that it was easier to play an evil character than a good one. I do not know who said it--and any game is only as good as the referee and the players--but it was not so at my table nor at of Meditation the table of any referee I ever met. Extinction. Evil characters rapidly face obvious consequences: they become distrusted, have no allies, and are soon eliminated either by of Meditation Essay those they trust or by those they misuse. It is as in real life: evil has consequences. Even more so, it is as we Christians perceive it: evil has eternal consequences.

There are many circumstances in which it is clear that the evil character who makes a fatal mistake is carried away by his own gods to eternal punishment. So many of these arguments proved to authority be without merit. Others merely misunderstood the game. Essay. It is pointed out that there are a large number of magic spells and advertising, magical devices described in Testing The Effects of Meditation the various rule books. Critics claimed that players pretended to cast these spells by saying spell words and making motions. These critics do not understand that the player is not the character. As it is, the books contain descriptions of what a spell or device does, and indeed says whether the character must speak, move his hands, and/or have materials available, but no words are given and advertising manipulation, rarely are motions described (and then only as a joke). While the The Effects of Meditation Essay, character is perceived as doing these things, the authority, player merely says that his character will cast the spell. He does not himself act out spell casting. The objection is still raised that the The Effects, game suggests the involvement of magic.

Those of us who are fond of those Christian authors who write so much fantasy (and I would add Charles Williams and John Milton to those already mentioned) do not have a problem with the and Fear Throughout, fictitious use of The Effects of Meditation Essay magic. Gandhihistory. Swords and sorcery books and Testing The Effects Essay, movies are not a problem per se, and the idea of incorporating these into a game is diversification not significantly different. But some still feel uncomfortable about the idea of magic. Magic is merely a device of the story. For example, a character in Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay a game picks up a device and fires it. It sends out a blast of heat. Diversification Examples. If you are playing Gamma World(tm), it is a flame thrower; if you are playing Dungeons Dragons(tm), it is a wand of The Effects fireballs. A character is injured, and another character comes to his aid, attempting to hyper globalist heal his injuries. In Star Frontiers(tm), it is a medic administering biocort; in Dungeons Dragons(tm), it is The Effects of Meditation Essay a cleric prayerfully ministering with a cure light wounds spell.

A character assaulted by missile fire creates an invisible barrier which blocks many of the attacks. If it is Metamorphosis Alpha(tm), the character is a mutant using mental force field generation; if it is Dungeons Dragons(tm), then the character is a magic user casting a shield spell. Magic is used because we are attempting to create the worlds of medieval fantasy. It is not different in play from a world which uses advanced technology or presumed mental and physical mutations or for that matter from those games which recreate the wild west (Boot Hill(tm)), counter-espionage (Top Secret(tm)), or cops and robbers (Gangbusters(tm)): characters are assumed to hyper globalist perform the actions the player specifies; players no more cast spells in Dungeons Dragons(tm) than shoot each other with revolvers in Boot Hill(tm). But it was still argued by some that the background of magic was inherently dangerous in that it might spark interest in the supernatural, through such outlets as witchcraft. There are at least four answers to this suggestion. First, Christian writers during the first half of this century (again Lewis, Tolkein, Williams) used magic, mysticism, and paganism in of Meditation Essay their own stories specifically because they wanted modern materialists to begin to consider whether the supernatural might exist. Here we have a game with enormous popular potential which might well get that idea to many more people, and the 6th, we condemn it. Is it merely because it was not our idea? Second, even if we assume that those authors were wrong, that it is dangerous to attack materialism with generalized spiritualism, does it not make sense that we should put ourselves in a position which makes us available to answer the questions of those who do become so involved, rather than signaling them that we despise them and condemn them for such curiosity? Third, it is not the mission of the church to create respectable sinners; it is the Testing The Effects, mission of the hyper globalist, church to hold out the hope of redemption.

Rebuking and condemning Dungeons Dragons(tm) players merely drives them away from that hope. If Dungeons Dragons(tm) is wrong, if it leads to a downward path (there is no evidence to support such a contention), then the task of Christians is to love the The Effects Essay, players regardless of where their lives lead. It is said that for some alcoholics and drug addicts there is advertising manipulation no hope for Testing The Effects of Meditation them until they finally reach what for them is the bottom. Some people may need to see the full face of evil before fleeing in terror to the only the 6th extinction hope of safety--and, as Lewis often said, the The Effects of Meditation, devil's best defense in this age is advertising manipulation convincing people that he does not exist. Fourth, this feared spiritism is not the most horrible thing which can affect a person. There are far more insidious evils which creep into our beliefs: even as Christians, we accept lies without realizing what we have done. The inherent greed of our society, the belief that success is measured by having the Testing of Meditation, most toys, may be the most insidious lie in this century. This lie is promoted by Throughout Monkey's Essay many games, including Monopoly(tm) and Life(tm). No one recognizes how dangerous these games might be in the lessons they teach. Meanwhile, although Dungeons Dragons(tm) includes the pursuit of wealth, it is not the measure of of Meditation success in the game, and many characters are expected to contribute large portions of their wealth to learned churches and charitable organizations. Essay. Also, most games incorporate the competitive notion that only mahatma gandhihistory one player or team can win, encouraging the belief that winning requires defeating everyone else.

Some games, notably Risk(tm), Stragego(tm), and chess, have elevated this to the status of war. While conflict, even war, is integral to the Dungeons Dragons(tm) world, it is Testing Essay generally the case that players quickly learn to join forces, cooperating against a common non-player enemy, overcoming problems as a team. In a good campaign, all the players come away as winners. No, the real dangers of diversification Dungeons Dragons(tm) lay elsewhere. The spiritism it alledgedly fosters is Testing The Effects Essay neither so strong nor so dangerous an learned authority idea as those insidious philosophies permeating other games which can so undermine our lives. Then there is the The Effects, argument that Dungeons Dragons(tm) players commit suicide. Those authors who have said so should be embarrassed. The original case of this appears in the book Mazes and Monsters by Rona Jaffee, a work of fiction written in the early 1980's when Dungeons Dragons(tm) was still a new game.

I know of Throughout "The Monkey's no real case of Testing of Meditation a Dungeons Dragons(tm) related suicide or killing. It seems unlikely: the game teaches hope and resourcefulness. It encourages people to believe they can defeat the obstacles they face. Even so, with the vast number of teenage suicides, it is learned likely that some were Dungeons Dragons(tm) players. Some were honor students, some sports heroes, some scouts and choir members and Sunday School members and leaders in their communities. I am certain that far more suicides can be clearly shown to Testing be directly caused by the stock market than can be even remotely connected to Dungeons Dragons(tm). That does not make the stock market the tool of related diversification Satan. These arguments were all clearly invalid; they did not touch the true dangers of Testing The Effects Essay Dungeons Dragons(tm). Thus, we continued to play. We found that we had large numbers of Christians and non-Christians playing together, and the 6th, sometimes discussing the morality and spiritual realities behind the game. Through the relationships we built, we saw a number of them become Christians and Testing of Meditation Essay, grow in grace and understanding.

In fact, there is one story I must tell. It is the story of a friend who, long before I met him, had heard the hyper globalist, gospel on television and given his life to Jesus. But before he had had the opportunity to Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay learn and grow in this new life, some well-meaning misguided local minister singled him out as an example of someone who, because he played Dungeons Dragons(tm), was clearly of the devil. This condemnation rattled my friend, who decided that if that was what God thought of him, he would pursue evil. This he did with a vengeance for many years. He was introduced to me because we were both Dungeons Dragons(tm) players, and for that reason he did not immediately dismiss me as a Christian fool; because I did not condemn him for this (indeed, I was not interested in condemning but in mahatma gandhihistory reaching him), he was willing to discuss the spiritual and moral ramifications of the game and the spiritual realities of his own life. Ultimately--after years wasted--he returned to the truth he had abandoned, and began to grow in the grace and knowledge of Christ Jesus. So what are the problems of Dungeons Dragons(tm) and other role playing games? There are several, and Christians should be aware of them and The Effects of Meditation, guard against them.

First, like most games--all those which use dice or cards--Dungeons Dragons(tm) assumes that dice and cards fall in a random pattern along statistically predictable probabilities. It is extremely difficult for us to deal with this assumption. Mahatma. The question of whether dice and cards fall at random or are divinely controlled is far beyond the scope of this article, but the answer goes directly to the nature of the sovereignty of God. Christians who play such games should grapple with the issue and form an opinion about it. Note that it is possible to The Effects Essay avoid all such games by only playing those games which pit skill against skill--athletic competition, chess, checkers, reversi, competitive puzzles such as tic-tac-toe and dots--but these are the games most susceptible to the problems of the competitive spirit, the idea that one wins and therefore all others lose. That may be a far more dangerous challenge to the principles of the gospel than the more intellectual question of whether the assumption of statistical randomness is an affront to the sovereignty of God. The second problem with Dungeons Dragons(tm) is that it, like nearly any hobby or recreational activity, takes time and money. The 6th Extinction. The stewardship of The Effects of Meditation Essay our time and our money is advertising manipulation a difficult personal issue, and each of us must determine the costs of our choices. Testing Of Meditation. The time and money I spent learning Dungeons Dragons(tm) and developing my game world and playing it (as well as additional time spent playing in diversification examples other less controversial game worlds such as Star Frontiers(tm) and Gamma World(tm)) might have been spent in other pursuits. I might have memorized several more books of the Bible, or spent time and money passing out literature on street corners. Testing The Effects Of Meditation Essay. I might have written more music and devoted time to the business problems of expanding a concert ministry.

I might have volunteered at learned authority any of several missions to help reach and teach people who had hit bottom. I cannot say what impact I would have had. But today I have about twenty young men from Testing The Effects of Meditation Essay, twelve to thirty years old who come to my house regularly to play a game which I referee, most of whom are either not Christian at all or very much unaware what their commitment to Christ means. As part of that game, they must each come to grips with how I understand good and related, evil, what moral standards I think are appropriate to characters professing faith in a good god, and what consequences will fall upon Testing, those who do right and those who do wrong. I have had the opportunity to give Bibles and instruction to learned authority teenagers whom I would not have met were it not for the game, and to sing songs of faith to some who would never have darkened the door of a Christian concert let alone an evangelical church. I have been able to demonstrate that Christians are permitted--no, required--to think, to understand life from the perspective of the truth revealed. I have changed lives which might not otherwise have changed. Of Meditation. In assessing how well my time and money are spent--and I confess to a tendency at times to overspend even on unquestionably worthwhile pursuits--I must take into account what has happened in these lives. The third problem about Dungeons Dragons(tm) is that Christians have by and large abandoned it to the enemy. Those who complain and condemn a game which they have never even watched let alone played have in attempting to revile the game merely blackened the eye of the church.

The game is replete with players who believe that all Christians are idiots because of what some Christians have said. The game itself is not a stumbling block to Tension and Fear "The faith, but the attitudes of those who would rebuke a Dungeons Dragons(tm) player in the name of Jesus and walk away rather than use the valuable lessons of the Testing of Meditation, game as a building block for a true faith are. What the game needs is great players and intelligent referees who can incorporate their Christian faith into the game, debate the issues it raises on its own terms, and in gandhihistory so doing can say to the other players, I am a Christian, and as a Christian I believe. . . . Most people are reached by someone they know. Testing Of Meditation Essay. Most Dungeons Dragons(tm) players do not know any Christians who have not called them satanists. Most ongoing Dungeons Dragons(tm) games do not have the insights to be gained from people of the Book sitting at the table bringing faith to bear on the worlds of diversification human fantasy.

I still play Dungeons Dragons(tm), Star Frontiers(tm), and Gamma World(tm), and see no reason to stop. I referee two games, and have characters in Testing The Effects of Meditation seven others. Gandhihistory. I think C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkein, and Charles Williams would approve--I know that many Dungeons Dragons(tm) players have the opportunity to read their books because of exposure through other players. I said at The Effects the beginning that I wanted you to understand how a Christian could become a Dungeons Dragons(tm) player. By now I hope I have made it clear why many more should.

The fears and misgivings of many concerning the extinction, game are misguided and unfounded. It is a fabulous opportunity to Testing explore and understand our own faith, and to share that faith with others. For more on Faith and Gaming, visit the and Fear "The, Christian Gamers Guild, and read more articles about faith and The Effects, gaming in the Chaplain's Corner. I've expressed a few thoughts on the integration of faith and gaming in the 6th extinction response to a letter I received.